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Comparators

Comparators are being used in all types of mass production works as their employment reduces

the inspection time and makes the production line move faster. A comparator is a device, which

is not a measuring device, but it is a comparing device. In general the comparators compares

the objects with reference to a standard master piece. Comparators finds their application is all

type of production works as these require very less skill and reduces the time of inspection as it

requires just a comparison of the values or the dimensions of the product produced.

Comparators are in general are classified in to many categories based on the type of principle

applied for obtaining the readings.

Mechanical comparator

Mechanical-optical comparator

Pneumatic comparator

Projection comparators

Irrespective of the type to which the comparators belongs it should fulfill some of the basic

characteristics

Characteristics of Comparators

1) A comparator should posses a robust design and construction so as it should give an

accurate value even at the worst possible conditions at available at the level of ordinary usage.

2) When a magnification system is used for obtaining deadbeat readings care should be taken

to eliminate the backlash, wear resistance in the mechanical components and make the inertia

gets reduced to the minimum possible extent.

3) A large range of temperature should be taken in to condition. The comparators should sustain

all the temperatures, which are possible in the global context.

4) A scale with linear and having a straight line characteristic should be employed

5) The indicator should be constant when it retains its position back to zero

6) Irrespective of its sensitiveness a comparator should with stand a reasonable ill usage or

wrong handling when the user does not cause a permanent harm.

7) The comparator should be prepared in such a way that it can be employed for a wide range

of applications

8) The measuring pressure should be always constant and should be low.

Uses of comparators

Comparators find their usage in many areas of production irrespective of the job being

produced.

1) They find usage in mass production where the components are required to be checked at a

faster rate.

2) These are also used as laboratory standards and are used for making the working or

inspection gauges correlated and set

3) Comparators are used for inspecting newly purchased gauges

4) These can also used as some special attachments to the production machines such that the

work being done can be regularly checked so as to reduce the wastage of the work due to

errors

5) These finds usage in assembly sections where more than three parts are to be assembled

Mechanical comparators

a pointer attached. as the plunger is depressed, it

causes the strip to stretch. As the twisted strip is

stretched, it changes the angle of the pointer, and

thus the indicated deflection

Advantages

1) Cheaper than all the other type of comparators

2) Does not require any external source of power or air supply

3) These comparators use a linear scale that can be easily understood.

4) Usually these comparators are robust and compact but are very easy to handle

5) These are small in size and can are portable from one place to other very easily without

much difficulty

Disadvantages

1) Contains more number of moving parts so there develops friction which in turn reduces the

accuracy

2) Slackness in the moving parts reduces accuracy very drastically

3) These have more inertia so the instrument is prone to vibrational effects

4) Limited range of the instrument is another drawback as the pointer moves over a fixed scale

5) Parallax error may also arise when proper scale is used

Optical comparators

An optical comparator is a device that applies the principles of optics to the inspection of

manufactured parts. In a comparator, the magnified silhouette of a part is projected upon the

screen, and the dimensions and geometry of the part are measured against prescribed limits.

Advantages

1) Less number of moving parts hence more accuracy

2) High range and no parallax error

3) High magnification possible

4) Weight less optical lever

Disadvantages

1) Due to high magnification the heat produced from the lamp may cause drift

2) Electrical supply is necessary

3) Large in size and expensive

4) Dark room is required to take the readings

5) These cannot be used continuously as the scale is viewed through a microscope

Electrical comparators

Advantages

1) Small number of moving parts

2) High range of usage

3) Not sensitive to vibrations

4) As a A.C source is used for the working of comparator the cyclic vibration generated by A.C

source reduces the sliding friction

5) Measuring unit can be made very small

Disadvantages

1) Requires external power supply

2) Calibration may be altered due to heating elements used

3) Expensive

electrical comparator

Pneumatic comparators

Based on the physical phenomena on which the operation of pneumatic gauges is based, these

may be classified as

(i) Flow or velocity type, (ii) Back pressure type.

Flow or velocity type pneumatic gauges operate by sensing and indicating the momentary rate

of air flow. Flow could be sensed by a glass tube with tapered bore, mounted over a graduated

scale. Inside the bore a float is lifted by the air flow.

Velocity of air in velocity type pneumatic gauges can also be sensed by sensing the velocity

differential i.e., differential pressure across a venturi chamber. Such systems have quick

response. These permit use of large clearance between nozzle and object surface, resulting in

reduced wear of the gauging members. There is less air consumption. Magnification of the order

of 500 to 5000 times is possible

Advantages

1) No wear

2) High accuracy

3) Less friction and less inertia

4) Indicating instrument can be remote from the measuring instrument

5) High magnification is possible

6) Very small diameter holes can be easily measured even when the length is very large

7) Best instrument for determining the ovality and taperness of the circular bores

Disadvantages

1) many instruments are used in addition to the normal set up

2) scale is not uniform

3) when the indicating device is kept in a glass tube a high level of magnification is required so

as to minimize meniscus errors

5) different gauging heads are required

ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS

Introduction:

The angle is defined as the opening between two lines which meet at a point. (Vertex of the

angle)

The basic unit in angular measurement is the right angle, which is defined as the angle

between two lines which intersect so as to make the adjacent angle equal.

If the circle is divided into 360 equal parts each part is called as degree (⁰ ).

Each degree is divided in 60 minutes („) and each minutes into 60 seconds (“).

Radius of the circle r

Scaling constant k (which depends on the units of measurement

that are chosen):

This method of defining angular units is called as sexagesimal system, which is used

engineering purpose. Sexagesimal is a numeral system with sixty as its base.

An alternative method of defining angle is based on the relationship between the radius and arc

of a circle. It called radian.

Radian is defined as the angle subtended at the centre by an arc of a circle of length equal to its

radius. Widely used in mathematical investigation.

Radians 0 π 2

Selection of instrument depends upon the component and the accuracy of measurement.

As concerned metrological work high precision work may be measured in few seconds to obtain

high accuracy.

Combination Protractor

Sine bar

Sine centre

Auto collimator

Angle dekkor

Vernier Bevel Protractor:

Main body

Adjustable blade

The base plate is attached to the main body and adjustable blade is attached to the circular

plate containing vernier scale. A circle can be divided into 360 equal angles. Each angle is

called degree. So a circle is 360 degrees (360o). An acute angle attachment is provided at the

top for measuring acute angle. The blade can be moved along throughout its length and can

also be reversed. The acute acute angle attachment can be readily fitted into the body and

clamped in any position. As shown in fig the main scale is graduated in degree of arc.

The vernier scale has 12 divisions each side of centre zero. These are marked 0-60 minutes of

arc. So that each division equals 1/12 or 60, that is 5minuts of arc.

Zero on the vernier scale has moved 28 whole degrees to the right of the 0 on the main scale

and the 3th line on the vernier scale coincides with a line upon the main scale as indicated.

Multiplying 3 by 5, the product, 15, is the number of minutes to be added to the whole number of

degrees, thus indicating a setting of 28 degrees and 15 minutes.

Uses of vernier bevel Protractor

Inside beveled face of a ground surface

The universal bevel Protractor is used for measuring and laying out of angles accurately and

precisely within 5 minutes.

The Protractor dial is slotted to hold a blade which can be rotated with the dial to the required

angle.

Sine bar:

Sine bar is precision instrument used along with slip gauges for the measurement of angles.

It is used for –

The sine bar is made of high carbon, high chromium corrosion resistance steel, suitable

hardened, precision ground and stabilized.

The rollers are of accurate and equal diameters. They are attached at the both end of bar.

The normal distance between the axes of the roller is exactly 100mm, 200mm or 300mm etc.

Types of Sine bar: the sine bar are available in several designs for different applications.

From in which the rollers are so arranged that their outer surfaces on one side are level with the

plane top surface of the sine bar.

A sine bar which is hollow rollers which outside diameter is equal to the width of sine bar. It is

useful in instance where the width of the bar enters into calculation of work height.

A sine bar with pin on both sides. This is used where the ordinary sine bar cannot be used on

the top surface due to interruption.

A sine bar which is generally preferred as the distance between rollers can be adjusted exactly.

It is used with slip gauges.

Principle of Sine bar:

Then

First find the angle approximate with bevel protractor.

combination of slip gauges.

sine bar. (if necessary it may be clamped with angle plate)

Then the dial gauge set one end of the work and moved along

the upper surface of the component.

gauges so that the upper surface of the component is truly

parallel with the surface plate.

The height over the rollers can then be measured by a vernier height gauge using dial indicator.

The height gauge is thus used to obtain two readings, if „h‟ is the difference in the height and „L‟

distance between the roller centers of the sine bar, then

SINE CENTRE:

When difficult of mounting of conical work piece on conventional sine bar, sine centre are used.

Two blocks are mounted on the surface of sine bar. These blocks accommodate with centers

and can be clamped at any position on the sine bar.

The centre can also the adjusted as per length of work piece.

same of conventional sine bar.

Angle Gauges:

These are very precise and easy to use for measurement of angle between two surfaces.

The measuring faces are lapped and polished to high degree of accuracy and flatness.

They are 75mm long and 16mm wide and are available in two sets.

Set on 12 pieces

< addition

> Subtraction

Example: An angle of 33⁰ -9‟-15” is to be measured with the help of the above standard angle

gauge

Auto- collimator:

An autocollimator is an optical instrument that is used to measure small angles with very high

sensitivity.

The autocollimator has a wide variety of applications including precision alignment, detection of

angular movement, verification of angle standards, and angular monitoring.

Principle of Working:

If a light source is placed in the focus of a collimating lens, it is projected as a parallel beam of

light.

If this beam is made to strike a plane reflector, kept normal to the optical axis.

It is reflected back along its own path and is brought to same focus.

If the reflector is tilted through a small angle θ, the parallel beam is deflected twice that angle

and is brought to a focus in the same plane as the light source, but to one side at a distance x=

2fθ

Angle Dekkor:

It consist of microscope, collimating lens and two scale engraved on a glass screen which is

place in the focal plane of the objective lens.One of the scales called datum scale is horizontal

and fixed. It is engraved across the centre of the screen and always visible in the microscope

eye piece.Another scale is an illuminated vertical scale fixed across the centre of the screen and

the reflected image of the illuminated scale is received at right angles of the fixed scale, and the

two scales, in the position intersect each other.

Thus the reading on illuminated scale measures angular deviations from one axis at 90⁰ to the

optical axis, and the reading on the fixed datum scale measures the deviations about an axis

mutually perpendicular to the other two.Thus the change in angular position of the reflector in

two planes is indicated by change in the point of intersection of two scales.

ERRORS

Errors are broadly classified in three categories :

Systematic error

Random error

Gross error

A systematic error impacts “accuracy” of the measurement. Accuracy means how close is the

measurement with respect to “true” value. A “true” value of a quantity is a measurement, when

errors on all accounts are minimized. We should distinguish “accuracy” of measurement with

“precision” of measurement, which is related to the ability of an instrument to measure values

with greater details (divisions).

the same weight on a different scale having further divisions in hectogram is 79.3 kg. The later

weighing scale is more precise. The precision of measurement of an instrument, therefore, is a

function of the ability of an instrument to read smaller divisions of a quantity.

True value of a quantity is an “unknown”. We can not know the true value of a quantity, even if

we have measured it by chance as we do not know the exact value of error in measurement.

We can only approximate true value with greater accuracy and precision.

are minimized.

“Accuracy” means how close is the measurement with respect to “true” measurement. It is

associated with systematic error.

greater details. It is associated with random error.

1. Systematic error

A systematic error results due to faulty measurement practices. The error of this category is

characterized by deviation in one direction from the true value. What it means that the error is

introduced, which is either less than or greater than the true value. Systematic error impacts the

accuracy of measurement – not the precision of the measurement.

faulty instrument

personal bias

Clearly, this type of error cannot be minimized or reduced by repeated measurements. A faulty

machine, for example, will not improve accuracy of measurement by repeating measurements.

A zero error, for example, is an instrument error, which is introduced in the measurement

consistently in one direction. A zero error results when the zero mark of the scale does not

match with pointer. We can realize this with the weighing instrument we use at our home. Often,

the pointer is off the zero mark of the scale. Moreover, the scale may in itself be not uniformly

marked or may not be properly calibrated. In vernier calipers, the nine divisions of main scale

should be exactly equal to ten divisions of vernier scale. In a nutshell, we can say that the

instrument error occurs due to faulty design of the instrument. We can minimize this error by

replacing the instrument or by making a change in the design of the instrument.

mistakes and lack of understanding of the process of measurement. For example, if we are

studying magnetic effect of current, then it would be erroneous to conduct the experiment in a

place where strong currents are flowing nearby. Similarly, while taking temperature of human

body, it is important to know which of the human parts is more representative of body

temperature.

This error type can be minimized by periodic assessment of measurement process and

improvising the system in consultation with subject expert or simply conducting an audit of the

measuring process in the light of new facts and advancements.

A personal bias is introduced by human habits, which are not conducive for accurate

measurement. Consider for example, the reading habit of a person. He or she may have the

habit of reading scales from an inappropriate distance and from an oblique direction. The

measurement, therefore, includes error on account of parallax.

We can appreciate the importance of parallax by just holding a finger (pencil) in the hand, which

is stretched horizontally. We keep the finger in front of our eyes against some reference marking

in the back ground. Now, we look at the finger by closing one eye at a time and note the relative

displacement of the finger with respect to the mark in the static background. We can do this

experiment any time as shown in the figure above. The parallax results due to the angle at

which we look at the object.

It is important that we read position of a pointer or a needle on a scale normally to avoid error on

account of parallax.

2. Random errors

Random error unlike systematic error is not unidirectional. Some of the measured values are

greater than true value; some are less than true value. The errors introduced are sometimes

positive and sometimes negative with respect to true value. It is possible to minimize this type of

error by repeating measurements and applying statistical technique to get closer value to the

true value.

Another distinguishing aspect of random error is that it is not biased. It is there because of the

limitation of the instrument in hand and the limitation on the part of human ability. No human

being can repeat an action in exactly the same manner. Hence, it is likely that same person

reports different values with the same instrument, which measures the quantity correctly.

Least count error results due to the inadequacy of resolution of the instrument. We can

understand this in the context of least count of a measuring device. The least count of a device

is equal to the smallest division on the scale. Consider the meter scale that we use. What is its

least count? Its smallest division is in millimeter (mm). Hence, its least count is 1 mm i.e.10−3 m

i.e. 0.001 m. Clearly, this meter scale can be used to measure length from 10−3 m to 1 m. It is

worth to know that least count of a vernier scale is 10−4 m and that of screw gauge and

spherometer 10−5 m.

Returning to the meter scale, we have the dilemma of limiting ourselves to the exact

measurement up to the precision of marking or should be limited to a step before. For example,

let us read the measurement of a piece of a given rod. One end of the rod exactly matches with

the zero of scale. Other end lies at the smallest markings at 0.477 m (= 47.7 cm = 477 mm). We

may argue that measurement should be limited to the marking which can be definitely relied. If

so, then we would report the length as 0.47 m, because we may not be definite about millimeter

reading.

This is, however, unacceptable as we are sure that length consists of some additional length –

only thing that we may err as the reading might be 0.476 m or 0.478 m instead of 0.477 m.

There is a definite chance of error due to limitation in reading such small divisions. We would,

however, be more precise and accurate by reporting measurement as 0.477 ± some agreed

level of anticipated error. Generally, the accepted level of error in reading the smallest division is

considered half the least count. :

2.2 Mean value of measurements

It has been pointed out that random error, including that of least count error, can be minimized

by repeating measurements. It is so because errors are not unidirectional. If we take average of

the measurements from the repeated measurements, it is likely that we minimize error by

canceling out errors in opposite directions.

Here, we are implicitly assuming that measurement is free of “systematic errors”. The averaging

of the repeated measurements, therefore, gives the best estimate of “true” value. As such,

average or mean value ( am ) of the measurements (excluding "off beat" measurements) is the

notional “true” value of the quantity being measured. As a matter of fact, it is reported as true

value, being our best estimate.

3. Gross Errors : -

The class of error mainly covers human mistake in reading instruments recording and

calculating result.

The responsibility of the mistake normal lies with the experimental. The experimental may

grossly misreal the scale. For example, he may, due to oversight, read 31.5 degree C implace

of 35.1 degree C (actually reading ). Error in recording but as long as human being involvead,

some gross errors will definility being committee. Although complete elimination of gross error is

impossible, one should try to anticipate & correct them.

These can be avoided by two means :-

> Great care should be taken with reading & recording the data.

> 2, 3 or more reading should be taker for the quantity under measurement.

So, how can we reduce measurement errors, random or systematic? One thing you can do is to

pilot test your instruments, getting feedback from your respondents regarding how easy or hard

the measure was and information about how the testing environment affected their

performance. Second, if you are gathering measures using people to collect the data (as

interviewers or observers) you should make sure you train them thoroughly so that they aren't

inadvertently introducing error. Third, when you collect the data for your study you should

double-check the data thoroughly. All data entry for computer analysis should be "double-

punched" and verified. This means that you enter the data twice, the second time having your

data entry machine check that you are typing the exact same data you did the first time. Fourth,

you can use statistical procedures to adjust for measurement error. These range from rather

simple formulas you can apply directly to your data to very complex modeling procedures for

modeling the error and its effects. Finally, one of the best things you can do to deal with

measurement errors, especially systematic errors, is to use multiple measures of the same

construct. Especially if the different measures don't share the same systematic errors, you will

be able to triangulate across the multiple measures and get a more accurate sense of what's

going on.

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