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SURVEY ON EDUCATIONAL SCHEMES RUNNING IN RURAL INDIA
UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF MR. RAJESH TRIPATHI
SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES MOTILAL NEHRU NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ALLAHABAD-211004, U.P., INDIA
This is to certify that the Project entitled “Government Schemes for Rural Development (A Study of Educational Sector)” is the bonafied work carried out by Bhupesh Kumar Singh student of MBA (Semester- 1) School of Management Studies, MNNIT, Allahabad, during the year 2010-2011, in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the degree Master of Management Studies and that the project has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree, diploma, fellowship or any other similar titles.
Signature of the Guide: Place: Date:
This is my great privilege to acknowledge my sincere honour and solicitous gratitude to my guide Mr. Rajesh Tripathi, S.M.S MNNIT, ALLAHABAD for his inspiring and excellent guidance, keen supervision and help in successful completion of this Minor Project. I also express my deep sense of gratitude of and thankfulness to faculty especially Dr, Shefali Nandan, Dr. G.P. Sahu and Mr. Subroto Biswas for helping and encouraging me during the completion of my Minor Project. I also thank my fellow colleagues who also helped in their bits and pieces for the completion of my minor project.
The different schemes targeting by us are . For data collection we used 5 pointer scales measuring. We divided our shelf in further sub-group to carry out data collect from them in the form of a questionnaire which were set of different questions on the educational schemes running in these areas. health and financial is also looked upon.Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.The target location we choose was villages’ outskirts of Allahabad city. In our rural survey we were focusing on educational schemes running by central government for rural people . Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya. Many other factors related to this scenario like agriculture. It is a pointer whether a program running by some agencies is beneficial to the masses or not or it just a mere paper work. These schemes having huge importance for increasing literacy rate in rural areas having advantage for every section of people living in rural areas.ABSTRACT Surveys are important tools in understanding any scheme’s implementation at the ground level. The data collected was good and after further refinement is ready for tabulation. The final interpretation of the final data is according to our requirement and fulfills our objectives Table of Content 4 . the awareness and satisfaction level of the respondents of the survey. Also this project helps us to peep deep inside the socio-cultural factors prevalent in rural India which is hampering the growth of educational sector as a whole. Mid-Day Meal Scheme. Saakshar Bharat and Mahila Samakhya Programme.
5 2.6 1.Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract 1.2 2.6 Introduction History of topic Various types of research Data collected from various research Identifying the research gap Conclusion 5 .8 1.4 2.7 1.3 1.2 1. Literature Review 2.9 2.1 2 3 4 Background Need for survey Formulation Methodology Findings Organizational Report Motivation of Research Importance Field of Study 1.1 2.3 2.4 1.Introduction 1.5 1.
Research Plan 3. Data Analysis 4.3 3.5 Objective Issues Motivation Research Process Research design Conclusion 3.1 4. References 6 .3.4 4.2 3.6 4.1 3.4 3. Recommendation and Conclusions 6.3 4.5 Introduction of data analysis Flow chart Method of data collection Scaling technique Method used for analysis of data 5.2 4.
13 TABLE 4.23 TABLE 4.11 TABLE 4.1 TABLE 4.30 TABLE 4.28 TABLE 4.9 TABLE 4. uniforms and other stationeries Computer knowledge is provided in school School disburse scholarships on time Awareness programs like puppet show.etc.18 TABLE 4.27 TABLE 4. uniforms and stationeries are provided free of cost Education is a fundamental right for children Children of 6-14 years should go to school Government provides free education to adolescents School provides free books.36 TABLE 4.32 TABLE 4.19 TABLE 4.26 TABLE 4.2 TABLE 4.7 TABLE 4. interesting and knowledgeable Government representatives visit village to tell about the schemes Programs conducted by schools are motivating parents to send their children school Books.10 TABLE 4.17 TABLE 4.16 TABLE 4.8 TABLE 4.21 TABLE 4.5 TABLE 4.14 TABLE 4.12 TABLE 4.15 TABLE 4. are held in village Teachers conduct exams regularly Admission is granted to children of all social background Weekly/monthly Medical check-ups are conducted in school Every child of family is getting quality education Classes are held regularly Children take interest in books and study material provided Infrastructure of school is sufficient enough to accommodate all students Proper facilities are provided to a handicapped child in school Proper sanitation and cleanliness is maintained at school Teachers encourage students to study Students take exam seriously Programs organized at school motivate students Steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough Village has special schools for girl students Education is contributing to growth of girl child Proper security of girls is ensured at school/hostel Girls are promoted / motivated to come to school Parents allow residential education of their daughter 7 .3 TABLE 4.37 Schools have all the basic facilities Number of teachers in school is sufficient Teachers come daily to school Vocational trainings is imparted in school People are encouraged to send their children to school Number of students is increasing at school Teachers come school on time Basic amenities are available in school Teaching style is innovative.25 TABLE 4.List of table TABLE 4.29 TABLE 4.35 TABLE 4.6 TABLE 4.4 TABLE 4.24 TABLE 4.34 TABLE 4.20 TABLE 4.22 TABLE 4.33 TABLE 4.31 TABLE 4.
59 Scholarships help girl student to meet financial need Scholarships are disbursed timely Food is provided free in schools Prescribed menu is strictly followed Food fulfils nutritional requirement Quality check of food is conducted regularly Children get healthy and nutritious food regularly Dropout of children from school is reducing Food is provided on scheduled time Children come to school regularly The facility of food is encouraging children enrolment in school Adequate quantity of food is given to student Children like food provided in the school Women are provided with quality education in village Camps are organized for promotion of education Knowledge about Employment opportunities given Employment training is given to women in villages Employment training given is sufficient to provide job Evening classes are held for girls/women Education eradicates social evil Work efficiency of women is increased Mahila samakhya programme has made girls/women confident and independent List of Figure Figure: 4.45 TABLE 4.40 TABLE 4.39 TABLE 4.8 Figure: 4.57 TABLE 4.4 Figure: 4.44 TABLE 4.54 TABLE 4.53 TABLE 4. of students teachers come on time 8 .9 Figure: 4.56 TABLE 4.55 TABLE 4.58 TABLE 4.38 TABLE 4.49 TABLE 4.46 TABLE 4.3 Figure: 4.51 TABLE 4.47 TABLE 4.48 TABLE 4.6 Figure: 4.43 TABLE 4.52 TABLE 4.2 Figure: 4.41 TABLE 4.12 Gender Age of repondents Occupation Annual income Educational background basic amenities at school awareness no of teachers teachers come daily employment training provided in village guardian encouraging wards increase in no.11 Figure: 4.10 Figure: 4.7 Figure: 4.42 TABLE 4.50 TABLE 4.5 Figure: 4.TABLE 4.1 Figure: 4.
32 Figure: 4.47 Figure: 4.43 Figure: 4.40 Figure: 4.46 Figure: 4.33 Figure: 4. are they safe girls are motivated to study parents allow girl child to stay in hostel and study scholarship is enough to meet there needs girl students get scholarship on time mid day meal is provide free of cost at school menu is strictly followed food provided is nutritious quality check of food provided is done nutritive food provide Nutritive food provided daily Tendency of quitting school is reduced due to food Food is served on time Children come regularly to school 9 .48 Figure: 4.50 Figure: 4.30 Figure: 4.23 Figure: 4.36 Figure: 4.Figure: 4.44 Figure: 4.52 Figure: 4.15 Figure: 4.28 Figure: 4.41 Figure: 4.24 Figure: 4.42 Figure: 4.22 Figure: 4.14 Figure: 4.34 Figure: 4.21 Figure: 4.29 Figure: 4.13 Figure: 4.31 Figure: 4.27 Figure: 4.45 Figure: 4.49 Figure: 4.18 Figure: 4.38 Figure: 4.16 Figure: 4.35 Figure: 4.53 basic amenities at school satisfaction how is teaching method government officials provide knowledge about schemes programs done at school motivate parents to send their wards to school books and cloths provided free of cost education is right of every child every children of your village age 6 to 14 goes to school government is providing free of cost education to children books and cloths provided free of cost computer education provided at school scholarship given on time programs for awareness organized in village exam are held on time children from different community are given admission in school Inspection of school is done weekly or monthly every children of family is getting quality education are class held daily children are interested in studying school has required number of class facility available for physically disable student cleanness maintained in school teachers motivate student to study satisfaction students take exam seriously programs done at school motivate students steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough to school have facility of girl hostel education is contributing in all-round growth of girl child if hostels are there.39 Figure: 4.17 Figure: 4.37 Figure: 4.19 Figure: 4.51 Figure: 4.20 Figure: 4.25 Figure: 4.26 Figure: 4.
59 Figure: 4.60 Figure: 4.63 Figure: 4.Introduction 10 .Figure: 4.55 Figure: 4.54 Figure: 4.58 Figure: 4.62 Figure: 4.61 Figure: 4.64 Mid day meal has increasing number of student Adequate Quantity of food is given to student Student likes the food provided Women are provided with quality education in village Camps are organized for promotion of education Knowledge about Employment opportunities given Employment training is given to women in villages Employment training given is sufficient to provide job Evening classes are held in villages Education eradicates social evil Work efficiency of women is increased 1.57 Figure: 4.56 Figure: 4.
Rural poverty is inextricably linked with low rural productivity and unemployment. including under-employment. India is the largest democracy in the world. proper sanitary and health care measures and education. India was never a single country but a bunch of different entities. Now there are billion people in India. its population was around 400 million people. Therefore the core of rural development strategy is to provide self and wage employment. There is a basic issue of providing livelihood security. India has transformed a lot. It has the biggest number of people with franchise rights and the largest number of political parties. Before its independence. which take part in election campaign. More than a billion poor people lack access to the basic financial services which are essential for them to manage their precarious lives. basic entidements to the rural population. After six decades of Independence about half of rural households in the country do not have access to electricity and the quality and quantity of electricity provided to rural users are far from expectation.Background India was a British colony. sustained and refined many rural development programmes under different five year plans. Whopping funds expended. yet alleviation of poverty has remained a distant dream. It earned its independence from the British on 15/08/1947. Good management of even the 11 . Government has initiated. Infrastructural gaps require to be filled and connectivity with urban areas requires to be strengthened. water supply. When India attained independence in 1947.Since its independence.
Ujjain and Vikramshila came into existence and enhanced the scope for the students. Sri Aurobindo. they need to be able to borrow. The Ministry of Rural Development in India is the apex body for formulating policies. the intellectual content of India. there are numerous schools. See the kind of personalities who led the Indian mind Swami Vivekananda. They are taught the skills and knowledge needed for them to be successful while working in different professional environments. The students also get into different professional courses at this level and the courses help them to be in a better position. Tilak. The undergraduate and postgraduate levels constitute the higher education. threatened by lack of income. After completing the elementary education. primary level. To overcome poverty. The Mughal period saw the inception of Madrasahs in the education system in India. The history of the education system in India dates back to the first centuries. the students get into the secondary level. Traditional Hindu education served the needs of Brahmin families: Brahmin teachers would teach boys to read and write. The education system in India is divided into different stages or levels. The education system in India is considered to be one of the largest and most ancient ones in the world. In this stage. universities and other institutions in India that are continuously providing education to the students. In the modern times. elementary education. Under the Moguls. save and invest. shelter and food. and diary are the primary contributors to the rural business and economy. Let us see the pre-independence background. The students also put on lots of efforts to be successful in this stage. in this stage. Gandhiji . fisheries. After that the famous universities like Nalanda. colleges. a student chooses his/her most favorites subject in which he/she is intending to pursue career. Takshashila. who live in precarious conditions. as the children are given eight years of schooling during this period. and to protect their families against risk.giants in their own way. handicrafts. regulations and acts pertaining to the development of the rural sector. The stages are classified as the pre-primary level. undergraduate level and the postgraduate level.smallest assets can be crucial to very poor people. education 12 . Agriculture. secondary education. when the young children were taught in the Gurukuls and the Guru-Shishya system was the most common means of education. poultry. The primary or the elementary education is the foundation of the education system in India.
This motivates me to perform rural survey about some education schemes running in area around Allahabad and to check whether they are really benefitting the rural areas or not. I choose outskirts of Allahabad as our target area as it is one of important city of Uttar Pradesh and also have large rural areas near it which is suited for this kind of survey. In 1920 Congress initiated a boycott of government-aided and government-controlled schools and founded several ‘national’ schools and colleges. The schemes are prepared on government papers and remains there. Need of survey For the about said reasons the government both central and state has from time to time introduce different schemes for the proper upliftment of educational sector as a whole. These schemes have immensely helped our rural sector to increase their literacy rate thus strengthening the educational sector. But in spite of all these and many more schemes the ground implementation of these programmes are very low. Also the areas are mostly connected through roads movement 13 .was similarly elitist. Formulation For proper carrying out of rural survey we first formulate strategy to select the target area where this survey could be carried out. placing an emphasis on technical and vocational training. The education system was first developed in the three presidencies (Bombay. the Indian National Congress called for national education. These schemes have wide diversity some are meant for increasing literacy rate among children and some are for women etc. The utility which they should be generating is not up to the expectations and so the people are not benefitting from them at all or they are partially benefitted to overcome all these surveys are needed from time to time to check the implementation of any schemes at ground level. favoring the rich rather than those from high-caste backgrounds. Calcutta and Madras In the early 1900s.
from one place to other place for data collection will not be a problem. The city also has Vikash Bhavan, state horticulture office etc. so we were also able to get relevant information from them about the schemes.
This rural survey was conducted using participatory approaches, including meetings with beneficiaries, interviews with local person, children over and under 14 years, women and key people related to these schemes in educational sector. I with my team made several site visits for educational programs running by central government to discuss schemes implementation with people directly. In combination with these processes, we also conducted a literature review of pertinent material (including sector-specific studies, NGOs, and the Government of India, as well as research documents).
The outcome of this survey gave us gave us the proper status of the schemes running in rural belt. It also helps us to under why the schemes fail or it does not have the desire outcome with which it was started. The outcome of this survey provides us with ground level data which help us in introspecting the causes of the schemes success and failure.
The final documentation of the data collected and their proper interpretation in the form of an organizational report is necessary .I also managed the data in sequenced manner in my report so that the understanding of the report findings becomes easier. Also the organizational report helps in analyzing the different government parameters about particular scheme. The report also helps in forming corrective ways for these schemes to become successful.
The economy of India is the eleventh largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity. India was under social democratic-based policies from 1947 to 1991. The economy was characterized by extensive regulation, protectionism, public ownership, pervasive corruption and slow growth Since 1991, continuing economic liberalization has moved the country toward a market-based economy. The Ministry of Rural Development implements a number of programmes through the State Government for poverty alleviation, employment generation, development of infrastructure and area development in the rural areas. For improving the delivery system in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency there is an immediate need to ensure that the programmes are executed as per Guidelines, so that the benefits reach the rural poor and under developed areas in full measure. To achieve this objective, the Government of India has suggested constitution of Vigilance and Monitoring Committee at State Level and District Levels and they have formulated a set of guidelines in this regard. The Guidelines provide for composition and Terms of reference for Sate Level Vigilance and Monitoring Committee. The implementation of the programme suffers further due to its dependency upon the local self government, often village panchayats . For example several villages in rural Uttar Pradesh are still under the control of feudal landlords. These landlords exploit the unemployed rural population by employing them in conditions worse than slavery. The state government of Uttar Pradesh like many other state governments in north India has never taken an initiative to put an end to this practice of modern day slavery. Owing to this control excreted by the landlords, many village heads that are expected to cooperate with the implementation of the NREGA at the village level either play into the hands of the landlords, or as in several cases the landlords who are also the village head, would oppose any reform that would free his laborers from servitude. By this project we are able to analyze the loopholes of the entire system and the root cause of the underachievement of government schemes in rural areas.
The importance of learning emphasizes to enable the individual to put his potentials to optimal use is self-evident. Without education, the training of human minds is incomplete.
No individual is a human being in the working world until he has been educated in the proper sense. Now I'm not saying you're not a human being without education. The mind was made to be trained and without education, a person is incomplete in that sense. Education makes man a right thinker and a correct decision-maker. It achieves this by bringing him knowledge from the external world, teaching him to reason, and acquainting him with past history, so that he may be a better judge of the present. Without education, man, as it were, is shut up in a windowless room. With education, he finds himself in a room with all its windows open to the outside world. In other words, people who are not educated have less opportunity to do what they want to do. A person who gets a good education will become a more dependable worker, a better citizen, and a strong consumer. For example, people would rate higher an educated man rather than a non-educated person. When looking at the long-term impact of education, our economy needs these educated people to know how to keep the economy efficient and not get into a bind in the future. Someone said if they were Bill Gates (Since he is very educated); would they understand the economy better? Of course not, but that's not what I am trying to say. The more educated someone is, the more knowledge one obtains on different subjects. Each person has a different level of understanding for each subject there is to learn about. That is why there are experts in every field you could go into and each part is a piece of the puzzle that makes this world/economy grow. Since technology has come as far as it has in the past decades, there are important skills that must be learned... "THUS EDUCATION IS THE BACKBONE OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL'S LIFE"
Field of Study
Our study is in following areas: 1. Rural Health schemes 2. Rural Education schemes
We also know that a teacher is not only a person of a particular institution or school but is also an active member of society. The following are the objectives of the study: • To present and evaluate the different efforts and programmes of the Indian government in order to improve the quality of life of those people living in rural areas. social and technological condition in rural areas in India. Rural financing schemes 4. The aim of the study is to analyze and evaluate the rural development in India. We know that education is originally a subject of field study where collection of data and personal observation as well as investigation is most important. As an active member of society He /She should always deal with the improvement of society Our Approach My approach will be begins with in-depth analysis to clearly define strategy.3. • • To analyze the changes and development in the economic. and To recommend different changes. objective. Proceeds with detailed task and resource planning to make certain that implementation requirements are fully understood by people. Rural agriculture schemes I have select rural education for study. and performance measures of rural educational schemes. programmes and steps to be done in order to improve the quality of living in rural areas in India 17 . scope of activities.
2. Literature Review 18 .
when. with support from private institutions. However. actively build high-quality rural schools. The administrative control was effectively initiated in the 1950s. secondary school. Several foundations. and schools for adult education for women were set up. in 1952. A Block Development Officer oversaw a geographical area of 150 square miles (390 km2) which could contain a population of as many as 70000 people. Today. Despite some setbacks the rural education programmes continued throughout the 1950s.Introduction Following independence. Some ideas failed to find acceptability among India's poor and investments made by the government sometimes yielded little results. such as the Rural Development Foundation (Hyderabad). India viewed education as an effective tool for bringing social change through community development. government rural schools remain poorly funded and understaffed. in some cases lack of financing balanced the gains made by rural education institutes of India. elementary schools. but the number of students served is small 19 . A sizable network of rural education had been established by the time the Gandhi gram Rural Institute was established and 5. Nursery schools. the government grouped villages under a Community Development Block—an authority under national programme which could control education in up to 100 villages. 200 Community Development Blocks were established in India. The government continued to view rural education as an agenda that could be relatively free from bureaucratic backlog and general stagnation.
and many of them drop out. It emphasized that education was necessary for democracy. especially among Muslims.3% in 1961 to 28. Concerted efforts led to improvement from 15. In 1986 the National Policy on Education decided to restructure education in tune with the social framework of each state. and with larger national goals. 20 .S. shortage of female teachers and gender bias in curriculum (majority of the female characters being depicted as weak and helpless). Department of Commerce. This mission aims to bring down female illiteracy by half of its present level. increased funding for schools. free books. This welfare thrust raised primary enrollment between 1951 and 1981. curricula. According to a 1998 report by U.5% in 1981. Recently the Indian government has launched Saakshar Bharat Mission for Female Literacy.Women's education Women have much lower literacy rate than men.Conservative cultural attitudes. and uniforms. The number of literate women among the female population of India was between 2-6% from the British Raj onwards to the formation of the Republic of India in 1947. Sita Anantha Raman outlines the progress of women's education in India: Since 1947 the Indian government has tried to provide incentives for girls’ school attendance through programs for midday meals. Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools. the chief barrier to female education in India are inadequate school facilities (such as sanitary facilities). The new policy aimed at social change through revised texts. and central to the improvement of women’s condition. though these statistics were still very low compared to world standards and even male literacy within India. prevents some girls from attending school. By 2001 literacy for women had exceeded 50% of the overall female population.
On the map of poverty in India. and rural and urban institutions. secondary and higher education. receive higher income for the same positions Condition of Rural Area The number of poor people in India. Large numbers of India's poorest people live in the country's semi-arid tropical region.expansion in the numbers of schools. amounts to more than 300 million. The report tried to connect problems like low school attendance with poverty. Sita Anantha Raman also maintains that while the educated Indian women workforce maintains professionalism. But almost one third of the country’s population of more than 1. Emphasis was placed on expanding girls’ occupational centers and primary education. Although the minimum marriage age is now eighteen for girls. Bihar. The National Literacy Mission also worked through female tutors in villages. Therefore. although their share in the total rural population is much smaller. Poverty remains a chronic condition for almost 30 per cent of India’s rural population. and a large proportion of poor people live in rural areas.1 billion continues to live below the poverty line. Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. according to the country’s Eleventh National Development Plan. Uttar Pradesh. There is also a high incidence of poverty in flood-prone areas such as those extending from eastern Uttar Pradesh to the Assam plains. the poorest areas are in parts of Rajasthan. Jharkhand. The country has been successful in reducing the proportion of poor people from about 55 per cent in 1973 to about 27 per cent in 2004. and especially in northern Bihar. Poverty is deepest among members of scheduled castes and tribes in the country's rural areas. female dropout rates are high. Orissa. and policy improvements. many continue to be married much earlier. at the secondary level. The incidence of rural poverty has declined somewhat over the past three decades as a result of rural to urban migration. in some cases. Madhya Pradesh. In 2005 these groups accounted for 80 per cent of poor rural people. In this area shortages of water and recurrent droughts impede the transformation of agriculture that the Green Revolution has achieved elsewhere. and the dependence on girls for housework and sibling day care. the men outnumber them in most fields and. 21 .
High levels of illiteracy. while the Department of Rural Development will provide logistic support both on technical and administrative side for programme implementation. Microenterprise development. people who are living in the rural areas must have the same quality of life as is enjoyed by people living in the sub urban areas. Women in general are the most disadvantaged people in Indian society. is lack of access to productive assets and financial resources. The present strategy of rural development mainly focuses on poverty alleviation. The above goals will be achieved by various programme support being implemented creating partnership with communities. better livelihood opportunities. poor and inadequate infrastructure in rural areas on urban centers causing slums and consequential social and economic tensions manifesting in economic deprivation and urban poverty.Literally and from the social. community based organizations. India is primarily an agriculture-based country. A major cause of poverty among India’s rural people. institutions. Therefore. both individuals and communities. In coastal fishing community’s people's living conditions are deteriorating because of environmental degradation. provision of basic amenities and infrastructure facilities through innovative programmes of wage and self-employment.Poverty affects tribal people in forest areas. Hence Rural Development which is concerned with economic growth and social justice. stock depletion and vulnerability to natural disasters. inadequate health care and extremely limited access to social services are common among poor rural people. economic and political perspectives India is dependent on the rural development. Agriculture helps to contribute to nearly one-fifth of the gross domestic product (GDP) in India . PRIs and industrial establishments. improvement in the living standard of the rural people by providing adequate and quality social services and minimum basic needs becomes essential. Other aspects that will ultimately lead to transformation of rural life are also being emphasized simultaneously. unemployment. where loss of entitlement to resources has made them even poorer. 22 . though their status varies significantly according to their social and ethnic backgrounds The Rural Development in India is considered as one of the most important factors for the growth of the economy of the country. This is because about 65% of the population of the country is living in rural areas. Further there are cascading effects of poverty. has only recently become a focus of the government. non-governmental organizations. which could generate income and enable poor people to improve their living conditions.
History of topic Following independence in 1947. The NPE also stresses on higher spending on education. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children. the emphasis is also on the development of science and technology education infrastructure. Government schemes Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalize elementary education by communityownership of the school system. The central government of India formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) in 1986 and also reinforced the Programme of Action (POA) in 1986. it was only the higher education dealing with science and technology that came under the jurisdiction of the central government. The government initiated several measures the launching of DPEP (District Primary Education Programme) and SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. India's NPE also contains the National System of Education. 23 . which ensures some uniformity while taking into account regional education needs. India's initiative for Education for All) and setting up of Navodaya Vidyalaya and other selective schools in every district. India’s first education minister envisaged strong central government control over education throughout the country. advances in female education. with a uniform educational system. given the cultural and linguistic diversity of India. interdisciplinary research and establishment of open universities. Maulana Azad. through provision of community-owned quality education in a mission mode. envisaging a budget of more than 6% of the Gross Domestic Product. The government also held powers to make national policies for educational development and could regulate selected aspects of education throughout India. While the need for wider reform in the primary and secondary sectors is recognized as an issue. However.
OBJECTIVES OF SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN All children in school. A partnership between the Central. An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to 14 age group by 2010. regional and gender gaps. A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education. School Management Committees. A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees. with the active participation of the community in the management of schools. All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007 24 . An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country. Mother Teacher Associations. An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education. State and the local government. An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions. Alternate School. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the 0-14 age as a continuum. ' Back-toSchool' camp by 2003. Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools. This quest must also be a process of value based learning that allows children an opportunity to work for each other's well being rather than to permit mere selfish pursuits. Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master their natural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potential both spiritually and materially. Parents' Teachers' Associations. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centers or special pre-school centers in non ICDS areas will be made to supplement the efforts being made by the Department of Women and Child Development. Useful and relevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and that draws on community solidarity. Education Guarantee Centre. There is also another goal to bridge social.
II) It is also a programme with budget provision for strengthening vital areas to achieve universalisation of elementary education. the central and the State governments will undertake reforms in order to improve efficiency of the delivery system. BROAD STRATEGIES CENTRAL TO SSA PROGRAMME • Institutional Reforms . monitoring and evaluation. review of State Education Act. policy regarding private schools and ECCE. status of education of girls. achievement levels in schools. it reflects the additional resource provision for UEE. • Community Ownership . decentralisation and community ownership.As part of the SSA. This calls for a long -term perspective on financial partnership between the Central and the State governments. All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010 Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010 Universal retention by 2010 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) has two aspects – I) It provides a wide convergent framework for implementation of Elementary Education schemes. The states will have to make an objective assessment of their prevalent education system including educational administration. they will all merge into the SSA programme within the next few years.The programme calls for community ownership of schoolbased interventions through effective decentralisation. rationalization of teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers. SC/ST and disadvantaged groups. As a programme. Many States have already carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary education. While all investments in the elementary education sector from the State and the Central Plans will reflect as part of the SSA framework. financial issues. • Sustainable Financing .The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is based on the premise that financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. This will be augmented by 25 .
Improving Mainstream Educational Administration . parents and PRIs. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school level data with community-based information from micro planning and surveys. including grants received.The SSA works on a community based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of planning. VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.SSA will commence throughout the country with a well-planned pre-project phase that provides for a large number of interventions for capacity development to improve the delivery and monitoring system. • Institutional Capacity Building -The SSA conceives a major capacity building role for national.involvement of women's groups. • Habitation as a Unit of Planning . every school will be encouraged to share all information with the community. especially those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and minorities. will be one of the principal concerns in Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. • Accountability to Community .The Programme will have a community based monitoring system. Priority to Education of Girls .Education of girls. as well as accountability and transparency to the community.SSA envisages cooperation between teachers. state and district level institutions like NIEPA / NCERT / NCTE / SCERT / SIEMAT / DIET.There will be a focus on the inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST.It calls for improvement of mainstream educational administration by institutional development. minority groups. Besides this. in the educational process. • • Focus on Special Groups . community-based micro planning and school 26 . These include provision for household surveys. urban deprived children disadvantaged groups and the children with special needs. A notice board would be put up in every school for this purpose. • Improvement in quality requires a sustainable support system of resource persons and institutions. infusion of new approaches and by adoption of cost effective and efficient methods. • • Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency . Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating district plans. • Pre-Project Phase .
each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting all the investments being made and required in the elementary education sector. The Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to constant improvement in the course of Programme Implementation. • District Elementary Education Plans . Public-Private Partnership In SSA Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan takes note of the fact that provision of elementary education is largely made by the government and government aided schools. office equipment. with a holistic and convergent approach. • Thrust on Quality . focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among teachers. training of community leaders. Some of these schools are marked by poor infrastructure and low paid teachers. recruitment of qualified teachers. Local Body. Setting up of Block Resource Centers/Cluster Resource Centers. Government. There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. • Role of teachers . child-centered activities and effective teaching learning strategies. Poorer households are not able to afford the fees charged in private schools in many parts of the country. support for setting up information system.mapping.SSA lays a special thrust on making education at the elementary level useful and relevant for children by improving the curriculum.SSA recognizes the critical and central role of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE. opportunities for teacher development through participation in curriculum-related material development. as is the practice under the Mid Day Meal scheme and DPEP. etc. There are also private unaided schools in many parts of the country that provide elementary education. efforts to explore areas of public-private partnership will also be made. school level activities. diagnostic studies.. and government aided schools would be covered under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.As per the SSA framework. While encouraging all efforts at equity and 'access to all' in well-endowed private unaided schools. In 27 . There are also private schools that charge relatively modest fees and where poorer children are also attending.
if the additional costs are to be met by these private bodies. Existing schemes of elementary education of the Department (except National Bal Bhawan and NCTE) will converge after the IX Plan. in consultation with foreign funding agencies.case private sector wishes to improve the functioning of a government. The Government of India would release funds to the State Governments/Union Territories only and installments (except first) would only be released after the previous installments of Central government and State share has been transferred to the State Implementation Society. Commitments regarding sharing of costs would be taken from State governments in writing. The State governments will have to maintain their level of investment in elementary education as in 1999-2000. The National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid-Day-Meal) would remain a distinct intervention with foodgrains and specified transportation costs being met by the Centre and the cost of cooked meals being met by the State government. The support for teacher salary appointed under the SSA programme could be shared between the Central Government and the State government in a ratio of 85:15 during the IX Plan. 75:25 during the X Plan and 50:50 thereafter. local body or a private aided school. 75:25 sharing arrangement during the X Plan. 28 . Depending on the State policies. DIETs and other Government teacher-training institutes could be used to provide resource support to private unaided institutions. efforts to develop a partnership would be made within the broad parameters of State policy in this regard. Financial Norms Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan The assistance under the programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan will be on a 85:15 sharing arrangement during the IX Plan. and 50:50 sharing thereafter between the Central government and State governments. All legal agreements regarding externally assisted projects will continue to apply unless specific modifications have been agreed to. The contribution as State share for SSA will be over and above this investment.
the revised scheme provided Central Assistance for (a) Cooking cost @ Re 1 per child per school day. but also children studying in EGS and AIE centers.50 per quintal to Rs. They will not be funded under the SSA programme. and Rs.100 per quintal for special category states. maintenance. repair of schools and Teaching Learning Equipment and local management to be transferred to VECs/ School Management Committees/ Gram Panchayat/ or any other village/ school level arrangement for decentralisation adopted by that particular State/UT. PMRY. In September 2004 the scheme was revised to provide cooked mid day meal with 300 calories and 8-12 grams of protein to all children studying in classes I-V in Government and aided schools and EGS/AIE centers. (c) Management. Other incentive schemes like distribution of scholarships and uniforms will continue to be funded under the State Plan. It was further extended in 2002 to cover not only children in classes I-V of government. monitoring and evaluation costs @ 2% of the cost of food grains. foreign funding (if any) and resources generated in the NGO sector. retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among children. All funds to be used for up gradation. District Education Plans would inter–alia. Area fund of MPs/MLAs. In addition to free supply of food grains. (b) Transport subsidy was raised from the earlier maximum of Rs. Mid-Day Meal Scheme With a view to enhancing enrollment. (d) Provision of mid day meal during summer vacation in drought affected areas. The village/ school-based body may make a resolution regarding the best way of procurement. Sunishchit Rozgar Yojana. JGSY. 29 . initially in 2408 blocks in the country. By the year 1997-98 the NP-NSPE was introduced in all blocks of the country. clearly show the funds/resource available for various components under schemes like PMGY. and subsidy for transportation of food grains up to a maximum of Rs. government aided and local body schools.50 per quintal.75 per quintal for other states. State Plan. the National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NP-NSPE) was launched as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 15th August 1995. transport subsidy and cooking assistance. Central Assistance under the scheme consisted of free supply of food grains @ 100 grams per child per school day.
provided that these States and UTs contribute Rs. 2004 Calories 300 450 Protein 8-12 12 Micronutrients quantities of micronutrients like iron. vitamin-A etc. Local Body and Government aided schools. belonging to disadvantaged sections. and EGS and AIE centers.1. and (b) Rs. 2006 NSPE. to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities. folic Not Prescribed Adequate acid. Encouraging poor children. • • Programme Intervention and Coverage To achieve the above objectives a cooked mid day meal with nutritional content as shown in column 3 of the table below will be provided to all children studying in classes I-V: Objectives a cooked mid day meal with nutritional Norm as per NPNutritional Content Revised Norm as per NP-NSPE. Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought affected areas during summer vacation.1.50 per child/school day.In July 2006 the scheme was further revised to provide assistance for cooking cost at the rate of (a) Rs. provided the NER states contribute Rs. Objectives The objectives of the mid day meal scheme are: • Improving the nutritional status of children in classes’ I-V in Government.20 per child/school day. The revised scheme provides for the following components: • Supply of free food grains (wheat/rice) @ 100 grams per child per School Day from the nearest FCI godown Reimbursement of the actual cost incurred in transportation of food grains from nearest FCI godown to the Primary School subject to the following ceiling : • 30 .50 per child/school day for other States and UTs.0.80 per child/school day for States in the North Eastern Region.0.
• Provision of assistance to States/UTs for Management.100 per quintal for 11 special category States viz.60. Rs Assam.) Containers for storage of food grains and other ingredients.1. J&K. Arunachal Pradesh. Provision of assistance to construct kitchen-cum-store in a phased manner up to a maximum of Rs. • • Provision of assistance in a phased manner for replacement of kitchen devices at an average cost of Rs.75 per quintal for all other States and UTs States in North-Eastern Region: @ Rs. However. Tripura. Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. contributes a minimum of 20 paise. Chulha.8% of total assistance on o Free food grains. • Provision of assistance for cooked Mid-Day Meal during summer vacations to school children in areas declared by State Governments as "drought-affected".50 per child per school day provided the State Govt. o o o Cooking devices (Stove. • Provision of assistance for cooking cost at the following rates : State Governments/UT administrations are required to provide the above minimum contribution in order to be eligible for the enhanced rate of Central assistance mentioned above. etc. Meghalaya. 31 .5. For other States & UTs : @ Rs. 000 per school. Manipur.80per child per school day provided the State Govt. Mizoram. Monitoring & Evaluation (MME) at the rate of 1.5000 per school). Sikkim.1. Nagaland. and Rs. Utensils for cooking and serving. The States/UT administration will have the flexibility to incur expenditure on the items listed below on the basis of the actual requirements of the school (provided that the overall average for the State/UT administration remains Rs. as allocations under MDMS for construction of kitchen-cum-store for all schools in next 2-3 years may not be adequate states would be expected to proactively pursue convergence with other development programmes for this purpose./UT administration contributes a minimum of 50. .paise. 000 per unit.
etc. Ministry of Human Resource Development has prescribed a comprehensive and elaborate mechanism for monitoring and supervision of the Mid Day Meal Scheme. date of receipt. Another 0. PTAs.o Transport cost and Cooking cost. all schools and centers where the programme is being implemented are required to display information suo-moto. • Display of Information under Right to Information Act In order to ensure that there is transparency and accountability. 32 . fuel. This includes information on: o o o o o o Quality of food grains received.2% of the above amount will be utilized at the Central Government for management. The monitoring mechanism includes the following: •Arrangements for local level monitoring Representatives of Gram Panchayats/Gram Sabah’s. members of VECs. monitoring and evaluation. (ii) cleanliness in cooking and serving of the mid day meal. (v) social and gender equity. Other ingredients purchased. Daily Menu Roster of Community Members involved in the programme. (iv) implementation of varied menu. SDMCs as well as Mothers' Committees are required to monitor the (i) regularity and wholesomeness of the mid day meal served to children. (iii) timeliness in procurement of good quality ingredients. Quantity of food grains utilized. utilized Number of children given mid day meal. Monitoring Mechanism The Department of School Education and Literacy. This is required to be done on a daily basis.
Periodic Returns The State Government/UT is also required to submit periodic returns to the Department of School Education and Literacy. Health are also required to inspect schools and centers where the programme is being implemented. transportation & construction of kitchen sheds and procurement of kitchen devices. the FCI is mandated to issue food grains of best available quality. Rural Development. It allows lifting of food grains for any month/quarter upto one month in advance so that supply chain of food grains remains uninterrupted. (ii) Progress in utilization of Central assistance. Education and other related sectors. District Panchayat. including cooking costs. • Responsibility of Food Corporation of India (FCI) The FCI is responsible for the continuous availability of adequate food grains in its Depots (and in Principal Distribution Centers in the case of North East Region). Government of India to provide information on: (i) coverage of children and institutions. such as Women and Child Development. 33 . which will in any case be at least of Fair Average Quality (FAQ). Food. and confirmation by them that the grain conforms to at least FAQ norms. 2006. The FCI appoints a Nodal Officer for each State to take care of various problems in supply of food grains under the MDM Programme. For the NP-NSPE. It has been recommended that 25% of primary schools/EGS & AIE centers are visited every quarter.The District Collector/CEO of Zilla Panchayat ensures that food grains of at least FAQ are issued by FCI after joint inspection by a team consisting of FCI and the nominee of the Collector and/or Chief Executive Officer.• Inspections by State Government Officers Officers of the State Government/UTs belonging to the Departments of Revenue.
identified for monitoring the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) The Government of India has approved a new scheme called Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) for setting up upto 750 residential schools with boarding facilities at elementary level for girls belonging predominantly to the SC. are also entrusted with the task of monitoring the Mid Day Scheme. schools may be set up in areas with: 34 .7324 crores has been made for this purpose. Extension to Upper Primary Stage The Finance Minister has announced in the Union Budget 2007-08 that the Mid-Day Meal Scheme will be extended to cover children in Upper Primary Classes in 3427 Educationally Backwards Blocks (EBBs) in 2007-08. representing 37% increase over the budget for 2006-07. Among these blocks. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA). OBC and minorities in difficult areas. the rural female literacy is below the national average and gender gap in literacy is more than the national average. which should be widely publicized and made easily accessible. as per census data of 2001. A Budget provision of Rs. ST. The scheme will be coordinated with the existing schemes of Department of Elementary Education & Literacy viz.Monitoring by Institutions of Social Science Research Forty One Institutions of Social Science Research. Scope/ Coverage of the scheme The scheme would be applicable only in those identified Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs) where. National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and Mahila Samakhya (MS). Grievance Redressal States and Union Territories are required to develop a dedicated mechanism for public grievance redressal.
the proposed schools shall be opened in rented or other available Government buildings after deciding the location. especially at the upper primary levels. 26.1 Gender disparities still persist in rural areas and among disadvantaged communities. with low female literacy and/or a large number of girls out of school.25 lakhs as non-recurring cost. This shall be ensured by the district level authority of SSA at the time of actual district level planning of KGBV initiatives by co-ordinating with the other Departments/Ministries. Areas with low female literacy. ST and minority communities available to study in the school at the elementary 35 .1 Between 500 to 750 residential schools will be opened in a phased manner over the X Plan period at an estimated cost of Rs. Concentration of SC. 4. there remain significant gaps in the enrolment of girls at the elementary level as compared to boys. Strategies 4. OBC and minority populations. or Areas with a large number of small.2 Such residential schools will be set up only in those backward blocks that do not have residential schools for elementary education of girls under any other scheme of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and Ministry of Tribal Affairs. Looking at enrolment trends. with low female literacy and/or a large number of girls out of school. Initially. The objective of KGBV is to ensure access and quality education to the girls of disadvantaged groups of society by setting up residential schools with boarding facilities at elementary level. scattered habitations that do not qualify for a school The criteria for eligible EBB will be the same as in the NPEGEL scheme of SSA. per school. A list of educational complex being run by Ministry of Tribal Affairs is enclosed for facilitating selection of KGBV. 19. The components of the scheme will be as follows: (i) Setting up of residential schools where there are a minimum of 50 girls predominantly from the SC. Objective 3.05 lakhs as recurring cost and Rs.• • • • Concentration of tribal population.
wherever possible. These residential schools can also be adopted by the corporate groups.level. Implementation. scattered habitations that do not qualify for primary/ upper primary schools) younger girls can also be targeted (vii) At the upper primary level. especially. However. The number can be more than 50 depending on the number of eligible girls. Separate guidelines are being issued in the matter. emphasis will be on girls.1 The scheme will be implemented by State Governments through the Mahila Samakhya (MS) Society in MS states and through the SSA society in case of other states. ST. adolescent girls who are unable to go to regular schools (viii) In view of the targeted nature of the scheme. 75% girls from SC. school in difficult areas (migratory populations. (ix) Established NGOs and other non-profit making bodies will be involved in the running of the schools. 36 . Three possible models for such school have been identified and given (ii) To provide necessary infrastructure for these schools (iii) To prepare and procure necessary teaching learning material and aids for the schools (iv) To put in place appropriate systems to provide necessary academic support and for evaluation and monitoring (v) To motivate and prepare the girls and their families to send them to residential school (vi) At the primary level the emphasis will be on the slightly older girls who are out of and were unable to complete primary schools (10+). OBC or minority communities would be accorded priority for enrolment in such residential schools and only thereafter. Funds will be released as per SSA pattern to the State SSA societies. 25% girls from families below poverty line. monitoring and evaluation 6. The monitoring and evaluation at the State and district level will be undertaken by the MS State Resource Centers and in non-MS states. through the committee created for the National Programme for Education of Girls at the Elementary Level in the SSA society.
development of audio visual programmes etc. women’s movement. Block Resource Centers and the Mahila Samakhya Resource Groups. like gender training of teachers. The selection of an appropriate model of the school and its location would be done by this Committee based on the recommendation of the district committee implementing the NPEGEL and the new proposed scheme National Support Group The National Resource Group (NRG) created under the Mahila Samakhya programme at the National level shall provide inputs on conceptual issues and concerns arising in the programme. Methodology Based on the number of girls and the type of residential school to be provided.6. the selection of the model of the school to be selected would be done by a State Level Committee based on the recommendation of the District Committee for the purpose. development of gender based teaching learning material. smaller sub committees of the NRG created for specific inputs. will co.2 Training for teachers and staff at the residential schools will be coordinated by the District Institutes of Educational Training. consists of a small number of persons and meets only two to three times in a year. Government of India. experts in the field of girls education. and advice GOI on policy matters concerning the education of girls. State Support Group An Advisory State level coordination committee as approved under the NPEGEL scheme shall provide direction and support to the programme. This group will provide the interface with research and training institutions. educationists and non-Governmental institutions and also bring in other experiences of educating girls. This group will consist of nominees from relevant State Government Departments. The proposal shall be forwarded to the Cell at the National level who shall appraise them with 37 . educationists etc.opt additional persons from relevant institutions or experts for the purpose. Since the NRG.
These campaigns are area-specific. Finally. cost-effective and outcome-oriented. volunteer-based. In States where MS is not being implemented. Financial Norms under KGBV The SSA pattern of financing with a 75:25 ratio of sharing between the Centre and the States during the Tenth Five Year Plan.the help of external agencies/consultants. where necessary. the Project Approval Board of SSA will approve these plans. The thrust is on attainment of functional literacy through prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. Funds will be released thereafter to the Mahila Samakhya Society wherever applicable. participative and non-threatening. State Government should also release its matching share to the State SSA Society through a separate budget head. accordingly. and 50:50 thereafter will be adopted for KGBV as well. 38 . The SSA Society shall ensure convergence of KGBV with NPEGEL and Mahila Samakhya programme. The State Government will also release its share to the State Implementation Society. Separate accounts will have to be maintained at district and sub-district structures. The Government of India would directly release funds to the SSA State Implementation Society. It shall also ensure that funds allocated are appropriately invested and there is no duplication of activities. Commitments regarding sharing of cost would be taken from the State Governments in writing. informal. The State Society should open a separate Savings Bank Account for operating the funds of KGBV. time-bound. The learner is the focal point in the entire process and measurement of learning outcome is continuous. The provisions for KGBV will be in addition to the provisions already made under SSA and for NPEGEL. The Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) The Total Literacy Campaigns (TLC) model is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. the implementation of this scheme will be through the ‘Gender Unit’ of SSA Society and existing mechanism used for implementation of SSA will be followed.
The structure rests on three pillars . teachers. on the effectiveness with which all sections of society are mobilized. students and cultural groups. Survey and District Profile . Its momentum has to be sustained .The initiation of a total literacy campaign begins with a process of consultation and consensus.participatory people's committees. All sections of society are given due representation in planning and implementation of the programme. The success of a total literacy campaign depends to a large extent. but pervade it throughout. Environment building includes: 39 .This is an extremely important part of the total literacy campaigns. where mass mobilization takes place through a multifaceted communication strategy. The basic objective of the environment building stage is to generate a demand for literacy.The campaigns are implemented through district-level literacy committees which are registered under the Societies Registration Act as independent and autonomous bodies to provide a unified umbrella under which a number of individuals and organizations work together.The campaign is implemented in stages. Leadership is provided by the district collector/chief secretary and the Zilla parishad (district council). Environment Building .it must not merely precede the campaign. and a support system provided by government officials. During the survey. The process of the survey also provides opportunities for person contact and interaction. The campaign is delivered through volunteers without any expectation of reward or incentive. These should be understood clearly and followed meticulously. Preparing the Ground . volunteer teachers and master trainers are also identified. A core team is identified and the project is formulated. to enumerate and identify the non-literate people. Creation of the Organizational Structure .A detailed survey is conducted in the district. full-time functionaries and area coordinators. which may be overlapping at times. involving political parties. It forms an interactive and a communicative process of management and implementation. which creates the right environment and enthusiasm for teaching-learning activities.
Effective results have been obtained by using folk art forms.one master trainer for every 25 to 30 volunteer teachers. tests and space for practice to achieve the objective of imparting literacy in 200 hours. disaster management. Letters and words were hung from trees. bhajans and kirtans as also padyatras. jathas. etc. An effigy of the demon of illiteracy was burnt. A 3-grade primer is used with each grade corresponding to a different level of literacy. there were wall writings in many places. Building on this. The materials are based on an innovative pedagogy called Improved Pace and Content of Learning (IPCL) that incorporates motivation-oriented teaching-learning material books especially suited for neo-literates and adults have been prepared.The objective is to make the materials relevant. Development of Teaching-Learning Materials . to create an interest in literacy. legal literacy. Kamarajar district in Tamil Nadu launched its total literacy campaigns on the 50th anniversary of the Quit India Movement and called it 'Quit Illiteracy Movement'.000 performances of jathas were held. street plays. Amongst the learners were rickshaw-pullers. small savings and water management in agriculture. The primer contains exercises. six campaigns were integrated in the post literacy stage . Muslim women and members of the nomadic gypsy tribe. Buffaloes and elephants were painted with literacy slogans and taken around on the streets. More than 1. while keeping the larger national canvas and its concerns in view. nukkad nataks. freedom struggle. • Training of the Task Force – Training is conducted through key resource persons and master trainers . libraries were opened in each village. First the key resource persons are 40 .• • • • Mobilizing public opinion Creating community participation Sensitizing educated sections of the community and recruiting them as volunteers Mobilizing and motivating non-literate people to become literate Several media are utilized for environment building. Also. There was a monthly radio programme on literacy as well as a monthly newsletter. literacy walls.health. and one key resource person for every 25-30 master trainers.
Haryana. certification etc. The achievement of total literacy campaigns has been slower in the Hindi speaking states of Bihar.Monitoring and supervision of total literacy campaigns is done through a periodic system of reporting. 41 . exercise book. The conditions are different and demand innovative approaches. The tests are simple and participative. tools of evaluation of learning outcome. propagation of small family norms.trained.There are three progressive sets of primers. Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh. promotion of maternity and childcare. such as enrolment and retention of children in schools. immunization. credible and instead of being enrolment-oriented. it has to be outcome-oriented. peace and communal harmony. It is. expected that a learner should be able to complete all the three primers within the overall duration of 200 hours spread over six to eight months. State Directorates of Adult/Mass Education and the State Resource Centers. in the sense that it combines workbook. and visits of the officials of the National Literacy Mission. Punjab. It has to be accountable. and empowerment. Every learner is free to attain the desired level according to his/her convenience. • Actual Learning Process . Each primer is an integrated one. who in turn train the master trainers. The management information system in a campaign is based on the twin principles of participation and correction. women's equality. Though the total literacy campaign is meant to impart functional literacy. • Monitoring and Evaluation . The entire process is based on the principle of self-evaluation. it also disseminates a 'basket' of other socially relevant messages. Volunteer teachers are then trained by the master trainers in batches. however.
Literacy The main objective of this scheme is to further promote and strengthen Adult Education. 1. now feel a Beneficiaries Benefits Benefit Type Eligibility criteria need for learning of any type. The benefit of the scheme How to Avail can be availed by contacting Lok Shiksha Kendras in various regions. by extending Description educational options to those adults who having lost the opportunity to access formal education and crossed the standard age. Individual. To implement the programme. especially of women. out of which the Central share will be Rs. 6502. Ministry/Department Department of School Education & camp. Women. The share of funding between Central and State Government is in the ratio of 75:25 and in the case of North-Eastern States including Sikkim in the ratio of Funding Pattern 90:10.70 crores.02 crores. Validity of the Scheme Introduced On 01 / 10 / 2009 Valid Upto 07 / 10 / 2011 Individual interest promotion programme 42 . respectively. 4993.Saakshar Bharat: Saakshar Bharat: Ministry of Human Resource Development Particulars Sponsored by Description Both: Central & State Government A total financial outlay for �Saakshar Bharat� during the last 3 years of XI Plan period is Rs. Non Literates in the age group of 15-35 years and Women. Material.70 lakhs Lok Shiksha Kendras (Adult Education Centers) will be established in Panchayat grams of the districts covered under the programme.
the effectiveness of a CEC and the scope of its activities will be significantly determined by the extent of support it enjoys from the community. Central support to the programme may be liberalized as more and more encouraging results are obtained. some states such as Andhra Pradesh have achieved remarkable success in mobilizing local resources through 'Corpus Funds' and 'Membership Fees'. Clearly. The continuing education scheme is visualized as a mechanism for integrated human resource development. In fact. therefore. The central government provides 100 per cent financial assistance to a district for the first three years. The project for a continuing education programme is formulated by the Zilla Saksharta Samiti taking the district as a unit.The 12.Individual interest promotion programme to provide opportunities for learners to participate and learn about their individually chosen social.84% as against 52.63 percentage points 43 . in the long run all such CECs are expected to become self-sustaining. the cost is to be shared on a 50:50 basis by the central and state governments. the ZSS will be expected to devise all possible ways to enlist community support and mobilize financial and material resources from the community itself so that the CECs and their programmes become self-sufficient in due course of time. National Literacy Mission The Census 2001 provisional reports indicate that India has made significant progress in the field of literacy during the decade since the previous census in 1991. While the central government does provide financial assistance for initial establishment and running of CECs. spiritual. health. Well-organized and coordinated infrastructure for continuing education can advance the course of literacy in India leading to the rise of a learning society. The proposal is submitted for approval to the State Literacy Mission Authorities of the concerned state or to the National Literacy Mission in case the district falls under a union territory. The scheme.21% in 1991.The literacy rate in 2001 has been recorded at 64. cultural. In the fourth and fifth year. envisages provision of financial assistance from the central government and the state governments for the first five years. The CECs must be perceived by the people as arising from their own initiatives to meet their explicit needs. To achieve this objective. physical and artistic interests.
Also for the first time there is a decline in the absolute number of non-literates during the past 10 years. 560 million are now literates. the National Literacy Mission had accepted the literacy campaigns as the dominant strategy for eradication of illiteracy. Realizing this the National Literacy Mission was set up on 5th May. conservation of the environment.increase in the literacy rate during the period is the highest increase in any decade. and the preservation of family customs and traditions. the teaching learning material produced by it and the awareness created by it for the demand for raising both the quality and quantity of primary education. The total number of non literates has come down from 328 million in 1991 to 304 million in 2001. the population in 7+ age group increased by 176 million while 201 million additional persons became literate during that period . The Jury also appreciated the training imparted by NLM.During 1991-2000. 1988 to impart a new sense of urgency and seriousness to adult education. The Bureau of Adult Education and National Literacy Mission under the Department of School Education and Literacy of the Ministry of Human Resource Development functions as the Secretariat of the National Literacy Mission Authority. The eradication of illiteracy from a vast country like India beset by several social and economic hurdles is not an easy task. After the success of the areas specific. Three-fourths of our male population and more than half of the female population are literate.The International Jury while selecting NLM for the prize recognized its initiation of the Total Literacy Campaigns and also its efforts in galvanizing activities towards integration. 597 districts have already been covered under Total Literacy Campaigns. The number of continuing education districts is 328. Out of 600 districts in the country. promotion of women's equality.Out of 864 million people above the age of 7 years. time bound voluntary based campaign approach first in Kottayam city and then in Ernakulum district in Kerala in 1990.The creditable performance of the National Literacy Mission received international recognition when it was awarded the UNESCO Noma Literacy Prize for 1999. This indeed is an encouraging indicator for us to speed up our march towards the goal of achieving a sustainable threshold literacy rate of 75% by 2007. The General Council of the NLMA is headed by the Minister of Human Resource Development and the Executive 44 . The Census 2001 provisional figures also indicate that the efforts of the nation during the past decade to remove the scourge of illiteracy have not gone in vain.
efficiency and convergence and to minimize unnecessary time lag between the two. re-energise and expand the role of State Resource Centers. The National Literacy Mission was revitalized with the approval of the Union Government on 30th September. previously known as the Scheme of Shramik Vidyapeeth was initially evolved as a non-formal continuing education programme to respond to the educational and vocational training needs of adults and young people living in urban and industrial areas and for persons who had migrated from rural to urban settings. At present there are 221 Jan Shikshan Sansthan in the India. To tackle the problem of residual illiteracy.The Mission seeks to achieve this by imparting functional literacy to non-literates in the 15-35 age group. This means the basic literacy campaigns and post literacy programmes will be implemented under one literacy project called 'Literacy Campaigns an Operation Restoration' to achieve continuity. now it has been decided to adopt an integrated approach to Total Literacy Campaigns and Post Literacy Programme. Now the Institutes' activities have been enlarged and infrastructure strengthened to enable them to function as district level repositories of vocational and technical skills in both urban and rural areas.The Directorate of Adult Education provides necessary technical and resource support to the NLMA. Post are treated only as a preparatory phase for launching Continuing Education with the ultimate aim of creating a learning society. 1999. the State Literacy Mission Authorities have been given the authority to sanction continuing education projects to Districts and literacy related projects to voluntary agencies in their States. a sustainable threshold literacy rate of 75% by 2007. In order to revitalize. Now under the scheme of Support to NGOs they are encouraged and provided with financial assistance to run post literacy and continuing education programmes in well defined areas. not only their number is being increased but also their infrastructure and resource facilities are being strengthened 45 .e. Ever since its inception the National Literacy Mission has taken measures to strengthen its partnership with NGOs and to evolve both institutional and informal mechanisms to give voluntary organizations active promotional role in the literacy movement.The Mission's goal is to attain total literacy i. The scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthan or Institute of People's Education.Council is headed by the Secretary (Elementary Education and Literacy). In order to promote decentralization.
to enable them to play the role of catalytic agents in adult education. i. Education. The basic objective is to create a generation 46 . in case they missed the opportunity or were denied access to mainstream formal education has been enlarged to include people in the age group 9 to 14 years. a sub-ordinate office of the Department of School Education and Literacy has been entrusted with the task of monitoring and evaluating the various literacy programmes being launched under the aegis of the National Literacy Mission. The National Literacy Mission is laying great stress on vigorous monitoring and systematic evaluation of adult education programmes launched under its aegis in the country. This age group has been the focus of attention because they are in the productive and reproductive period of life.. It also provides technical and resource support to the NLM including media support to enable it to achieve its objectives. in areas not covered by the non-formal education programme. So far 32 districts have been externally evaluated during continuing education phase. A comprehensive set of guidelines on continuing education have also been prepared. It is hoped that the new approach of evaluating literacy campaigns and Continuing Education Schemes will ensure complete transparency and enhance the credibility of the results and impact assessments. Special care is taken to bring disadvantaged groups like women. a sustainable threshold level of 75 percent by 2007. It has developed and circulated guidelines for concurrent and final evaluation of the Total Literacy Campaigns and Post Literacy Programmes. scheduled castes and tribes and backward classes into the programme. Objective The goals of the National Literacy Mission is to attain full literacy.e. There are 25 State Resource Centers working across the country.The mission seeks to achieve this goal by imparting functional literacy to non-literates in the 15-35 age group. They are mainly responsible for organizing training programmes for literacy functionaries in the State and to prepare literacy material in local languages. to ensure that the benefits of TLCs are made available to out-of-school children as well. So far about 424 Total Literacy Campaign districts and 176 Post Literacy districts have been evaluated by the external evaluation agencies. The total literacy campaign offers them a seconds chance.
which will ensure that their children are educated, to realize the dream of Education For All.
NLM Objectives: In quantitative terms, the Mission seeks to impart functional literacy
to all non-literate persons in 15-35 age groups.
In qualitative terms, functional literacy implies:
Becoming aware of the causes of deprivation and moving towards amelioration of their condition by participating in the process of development Skill improvement to improve economic status and general well being. Imbibing values of national integration, Self-reliance in 3 R's conservation of environment, women's equality and observance of small family norms etc.
• • •
GOALS FOR XI PLAN:
• • • • •
Target for XI plan-85% Literacy rate. Reduction in gender gap in literacy to 10%. Reduction of regional, social and gender disparities. Use of ICT for Literacy. New models of Continuing Education
Management of National Literacy Mission:
The National Literacy Mission has a three-tiered structure. At the apex is the National Literacy Mission Authority supported by the Directorate of Adult Education, which controls the programme at the national level. The State Literacy Mission Authority directs activities at the state level, supported by the State Directorate of Adult Education. Finally, the Zilla Saksharta Samiti helps make the programme a reality in districts and villages all over India. In urban areas, Nagar Palikas are being encouraged to take up the challenge. The Zilla Saksharta Samitis are registered under the Societies Registration Act as
independent and autonomous bodies, to provide a forum for individuals and organizations to work together. The leadership to these bodies is provided by the district collector. All sections of society are thus duly represented in the planning and implementation of the programme.
Continuing Education scheme
The impact of literacy and adult education programmes clearly shows that in the future, skill development and increased economic opportunity must form one of the major components of initiatives in this area. The challenge before the National Literacy Mission is to create a continuing education system where the effervescence of the mass upsurge of the literacy campaigns can be channeled into structuring a continuous and life-long learning process. The sheer complexity and contextual specificity of the concept of continuing education make any attempt to define it an extremely difficult exercise. There is a multiplicity of views. This is because of two primary reasons. The first can be called normative, in as much as the area of continuing education is inchoate. Thinking in this relatively new field is flexible and open to several interpretations. The second is formal, in the sense that the content and style of the programme is determined by the context of its implementation. In the post literacy and continuing education stages, greater emphasis is being placed on skill development and acquisition of new learning. For those who have acquired basic literacy skills, we need to link these skills more intricately with their lives. This can only become a reality when they learn not only to practice these skills in their day-to-day life, but also clearly understand that these skills will be of vital importance to them in order to improve the quality and the standard of their lives. The continuing education scheme is postulated on the principles of:
Treating basic literacy, post literacy and continuing education as one sustained, coherent learning process. Establishing a responsive and alternative structure for life-long learning. Responding to the needs of all sections of society. Learning not to be seen as a function of alphabets, but as all modes of human
• • •
Addressing the socio-economic situations of the community to provide infrastructure for larger development initiatives.
Thus, the scheme of continuing education, taken up in a district after it has completed the total literacy and post literacy phases, makes the learners aware of the power and significance of education. They realize that education is the agency for improving their lives and they tend to find ways to use their literacy skills in their everyday life to make it more meaningful and rewarding. The continuing education scheme is, therefore, multi-faceted and enjoys supreme flexibility to allow grassroots community participation and managerial initiative. Establishment of Continuing Education Centers (CECs) and Nodal Continuing Education Centers (NCESs) is the principal mode of implementing continuing education programmes. The centers follow an area-specific, community-based approach. The scheme envisages one CEC for each village to serve a population of about 1,500-2,000 people. About 10 such centers form a cluster with one more acting as the nodal CEC. The centers are run by full-time facilitators or preraks, and assistant preraks who are drawn from the community itself. The continuing education centre serves as:
• • • • • • • •
Library and reading room Teaching-learning centre for continuing education programmes Vocational training centre Extension centre for facilities of other development departments Discussion forum for sharing ideas and solving problems A composite information window for the community Cultural centre Sports and recreation centre
The CECs, including the nodal one, are set up in active consultation with the user community and its programme is designed to meet their demands. The stress on imparting literacy skills to non-literates is sustained. Teaching of primers, identification of target groups, environment-building activities, and other items of work if connected with basic
literacy eradication continues unabated. Wide acceptance and local sustainability is achieved by involving NGOs, voluntary agencies, social workers, Panchayati Raj institutions in the planning and implementation of the scheme of continuing education. Various development departments, technical institutions and professional groups provide inputs needed by the programme. State Resource Centers and Jan Shikshan Sansthan join hands by giving the necessary resource and training support. Apart from establishing CECs, the scheme also undertakes the following programmes: Equivalency programme designed as an alternative education programme equivalent to existing formal, general or vocational education. Income-generating programme where the participants acquire or upgrade their vocational skills and take up income-generating activities. Quality of life improvement programme which aims to equip learners and the community with essential knowledge, attitude, values and skills to raise their standard of living. Individual interest promotion programme to provide opportunities for learners to participate and learn about their individually chosen social, cultural, spiritual, health, physical and artistic interests. The project for a continuing education programme is formulated by the Zilla Saksharta Samiti taking the district as a unit. The proposal is submitted for approval to the State Literacy Mission Authorities of the concerned state or to the National Literacy Mission in case the district falls under a union territory. While the central government does provide financial assistance for initial establishment and running of CECs, in the long run all such CECs are expected to become self-sustaining. The scheme, therefore, envisages provision of financial assistance from the central government and the state governments for the first five years. The central government provides 100 per cent financial assistance to a district for the first three years. In the fourth and fifth year, the cost is to be shared on a 50:50 basis by the central and state governments. Central support to the programme may be liberalised as more and more encouraging results are obtained. Clearly, the effectiveness of a CEC and the scope of its activities will be significantly determined by
To achieve this objective. 1986) as revised in 1992 was a landmark in the field of policy on women’s education in that it recognized the need to redress traditional gender imbalances in educational access and achievement. particularly of women from socially and economically marginalised groups. In fact. more so in rural areas and among disadvantaged communities.The continuing education scheme is visualised as a mechanism for integrated human resource development. the ZSS will be expected to devise all possible ways to enlist community support and mobilise financial and material resources from the community itself so that the CECs and their programmes become self-sufficient in due course of time. The National Policy on Education (NPE. The NPE also recognized that enhancing infrastructure alone will not redress the problem. 1992).the extent of support it enjoys from the community. Though these Endeavour’s did yield significant results. The programme of Action (POA. in the section “Education for Women’s Equality” (focuses on empowerment of women as the critical precondition for their participation in the 51 . Mahila samakhya programme: The Mahila Samakhya programme was launched in 1988 in pursuance of the goals of the New Education Policy (1986) and the Programme of Action as a concrete programme for the education and empowerment of women in rural areas. Well-organised and coordinated infrastructure for continuing education can advance the course of literacy in India leading to the rise of a learning society. gender disparities persist. It recognized that “the empowerment of women is possibly the most critical pre condition for the participation of girls and women in the educational process”. The CECs must be perceived by the people as arising from their own initiatives to meet their explicit needs. some states such as Andhra Pradesh have achieved remarkable success in mobilising local resources through 'Corpus Funds' and 'Membership Fees'. The policy framework: Provision of educational opportunities for women and girls has been an important part of the national endeavor in the field of education since Independence.
These factors reinforce a negative self-image among women. • enable women to make informed choices in areas like education. • fostering decision making and action through collective processes. especially of rural women and girls. The POA states that education can be an effective tool for women’s empowerment. Genesis Of The Programme The Project Formulation. evolved through a process of consultation and debate with a) voluntary agencies in 10 districts spread over three States identified for project implementation about the feasibility of initiating a project for women’s empowerment and education. knowledge and skill for economic independence. the parameters of which are: • enhance self-esteem and self-confidence of women. which started in March 1988. employment and health (especially reproductive health).education process. • developing ability to think critically. These parameters informed the framing of the objectives of the MS programme. polity and the economy. • Enhancing access to legal literacy and information relating to their rights and entitlements in society with a view to enhance their participation on an equal footing in all areas. b) discussions with Government officials and educationists in the three States on the Draft Document c) Discussions with women’s groups about the role of education in the process of empowerment. • providing information. and their work. • ensuring equal participation in developmental processes. especially rural poor women. The discussions stressed the complex set of socio-cultural and economic factors that constrain women. (ii) Management structures. and which keep them out of the educational process. 52 . The debates centered around two issues – (i) programme objectives and strategies. • building a positive image of women by recognizing their contribution to the society.
the issue of an appropriate management structure came up. The entire range of social. education. Reaching them has been a difficult but exhilarating process. cultural and economic factors that have inhibited women’s access to knowledge. information. survival tasks and poverty – are essentially outside the educational domain and yet education may be the critical factor that could help women break out of their predicament. Having decided on a radical departure from conventional programmes. A review of the then existing management systems for government programmes was undertaken. Movement from a passive state where women accept their predicament and relate to the world around as recipients of welfare and charity to one where they become active agents in their own transformation is the essence of empowerment. the empowerment of women is seen as a critical precondition for the participation of women and girls in the education process. women belonging to land-less and marginalized families. After a series of discussions on the management of Women’s Development Programme in Rajasthan. DWCRA and poverty alleviation programmes. The fundamental issues that influence women’s education – low status. who are engaged in wage Labour. the following management issues were identified as nonnegotiables: 53 . This is the very group that is most alienated from educational and other Government programmes and processes. It was decided that the best way to achieve this would be to follow a strategy where the programme would not lay down either targets to be achieved or specific agenda to be followed but would take its programmatic cues from the women in the Sanghas. the enthusiasm generated in such an exercise will invariably strengthen the education components. The principal strategy identified for ensuring women’s participation is through mobilising and organising them into sanghas (collectives).demands and perspectives receive little recognition and respect. mobility and justice cannot be tackled through piecemeal interventions. In the Mahila Samakhya Programme. The complex inter-linkages between social and personal factors. one reinforcing the other cannot be tackled without the active participation of women in a self-driven and self-motivated strategy for a basic change in the mind-sets of the individual and people in society. therefore. The predominant composition of the Mahila Sanghas is SC/ST women. The discussions highlighted that if women are given an opportunity to plan what kind of education they want.
Karnataka and Gujarat. In the Executive Committee and the General Council. The rationale behind this was that an autonomous Registered Society alone can provide the flexibility to administer an innovative programme while at the same time retaining the authority of the Government structure. Experiences of other innovative programme have shown that delay in the release of funds especially to the Districts and the villages can effectively strangle a programme. implementation through a Registered Society under the broad guidance of the Education Minister and Education Secretary of the concerned State was decided on.IRDP. It was decided to implement the programme as a pilot in 10 districts in the states of UP. trainers and resource support should be made on the basis of commitment. the membership includes representatives of both Government of India. the concerned State Government and from outside the Government. The districts were selected following meetings with State government officials and voluntary organisations.• The programme should be built on a partnership between the government and nongovernment organisations • The management structure should be supportive and facilitative one • The implementation structure of the programme should draw on the best aspects of the governmental and non-governmental structures. representing three regions of the country. to simplify the procedure and to ensure smooth flow of funds. 2. striking a balance between checks and balances of the government structure and flexibility and openness of a non government structure.8 It was decided that the programme would be implemented through autonomous registered societies set up at the state level.DWCRA • Districts in which dynamic voluntary organisations are working 54 . The following criteria for district selection was decided: • districts with low female literacy. Thus. Being a Central Sector Scheme. The Department of education selected the districts after extensive consultations with state governments. • Selection of programme functionaries. aptitude and quality. this arrangement was also found to be convenient by the Central Government. The problem of flow of funds was also an important criterion. poor enrolment and retention of girls in the school system and low level of socio-economic development • Districts where supporting inputs would be available from other development programmes like ICDS.
For over two years from September 1988 to September 1990.• Districts which are representative of the different regions within the state.Governmental. There has been Considerable streamlining of budgets. The programme continues to innovate and evolve new directions based on experience and understanding. flexibility in strategies as well as involvement of people from outside government to make the programme effective has emerged as the basis for the successful functioning of the programme. as it did not ensure that the basic tenets of the programme are not diluted. Launching the programme Launching the programme was a challenge and Mahila Samakhya had to adapt and mould itself to the conditions prevailing in each State. New strategies are being developed for making Sanghas independent of MS through the creation of sangha federations. Strategies are continually being reviewed and changed to ensure sustainability of processes. This situation was not found wholly satisfactory. is a flexible and vibrant structure that is neither Government nor non. What has emerged out of this experience. The programme has sought to adapt the best elements from both. In April 1989. National Programme for the Education of Girls at the Elementary Level Background • • • Approved as amendment to SSA Shall provide additional components Targets underprivileged girls from Classes I-VIII 55 . In April 1989. The autonomous structure. the Government of Netherlands agreed to fund the programme. plans and procedures. as it was envisaged. the Mahila Samakhya Society could not be operationalised and the programme was started with the help of local voluntary organisations and dedicated women’s' groups through a grant in aid arrangement. It was finally decided that the programme be transferred to the MS Society that was registered in 1990. Mahila Samakhya Societies were registered and operationalised in Karnataka and Gujarat. In Uttar Pradesh the programme evolved differently. especially in the older areas.
NGOs for girls education TargetOut of school girls Dropout girls Overage girls Working girls Marginalized social groups Low attendance Low achievement • Development of suitable support material Focus 56 . teachers.• Within SSA but as a distinct component Scope • Applicable in Educationally Backward Blocks where rural female literacy less than and gender gap is higher than national average Cover in blocks with at least 5% SC/ST population and SC/ST female literacy below 10% Selected urban slums • • Objectives • • • • • Develop and promote facilities to provide access Facilitate retention of girls Ensure greater participation of women and girls in education Improve quality of education Stress relevance and quality of girls education for their empowerment Strategy • • Mobilization of communities.
advocacy. one resource person and other members Responsible for coordination and convergence with DGU. VECs.• • • • • • • • Capacity building of national. monitoring One coordinator for every 5-25 villages (cluster) to function with a core group Village level efforts to be coordinated by MS Sanghas.if no MS Society. etc Implementation Arrangements Sub-district Level • Core group to be formed. etc 57 • • • . baseline assessments. MTA/PTAs. implementation by MS Society MS Society to provide direction. State and district organizations Development of innovative gender sensitization programmes Networking between different organizations for research information exchange Sensitize the education system to play a positive role Break gender stereotypes Provide appropriate support services Build community support for girls education Ensure good quality education for girls Implementation Arrangements State Level • • • • State SSA society to implement Gender Coordinator to be appointed to look after NPEGEL In State where MS operational. including one coordinator. formation of MTAs. block/village mapping. community mobilization. sub-committee of SSA Society to be formed Implementation Arrangements District Level • • • • District Gender Unit to administer District Gender Coordinator to be appointed District Gender Coordination Committee to be set up Activities to include preparatory activities. preparation of village plans.
escorts may be provided for from within the admissible textbook amount of Rs. films. slates. Rs 20000 (next two years). CDs. etc. documentation.Components • Model cluster school To be opened in SC/ST/OBC/ Minority areas Girl child friendly school to serve as a model between 5-10 villages Selection of school on the basis of best performance in enrolment of girls To be equipped with TLE. uniforms. Instructors to be hired for the day or on contract Other Activities • Stationery. etc. Would includeDevelopment of TLM. workbooks. etc Review/development of textbooks Supplementary reading material Compilation/evaluation of curriculum from gender perspective Meena Compaign • Meena campaign a special intervention to enhance community commitment for girls education was initiated under DPEP. 150 Convergence with the State Health Department and with MDM for the MCS Grants of Rs 35000 (first year). TA/DA for coordinators/ resource persons (part of 6% management cost under SSA) • • Implementation. Monitoring & Supervision • SSA provisions to be used for development of training modules. computers. MIS. games. Rs 10000 (next two years) towards community mobilization. curriculum. 58 . books.
In these discussions people expressed desire to send their daughters to schools. MTA & WMG training. Executive CommitteeFive member Executive Committee is elected from among the members. a workshop organized at state level. These facilitators provide active support to Meena Manch at school level.• Post screening discussions were carried out. The executive committee constitutes of • • • • President Secretary Treasurer Two members Meena Facilitator To facilitate the Meena manch one lady teacher of school is nominated as Meena facilitator. To develop the capabilities of leadership & cooperation. To develop the skills of creation. 3 days training is given to Meena facilitator. For the awareness of child & women rights. • • Aims & Objectives • • • • • To provide a platform to adolescent girls to express themselves. writing & paintings etc To develop life skills for better standard of life. To invite suggestion and feedback from field. • • • Selected in general meeting Girl with leadership qualities Girl with ability to convince 59 . Concept of Meena Manch emerged in workshop. This communication tool for girls’ education has been used in VEC.
Secondary research This looks at existing data. Quantitative Quantitative research systematic empirical investigation quantitative properties. collation or synthesis of information. How many people do these things and how often. Children attendance searching out of school children early child marriage. 60 .Regular meeting of the executive committees is held every month followed by a general meeting of Meena Manch. sports activities& management of early child care education centers. Dowry Health and Hygiene Gender discrimination preparing education plan for their village • Various types of research Primary research This collects data that does not already exist. observation. It may be a summary. Mobilize community through role play. What people do and why. questionnaire. storytelling and discussion regarding these issues. Interventions of Meena Manches• In cluster schools of NPEGEL these Meena Manches are actively handling the school library. These meetings are called Meena Panchayats. Qualitative research Looks at what humans behavior and the reasons behind it. Survey. interview.
There are follows reasons for that: • The schemes are widely different so related research matter is hard to find • Also currently hardly any research is going on so current data is scare 61 . We have incorporated different researches findings which are useful for our survey. Some of them are: • • • • Research who have conducted research about implementation of some particular scheme in a specific areas The report of government agencies which can out with their annual report about a particular scheme Findings out NGOs and other organizations about effect of schemes at ground level Inputs from district educational officials who are responsible for monitoring of these schemes Interviews extract of different officials and experts Internet database is also a important source of material Different journals published by different agencies or institutions from time to time Books written by different experts which give inside of these schemes or related schemes Lastly but not the least old records which give a gist of what the project is all about • • • • • Identifying the research gap In spite of all the initiative the desire out is hardly matched at ground level .Data collected from various researches The data collected include inputs from various people who are attached to this sector.
More and more through reading of different literature.• Also the data which is available is very old and schemes have been revamp many a times in between so that old research is hardly of any use • Also government bodies are reluctant to provide actual facts and figures about any scheme Conclusion In spite of all the problems faced in finding proper research material the literature review of the schemes was done efficiently. abstract from books. 62 . their implementation and their probable desire outcome. research papers etc is done more it help in deeper understanding of the schemes. These reviews will help us to formulate our survey in a better way. Literature reviews also help us to understand other socio-eco aspects affect the success or failure of these schemes heavily. journals.
3.Research Plan Objective Our aim of research is to analyze the government schemes as a whole for which we focus on two things which give us a fair idea to meet our aim. To check awareness about government schemes To know perception of usefulness for government schemes 64 .
000 families. till March 31 this year.000. The main reason for the backwardness of minority communities is lack of awareness among the people about facilities provided under various government schemes and the negligent attitude of the officers concerned in implementing these schemes 65 . The committee expressed concern over the contraception coverage. All Arunachal Registered Contractor Association (AARCA) has termed National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) as complete failure in Arunachal. Though this mission was launched five years ago.1 per cent of the eligible males for condoms and 3. purchase of drugs.000 families in the first phase.8 per cent of females for oral pills. Audit reports have indicated financial irregularities during 1995-98 in several instances that include pay and allowances of the staff engaged in family welfare programmes. Citing various reasons. NRHM also faces problems of under-utilization of funds and its failure in reducing Maternal and child mortality in the country. nothing has been achieved in terms of contribution to development of the state. the Government had launched a Universal Health Insurance Scheme in 2003. maintenance of sterilization wards. The expected numbers of beneficiaries of this scheme were 1. which was only 10.Issues There is no doubt about the Government’s intentions to provide good health insurance schemes. and expenditure on defunct training schools. but it is the implementation of schemes that leaves a lot to be desired. association claimed. To give you an example. AARCA claimed that nepotism and favouritism while awarding work under NRHM scheme is one of the major reasons for failure of the mission. The reality: the scheme has been extended to only about 100. misutilisation of miscellaneous purpose funds.
desire to understand causal relationships.. social thinking and awakening are also play an important role to choose this area as our research. teach higher order thinking skills. Motivation Every research is based on a motivation because what makes people to undertake research? This is an always a question of fundamental importance. We will do the rigorous study of government schemes then go to check the real status of these schemes in the rural areas to check the awareness and find the perception of usefulness for the Health Schemes.Many more factors such as directives of government.So we 66 . Research Process 1. concern over practical problems initiates research Desire to be of service to society However. and that introduce analyzing skills to MBA students. curiosity about new things. this is not an exhaustive list . Our motivations behind this project are- Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems.e. 2. Surveys in rural areas maintain that only 30 per cent of people will get benefits of the schemes. i. Extensive literature survey: This is the most important part of any research because it gives us the understanding to do our research in the right direction . The research problem: The purpose of this project is to do thorough study of government schemes which employ constructive active learning pedagogy.
undertake extensive literature survey connected with the problem. For this purpose, we go to the abstracting and indexing journals and published or unpublished bibliographies. We tapped academic journals, conference proceedings, government reports, books etc.
Null Hypothesis: There is no relation between awareness and perception of
usefulness of government schemes in rural areas and their success. Alternative Hypothesis: There is relation between awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas and their success.
4. Research design:
For our research we obtain the information from extensive Literature Review and Rural Survey. As the purpose of our research study is that of exploration that why we chose a flexible research design which provides opportunity for considering many different aspects of a problem. Line Diagram of our Research Design
Literature Review Choose the most important schemes for our research Project Design Sample Questionnaire
Pilot Survey to check the Sample Questionnaire
Design Final Questionnaire 67
Sort out the problems
Interviewed Rural People Analyze the data
Find the relation between awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas and their success If more awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas with more success
Null Hypothesis true
Alternative hypothesis true
Show the Findings
5. Determining sample design: As the total geographical area of interest is big one
we chose Area Sampling. Area Sampling is quite close to cluster sampling and is often talked about when the total geographical area of interest happens to be big one. Under area sampling we first divide the total area into a number of smaller nonoverlapping areas, generally called geographical clusters, then a number of these smaller areas are randomly selected, and all units in these small areas are included in the sample. Area sampling is especially helpful where we do not have the list of the population concerned. It also makes the field interviewing more efficient since interviewer can do many interviews at each location.
6. Collecting the data: First to design our questionnaire we collect information from
internet, journals, academic report and government offices. After designing questionnaire we go to village for rural survey. Collect raw data from our research. We interviewed villager on 5 different village to get detail and unbiased information about government schemes.
7. Execution of the project: To execute our project a very important step is research
process. Approximately 4 months for our project. We divide our time such a manner that we are able to complete our research within predetermined time. I. II. III. IV. Literature Review one and half month Sampling of questionnaire 15 days Plot survey and design final questionnaire 20 days Final survey and analysis of data 1 month
8. Analysis of data: After the data have been collected, we turn to the task of analyzing
them. For the analysis of data we have done number of closely related operations such as establishment of categories, the application of these categories to raw data through coding, tabulation and then drawing statistical inferences. Thus, we have classified the raw data into some purposeful and usable categories. Coding operation we have done at this stage through which the categories of data are transformed into symbols that may be tabulated and counted.
Editing is the procedure we have done that improves the quality of the data for coding. With coding the stage is ready for tabulation.
we have analyzed the collected data with the help of various statistical measures. by applying various well defined statistical formulae.Tabulation operation we done for the getting data in the form of tables. etc. coefficients.. In brief. Hypothesis-testing: To test our hypothesis we conduct survey in 5 villages and interviewed rural people about the schemes. Analyze the data Find the relation between awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas and their success If more awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas with more success Null Hypothesis true Alternative hypothesis true 70 . Analysis work after tabulation is generally based on the computation of various percentages. 9. With the data Analysis we are able to check the validity of our hypothesis. The technique of analysis of variance help us in analyzing whether three or more varieties of seeds grown on certain fields yield significantly different results or not.
10. 71 . Also looking at the geographical constraints the research plan is formed in such a way that people (of different type) are covered well. Also looking after don’ts and dos of a proper questionnaire questions were from to carter every need of the people in villages and area selected by us. Introduction d. we prepared the report. proper information is extracted from them in shortest possible time. Generalizations and Conclusion: After testing hypothesis we are able to generalize our finding and come to the conclusion that whether there is relation between awareness and perception of usefulness of government schemes in rural areas and their success or not. If yes what is the behavior positive or negative. Acknowledgement b. Literature Review e. Data Analysis g. We have write report with great care with following outline- a. Index c. Preparation of the report or the thesis: Finally. Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion With proper methodology like qualitative method in our case project can successfully carried out. Research Plan f. Also the research plan help in forming a stepping stones for the data collection and analysis as questions are formed in keeping in mind all the difficulties that might come and research strategy in drafted accordingly. 11.
Data Analysis 72 .4.
As we were limited to do our survey on the adjoining areas surrounding Allahabad due to time and proximity factors. Bheeta & Mankwar respectively. 4.1 INTRODUCTION: The main aim of this evaluation study is to gather information and critically analyze the data received during our field survey. education qualifications and other varied demographic fields. We collected data from the three villages namely Jasra.1.62% Figure no.4.1GENDER: Sex male fem ale Pies show counts 16.38% 83.1 Analysis: 73 . The analysis on the Sample size Surveyed is been as follows: 4. During our field survey we came across wide number of peoples from different age groups.
2 Analysis: close analysis of the situation shows that most of the respondents were from the age group 19-30 and the least being from age group above 60 .07% 16.With an aggregate percent of 83.others also contribute majorly to the total.14% 12. 4.93% FIGURE NO. 74 . male section is completely influencing the results.2.62. AGE OF REPONDENTS: Age of respondant 0-18 19-30 31-45 46-60 above 60 Pies show counts 34.38% of the entire result.1. On the other side female section contribute to only 16.38% 12. 4.48% 24.
34% Pies show counts 20. 4. OCCUPATION: Occupation farming service business 10.34% repondents were dependent on business for fullfilling their needs.97% Figure no.3 Analysis: Majority of respondents were mainly dependent on farming for earning their livelihood.1. 75 .69% 68.3. Only 10.4.
1. A large proportion of repondents were in income group less than 20000.93% 35. 4.83% Figure no. 76 .4.4 Analysis: Most of the respondents lie in the income group 20001-50000. ANNUAL INCOME : 6.34% Pies show counts 44. Significantly small amount of respondents was from income group above 100000.4.90% A nnual Incom e 0-20000 20001-50000 50001-100000 above 100000 12.
76%.e. 77 .90 % of the respondents were post graduate.4. But the trend has shown some amount of increase in educational standards. 4. Only 6. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: 6.28% 32.76% Figure no.55% 15. 126.96.36.199% Educational Background Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Pies show counts 21.52% 23.5 Analysis: Intermediate pass repondents were in large proportion i.
9.48% 33.1: Pie Chart (Schools have all the basic facilities) Analysis: close analysis of the statement shows that only 33.62% Pies show counts PA IA RT LLY A RE WA UNA A W RE 13. Also we come to know that the no.2.e.but 78 .1 Schools have all the basic facilities Schools have all the basic facilities FULLY AWARE Educational Background Uneducated 3 Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 7 14 12 3 39 4 5 15 7 1 32 6 3 3 3 1 16 1 4 3 2 1 11 4 6 3 3 2 18 18 25 38 27 8 116 MOSTLY AWARE PARTIALLY AWARE Total NEUTRAL UNAWARE Schools have all the basic facilities FULLY A RE WA M ST A A O LY W RE NE RA UT L 15.1.52% 9. SAAKSHAR BHARAT AWARENESS: Table 4.62% respondents are fully aware of the prevailing situation while the lowest section being of partially aware i.4.48%.79% 27.59% FIGURE 4. Of graduates & post graduates are lesser in number .
fully aware section was higher in comparison to other sections . Number of teachers in school is sufficient FULLY AWARE Educational Background Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 2 8 18 11 2 41 MOSTLY AWARE 2 8 11 9 1 31 PARTIALLY AWARE 6 2 1 1 1 11 Total NEUTRAL 6 3 3 3 1 16 UNAWARE 2 4 5 3 3 17 18 25 38 27 8 116 TABLE 4.48% 14.72% Figure 4. 2 out of 18.e. 18 out of 38 & the lowest being the uneducated section i.though being the lowest these sections contribute the most (12 out of 27 & 3 out of 8) to the fully aware part. 79 . the number of uneducated & primary educated respondents were lesser in number to intermediate. graduate & post graduates.2: Pie Chart (Number of teachers in school is sufficient) Analysis: with a total percent of 35.34.66% 13.e.2: Number of teachers in school is sufficient Number of teachers in school is sufficient FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWAR E UNAWARE 35.79% 26.the intermediate pass respondents provided with best of results i.34% Pies show counts 9.in this case.
e.21% Figur e 4.graduate & post graduates are more in number than uneducated .TABLE 4. The intermediate pass respondents have given the most contribution i. In this case also .the number of intermediate .86% FULLY A WARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRA L PA RTIALLY A RE WA UNAWARE Pies show counts 51.primary educated respondents.00% 11.3: Pie Chart (Teachers come daily to school) Analysis: in this condition fully aware respondents contribute to 51.21% 11.3: Teachers come daily to school Teachers come daily to school FULLY AWARE Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Educational Background Graduate Post graduate Total 7 13 25 12 3 60 MOSTLY AWARE 6 5 7 9 2 29 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 0 0 1 0 1 Total NEUTRAL 3 3 3 3 1 13 UNAWARE 2 4 3 2 2 13 18 25 38 27 8 116 Teachers come daily to school 0.72% 25. 25 out of 38 are fully aware of the situation.72% of the complete results. Table 4.4: Vocational trainings is imparted in school 80 .
Vocational trainings is imparted in school FULLY AWARE Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Educational Background Graduate Post graduate Total 0 2 0 0 1 3 MOSTLY AWARE 1 0 2 1 0 4 NEUTRAL 2 3 4 5 0 14 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 1 6 2 0 10 UNAWARE 14 19 26 19 7 85 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 2. From the cross-tabs it is clear that fully aware & mostly aware respondents contribute very less to the overall result.5: People are encouraged to send their children to school 81 .59% 3.62% PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE Pies show counts 73.07% 8.28% of respondents are unaware & only 2. Lack of awareness show that either the scheme is not implemented or if implemented has not been properly executed.59% of respondents are fully aware of the situation.4: Pie Chart (Vocational Trainings Is Imparted In School) Analysis: close analysis of the situation provides us with information that 73. Table 4.28% Figure 4.45% Vocational trainings is imparted in school FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL 12.
00% 73.28 % of the respondents are fully satisfied that yes the people are now encouraging to send their ward to school.28% Figure 4. it is clear that 73.People are encouraged to send their children to school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Background Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 9 19 28 23 6 85 SATISFIED 9 5 9 4 2 29 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 1 1 0 0 2 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 1. 82 . The importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab.72% People are encouraged to send their children to school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 25. as the people who are less educated have shown more tendencies to send their children to school.5: Pie Chart (People are encouraged to send their children to school) Analysis: from the pie-chart.
03% Figure 4.59% SATISFIED NEUTRAL 10.48% 46.55% 31.34% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 9. respondents believe that number of enrolments has increased. Even the uneducated & primary educated respondents have some information regarding the same which is a good sign when seen in terms of increasing awareness. 83 .6: Number of students is increasing at school Educational Level FULLY SATISFIED Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 3 12 17 17 5 54 Number of students is increasing at school SATISFIED 9 4 13 8 2 36 NEUTRAL 2 4 5 0 0 11 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 1 0 1 0 3 UNSATISFIED 3 4 3 1 1 12 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Number of students is increasing at school FULLY SATISFIED 2. The number of satisfied individuals is also contributing much to the results.Table 4.6: Pie Chart (Number of students are increasing at school) Analysis: with a total percent share of 46.55.
55% NEUTRA L PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies show counts 27. Others also contribute significantly to the overall result. 84 .7: Teachers come school on time Teachers come school on time FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 6 15 19 12 2 54 SATISFIED 7 5 8 10 2 32 NEUTRAL 1 1 3 2 2 9 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 2 4 0 0 8 UNSATIS FIED 2 2 4 3 2 13 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Teachers come school on time FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED 6.59% Figure 4. which is quiet a large proportion.76% 46.21% 7. The least percent being of respondents who are partially unsatisfied.90% 11.55% respondents are fully satisfied that teachers come on time. we can easily find that approximately 46.7: Pie Chart (Teachers come school on time) Analysis: when we minutely observe the pie chart.Table 4.
8: Basic amenities are available in school Basic amenities are available in school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 3 4 14 3 2 26 SATISFIED 7 9 13 14 2 45 NEUTRAL 5 1 4 3 0 13 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 1 2 2 1 6 UNSATISFID 3 10 5 5 3 26 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Basic amenities are available in school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 22.41% 22.41% but when compared to others it is less than those who are just satisfied with the situation.41% 5.79% FIGURE 4. Only 3 out of 27 fully satisfied.8: Pie Chart (Basic amenities are available in school) Analysis: fully satisfied respondents are only 22.21% 38.Table 4.17% 11. 85 . The best response is generated from intermediate pass respondents with 14 fully satisfied out of 38 while the worst coming from the graduates i.e.
07% 25.76% Teaching style is innovative.9: Pie Chart (Teaching style is innovative. interesting and knowledgeable FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 33.Table 4. 33.the worst of response coming from post graduate with no respondents fully satisfied with the current situation.00% Figure 4.9: Teaching style is innovative.55% 12. interesting and knowledgeable) Analysis: there is a narrow difference in satisfaction level for this situation. Table 4. interesting and knowledgeable Teaching style is innovative.62% 21.10: Government representatives visit village to tell about the schemes 86 .76 respondents are fully satisfied .62% respondents are unsatisfied with the situation & only 7. interesting and knowledgeable FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 1 3 4 1 0 9 SATISFIED 0 5 9 7 4 25 NEUTRAL 7 4 10 8 0 29 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 4 2 3 4 1 14 UNSATISFIED 6 11 12 7 3 39 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 7.
Table 4.34% 66.03% Government representatives visit your village to tell about the schemes FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL 12.38% Figure 4.11: Programs conducted by schools are motivating parents to send their children to school 87 . The worst of the response coming from intermediate respondents with no one fully satisfied with the situation.Government representatives visit your village to tell about the schemes FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated Primary education Intermediate pass Graduate Post graduate Total 1 0 2 3 1 7 SATISFIED 1 3 5 3 2 14 NEUTRAL 1 0 3 1 1 6 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 3 2 3 4 0 12 UNSATISFIED 12 20 25 16 4 77 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6.07% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 5.10: Pie Chart (Government representatives visit your village to tell about the schemes) Analysis: from the respondent person more than 66% are unsatisfied .17% 10. it shows that how they are not utilize this type of facility and government officials not update or provide knowledge about schemes to them.
Programs conducted by schools are motivating for parents to send their children to school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Uneducated Level primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 2 4 8 4 4 22 SATISFIED 3 2 6 5 1 17 NEUTRAL 3 3 1 1 0 8 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 3 3 2 4 0 12 UNSATISFIED 7 13 21 13 3 57 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 P ro g ram s co n d u cted b y sch o o ls are m o tivatin g fo r p aren ts to s en d th eir ch ild ren to s ch o o FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 18.97% UNSATISFIED 49.34% 6.90% Figure 4.11: Pie Chart (Programs conducted by schools are motivating parents to send their children to school) Analysis: from the respondent person about 50% are unsatisfied .it shows that this type of programme are not organised regularly. 88 . The best of response coming from intermediate pass respondents i. 8 out of 38 fully satisfied with the situation.e.14% 14.66% 10.and no. Of satisfied person are about 32% .
Very less number of the people is unsatisfied. it means books and cloths provided are of good quality & appropriate in number.uniform s and stationeries are provid ed free o f cost FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 52.90% Figure 4. uniforms and stationeries are provided free of cost Books .2.12: Pie Chart (Books . The best response is coming from post graduates respondents with 5 out of 8 fully satisfied.uniforms and stationeries are provided free of cost FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 8 15 20 13 5 61 NEUTRA L 1 1 2 0 0 4 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIE D 2 2 1 0 2 7 UNSATISFIE D 4 1 0 2 0 7 SATISFIED 3 6 15 12 1 37 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6.12: Books.45% B ooks .03% 6.59% 31. 4. SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN 89 .Table 4.2.03% 3.uniforms and stationeries are provided free of cost) Analysis: more than 80 % people are satisfied or fully satisfied with the situation.
72% education is right of every child FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL 15.76% 1.28% Figure 4.52% PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE Pies show counts 73.TABLE 4.14: Children of 6-14 years should go to school 90 .72% 1. The best response coming from graduate pass respondents. Table 4.13: Education is a fundamental right for children FULLY AWARE Educational Background Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total Count education is right of every child MOSTLY PARTIALL AWARE NEUTRAL Y AWARE 6 18 32 23 6 85 8 4 3 1 2 18 3 2 2 2 0 9 0 0 1 1 0 2 UNAWARE 1 1 0 0 0 2 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 7.13: Pie Chart (Education is a fundamental right for children) Analysis: about 73% are fully aware and 16% are mostly aware that education is fundamental right it shows that most of respondent person are well known about this right which is a good sign for India & its citizen.
Children of 6-14 years should go to school FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 10 18 28 18 7 81 MOSTLY AWARE 6 5 8 7 1 27 NEUTRA L 1 1 0 0 0 2 PARTIALL Y AWARE 1 0 2 2 0 5 UNAWAR E 0 1 0 0 0 1 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 0.72% Children of 6-14 years should go to school FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 23.28% 69. Of children in age group 6-14 are heading towards school. The percent is likely to improve in coming years with growing awareness. it shows that large no.83% Figure 4. The best of response coming from post graduates with 7 out of 8 fully aware of the fact.14: Pie Chart (Children of 6-14 years should go to school) Analysis: from the respondents more than 90% are aware.86% 4.31% 1.15: Government provides free education to adolescents 91 . TABLE 4.
38% 31. Worst of the response coming from uneducated people thus there is significantly a large section where this knowledge has to be spread. uniforms and other stationeries 92 .76% 4.Government provides free education to adolescents FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 5 9 21 7 5 47 MOSTLY AWARE 8 4 10 12 2 36 NEUTRA L 2 4 2 1 0 9 PARTIALL Y AWARE 2 1 0 2 0 5 UNAWAR E 1 7 5 5 1 19 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Government provides free education to adolescents FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 40.16: School provides free books. Table 4.03% Figure 4.52% 7.31% 16. It shows some areas are still not having knowledge about this scheme. And from rest 17% are unaware of this.15: Pie Chart (Government provides free education to adolescents) Analysis: about 40% and 31% person are fully and mostly aware respectively.
uniforms and other stationeries FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 8 14 26 15 4 67 MOSTLY AWARE 5 7 7 8 2 29 NEUTRA L 3 3 0 2 1 9 PARTIALL Y AWARE 2 0 0 0 1 3 UNAWAR E 0 1 5 2 0 8 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6.00% 57. It means most of the person utilizes this facility & one more thing that has come in knowledge was that only girls are provided with uniforms.90% 2.17: Computer knowledge is provided in school 93 . Table 4.16: Pie Chart (School provides free books.76% \ Figure4. Very less number of the people is unaware.59% 7. uniforms and other stationeries) Analysis: more than 80 % people are fully and mostly aware. thus it is time now for government to sincerely respond to the situation. un ifo rm s an d oth er statio n eries FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 25.76% S cho o l p rovid es free b oo ks.School provides free books.
it shows that computer education is still not in reach of them.17: Pie Chart (Computer knowledge is provided in school) Analysis: from the respondents more than 91% are unaware about computer education.72% 1.18: School disburse scholarships on time 94 .38% Figure 4.Computer knowledge is provided in school FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 1 2 0 0 3 MOSTLY AWARE 0 0 1 1 0 2 NEUTRA L 0 2 0 0 0 2 PARTIALL Y AWARE 0 0 2 0 1 3 UNAWAR E 18 22 33 26 7 106 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 2.59% Computer knowledge is provided in school FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 91.59% 1. Government has to gear up if they want rural India to grow at a parallel speed with which urban India is growing. Table 4.72% 2.
83% 7.76% Figu re 4. Table 4. etc.18: Pie Chart (School disburses scholarships on time) Analysis: from the respondent person about 30% are unaware 45% are fully and mostly aware .School should disburse scholarships to students on time FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 7 9 7 2 31 MOSTLY AWARE 3 5 10 5 0 23 NEUTRAL 3 2 2 2 0 9 PARTIALLY AWARE 2 4 7 5 0 18 UNAWARE 4 7 10 8 6 35 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 S ch oo l sho u ld disbu rse scho larships to stu d en ts o n tim e FULLY AWARE MO STLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE 30. it shows that major portion are either not taking serious part or the information provided them are not sufficient. are held in village 95 .72% UNAWARE 15.17% 26.19: Awareness programs like puppet show.52% 19. Information has to be spread whenever government is planning for any type of disburse of scholarship.
All the sections have given negative response to this situation this is because significant measures are not taken to monitor the scheme/program.17% Awareness programs like puppet show.31% 6. are held in village) Analysis: from the respondents more than 77% are fully unaware and rest are very few in number .etc.59% Figure 4.90% 5. Table 4. are held in village FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 1 3 1 0 5 MOSTLY AWARE 1 1 3 2 1 8 NEUTRA L 1 2 1 1 1 6 PARTIALL Y AWARE 0 2 4 1 0 7 UNAWAR E 16 19 27 22 6 90 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 4.03% 77. it clearly shows that this type of programmes are organised very few in number. are held in village FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 6.etc.Awareness programs like puppet show.etc.20: Teachers conduct exams regularly 96 .19: Pie Chart (Awareness programs like puppet show.
45% Teachers conduct exams regularly FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 17.90% Figure 4. Table 4.24% 43.45% 3.20: Pie Chart (Teachers conduct exams regularly) Analysis: from the respondents more than 74% are fully and mostly aware and only 4 % are unaware.97% 31. it shows that exams are held on time in most of the areas. thus this has to be slightly higher than what it is in current scenario.Teachers conduct exams regularly FULLY AWARE Educationa l Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 4 14 15 14 4 51 MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL 5 5 15 9 3 37 6 4 5 4 1 20 PARTIALLY AWARE 2 0 2 0 0 4 UNAWARE 1 2 1 0 0 4 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 3. It is only through exams that one got to know what are his weak areas & where he is doing good.21: Admission is granted to children of all social background 97 .
21: Pie Chart (Admission is granted to children of all social background) Analysis: from the respondents more than 60% are fully aware and 25% are mostly aware.17% 2.59% 6.22: Weekly/monthly Medical check-ups are conducted in school 98 . This result could be treated as appreciating the efforts of government as india is a country of large no.Admission is granted to children of all social background FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 7 15 24 20 4 70 MOSTLY AWARE 10 7 8 2 3 30 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 0 2 1 0 3 NEUTRAL 1 1 1 3 1 7 UNAWARE 0 2 3 1 0 6 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 5.34% Figure 4.03% A dmission is granted to children of all social strata FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 25. Table 4. it shows that now everyone is treated equally not on the basis of him /her community.86% 60. Of religion & each of them live in such a way that it is difficult to discriminate between two individuals.
03% W eekly/mo n thly Medical ch eck-ups are con d ucted in sch oo l FULLY AWARE MO STLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE 13. situation may be also that schools are not getting proper funds to conduct these type of camps.10% UNAWARE 14. Table 4.Weekly/monthly Medical check-ups are conducted in school FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 4 1 1 0 7 MOSTLY AWARE 4 2 5 2 3 16 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 5 6 4 1 17 NEUTRAL 4 3 7 6 1 21 UNAWARE 8 11 19 14 3 55 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6. it is clear that 80 % of the respondents are less aware about the fact that medical check-ups are organized . One reason could be carelessness from the school side & other being from the government side.41% 18.23: Every child of family is getting quality education Every child of family is getting quality education Total 99 .22: Pie Chart (Weekly/monthly Medical check-ups are conducted in school) Analysis: from the pie-chart.66% Figure 4.79% 47.
28% Pies show counts 72.e.FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 11 17 28 22 6 84 SATISFIED 7 6 7 5 2 27 NEUTRAL 0 2 0 0 0 2 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 0 2 0 0 2 UNSATISFIED 0 0 1 0 0 1 18 25 38 27 8 116 1.41% Figure 4.72% Every child of family is getting quality education FULLY SATISFIED SA TISFIED NEUTRA L PA RTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSA TISFIED 23. It is because people believe that in private schools more attention is given to ward.23: pie chart (every child of family is getting quality education) Analysis: from the pie-chart.41 % of the respondents are fully satisfied that yes every child of family is getting quality education. the ways of getting educated may be different i. it is clear that 72. Some parents are sending their wards to government school & the remaining to local private school. Table 4.24: Classes are held regularly Classes are held regularly Tota 100 .72% 0.86% 1.
24: pie chart (classes are held regularly) Analysis: from the respondents more than 55% are fully satisfied and 29% are satisfied that classes are conducted with seriousness.31% Classes are held regularly FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 29. Once the classes start getting organized on time. If the classes are organized on time a flow will be maintained which is good for those who are in their nascent stage of learning.25: Children take interest in books and study material provided 101 .76% 2.FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 7 14 22 16 6 65 SATISFIED 4 6 13 10 1 34 NEUTRAL 2 1 1 1 0 5 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 2 0 0 0 3 UNSATISFIED 4 2 2 0 1 9 l 18 25 38 27 8 116 7. Table 4.03% Figure 4.59% 4. people will respond by sending their ward to school.31% 56.
Pie chart shows that 36.26: Infrastructure of school is sufficient enough to accommodate all students 102 .Children take interest in books and study material provided PARTIALLY UNSATISFIE D 1 1 0 0 0 2 FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 3 8 20 9 2 42 SATISFIED 7 5 11 7 1 31 NEUTRAL 5 6 5 8 5 29 UNSATISFIED 2 5 2 3 0 12 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 C h ildren take in terest in b o o ks an d stud y m aterial p ro vid ed 1.72% Figure 4.21% respondents think that children are taking interest in study material.72% FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 36. TABLE 4.34% 26.00% 10. The worst of response is again coming from the uneducated section.25: Pie Chart (Children take interest in books and study material provided) Analysis: the entire analysis has been done to help improve the education standards in rural India.21% 25. And this attempt will go in vain if children do not take interest in books.
59% In fra s tru c tu re o f s c h o o l is su ffic ie n t en o u g h to ac c o m m o d a te a ll stu d e n ts FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 10. this problem require special attention by government.62% Figure 4.83% 33.26: Pie Chart (Infrastructure of school is sufficient enough to accommodate all students) Analysis: with an aggregate percent of 44.83 fully satisfied respondents.34% 44.27: Proper facilities are provided to a handicapped child in school 103 .62% 2. As of current situation the ratio of no. Of students to the classrooms need an urgent improvement.Infrastructure of school is sufficient enough to accommodate all students FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 5 11 20 14 2 52 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 2 0 1 0 3 SATISFIED 5 7 14 10 3 39 NEUTRAL 5 3 2 2 0 12 UNSATISFIED 3 2 2 0 3 10 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 8. The best of response was derived from intermediate pass respondents Table 4.
55% 22.34% 13.90% Figure 4. nearly 60% respondents looked satisfied with the current situation.Proper facilities are provided to a handicapped child in school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 3 3 5 1 12 SATISFIED 2 4 3 7 0 16 NEUTRAL 4 6 11 3 2 26 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 2 3 2 0 8 UNSATISFIED 11 10 18 10 5 54 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Proper facilities are provided to a handicapped child in school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 10.28: Proper sanitation and cleanliness is maintained at school 104 . Once again the uneducated section was not able to provide satisfactory answer.79% 46.27: pie chart (proper facilities are provided to a handicapped child in school) Analysis: going down the line when we queried for satisfaction level for the facility provided to handicapped children.41% 6. TABLE 4.
83% UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 31.03% 7.59% 19.76% 13.59% respondents were completely unsatisfied.79% Figure 4. But on the contrary 27.28: pie chart (proper sanitation and cleanliness is maintained at school) Analysis: satisfaction level fluctuated in this case. Nearly 50% respondents were satisfied with what is the present scenario. but they recommended for improvement in this part.29: Teachers encourage students to study 105 . This shows that they are having a keen watch towards the health of their ward & others too.Proper sanitation and cleanliness are maintained in school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 3 6 10 3 1 23 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 2 2 4 0 9 SATISFIED 8 8 9 8 3 36 NEUTRAL 3 3 6 4 0 16 UNSATISFIED 3 6 11 8 4 32 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Proper sanitation and cleanliness is maintained at school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 27. TABLE 4.
10% respondents who were not satisfied with the fact.Teachers encourage students to study FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 8 10 7 1 27 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 1 4 1 0 7 SATISFIED 5 7 14 12 5 43 NEUTRAL 4 4 5 4 1 18 UNSATISFIED 7 5 5 3 1 21 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Teachers encourage students to study FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 18.30: Students take exam seriously 106 .10% 6.29: pie chart (teachers encourage students to study) Analysis: teachers being the only pillar in making in a complete individual have done consistently well but with growing competition they need to gear up for the upcoming situation. 60% respondents were satisfied with the fact that teachers encourage students to study while there was also a section of 18.03% 23. TABLE 4.52% 37.28% 15.07% Figure 4.
41% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 12. While there were also people who believed that an improvement is certainly required at elementary level. they have to make their wards study apart from what they are taught at school.93% FIGURE 4. 107 . It is up to the parents.83% 37.90% Students take exam seriously FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL 22.93% 19.Students take exam seriously FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 3 6 10 6 1 26 SATISFIED 6 8 17 12 1 44 NEUTRAL 6 5 6 5 1 23 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 4 3 3 4 15 UNSATISFIED 2 2 2 1 1 8 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6.30: Pie Chart (Students take exam seriously) Analysis: nearly 60% of respondents were satisfied with the fact that yes students take exams seriously.
condition is clear that people are highly unsatisfied with the efforts that had been made by government or schools.TABLE 4. The entire strategy has to be reformulated so as to spread the things in a more clear way.48% Programs organized at school motivate students FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 14.24% Pies s how counts FIGURE 4.31: Programs organized at school motivate students Programs organized at school motivate students FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 0 4 1 1 6 SATISFIED 2 3 5 1 0 11 NEUTRAL 4 2 5 4 2 17 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 4 5 8 1 20 UNSATISFIED 10 16 19 13 4 62 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 5. While very less no.17% 9. 108 .31: Pie Chart (Programs organized at school motivate students) Analysis: from the pie chart.66% 53.45% 17. Of respondents believe that these programs help motivate students.
1 4% 15.32: Steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough Steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 3 9 4 1 17 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 4 5 6 1 18 SATISFIED 3 5 9 7 4 28 NEUTRAL 6 6 3 5 2 22 UNSATISFIED 7 7 12 5 0 31 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED N EU TR AL PAR TIALL Y UNSATISFIED U NSATISFIED Pies s h ow cou nts 24.72% FIGURE 4.32: Pie Chart (Steps taken by school to remove illiteracy are good enough) Analysis: views are quiet different when asked about whether steps taken by school are good enough to eradicate illiteracy. 109 .52% 1 8. 26. Most of them suggested that government has to restructure its entire module if they want better standards of their individuals.6 6% 26.9 7% 1 4.72% respondents are highly unsatisfied with the prevailing situation.TABLE 4.
03% FIGURE 4.86% 5.0 3% 6.33: Pie Chart (Village has special schools for girl students) 110 . KASTURBA GANDHI BALIKA VIDYALAYA YOJANA TABLE 4.17% 188.8.131.52.33: Village has special schools for girl students Village has special schools for girl students FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 0 0 0 0 1 MOSTLY AWARE 2 1 2 1 0 6 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 0 6 0 2 8 NEUTRAL 4 1 1 1 0 7 UNAWARE 11 23 29 25 6 94 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 0.90% Village has special schools for girl students FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE N EUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE U NAWARE Pies s how counts 81.
Neutral views were also there because they were unaware about anything related to this fact. there was unawareness to a very high extent i.34: Pie Chart (Education is contributing to growth of girl child 111 .03% .2 1% 1 2.3 4% FIGURE 4. This was majorly due to the fact that there were no such schools in the areas where we visited.66% 36. 81.34: Education is contributing to growth of girl child Education is contributing in all-round growth of girl child FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 9 12 14 1 42 MOSTLY AWARE 5 7 16 10 3 41 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 0 1 0 0 1 NEUTRAL 6 2 5 2 0 15 UNAWARE 1 7 4 1 4 17 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Education is contributing to growth of girl child FUL LY AWAR E MOSTL Y AWARE 0 .Analysis: talking about this particular situation .e.9 3% N EU TR AL P AR TIALL Y AWAR E U NAWARE P ie s s how cou nts 3 5. TABLE 4.8 6 % 1 4.
they think it’s better for girls to remain at home and do normal house 112 . There are quite a proportion of people who believe that education is only meant for the boys.Analysis: with an aggregate percentage of approximately 70%. TABLE 4.66% 4.69% 42. awareness is there to both full extent & nearly to full extent.35: pie chart (proper security of girls is ensured at school/hostel) Analysis: large proportion i. People are aware that education is going to help their girl child compete in the male dominated society.35: Proper security of girls is ensured at school/hostel Proper security of girls is ensured at school & Hostel FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 4 5 8 7 0 24 MOSTLY AWARE 3 1 9 5 3 21 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 1 3 1 0 5 NEUTRAL 7 2 4 3 1 17 UNAWARE 4 16 14 11 4 49 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Proper security of girls is ensured at school/hostel FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE 20. Nearly 47% of the people surveyed still feel that girls are not safe at school / hostel .e.24% 18.10% UNAWARE Pies show counts 14.31% Figure 4.
39% of the total surveyed people. who were willing to send their daughters to hostel so as do make them feel independent and tackle the world around them.03% 46.17% Figure 4.holding work .36: pie chart (girls are promoted / motivated to come to school) 113 .86% 16.36: Girls are promoted / motivated to come to school Girls are promoted / motivated to come to school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 8 21 17 2 54 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 1 0 0 0 1 SATISFIED 7 9 11 6 2 35 NEUTRAL 2 1 2 2 0 7 UNSATISFIED 3 6 4 2 4 19 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Girls are promoted / motivated to come to school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL 0. TABLE 4.38% 6. On contrary there were people i.55% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 30.e.
62% 24. TABLE 4.97% 8. But there were also people from the society who had the thought that girls should be more involved in house hold work.Analysis: nearly 3/4th of the respondents are satisfied with the fact that yes girls are promoted / motivated to go to the school.14% 33.66% 18.62% 114 .37: Parents allow residential education of their daughter Parents allow residential education of their daughter FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 5 8 8 1 28 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 4 3 1 0 10 SATISFIED 3 2 4 8 0 17 NEUTRAL 5 2 11 2 2 22 UNSATISFIED 2 12 12 8 5 39 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Parents allow residential education of their daughter FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UN SATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 14. Those who were having medium or higher level of education were more concerned about the education of their daughter.
e. FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 3 3 3 3 1 13 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 5 4 5 0 16 SATISFIED 6 4 12 10 1 33 NEUTRAL 2 4 6 4 2 18 UNSATISFIED 5 9 13 5 4 36 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Scholarships help girl student to meet financial need FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UN SATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies show counts 28.37: pie chart (parents allow residential education of their daughter) Analysis: a mixed opinion from the respondents was derived i. 41% of respondents were positive about sending their daughter to hostel at the same time 39% of them were still fearful because of increasing crime against women.45% 11.52% Figure 4.Figure 4.21% 31.38: Scholarships help girl student to meet financial need Scholarships help girl student to meet financial need. TABLE 4.79% 15.03% 13.38: pie chart (scholarships help girl student to meet financial need) 115 .
45% of the respondents who felt that it was more of something better than nothing. There were a larger group of respondents i.Analysis: a very less proportion i.21% of the respondents were satisfied with the scholarship that was given whereas there were people among them i.e. 11. FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 5 6 6 7 1 25 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 3 4 3 1 12 SATISFIED 4 5 7 4 2 22 NEUTRAL 5 1 6 3 0 15 UNSATISFIED 3 10 15 10 4 42 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Scholarships are disbursed timely FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 21.97% 10.e.34% 12.21% UNSATISFIED Pies s how counts 18. as the amount received by them was very less to fulfill their educational requirements TABLE 4.93% 116 . 47% who felt that it was of no help. 28.39: Scholarships are disbursed timely Scholarships are disbursed timely.55% 36.e.
MID DAY MEAL YOJANA TABLE 4.97% 117 .45% 2.28% Pies show counts 68.59% Food is provided free in schools FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 23.39: pie chart (scholarships are disbursed timely) Analysis: there was more of a mixed response from the respondents where-in 40% felt it is timely distributed and nearly 47% felt against it.72% 3.40: Food is provided free in schools Food is provided free in schools FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 9 19 28 19 5 80 MOSTLY AWARE 6 5 7 7 2 27 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 0 2 0 1 4 NEUTRAL 1 1 0 1 0 3 UNAWARE 1 0 1 0 0 2 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 1.2. 4.e.Figure 4.4. The people who were more educated were more informed about the disbursement process so were mostly not satisfied i.39 out of 42 respondents.
40: pie chart (food is provided free in schools) Analysis: approximately 92% respondents were aware of the fact that food is provided free in schools.03% NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 43.72% FIGURE 4.41: Prescribed menu is strictly followed Prescribed menu is strictly followed FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 7 16 17 9 2 51 MOSTLY AWARE 5 4 10 10 2 31 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 2 2 2 0 7 NEUTRAL 5 0 4 1 0 10 UNAWARE 0 3 5 5 4 17 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Prescribed menu is strictly followed FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE 6.97% Pies show counts 14.Figure 4. as those who were poor & were not able to manage food for themselves can get at least something to eat & along with that they can also grasp some knowledge.41: Pie Chart (Prescribed menu is strictly followed) 118 .66% 8.62% 26. The respondents were happy with this move of government. TABLE 4.
62% 18.28% 119 .86% 8. TABLE 4.Analysis: major portions of people were informed in this context.14% PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 25.42: Food fulfils nutritional requirement Food fulfils nutritional requirement FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 2 11 8 5 2 28 MOSTLY AWARE 4 3 9 10 1 27 PARTIALLY AWARE 2 2 2 4 0 10 NEUTRAL 5 4 8 3 1 21 UNAWARE 5 5 11 5 4 30 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Food fulfils nutritional requirement FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL 24.10% 23. Approximately 70% of the total surveyed people knew what was to be provided in food on a particular day as there were charts displaying menu to be followed & the nutritional content of the food.
Figure 4.43: pie chart (quality check of food is conducted regularly) 120 . 49% of people were aware of what is provided in food but they were unaware what nutritional requirements were fulfilled by those food item.69% 43.e.43: Quality check of food is conducted regularly Quality check of food is conducted regularly FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 6 8 7 2 24 MOSTLY AWARE 1 4 3 5 1 14 PARTIALLY AWARE 2 3 2 3 0 10 NEUTRAL 7 3 3 4 1 18 UNAWARE 7 9 22 8 4 50 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Quality check of food is conducted regularly FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 20.52% 8.10% 12. This is due to lack of spread of information between people.42: pie chart (food fulfils nutritional requirement) Analysis: though a higher percentage i.07% 15. More awareness need to be made through different mediums TABLE 4.62% Figure 4.
TABLE 4.86% 10.44: Children get healthy and nutritious food regularly Children get healthy and nutritious food regularly FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 2 4 6 7 2 21 SATISFIED 6 9 10 9 1 35 NEUTRAL 4 5 5 3 1 18 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 3 2 6 1 0 12 UNSATISFIED 3 5 11 7 4 30 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Children get healthy and nutritious food regularly FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL 18.10% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 25.Analysis: approximately half of the respondents does not have any information in context to whether any quality check is done.44: Pie Chart (Children get healthy and nutritious food regularly 121 .34% 15. Some of them provided with information that yes quality checks are organised but that too can be counted on fingers. This is due to lack of interest of the officials in such activities but as it is related to health concern we can’t take it lightly.17% FIGURE 4.52% 30.
there was a mixed response that came to us.17% FIGURE 4.45: Dropout of children from school is reducing Dropout of children from school is reducing PARTIALLY UNSATISFIE D 1 1 1 0 0 3 FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 4 10 13 5 2 34 SATISFIED 6 5 10 10 4 35 NEUTRAL 3 3 2 3 2 13 UNSATISFIE D 4 6 12 9 0 31 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Dropout of children from school is reducing FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 26.31% 2.72% 29. TABLE 4.59% 11. when respondents were asked are they satisfied of the healthy & nutritious food provided.21% 30. The response from those with higher educational levels was good in comparison to the others.Analysis: going down the line.45: Pie Chart (Dropout of children from school is reducing) 122 .
66% UNSATISFIED 43.34% 39.10% Figure 4.46: pie chart (food is provided on scheduled time) 123 . TABLE 4.17%1.46: Food is provided on scheduled time Food is provided on scheduled time PARTIALLY UNSATISFIE D 0 3 2 1 0 6 FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 3 10 17 11 5 46 SATISFIED 9 11 16 12 2 50 NEUTRAL 6 1 2 2 1 12 UNSATISFIE D 0 0 1 1 0 2 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 5. Of respondents believing that tendency of quitting school has reduced & that is a good sign when seen in terms of growing india.72% Food is provided on scheduled time FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 10. This time a good response was also generated from the middle level educated respondents.Analysis: the satisfaction level to the situation of dropouts was largely on positive side with more no.
Analysis: from the above chart and table it is clear that majority of the respondents were satisfied with the food being timely provided. Few of the respondents were not satisfied just because of the fact that food was prepared quite in advance to when it was to be served.17% Figure 4.47: pie chart (children come to school regularly) 124 .34% 30.31% Children come to school regularly FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 10. TABLE 4.17% 55.47: Children come to school regularly Children come to school regularly FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 14 23 16 5 64 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 1 3 1 0 5 SATISFIED 7 8 9 8 3 35 NEUTRAL 5 2 3 2 0 12 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 4.
Respondents were primarily having the opinion of motivating the children to go to school.e. A very few percentage of people i. 4.34% 10.72% Figure 4. Nearly 125 .90% NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 20.31% were not satisfied.48: The facility of food is encouraging children enrolment in school The facility of food is encouraging children enrolment in school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 6 10 14 5 2 37 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 2 1 5 4 0 12 SATISFIED 4 5 8 12 2 31 NEUTRAL 5 6 8 3 2 24 UNSATISFIED 1 3 3 3 2 12 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 The facility of food is encouraging children enrollment in school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED 10. Many of the them were also having the opinion that it is helping in eradicating the habit of leaving the school to earn breads for themselves.48: pie chart (the facility of food is encouraging children enrolment in school) Analysis: nearly 60% of the total surveyed people had the belief that the facility for the food in the schools is attracting students.34% 31. TABLE 4.69% 26.Analysis: nearly 85% of the respondents were satisfied in the context of children going to school daily.
20% of the people were not satisfied because they felt the food was not the primary reason for a child to go to school. A significant proportion of 126 .49: pie chart (adequate quantity of food is given to student) Analysis: from the pie-chart.93% 5.49: Adequate quantity of food is given to student Adequate quantity of food is given to student FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 4 4 3 1 13 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 1 2 1 1 6 SATISFIED 8 8 13 13 2 44 NEUTRAL 4 4 6 5 1 20 UNSATISFIED 4 8 13 5 3 33 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Adequate quantity of food is given to student FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 11.24% Figure 4.17% 17. it is clear that nearly 50 % of the respondents were satisfied with the quantity of food being provided in the school. TABLE 4.21% 28.45% 37.
e.07% Figure 4.97% 15. Nearly 33% were unsatisfied because they felt that the same amount of food cannot be sufficient for two different student. Nearly 29 % were unsatisfied. hygiene and limited quantity were major factors for the un satisfaction. TABLE 4.respondents i.48% 18.50: pie chart (children like food provided in the school) Analysis: of the total respondents nearly 52 % were satisfied that the food is liked by the children. Taste. 127 . A larger portion of respondents i.e.97% 37.52% PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED 9.50: Children like food provided in the school Children like food provided in the school FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 4 6 6 1 18 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 2 4 4 0 11 SATISFIED 10 11 11 8 3 43 NEUTRAL 4 3 7 5 3 22 UNSATISFIED 2 5 10 4 1 22 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Children like food provided in the school FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL 18.
62% 71.51: pie chart (women are provided with quality education in village) Analysis: from the pie-chart.2.55% Figure 4. it is clear that more than 71% of the respondents are unaware the importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab that shows all the respondents 128 .03% 8. Mahila Samakhya Yojana TABLE 4.76% Women are provided with quality education in village FULLY AWARE MOSTLY AWARE NEUTRAL PARTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE Pies show counts 184.108.40.206: Women are provided with quality education in village Women are provided with quality education in village FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 0 3 1 0 4 MOSTLY AWARE 1 1 2 2 0 6 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 4 1 4 2 11 NEUTRAL 3 1 3 0 0 7 UNAWARE 14 19 29 20 6 88 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 6.03% 7.
17% 6.52: pie chart (camps are organized for promotion of education ) Analysis: from the pie-chart. TABLE 4. it is clear that more than 75 percent respondents are unaware that camps are organised for promotion of education. This situation is because of lack of 129 .of different categories are not aware of this.45% 5.03% Camps are organized for promotion of education FULLY AWAR E MOSTLY AWARE NEU TR AL 9. It shows women are still not provided the quality education.48% PAR TIALLY AWAR E UNAWARE Pies s how counts 75.52: Camps are organized for promotion of education Camps are organized for promotion of education FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 2 3 1 0 6 MOSTLY AWARE 1 1 4 3 1 10 NEUTRAL 3 0 5 0 0 8 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 1 1 2 2 7 UNAWARE 13 21 25 21 5 85 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 3.86% Figure 4.
28% Figure 4. it is clear that more than 73% of the respondents are unaware about education for employment opportunities .the importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab that shows all the respondents of different categories are not aware of this.53: Knowledge about Employment opportunities given Knowledge about Employment opportunities given FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 1 2 2 0 5 MOSTLY AWARE 0 0 2 0 0 2 NEUTRAL 4 0 6 2 1 13 PARTIALLY AWARE 1 0 0 1 0 2 UNAWARE 13 24 28 22 7 94 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 5.17% 8.interest from officials side. TABLE 4.03% Pies show counts 73. Of people who believe that camps should be organised with prior information.62% Knowledge about Employment opportunities given FULLY A WARE MOSTLY AWARE 6.53: pie chart (knowledge about employment opportunities given) Analysis: from the pie-chart.90% NEUTRA L PA RTIALLY AWARE UNAWARE 6. All the sections are having a considerable no. among them 88% are post graduate 130 .
72 % 1 Employment training is given to women in villages FUL LY AW ARE MOS TL Y AWARE N EU TR AL P AR TIALL Y AW AR E U NAWARE P ie s s h ow co u nts 1 1.54: pie chart (under this program various vocational trainings are provided) 131 .72 % 8 1.2 1% 1 .3 1 %.0 3% Figure 4.54: Employment training is given to women in villages Employment training is given to women in villages FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 0 1 4 0 6 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 3 1 6 1 12 SATISFIED 1 3 6 1 0 11 NEUTRAL 3 4 7 7 2 23 UNSATISFIED 12 15 23 9 5 64 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 4 .TABLE 4.
6 2% Em ployment training g iven is su fficient to provide job FUL LY SATIS FIED SATISFIED N EU TR AL PAR TIALLY U NSATISFIED 1 2.Analysis: Large section i.5 5% 25. More than 81% respondents are unaware of the fact that employment training is given to women in villages. This condition may be because no such training is provided to women.e.55: pie chart (employment training given is sufficient to provide job) 132 .55: Employment training given is sufficient to provide job Employment training given is sufficient to provide job FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 1 1 3 4 1 10 SATISFIED 2 5 5 2 0 14 NEUTRAL 7 6 8 5 4 30 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 0 2 0 6 0 8 UNSATISFIED 8 11 22 10 3 54 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 8 . TABLE 4.0 7% 46. Efforts should be made to improve the situation.8 6% U NSATISFIED Pie s s h ow counts 6.90 % Figure 4.
Evening classes are held for girls/women. TABLE 4.56: Evening classes are held for girls/women.Analysis: from the pie-chart. it is clear that more than 46% of the respondents are unsatisfied and 26% are neutral.90% Evening classes are held in villages FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL UNSATISFIED Pies show counts 87.72% 6.93% 133 . The importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab that shows 44% of unsatisfied respondents are from uneducated & primary pass and 57% belong to intermediate pass. Since they are not provided with any such training they are not able to get profit out of that. FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 0 2 2 0 4 SATISFIED 0 0 0 0 2 2 NEUTRAL 4 1 2 0 1 8 UNSATISFIED 14 24 34 25 5 102 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 3.45% 1.
48% PA RTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSA TISFIED Pies show counts 30.24% 40. it is clear that more than 87% of the respondents are unsatisfied.17% FIGURE 4.57: Pie Chart (Education eradicates social evil) 134 . The importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab that shows 0% respondents are satisfied among uneducated.59% 17.Figure 4. The situation there in villages was that no such evening classes were organized TABLE 4.57: Education eradicates social evil Education eradicates social evil FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 5 9 17 14 2 47 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 0 0 1 1 3 SATISFIED 7 9 10 8 1 35 NEUTRAL 4 3 1 3 0 11 UNSATISFIED 1 4 10 1 4 20 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Education eradicates social evil FULLY SATISFIED SA TISFIED NEUTRA L 2.56: pie chart (evening classes are held for girls/women) Analysis: from the pie-chart.52% 9. primary & post graduate.
it is clear that more than 70 % of the respondents are fully or closely fully satisfied that yes education will help remove social evils prevailing in society.07% 25. it is clear that more than 25% of the respondents are fully satisfied and 38% are satisfied.86% NEUTRAL PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED UNSATISFIED Pies show counts 15.58: pie chart (work efficiency of women is increased) Analysis: from the pie-chart. People are now believing that education will help improve 135 .79% Figure 4.52% 38.58: Work efficiency of women is increased Work efficiency of women is increased FULLY SATISFIED Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 0 6 8 13 3 30 SATISFIED 11 7 13 10 4 45 NEUTRAL 3 5 7 3 0 18 PARTIALLY UNSATISFIED 1 3 4 1 0 9 UNSATISFIED 3 4 6 0 1 14 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Work efficiency of women is increased FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED 7.76% 12. as the people who are less educated have shown more tendencies to send their children to school TABLE 4. The importance of education can be derived from the cross-tab.Analysis: from the pie-chart.
4 1% FIGURE 4.work efficiency of women as they could develop better thinking power when provided with liberty of attending classes.8 3% 3 4.2 1% 2 2.59: Pie Chart (Mahila samakhya programme has made girls/women confident and independent) 136 . TABLE 4.59: Mahila samakhya programme has made girls/women confident and independent Mahila samakhya programme has made girls/women confident and independent FULLY AWARE Educational Level Uneducated primary education intermediate pass graduate post graduate Total 2 7 8 6 0 23 MOSTLY AWARE 3 1 3 6 1 14 PARTIALLY AWARE 0 1 7 3 2 13 NEUTRAL 8 5 7 5 1 26 UNAWARE 5 11 13 7 4 40 Total 18 25 38 27 8 116 Mahila samakhya programme has made girls/wom en confident and in dependent FUL LY SATISFIED SATISFIED N EU TR AL PAR TIALL Y U N SATIS FIED 1 9.0 7% U NS ATISFIED 1 1.4 8% Pie s s h ow co u nts 1 2.
Many have responded that it is not only mahila samakhya programme that has made women confident but because of other reasons too 137 . it is clear that more than 34% of the respondents are unsatisfied and only 19% are fully satisfied.Analysis: from the pie-chart.
CONCLUSIO N & RECOMMENDATI ON 138 .5.
Interaction with important people of the area. enabling them to make informed choices. Life skill trainings to enable skills and capacities for copping with difficult situation in life. and on providing eight years of schooling for all children in 6-14 age group. • • Learning through computers especially at upper primary level. • • Educational Tours/Exposure Visits to enhance their information base.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS 5. participate in decision making processes and access resources that will assure them quality of life.1 Recommendation for different schemes Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan • • • • • To allow States to formulate context specific guidelines within the overall framework To encourage districts in States and UTs to reflect local specificity To promote local need based planning based on broad National Policy norms To make planning a realistic exercise by adopting broad national norms. as far as possible. 139 . self esteem and self confidence. The emphasis is on mainstreaming out-of-school children through diverse strategies.
decision making and evaluation processes. who were drop outs or had never enrolled. rather than directive roles. experience and skills. Planning. help women to experience and affirm their strengths. A participatory selection process is followed to ensure that project functionaries at all levels are committed to working among poor women and are free from caste/community prejudices. • • • • Women and women’s groups at the village level set the pace. completion and transition to next level of education. Every component and activity within the project must create an environment for learning. • Management structures must be decentralised. Monitoring and tracking of girl’s attendance and supportive strategies to facilitate regular attendance of girls and their retention in schools to enhance learning achievement. with participative decisionmaking and devolution of powers and responsibilities to District. 140 . • • • Follow-up strategies for providing ongoing support to girls mainstreamed to schools from bridge courses and other alternative schooling facilities. All project structures and personnel play facilitative and supportive. create time and space for reflection and respect individual uniqueness and variation. form and content of all project activities. priorities.• Designing of accelerated learning for older girls and development of relevant curricula for residential and non-residential bridge courses for older girls. Mahila Samakhya Programme • • All processes and activities within the programme must be based on respect for women’s existing knowledge. as well as all levels of personnel must remain accountable to the collective at the village level. Engagement of older women as escorts for school going girls where schools are at a distance or passage is hazardous. Block and village levels.
The menu should offer variety to sustain the interest of children and to enhance the nutritional value of the meal. 141 . including a kitchen and separate storage space. Each school should have at least a cook and a helper. maintenance of accounts. water. Drinking water: Each school should have a reliable supply of clean drinking water within the premises. and other essential skills. Logistics management: Reliable arrangements for timely delivery of grain and other supplies should be in place everywhere. Kitchen and storage: Each school should have adequate infrastructure for mid-day meals. cooked meals should be provided throughout the year. All cooks should undergo training on nutrition. • Micronutrient supplementation: All mid-day meal programmes should include a "micronutrient supplementation" component (as well as mass deworming if needed). • Adequate manpower: Every school should have trained staff to provide mid-day meals with no interference to the normal school routine. hygiene. and plates. to address common micronutrient deficiencies among children. • • • • Adequate utensils: Each school should have the necessary utensils including vessels for cooking.Mid Day Meal Scheme • Nutritious hot cooked meal: Nutritious.
There should be no discrimination in the mid-day meal process based on the social background of children or cooking staff. • Social equity: All cooking staff should be women and preference should be given to dalits. and prompt action in the event of lapses such as food poisoning.• Supervision and monitoring: Effective arrangements should be made for close supervision and monitoring of mid-day meal programmes. in difficult areas (migratory populations. social discrimination. However. scattered habitations that do not qualify for primary/ upper primary schools) younger girls can also be targeted 142 . disruption in food supply. Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Setting up of residential schools where there are a minimum of 50 girls predominantly from the SC. The number can be more than 50 depending on the number of eligible girls. etc. Three possible models for such school have been identified . • • • To provide necessary infrastructure for these schools To prepare and procure necessary teaching learning material and aids for the schools To put in place appropriate systems to provide necessary academic support and for evaluation and monitoring • To motivate and prepare the girls and their families to send them to residential school • At the primary level the emphasis will be on the slightly older girls who are out of school and were unable to complete primary schools (10+). • School health programme: The mid-day meal programme should be linked with an active school health programme. ST and minority communities available to study in the school at the elementary level.
ST. wherever possible. It has to ensured that all the children under 14 years are coming to school. emphasis will be on girls. Medical Colleges and Engineering Colleges in the districts having high concentration of minority population. Saakshar Bharat • • • • • There should always a check must be kept on school functioning.2. Regular exams are being kept in school it should also be checked. 25% girls from families below poverty line.• At the upper primary level. School should be furnished with proper furniture.Recommendation for Government • Distance education for religious minorities using modern communications technology needs particular Attention • The Government should take special steps to promote medical and engineering education among the religious minorities by setting up Industrial Training Institutes. 5. Separate guidelines are being issued in the matter. These residential schools can also be adopted by the corporate groups. especially. adolescent girls who are unable to go to regular schools • In view of the targeted nature of the scheme. OBC or minority communities would be accorded priority for enrolment in such residential schools and only thereafter. • Established NGOs and other non-profit making bodies will be involved in the running of the schools. 143 . Proper amenities should be provided to students at time. 75% girls from SC.
flexible. monitoring the performance and documentation of best practices. These participatory procedures “empower” the recipients rather than treating them as mere “clients.Recommendation for Society or Community In order to successfully implement these education schemes. provision of technical support.• Particular measures should be taken to promote modern school education for Muslim girls.Recommendations for NGOs NGOs are required to be more innovative.4. • Till such time the Constitutional right to free and compulsory education for the children up to 14 years of age becomes enforceable. The Minority status to such schools should be granted and necessary Government assistance provided.3. Also the following measures can be adopted. Also.” More focus required on their capacity building. 5. NGOs are believed to be especially good at reaching and mobilizing the poor in remote rural communities and at adopting participatory processes in project implementation. liaison. 5. and cost effective than government organizations. The people should:144 . networking and coordination with State and District health services. • Educational programmes for the development of SCs and STs should be extended to the religious minorities as well. the educational authorities of the Union and the State Governments should not create hurdles in setting up of schools by the minority communities at their initiatives and in such management of such schools. not only the Government & its allies are responsible but also the society is largely responsible for the same.
Some difficulty was faced while data gathering in asking the questions in local language but in the end it did not mattered much due to good support of the people in villages 145 . • Girl child education should also be supported and they should know carious schemes running by government for girls education.• Be more conscious towards sending their children to school. It was a bit interesting. • The Gram Panchayat should also take necessary steps to inform people about the necessary schemes. • People who are aware about the scheme should tell the people in his/her surrounding about the education scheme. Concluding Remarks: There is positive improvement in the education level and system in the past decade due to continuous government and people’s effort. • Parents should send the children daily to the school and keep motivating their child to study. They should know at least the importance of education. enlightening and good experience overall. We went through a lot of iterations while preparing questionnaire first in English and then in Hindi.
html (Accessed between July to November’10) http://www.nic.in/citizen/higher_education.pdf • ELEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN. Paris.asp Higher Education in India -Vision and Action. UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century.nic.in (Accessed between July to November’10) • http://www.php (Accessed between July to November’10) http://www.in/girls-education/kasturba-gandhi-balika-vidyalaya (Accessed between July to November’10) http://www.nic. 5-9 October 1998 . October 1998 • • • • • • • • • • SaaksharBharat.nlm.nic.REFERENCES: • Education/in/India/Wikipedia/the/free/encyclopedia.nic. III.educationforallinIndia.nic.Indian National Commission for Cooperation with UNESCO.nlm.asp (Accessed between July to November’10) http://India.com/mid-day-meal. VOL. Country Paper.htm (Accessed between July to November’10) • India.education. PLANNING COMMISION OF INDIA 146 .gov.middaymeal.in/ms/ms.in (Accessed between July to November’10) www.in/Sche.in/women.in/ (Accessed between July to November’10) www.education.com/ (Accessed between July to November’10) http://ssa.htm (Accessed between July to November’10) http://ssa.gov.
com and www. PL and Poonga. FEBRUARY 2001 • • Research Paper No. Rakhi (1997). TITLED ‘The progress of school education in India’(GPRG-WPS-071). • IAMR Report No. AN EVALUATION OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SCHEME OF UGC. Sonia Bhalotra and Bernarda Zamora.• Research papers on www. New Delhi 147 . GOI. Primary Education in India.com(Accessed between July to November’10) JANSHALA.ssrn. Free and Compulsory Education. PLANNING COMMISSION GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. 2006/80. Mehta. JULY 2006. • A STUDY CONDUCTED BY GPRG (GLOBAL POVERTY RESEARCH GROUP).8/2000. MARCH 2007.emeraldinsight. GEETA GANDHI KINGDON. DEPARTMENT OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION AND • LITERACY. Deep and Deep Publications. MINISTRY OF HRD.
Education level Age Group Above 50( ) I-V ( ) VI-VIII ( ) IX-XII ( ) 26-40 ( ) ) 41-50( ) Below 18( ) 19-25( 3.QUESTIONNAIRE A study of programmes of government for rural development: a study of education schemes 1. Social Group Religion General ( ) OBC( Hindu( ) Muslim( ) Other( ) ) Have these program been implemented in the village? S. 2.No. 2. 4. 8. 4. 3. Gender Income Male( ) Female( ) ) 10000-15000( ) Below 5000 ( Above 15000( ) 5000-10000( ) ) SC/ST ( ) Other( 5. 7. 5. 1. 9. 6. Schemes Saakshar Bharat Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools Mahila Samakhya Programme National Bal Bhavan Scheme for Providing Quality Education for Madarsas Scheme of Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutions (IDMI) Jan Shikshan Sansthans 148 Yes No . 6.
7. 6.10. 12. 2. 1.no. 8. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan SECTION-A Scale the following statements on the basis of awareness (1-Strongly Agree 2-Agree 3-Neutral 4-Disagree 5-Strongly Disagree) Sl. All your children go to school Government provide free education to childrens(6-14 yrs) The school provide free books and other stationary The school provide proper infrastructure The teacher give knowledge about computers Scholarship is recieved on time The teachers conduct exams regularly The scholarships provided by the 149 . 4. 11. Statements Saakshar Bharat All the basic facilities are provided in school The number of teachers in school are enough to meet the requirements The teacher comes daily to school Vocational trainings are provided in your village 1 2 3 4 5 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 5. 9. 10. 3.
15. 22.for food is provided in school The nutritional content of the food provided is adequate Food is provided on time Mahila Samakhya Programme Information about the employment opportunities are made available Vocational training are provided under this scheme SECTION-B Scale the following statements on the basis of satisfaction (1-Strongly Agree 2-Agree 3-Neutral 4-Disagree 5-Strongly Disagree) 150 . 24. government is known to the people The schools provide admission to disabled Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme People like to send their daughter to hostel Sending girl child to school makes you proud Girls are provided with free hostels Facilities provided in hostels are adequate Girls feel safe at school National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools Food is provided free in schools All items as indicated by govt. 20. 14. 17.13. 21. 16. 18. 23. 19.
4 Sufficient numbers of teacher are available . of enrollments . 151 . Statements Saakshar Bharat 1 2 3 4 5 1 Execution steps are proper for schemes in . village 2 People are encouraged . village to tell about the schemes your 1 Programs conducted by schools are motivating 0 for parents to send their childrens to school . 8 Childrens are allowed to sit together in . No. in the school 5 Teachers arrive on time in school . children to school to send their 3 Schools are seeing more no. class 9 Government representative visit .Sl. 7 Basic facilities are available in school . 6 Teachers take attendance daily in School .
1 Classrooms are big enough to accommodate 7 all students . 1 Classes are held regularly 4 . 1 Infrastructure is available in the village for 6 Education . 1 No. 1 Classrooms are big enough to accommodate 8 all students . Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 1 All childrens in a family should be sent to 3 school . 1 Audio/visual aid are mre helpful to students 2 . 1 Children take intrest in books and study 5 material provided . of classrooms are sufficient to 152 .1 All the childrens in the family are allowed to 1 go to school .
2 Proper sanitation and 1 maintained in schools . 2 Students take exams seriously 3 .accommodate all students 2 Proper facilities are provided to a disabled 0 child in school . Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme 2 Girls are promoted / motivated to come to 5 school . 2 Government measures to eradicate ilitteracy 4 are effective . 2 Proper hostel facilities are provided to girls 6 . 2 Girls are allowed to stay in the hostels 7 . cleaniness is 2 Teachers encourage students to study 2 . 153 .
2 Scholarships sufficices the financial needs of a 8 student to continue studies . 2 Scholarships are disbursed to students at the 9 earliest . 3 Food provided are hygienic 1 . 3 Children like the food provided in the 3 school . National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools 3 Children’s get healthy and nutritious food 0 regularly . 3 Sufficient food is provided to every student 2 . 3 Mahila samkhya programm had made women 5 independent . 154 . Mahila Samakhya Programme 3 Mahila samkhya programm has made women 4 more confident .
10. 3.3 Vocational training had helped gaining 6 jobs/work . 1. 5. 2. 9. 3 Evening classes help women and working 7 mens . How much you are satisfied by following program? Sl. Schemes Saakshar Bharat Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme National Programme of Mid-Day Meal in Schools Mahila Samakhya Programme National Bal Bhavan Scheme for Providing Quality Education for Madarsas Scheme of Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutions (IDMI) Jan Shikshan Sansthans Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan 1 2 3 4 5 155 . 6.No. 3 Education helps in abolishing child marriages 8 . 4. 8. 7.
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