You are on page 1of 207

a)uerJs roJ qsI|3ug

u nayna MunucmepcmBomoo6pa3oBauuemo 3a mosuy,re6uuk J rouuqume kamanp€nopt.roa na wyqa8aue aHa_ cbc om auMnaSuume aacul€Eo u MameMamu\eckunpupqro-Maauicku eguk,c npo+u . meMamuqecku ycycnerusomo ule Vqe6uukom nognoMozn€ na B Ha BorBaHe mgpMuuo,{o?urmao6,racmma Hayku, Dpupogo-MameMamu\eckume

z€920 ^asrrf MeN ?sJJll)pooMelSua ,stuaSeullEH Dltuerd
=

"u^',H#J'llo"ro

ubuudutuZ ld bbU tal paplts,\ll

NVI/{UAWWIZ NVUC

aDrreps roJ qslltuf

rsBN 0-13-PAel?t-L EnSlishfo! Sclence bv FrdE:ZlnmerD. rsBN9s4520-008-1 Prcnde-Hall hremalional (UK) Llmned.A.2 4'0245 Bclsv(ccfer and supcrvision lnL$iordcsiSn: Edi$rlavprodudion Dcstgn Baldino coverdcstgn: Manufacluring buyer:t ura Crossland Tii*'ililli.80t. [*l]St{\ F.in any formor bYanYDe.-Hall of hdia Privale Limiled. Inc. stug4pore Editora Prenri(e-Hall do Brasil.tdon is authorlzed saleonly in Bul8.$. Prenli. EnJewood citts.i! This edition is publishedjn Bulgrda by Tb€ OFn Society FuDd' Sona.. rdtdo. New JelseY.. =E 0?63! Cllffs.s3256 r93e 423.siDrrbb-rion D'b 302..y b( allrigh$ rc*rved.:5 |fi-.0 ! /o t Do utrrry of coqts cltdod.' RioAe Jdteirc .J) 469nr Pi1121.r.. Lrda.nnlsslonIn wrlting fromrh. wlrhoutp. Ne Del'i Prtnlic-Hall of Japan.w Jersey Engl€wood otthit bookm.il.0U{€.U s A" Copydsht (c) 1989by Pr€ndceHall. Tolro simon 6 schusGr Asia Ple.n Inc. Pende:rlall Hispanoam€ricam s. by dddnal An€ricrDEditionPublish€d Pr€nticr-Hall. No parL reproduad.N.'"' 3E I i?il. ilYffiy-4 yantrn. Publhhcr. 1992.:l*Kyt!fll4 $ "JLl for Ihis.e-Hallof Australia PlV Limired lrdtE Prenrlce:HallCaqadiiil6c. Ltd. Mett@ prentic. rn. torb.

[o '.^llDJuuJ Nut4tol zut t|b|pt 04^r )14to t .fut fuou)utut putj .1141rJ ra! ttu .

s6uo .b .r u!6!O aW r9Nrrlrodau lo saso.fLt LSt Jaqtoal$a4I:9NII)I(IAUd as.toltow|DNIZISSHIOd^H putlospuv 'ttt6!7 '.? rcNIJNaI uuadxa II I .putj spltrb!1:rNIJV.y1ggq ZS [t!/to.In).taapgql6g gNI 96 loqotlv p.DaJJ!IqNv eSnV) II OI 6 8 L 9 t t I s z I stuawale aqJ.lV) urslpuqowpao &p!ttral.raug :gp1.t9put l.6x1qowg It 't?H rCNIACIldUlaXg Za L9 sf f6'.tolo.sgC zl rrr 9Zt al!.a4J :DNIIJISSVI) E qOHJEW )ISIINIII)S EHI OJ NOII'NqOUINI slueluo) Jelrg . :J.:tNtuvdl IoD 6t nUvW lo uotqsoduo.ta^tuna4J:DNIsIuf.

u!r'.1ABsD.apun urolv lpu.rlsrlluljut rqf :Sulpseu €I sprpl ulew Aulpuld ?l )nt oz u! ttp!|Iqb|ot ZI 8ulpllng . HSI'IDNS DNIsn ktbNaql SulpPeu uoqs f NOII)NOOUJNI f ( ).]'N 1|0A butsn 0t 9I SulIPt-rioN sl Miral . gurollld DuJlu)s ! t .{rrssvr) oJ.ut)ldua 6 e rrl'/".s s0rl11 ]tpads put' tullDD t.lJurpl l..t/1.lvw lo uoltlsodt of ..tuElnqPro^ zI slllts DNICVSU t I n!.11r[sut 0t OI nloA r^tssrtd nto\ a^tDvliut6ub4) 0I 0)lo^ o^lssedaqt l.tJ :9N!^JISSV'I) IIHI OI NOIJ)NCOUINI I OOHJEW DI{IINAI'S xtx !I)vJaud slualuo) .t t. lsn 41 t 8 ua\)N.t ^)tlltqDraA (I S11I)S 9NINSISI.] tI ar ltu|pbt\ ryt outpuots.u ^JSsDtJ s.|1lr 6!!.\t|ttlo t r )d.

x Contenls DISCUSSIONPOINTS I7 WRITING SKILLS 17 Topic Sentences 17 wrhitV a Patallnphaf C|ltsifi.ltitv Convaita. INTRODUCTION 35 Short Reading TheNatureof Color 36 USINGENGLISHTO SHOW CAUSEAND EFFECT ]7 Pallerns l8 Senlen(e IdentifringCaute EJIe.llJ Ptndlhr.atrdsound J5 o*o u FFEc'r.?s 24 Like aod As 25 UsiilgLlke afld Ar 2.l )8 dt1. READINC SKILLS 26 Vocabulary liuilding 26 vacdbulary Co text 26 itl skimming27 Cases28 Readingr Llfe-Supporting The Uhdentandifl! Rcdditllt1a tl1! ' LISTENING SKILLS 30 vacdbuldry Conkxl ll) in Note-Taking 3l Uhdenladinqtlt Lceturu J2 POINTS 32 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 33 Comparing 33 Transilion words l4 Writing a Paragraphof Comparison 34 I I l l I 3 "our" color.Iltt t') i _- I .Light.lt 24 CradtintS'ftch.l Unlc\n\tltli.ation ii] COMPARING: The Elements 19 TNTRODUCTION I9 Shorl Reading The wonderMetals 20 USINC ENGLISH TO COMPARE 2I SenrcncePatterns 22 22 utiq d Tdbk 2) Uttlcttkltlihgcrhlparkahs cru.

.r..trltupl ?s lzIsaHIodAH oI Hsr"I9Na cNlsn su'IoN rrros Surppeu tnoqv uoqs es u0!t0w Zg NOII)NdOUINI zs ttltDt.fueFqpJo^ zs s']. t uulq 1ufit'w lq8l'I uo SulDrUtU :Sulpeeu t"]rjrilrt"t . puv uogowtcNIzIslIHJodIH 7 e IS lJ.JJgpus asne)JOqdPl8Plpd Eullui4 0g oope4ueSro surrued Jo O< SI]I)S DNIIIUA.-.1d etbpow 9s nltqb4o1dsultltllrPl to 95 ^rlllqEqord D ss 4d 6 td u u! ctt.30u ut tt tx..u I' Surptlng &EInqP)oA S1'II)S 5NICVAU W At t.. qdpttttllt'd t' ut Dtlls puu )srD 6utztL!6a14r rcttoutptoqns.'-r.1tipqt)o^ -0.. tntuA u! trt'lttq'roA I.l4lodtH 6u!.tltutpl ss tfiutluts ut s'$|tod[H qu!.lm] 0.)uo) ^'.0^u . ualtpttptDqnsiulztutaiA 6€ uollPulproqns lx sluaruo:) .'.Il)Is cNlcvgu ts 6ulrn []!t!4t40.utPutttuapun 8t 8u!{PI-rloN L.' S11I)S 9NIN:IISI'I 9.T 6t slNrodNolssnJstc ayt 8' '1kDa1 . nptl a4 6 lptltsaPtn t9 €9 SulIsI-5toN z9 &tro) ut^rbtrqDra Z9 S'I1I)S DNINAISI'I qulpuDtsrtprn 19 tulpu\ a41 09 uopow suleldxa uol/rrN :Sulperu 09 sEapl ulsw Sutpulc 85 lxaual u! ltbtlq)u1t es -suel] :4!ald ZS Surplrn8 .

xii

contents
POINTS 65 DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS 65 Writing Conclusions 65 Writing a Paragraphwith a Conclusion 65

5

o""rr.,r*n,Enetw 67
INTRODUCTION 67 shon Reading TheMan! Forns oJEneryy 68' USING ENCLISH TO DEFINE 69 SentencePatterns 70 Ahalyzin!DeJinhionr71 CorrctthqDetrhitio,r.i71 Relative Clauses 72 Fotltulatinll Dqitliti'tlt 72 lJtikg Reldtivc Clautas 72 Delinitiotls 7) Creating . READING SKILLS 7] Vocabulary Bullding 73 rnicro',rDacft)' z cDdo', Adirsj ectdexo_, in Vocabultlr! Contcxt 75 Scannlng 75 ReadinS:E = mcr 76 tl1! Und?ntdl1.lit\1 Rcd.litv 78 LISTENINGSKILLS 7E vo1buldryfu contaxt 78 Nore-Taking 79 Uldc$tandilv tllt Ltcntre 79

DlscussloNPoINTS 80
WRITINGSKILLS 8I Definitions El Extended Definitlon 8l Writing ad E,(tended EXEMPLIFYING: Ha4, 82 INTRODUCTION 82 E3 of Short Reading TheEfreets Tatuperuture
IJSING ENGLISH TO EXEMPLIFY 8] SentencePattems 85 Ra ltniznlll Erdntllls it6 Anallziq ExetnplitrMtia Ss

60I

SINtOd NOISSnISTq

6At ) nrrtl t4t litlPtuu.|putl 80I SurIPI_ctoN
80I g1t )xt o) Ll iir,l,tqtuoA SI.II)S SNTNEISI"I

nttpDla r4j n tpt\rl)ptlo tlt 9Ol s8nrC Jo re8uec rql :SulpEcU 901 SutrururlS ,01 txt)ua1ut ilpllltlrroA aol r! 'uot- r.,{/l,S €oI Surplrng fuPlnqPro^

€01 stll)s
tAt

SNIdYau

?0t tu ']\LDl! iullo lilnosLnArAtl:ttput ptv r^t1 1p1 t;ur.tJrturpl

l0I

Suluoseau.^lt)npul a^ltrnpcd pup

ajt Dnpt^g 6 llJhlr1A:l 66 )ltDlt^it uto!.|s o\tll ot 6ut^t.t4 66 )nnpt/lJ qt|lltltlurpl 86 A3NqOIA!I AAID Ol, HSI'IDNA 9NISN

L6 it,t!!t, a\J ,Ioutss, aqJ tqjA 8ulp€ru uoqs 96 NOIIf,NOOUjNI

:a)Ne(II 96 lotloxtvpub 's6h,to.aulrtows

g 9NIAI9 4

<6 saldurpxg qll^,\ qdelSplsd e BullllM (6 3u!iJlldurrxg g6 S'ITIYSCNIJI)TM '6 t6
l6

Sl,NIOdNOISSnISIC nD, r4t l;urpuDtrpun t6 SutIeI"rloN
tntlta) ut ^ittt,qora^

€6 S'I1I)S DNINAISI'I

06 intuo) u! ^.tDl11t1r)t^6t rorrer ',{J'-'rr)- rr,r.vy'r'S 88 3ntpllng,(Iplnqp)o^

06 prrr{suPrl sl lerH ^{oH:3u!peru 06 SuruuPrs

a6 ltoBnPuo) but^tlo

88 S'rrr)s tNIovEu
s9 ,\1a|'Jl)NtttL! eno],1)s lulqntual I |se.,N .[o st|paN EMn

tf !Ix slurluo:)

irlssaJrN Jo slPpow

xiv

Contents WRITTNCSKILLS IIO Giving Evidence ll0 Wriling with Evidence llo

8

a*""*,t"*t

NGtBlecti.ityandMagnertsm ttl

INTRODUCTION III Short Reading LightnitlgSttikes ll2 USINC ENGLISHTO GTVEDIRECTIONS I12 Giving Directions to Perform a Process I 13 Imperadve Verbs I l3 Reeotniziry lhperdlire Vefus 1lt Artunliq ltehaChrckololjrdll!, 1t4 Usih!bfipentiveverbs 115 Verb forms: Infinitives and Gerunds I 16 Chaosing Farnt 117 verb READING SKILLS I18 vocabularyBuilding 118 Warcl Roott: blo-, aeto-,rhermo., hydro- ll9 Voeabulary Conkxt 120 in Scanning 120 R€ading: The Magic of a Magnet 120 UnderttandinS Readhq 122 the LISTENINGSKILLS I23 Voeabulat! Coktert 12) in Note-Taking 123 U degandiry.the Lecturc12) DISCUSSIONPOINTS I24 WRITING SKILLS 12' Directions 125 Wrltlng Directions 125

CALCULATING|

l,&ui^

aftd Gqtes

126

INTRODUCTION I26 Shoff Reading Prcss re: At Molecules Collide 127 I ' .:. USING ENGUSH To CALCULATE I28 Tems 129 Mathematical .U derstanding Indefinite Anicles 129 Usin!IndeJinite Anieles t)a .

tst )x4ua ul tublkqryoA €gI s'r )Is 9NINAISn uto( zsl uolutdo pp! 6ut4stn6ursto lsl uorrnlo^3:3u!pPrx 05I SuluruFIS
6tl 611 lx2)uoJ ul MblhqmaA -ottlll fPu^p LouoII]. -o)ottd :raoY prolrl

tuplnqero^ Itt Surptrng 8?I S',rn)S SNIOVSU
8

6utan! uod)Utbqf srru4u2s atuu $ta parro, ut1 gufoo\) lrt ztt srsual, Sulsooq:l t4t 9rI zsualFalad tuasard 6ugn esuel D trd lursrrd 5ql 9tI srl tsutJ lsbd4dtatsa416ulsn srl ettu2Jttpd 6u!$tluapl SurJlled Dueluas ItI IUOdaU OI HSI]SNa DNISn €tI

a[!7 z9l ur6aa ^oH Sutp€au uoqs
T'I NOIIf,NCOf,JNI

u!6.uo rDNrruodsu al1J ftr atlTlo

0I

rrol^i SultlrM 6,€I SuOFrrr!q 8€I rurodlolPrsd 8€I S11T)IS CNIIIUr!{

8€t srNrod Nolssnf,src
atnDtl tqt 6u!pu1)1s/apun I 9€I SulIPJ-aloN u! 9tI txatuoJ l.ltlfiqztot 9€I S-NI)IS DNIN:IISN (l s(l tuqs puo) 6u11t1 'tl zlpolJ sl)rlqo srl?tl rsqM rSulppru t€I SuruuPrs . { { l $\ual ut tltqqnaA z(r trxtprd .D.ttu N Surptrnatuplnqp)o^ Itt I5I SttI)S SNI(IVAU rq et4)1v )]!ulpo tiuttn 0€I srpluv elluuac

^x

slurluo:)

ttlxt 16.165 Vocdbtiary co.pyR)'. in Skimming 166 Readlngi The Moon: A Nice Placeto visil? Maki g InJircncer 168 LISTENINCSKILLS 169 VocabularyConlcxt 16.l OthetStars 157 USING ENCLISHTO DESCRIBE I58 SenEnce Patterns 160 A'ith tJsinlPre. I N T R O D U C T I O NI 7 J Short Reading TheWo .lTu s 173 . PoINTs 155 DrscusdroN WRITING SKILLS T55 Reporting 155 Writing a Report 156 II lI The DESCRIBINGi universe lrj INTRODUCTION I57 Shorl Readtng TheSuk an.lcrra-.xvi Contents Note-Taking 154 Uad.asl(). in Nore-Taking 169 tht Unda$landi\ry Ltdur\' l70 POINTS I7I DISCUSSION WRITING SKILLS I7I Describing l?l Wdting a Description 172 167 It llr PREDTCTINGi The Weather 17.tstanding llc Lctltt? 15. 162 fonttitll cotul\'u]ttl Atlieetives Usinf !64 Wtititq Snao l Sentcnce:' READING SKILLS 164 VocabularyBuilding 164 Wory' Rro6:aqua'.ise D$criqtio$ 160 Dcsttibilry ALli&tit'ts161 with -edand 'iry 16l Adjectives Nouur 16J whh'c(l dnd'it\!.

t).'.E 98I uorlr!p)rd 3ut1!rM 98I Sunrtprrd 98I S1'II)S DNIIIUA{ s8t sJNrod Nolssnf.".-rtoN a8t txi)uo) ul^.!prp) Lorij '-l)rrp'-rN r'].tnl'r.tl Zgt LtatutLto Liti!luuls jtiut^tq I8I IONrO reqlerM :Sulperu J8l SuluuDs a9t N)tua) ut ^..l iut[lrurpl lnr)ttn. .J Ut Suransd ruJlurs 9lI T)ICICUd UI HSII'NA 'NISN ..1t'tltqtro^ .nDr1)tlt hr Pu|lsrpun MJI^eu :slulH SullEJ.tullqDlo €8I S11I)ISCNINIIJSI'I .sro t8l 98t r.r(uprra ^*T.I\-H lituttn|t_t.':T-1"1. Hli:Ht glt tlto|lpud tuuDt) Rtl t1tutlls tiunrtLluto) ut eto rltDu )tq6sodu buttDttllua! ]]tlJrr4DU UI etotapar.LI rr^x slustuo:) .l/ ut.

{Jlun JqI INAINO) )IJV TSHJ ..{lje|Ll.rs looq rqr pue rrl{s4r.:qt qlr^\ renrtupJ lpu rJlpJds r^rlpu-uou sqJ aslnoJsrp aq JurluJr)sur .rJlEidsc^Ileu roJ srssplJlprpalucttoJ rJqp .s '^pnls Jo isrnoJ )lutrpEre lue roJ uollprpdcd lleudordde ris tqSnet slll{s aql 'rJucrJs rro srsnJoJ >Jooq qSnoqllv oSrlo ues ul .uPlnq?ro^ pup Suol)nlsuor JlDeluls .I oqt lo tsorrr uPrr.lnl0sul a8en8uB.AuujM )lseqLuo{ dpi)lcllt.{lIrn(u fuepuo)asL osrljoJ lxct e8en8upltlstl?ug.lBIptuugNl loJ ptuSlsJpsr lxct JqJ .Burjpdruo) '8ul{Jrsselr 'rldrupxa roJ) .r 'ilqtssodsErpJsV rrnDel e puESulpear re8uol e ur r:rlunJ padolr^rp pup rBessEd Sutpprruoqs p I pcrnporrulst uollrrrnl Iouoleqr qJpA.rorre srrldpqr rqJ tutnbutpue Sullutrll IprrrprJo slcteruoJ dolr^rp ol srulp 'poqleurrullrrrDs cql sr rrr. 3 Jo rurrql 8ur.suructsrl 'iiujppc.{IuanbJrJ pJsn.lguruurp pup .Jej azuatrs 4sn6ug "!!Io) 'Ifi)LIJS )a! eJeJeJd .slllls aSDnBu )lsBq el r noJrqls !rBrtLrlU.Id Lrollplnpallnpp Jo .saslno)o)ualJsrlsBq rrl iledJ)lued ot stlrtpnts rrpdtrd ot srllot3o.)rrP^pD pue .riuv aql ls sruopnlsJo spcaurql Jo.cppsl lEucteu rqlJo lsoLu.i8cllo).JBenBuel puolrs eserFIrfluAJo slutpnls p.suolDunJ Iprlrotaql aql SrrpursrtdroJ sJlrrqc^ sp J^ras ot unlnrlJrn) eJuaps IelJuaSrql trlo4 pet)rlas rleM srrdoJ 'uourunJ lErlorrqr aql ol slpler laqr sp paJnporlur.lle.M se s.srslDcds r^tlpu-uou loJ prpuctul qSnoqllc.jp sllr{s Surtrri pup SurpE.{pn1s Jgllreps Lrtprsn suonrunJIprlrotJt{l rL! punore przrup8..tplllrrpJ ot-SulIpcds puD.{pnrse ruorJpo^lo^r Drlord lql puitEur DLTJIIS tsn li^Cl-AtsrlloJ pu9 pui)qajdllloJol s1u)pnls crgdlld ol puDqsrlSug )!unp -urPol qsllSug .r.

forstudy are scien. dyna ). Discussion PoinN.In most chapicrsthc cxplanalionis folbwed by a cha11 palternsthal show how the function may be cxprcsscd. meantto list all possiblc and in somcchaptcNlbc chart is omitled because fie topics do not lcnd thcmsclvcs10 any parricularsynlaclicstructure.. Itltroduction Each chapter beginsby intrcducing rhe rhetoricalfunclion.e-related termsthat would bc known to a nativewords sclecred spcakjng. science concepts Thc locus of the book.Accordingly. however. Each chapter has six mair scclions: Introduction.Thc obiectis 1()developa a! basicvocabularylhat wolrld be assumed the college'eniry1cvcl. and so on). .and thcrc is no altempl to cover any scientifictopic thoroughly. specialized rare words arc used in any of the rcadingsor lectures. Grammalicalslrllclureslhat occur frequenllyin science lexls arc also includcd in this seclkD whcn they scrve a communicativcpurposcrclatcd to lhc rhclorical lilnction.dehydrate . aDd preseDting ir a short readiDg. No prcviousscicncc knowledgeis neededby the teacheror student.word roots and affixesinlroduccdarc thosccomon monly occurringin scientificterminology (for examplc. Io progress frcm idcntifying the funclion to usir)git. Rcading Skills. This chafl is not scntcnce patterns.Thc Dcxl sequcnced cnablc studcnls 1() item in thc sectionis a group of praclicccxcraiscs. ir?e/lia). . (ctassify. ORGANIZATION OF THE TEXT Thcrc arc lwclvc chaplcrs in thc book.usitUcxamdcs of from the shor! reading. it Usi g English to.hjdro . This section begins wilh aDcxplanalionoflhc rhctoricalIunction. No or combstion. rhe sectionpreviewsthe vocabularyfrom thc long rcading. usingEnglish to. and writing Skills.thal are coveredbut not know how to cxprcssLhcm in English. is always on languagcfalher than scicucc.. rclating it o thc scientificmethod.firs!-yearcollegestudent (for examplefammable.dilute. transparent . Reading skitls lor This secdonlirsr prcscnrssraLcgics srudenlsto use in expandinglhcir vocabularics an ongoingbasis. Next. ListenilgSkills. conpare...

fuE p ucrl r^uq..rrxr ot srr^ snc pLrL' )LIt sJlnt)rl iqr rot \t(lrirs \urDtuor)iooq rql siru!druo]:)rtuqt lDuLrPrlJ s.'sJsrr.ql tul.1 ot ))n)ulir ot'silou. Lrcrsnl)uo) rtu.q pl )rlssrurpnls s:)rtrIqlssod lle rlertpUt prpurlrrtl(nrrrp srrftn .UOI)nUISNI 'rrloll) u^to rrrqt Jo srrclorPrlEIJrclolr^rp ol poMolle .. srrletds r^rleu-uoupuDr^oeu.r(l(llorotitrIqErrqtur.l olloJ 'rrtro LIPL0 rrolll rrnl))l )Lll reiq ot Prro AEru strrrPnts rrcs'qsrt8rr3 srrntrrl ur pl| lr.olstrrtslq 'lL)nsltsnlt(nr pue sr lpql lo.{ll(lnuoddo ipl^o.ro LrorsuJrlirdruo) .LIl isn ui]llrM Jqt plrJtxrot JTLTBLI) J^pq stlrJpnts'lllsnrc 'o s !45 6u!tt.nou e'^{Jr^rrd.1 pup rslsspd r? riiluol L' dolr^ip sllrrpnts sronleqr ^^iJ p ut letriteru uoddns puu tlrt(X{utBlu e t|]lM Llder8Pred ilurdoli^ip uo sl snroJrrlt li^rl rrlrrllrrs rLF pLro/irq u uort)urI JLI] lPJIrOlJqr. uorsurq duo).rrrsLr.belnql'ro^ srsldnrcr ()nrrs srql e sllDlsguluatslI 'nrorsnlruor puE'srtrurr{ur SurMerp 'rroru 'Sururre)s sp qrns'sflrIsBurpprr iJurlEnr o (Uorjr)etSorqsrniu{srp Jo InJrsn sl SurperrSuol e or pJro^:)p Lrollr)srqlJo lsJr rql rlr udolr^rp rlll puc 13cssed .{q'prUn )pr ..{LrPrLr .(pErrlpJsoqt .{pus trrlrrrpPrE trEcllllr.lur)) spruoqiilrlJds iql ul pisn)q iu!u tclltsuipliiuldoli^rp roJ sp ioi]ru ul )iro^{ uerl pirnt)nilsunip^0ul.t/+r 'uossrl tulllrM 'i)ltrud uopesl'.rlrlll tp ill {ool1|roq]lM LrleSe.)rJJll) tsoul iql sP /rInE Jo .Up^ p sspdnrcrurot LIiJnour pr?orq qBnoqtlV ssel)u! prssrl)stp.lotrnltsulaql 'MNVI^l S.{rql tpLI.rrrlrrl rcrq plnoqsslurpnts )ql llp')slrrix. rsnP)iq llrls lerrlur e sr lr tr.{ltuinbrrJ Jrs s)rdol Jtlj.( :.rsrqltes)urpnts'tSgirlrtS 'slooqlxrt uo srrntrrl r)qt rsnq lou op srot)lrllslrl.)r e u! 'lllcrl) i^ris s)ldotiL0 srJldeq) Lrol]:)orll ot.{llr)nb)4 sr Srrlpt-rloN rsrrr)xr uorslr)LIrr(ltlrorplre'srtdr SurIptprrprrntr)l E ot Suru)tsrr e 3ur^lo^rrr rsrrrrxr DIlrErd D 'tlrrtl Sulwl-.qt ol prlsriJFns rqt 'stsoritulJo dl.l .{lrpr^{Irp^p^rtilrtpc.I(l srul(xl Lrolssn)slp lsotl iLIlJo luruol lr iLIlIIddu slulo.

i1e lhe book and to my daughterRaquelfor her imaginalivcilhstraliols tharks to Harry for his conslantsllppon aDdcncouragcmerl'and And a special for alwayshaving mote faith in me than I had in mysclf .rxii Preface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My lhanks to Dr..ly for thc inspiralior to \t. Ann Johns of San Diego Slale U vers.

)rd cq plno) Dnlpu ur sluJAJ tpql puegsrr^!unrql ur Irpro se^|rrrLIllvql p)^rlli)qoq^{'sl)rrD lu5!rup)qt ql!^{ upSrqr)ur!)s urrtssM.M quPr rqr uPql rrqler uns rql tpqt lu.rsrr^run rqt Jo slJrrss rqt rJ^o)un ol 3ul.rrqlse.rsro^!unrnoJorrtu.\ prurrprrql sp^ orMpS snlur3 uEnql lecjB .Mruol pJsoddo rr)^ aldord.rq pell rJurrrs Jo ss Sold aql JI rq tqBrlu J.)l)s'pPilsul .{ppors u.{.sts!tuel)s prsn iq poqltLu JlseqrqlJo ss til!r\p up sejlnbrr lEtrrlplu )lJlturljs Sulpuptstrpun poqraw )IJIluaIrs eql ol.{tt roJ suosud otul u^.seop! .r rJqto Llll^ pelp)runruulo) r^eq tq8ltu r^ '^lou ig .!\ prJue^pp rrou r{)nt(l I\oLI lrpuo^.rJruprroJ JlnJ e pcrr^oJslpro splro.ql!^\ parsrl Jq plnoJ rPql slreJ uo prspq stu.lpp!W rql SulrnpssrrSord rlllrl.{lrnbrtue rruts.uJ ..s008Jaqlserrelspur^a.irr^ cpplu r)u.rurlpts srq )ireq rlpr ol prsnjrDq urqM qlErp LII!.qt .srSV.urSpnf JIPLLT pup serp! ^{ru ol ot spulLur!rqt urdo ol p)urprl rldord uJtl^ iluo p'up^pp rrurtrs urcpow 'rte rql q8norql lEoll uer pue urJs rq ot llpurs oor rrE lpql s8ulql 8u!^!l iq prsner rre srsprstplpql prrsrSSns urq^ lE prq8nptseM rnrlspd rq s!nollsttsolotqq)ucrJ.\orqtuJAJato^\ slsllurlJs .\ ot SullsalJlul sl tl 'iJrl Io srurolrrlduls urorJprdulr^rp peq s8ulrq uelunqlpqt prsodordrcpueurtxpuy pue /uns rLIl punorepr^oLU !trer tql lcqt pitsrSSnssnqJrplslrv/uJolerqt Jo erpl aql pstPul3lrosntlrrouilc 'prl)lp. uolDnpo4.

RGAN l5/v1s THAT FLOAr N fHE AIR AND LIVE I/I'IDE B VouR oDY. A procedure known as the scientific method was developed for gathering and testing information. .2 lo Inrroduclion LheScienlilirMethod experiments..... HN. Eachchapt€r in (his book is basedon some aspectof this method and how it is expressedin English. ANDfiHEREARE IINISIBLE . HN uh ux\ ..

sanrrdord cql se s! prlplrj Jr LIlr.sls!ulrql .rrlu 1r^c/\^oH.{lle.rr^JMoH ruo qreo.t.Or"u tr'tllll'l rqf qBnou) tou sl st)eJSunlillo) .rurLuorq puEauuoltlr se dnoiS rlrrEs ot SurBuolaq prrJrruipr rurpor ?snql .t 'rJPds sc:lcl dn pLrP sseluro rqtrrn sPrllEr{ttLrrql{uesr rrlEw 'Irup oi IrtP^{rLIlpue 'rqlerrq non rrp I0 'lpoq rno.ro^4 e\I slrouic sdlqsuollplir pulJ ot pue sDeJJql IJrss''.rrott0luro. puE rqSnoqtrutlurlJs or Jrspqtu:^ snql sl uotr€rlJlssPl:) s)llsurlrerpqJ str r)rp d ueJ lsrSolorq p ..r8stslluJlJs.lo soSels .M sdnoiSotul slurlucloIII llp 3u!3uerB.ur BuljrqteB pue sw)llB^rrsqo3u11eur . Ouo.uoutu.{JrssElr elqrssodrulipPrlr sr tr .dnorS pJo rPlnrrtred rrqrrrlu e sp ue Iq.)ldtuexr .n iql uro.loJ )uJllrrlr lueuodutl Juo r^pq llp lpql u! s8u!qtJo dnolS e Sutue:)Lu-ssr/rpro.Iprre ue otu! uortpulrolu! rol petPIJrdno.runrrn nt .{pnts ol IEmrup 8ur.rJ srltlo or/rllilr"/r p.r1o.{q suollezllprrurS riELUupr lnq 'rurulrl: irt^r ipnts louueJ/.. rql NOTI)N(IOUINI "tailvw lo uotltsodwo) aql 3u$.qupe uo slErurue pup sruEldlo spurl uonlrttl Iprr^rs crp rrrlll rJuIs'^pelurtS prtJlprrd ..{l.ru! qriprsJ )lJllurlrs .1sseI) 1 raldeqr .q upr sitlrrdord str .srlrrds ro .{'}ooq srqr irJnpltl Jo slsrsuorsn punorP BurqurJ^3 tafiow lo atqrN a4I 'prgrssPl) i€tu rrlleu Moq t o purl pue rSesspd iq turr\otlolrql peru qulptaa uoqs 'rrorssJrdx.

lcl r)rolcculcs liqrri(ls ol Thc nt(tlls or rablc.vc a dcfirrite Howcvcr.or oil is pourc(l a on alll. not rigid. a specificilem or il€ms.ll tl. Lalcr wc EvcrythiDg knolv is nladcof maltcrin solid.A considerablc would be nccdcd changc shiPcor voLL'ntc .rrgc in al(rms arranged a dcllnilcpatler'n.it will llow all ovcf 1hcsurfacc. a gcneral 2.Lr€cansc at(nns nlnccrlcs ot n soli(l of packcd and havevrry lilllc Irccdom movcarcrrl.Bul thcscaL(tns. or gas. gas Soli(l\are llrnr . conorl. crynallinc. undcrstood (cntcDcc: lhis Consider sample All matter may be classified as either solid. ol lhc lo lorcc as sdids.nnn ltloLrs.ssilic(l nnd sarr(i wood. Thcy dilluscor slrcadoul insidc lire.liquid. in which ii is DotreLl. lhc othcr lTand.rrrcflf watcris prrl inl() of thcir owr. .for crample. qtranol nrilk n liquidsh. lilL1cl1l lhc alonls not o|1lc y lhc aDd rubbcr. havea dcnnitcfornl. on arc Liquids. cannolfit in a Pir)t or dioxidc'havcllo lixcdshal)c volunrf suchas air. sharpan(l clc.ll walcr.rrxl dividcd inlolwo classcs: nray furLhcr bc Soli(is $lid\ nrc nli(lc trl) of solids Cryslnllinc wood. R()cks . or cxllainedelsewhcrc.iLllllslhc wholcsl)acc if a tirc.oxylcn.Rubbcr.liqtli(]. slftlcltrrc(i l(x)scly ids ca(llothcrandthercbyc|rablcliq toUow. () lill any cont. In lhcsc subs(anccs. Thcrefore liquidwill lakc vohrnrc.TIlcatoms molc(Lllcs Thcy cilher conllress or cxfand rc adapl to any . and collonare crystallirrc 1o th( Whcn thcscvtkls arc hcate(l' ch. arc.liquidor gascolrs (hischaplcr.r. knowD as mellirrg. l.lrca lornl. thcy lraduallysoftcn. rvill discuss waysnlatlcrmay bc classilicd.glass.1rc ol thc shaPc anyconlaillcr a aDddo nol kccp!bcir$apc.it will nrn to tln)bo(tonlr air is pu( ir)to<1 nrrd arc widclyspaccd movcvcry ral)idly.rc dcnsclv or Lhc an iron bar. Ann)rfhoLrs is ol glass. othcr wc in TO CLASSIFY USING ENGLTSH includes: A classificalion class.rl(l jrorr. ofgascs or thc tirc. fapcr. . and carbon Gascs. aDd il trt bccaLrsc i1 which is ffequcntly slated lbr L a basis classificalioo.nd whcn hcalcd. coulaittcr. sulfir.lrrilk.4 Classitying 6A6 or as Al1 nlatlcrmay be classificd cilhef solid. inclu(lc sLLLrsLantcs is a 1(uid.

onuru lou sr qJrqM 'rrllpur roJ Jo rlPls Iprlsiqd aqr sl Lrollerulssplr srsPq )ql srt pue p|\lb!l pltos.ql g SutlJtssel) .rLro ucqt.(ll qts$d Jo slpporuureluor I0 rnbr{ s.s rrorlerlrsselr'uosprr srql roC 'Jrrr^rluou ro J!t\!l rrqtr.re sLLrat rgrtrads aqJ . 'trpu ro'plt1@'uvr 9e \pns '.)roru Jrrqt tng 'iJuJluts rql u! p.rse uo codrul)r rq lp)rruiq)sI Jo (r\el Jql uo pJrlrsscP \PLU \r t|rlrlurpxr I'l l.{JrsselJ uaqM) 'tpltos sb ptlJlsspp ttD puot puo 'uo a u t .! paplAlpJrquklaq pu! olu! tput spllos 'suo1s!^lpqns rriqt rsrql ul prpnl)ul sl trletu llB lpqt JloN) '516 'pvbtt pltos)aqtDrp pa{lssttp tDw ra nu ra aq llv lI:IIf.Llt 's! leql ltuo8ue) lejru.{l!pssrJ'U.AdS OI'IVUIINIID I IO{C DNIAIIISSV.)Un\ct)Jq ipu.lBtauoS ot rulrrds ruo{ 8ur.B iql Jo suols!^lpqns IIe r. ilqt lou op slurll rglJcd$rqt.Jre ( al'q prpnl)ul tou ore teql spllosl.ads wouJ DNrAcrssv'r3 'stlt1LltlJ1uu..)urlu.rrltr sl sselJJeJJuiS .DtLU \r\ .qto IFnor^qo . aulllttst\Jj :se|top o/1r'.^or .If .ssttl6 paa$ ra|qk[ ltD lVU!rNe50r fHtf.

wakltIreezes lf C ) dt it Lllrivcrsals. The passive lhc scientificwriting becausc cmphasisiD scicnccis usllally or thc acliotl. o ly rhe meanirgsof lhc words oxrrc. and smallcrbranchcsnray sobdividcagain into evcn sm. 2 . branches. wood.) NOTES of form is usedfrcqucntly il1 scntcnces classilicaliorand in all l . Thc presentsimplc tcnseis the mosl commonly Llscdtcnscill scientific (For cxample. 9dr will {ygal which is the ScneralcalcgoryaDdwhich is thc sPecific . wrling becausc cxprcsses is like.paper.lllcr branches. and t . Oxygen a gat.6 Classifying Rock. In a sentence itcnr. and cottonare cryslallinesolids. rlol on thc perso[ performinglhe actbn. (Norethat a classification likc an upsidc-dotm lrcc The lrutlk of a trcc is is cach large branch is subdividcdinto smallcr divided inlo largebranchcs.

l"..i'^'# prsuPx? i i..wnrr i'n1rip..q. pub l?lr 4[pads lbrzlra."r.ij |. rp).rt'r. .u.^'pJ .r.r..uosuP)t f n*""uf 'q"lriil ".ICI)!IdS WOUJ 9NITJISSV]f.:* | prrIFrPpJ .nrnrlu . 1 ptnorl f | frq *"-:l.T'l:jE 1 Prulssenj I L su"Qllod aJ 4uas | | t SICrl:IdS Or.4dor . qulttlltuzpl o Io ts t^rxa4t.tg rLII i)l^lr o. | *' J.u.iili!JI1."::l.\t il()p s! ruo ls.:. Is:uoaartl'] .rrr..re .l.iii . o ) d r r PI | atduexe up_J LPJo Pi 'g!l ..r"e 'lVUg N3C OI f...t.o^rj f pdnorgl {'. "...rsqni sn.h'::Jj) -""^ rpv'os*.""'J1 1 L *'"''.pp.rr! rulrrds q)er p.e."." ^r....".tdutn 1ox'tatduntt luo 'stuz|ta atqlssod lltt b tuatJod ar aras tsatl :aDN .. L s."ffi| j "". i:r.l ."re..se8e se fel I { } ( pourssPt)J .o..*.".'ir-1p ue sr pa15 7 sr.f.rvuqNa9 wouJ gNIICrSSyltr t 8ur.{Jrssel) . -rrpun 1rclrDrurss Jo rrurlLrrsLI)erut sozpt "rr."."rJ:|ji] :. :I ^*"" I ..

ll . and non etallic 4. Rcadlhc followirrg parngraphnrrd lin(l . corl(lLrcljnS. irl oI ficc () nmvcan(larc usclirl cnrryirrll.rctor.rc|or. Thc Lwokindsofnuclcica(idsarc dcoxylibonucleic (DNA)ilird riborucleic acid (RNA). 9. l . and into three cat€goricsi 6.llccausc lhc) do rrol noncor)ductors. dcviccs Lfnnsislof as and as Jcmicon(luclors afc usM in suchclcctroni( . nrclanmrPhlc. ( 1 r ' r r r r . uscthc inli)rnration thc passagc corrrl)lclc lhc chart. suL)nirn(|\. arc goodcon(luclonSrLl)slnr]ccs pa icuh y silvct. t. l. nnd in dianlon(1. ' | r r ( l .coppcr. or scnriconduct(r'.ruhcr way Thcn in lo rbal mat1er lnay be classilic{1. nnnxphoLrs. . are c(Jmpounds. ! .and alu|ni|rur. clcclfic culrcnl.and oil may bc classilicd ilrcls.lts. gold. Collee.diDg iLsclcclr'ical lo Mattefis licqucrrlly cla\silic(l (l. Trcnsfefting Infothatior. Coal. I.ilylionl llov!ingwhcrc iLis nol carryclcclriccharyc lil(f A lcw arr(i afc w.Classifying oxidcs.Air. Rocksarc grcLrped sedimenlary.rcircids. Fivc inDonantclasses oxidcs. ( r r l L f { ' r r r r r " ( .r\rcd. wood. ca \rn.LHCTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY con(luclivily a conir accol.nr0lirlli( ofconllxnrnds. lalo$. lea. as 8.glass. . r i l r l ln(lio\. . itjrlcoul. r'\"r \ i l j L . r r r . plaslic insr. carboncxists threefonns:graphilc. . A deer is a lJrnmmal.1 Colrdu(loN noncoDLlr. s.wood. and paiit arc colloids.All r Clals. 7. havcnlnllyclcctfons nfc th.insu or with lcw licc eicct()ns callcd arc nrxl carlbc rscd to prcvcrllclcori(. r l ' : ' I ' . base\.l'l . Salls inorganic aci(l 10.rlators. r ' r r r l .

no.{dl IIE J ol / -1pdJ)urtlros rqt rsn .re rqt .sr)urnrJs Sur^^olloj rlJId(x)J .Mlo.s rre qElurup pue sl pldJo srlro3rlpJ lou lpql ircN) .rrrs Jqt 6 !!a4wo) 6 3u!^J!ssPl) { .q rpJ PlriDeg Jre suerqrqduP sJlrldcu' 9 puP 'JlLruiirour JrueBJo pue : Jq .{E(u IJNPW 's t -€ 'srluJqtui^LrlsP 'ltrPlo Jo aq ueJ stJJsul 'sle(utuP sNPld pur? oMi oiul --:@@- rq uPrrrltPrurluefuo z 'srtslqJl']r^ur o.l p(r?liirerqrri^ tspfitLtvJo sluEld P5.'lerurLrP Jo 'sluPId E 'rp sileJqJuJ^rrl ' 8 .raJrr.rrq p srl .

lln if lhc subicctis plrral. If thc acli(n)is il) thc Pasl.h 01 thc following a.1?. Mercury is classified as a metal.usclhc pas(lensc I'i or of rhc vcrb . A scntence drliv?if lhe srbjccl Pcrft)rms aclior. (pdssir?) it Thc sccondscnlcnccii prefeffedbccarlsc conccnlmlcsou how nlcrcllry is clas_ (wc know fial scicntisls lhe classiliing) do sifiid.rre iu conrl)ad ciiscrccordings. Cha ging Actit/e voice to Passive Voice. rhc Lty-Phft]sc . Lascrs u$c(lin placeol rccdlcs . scDtcDccl Formula lbr a passivc of Objccl vcrb from activc + sclltcllcc pKrPcr fonrl ol + vcru ld .livr.)v(. 11is pa.usclltc preseDl is sinsular..i or n.Hcrc are sonlc activc senlenccs forDrs. in of wc usclasers Dlace ncccllcs recorclingi."'iiilli.tivc lbrm.? pasr participlc + by"phrasc (optionnr) Meraury is classified as a metal' (by scientists). lcnscol lhe ve r lo l.Look al lhcse examplcsi scientists classify mercury as a metal.---in courlMrlisc in diamonds Thcydiscovercd SoulhAfricain the ninclccnlh cenrury. lF tlrc cxanrpleat'.Ji'rrrafs) nol us((l h('(nusc {l) \tr arrd lhcir (orrcspol)dillglassivc it is uDders()od.ri'I.1nnxlll.uivfit thc subjeclrcccivcs1hcaclioD. aDdFraDcis Crick JaDres Watson thc fonnulalcd lhcoryof lhe hclix.cr lvr?J wrrJ. fd.. This is because cnlphasisin scicn(t is uslrally on thc acti(t].r is tllustbe. tlic . Bc carclll l{) choosc thc corrccl tcnsc (Prc\cnl {'r 10 scntcnces lhc Passivc \ .l0 classifiing The Passhte voice and in all scicr)lific form of a vcrb is usedfrequcntly in classifying The passivc lhc writing. ACTIVE PASSIVE Collcc is g()wD iD Brazil and colunrbia. can r. double Penicillin curetnclrnronia. lik( . ir) Dianlor)ds wcrc discovcrcd Soulh Africa iu lhc inclecullr The lheory ol lhc doublc hclix wns foflrulalc(l by Janleswa(s(nl ar)d PncuDrolrin bc curcdbv cnn in ThcyErowcoffee Brazilarld Cohmbia.a:a il lhc subiccl Ilrhe aclkD is in thc prescnl. wllcn thcre is .?dl on thc is thc personperfonningthc actidr.o . ChaDge ca.

urtp) .t"ol/ fvpaqra lror )rrrprlo^ ttl()rj lulns Dplxr JA{ .urx)ru.rsrrlui. .rr(\r\ct {q fu..Iqrri Jql pJllprurPrq Llrrrds LrplnnH I rrtt Jo lrPd Dlq (tonlro)) 'i\. .:".. ur ft:)]]pqr|lrJlr :'rttprlur^ur lrlp^llr)rSrrrt' z l .r )lll z '(...rrLrrr.rrtD.)^ ru.ror)^tssu(r.qrsspt:) .. j.l 'J)urtu:)sr^rssedrqt ot tlrplrodurrsr (i)Lrrt Lrrs r^rl)e rql... )rurtrlrrr)rn(luo) r)r D ro.iXili Iil.ro.()lsrrlJl( llrul( Iq (irnford) ']r)srouiuqPs r.rtrw | crr)t)Dqiolts)p .at .{).(t uorsr)j rqt !L.l. rql ..l )r'.)..' t '99l...qr 3l rcql) l)Jlqns rqt )se]rJd tcur.)Lto...)rlt s.qsll3q € 't06t ururrlsurS !i)qlv ^q trir^uDlrr Jo Jruor ..L 9 rl)rxorplrlr u n r s s p l ( xrlo l t l l l p o s q t l ^ ^ l p J lcltlruD dPoS s r o r l i l p r r i i i ^ i i l l t r o ( 1. -il..Jtdo)(t ilrDLLI p) tI .fili:l::tl'il 'r./rzxfo..qrsscl:.tJN Iq (rlulnllur) al/t F'a/7"AQa slruul(l rlll JostLllii^.u1.jl.:rlarLrrs.. ".{(trq.j}'...\.:.lur {l)(ty..ql urn.Irft\tnf j ..iili.1 .)rllrHol slprtrrup stupl(l pup s.]pDlrut ..)ro. iU.Stro )u[ll no. su '01 .rq1 troolqrrlt rn s. srs..l. { q ( i r n r ) p l n u o r L r ) 'sJtrrrt ll..rlrsndroi:Dn1..|lrtrnUorurrLIt (ltur) L' qL'r0qu)8(xp.l0 Drlqns. .1:'.{.rtiirs f)lll.rpJI qr!3 .ls r)1(prru) srrnlcl'llturt qiJrq.rlt.)pun iql (r)^orsrf) 'l|LlrU lilp^\ tuo:) 't iJ nOI L1Sl?t()t.(LrrqM Iq L'..{t urrlrr :rsncJrq qrrul .Jo lrt(tr."oo.uts. t1 7cq.'qr rrurijrt".r(i iLIr.lxr uD) stsrtu)q:) 9 ..rt ' i(l rrrilollru t)p..rr prslltr LI(r llq!(lord s. rl)rxouoru uo(uu)l1)stuno(ul? iSlul .ll.) 9g6I )rtr curpued prl)rtllro) srr)$M t tl6t Ur lErrD:) rLIl .u uonDrUrnbrl rrDrrll rlro..(tt:)o)tx)r! ur )le bqul..l].r qrr^ rLIl r(U (tpntd ro rptnSurs) rrqrxnu Drrror rql puDllspd lI Sur.

Reading speaking langualcwill increasc and lhe your Thisis beLausc wordsyou arc lhc incrcase vocabulary will '?ol aubnradcally Al and lcss lcanlingappcar frcquendy are lhus n rc dillicull1()rcmcnllrcr. circla lhc lcltcr of thc nnswcrthdt bcsl nralchos scDlcllccs ihlicizcdword as it is uscdin cachof thosc nrcaning thc of iD L Aloms arc it?. malerlals frcnl thc walcr' efidrred 3. Al onc timc lhc alom was thoughl rc bc fudlvirirl. Eilrslcin'sideasarc 1oollbilr?d for nrany pcol)lc lo ulldcrslalrd. q bi)kclLdown b.tll]r .{. atosc inlo ol 4. machincs a.1:!!i4b. goodvocabulary hclp you succccd arryprofcssiol you wordslhal arc repcatcd you first sludya language. allcf vocabtrlary._ ol lhcy arc 5. lhis you must lnakca spccial effofl lo acquircnew dcvclopmcrl. lhcorciical . i$. therc is alwaysa dc'dincin vocairuhry a your llucnry but growthralc. unablc k) bc conslruclcd 6.will A goodvocabulary helpyou \ir'ith yon your reading iislening and and comprehensiol will cDablc 1osl)cak improve in will A and wrile belt€r. Chcnrists b. Thc whalcsuddcnly b.andsolklsmaybc srrlt. a. unablel0 bc divkled 7. b. hlgc of trrrsld. ibr Dlaking lifc!imehabi1.'.4t?rlt5i. nnablc to be sccn . bccome ofyour permancni sooflcnthal dleysoon you haveacquircd basicvocabulary.?dt studythe compositiot Datural 2. products hard10disposc becanse arealnost /r?/. All malleris cithcrliquid. Plaslic a.tl and cryslallinc amorphous. disappearcd a. addi1kt1. Thc word partsar('dln) lhoselblllrd fucqlcnlly arc Do rarcor spccialized for colltainstrnlcgics the sccii(tls In in scicntifia lcrnrinology. vocalrulary gr)wth n vocaL)llaly lhat lo conlil1uing buildyour vocabulary.l2 classifying READING SKILLS Vocabulary Building il ol will cveryaspecl conrmunicalior'l.". of slage languagc liom in scclion$ this book wcreselccLc(l thc All thc wordsin lhc vocabulary irl discou$eTl)erc frcquenlly s('icntifi( bccausc appcar thcy readirgs leclurcs and words.p . lhc voubuur! 1 Co text. icanrcvcryday whcn pall Howcver.soli(i. b. unableto bc dcnroycd b. \!y' rrny b.rdl sizc. gas.llL'id.'.

/r.r/.{D^.nrj u(x)tu )q.'slnoru Jperusr plio^r Io prllPr sJprrrp(l rtF llY sLtI()]D rrllr.!oqJcr.t.sLIul(lx) luqM sa^o.i(l(lu srop .L ' 0 1 urql 'q l)qt e 'n')r lrsr.i)Uituis tsuliql sl tl sJrurt .rpl) Jo luql uoll0uuotrrl luql-lullilutrr iitltJo(l(lns sl suruluo) !l(iuriiuru(l jo t\ij Jql rl({uriJcrpd.{L t oot .ll rlrrLUnl! rurqu)r tPqtslu.r(l ( ill(lulilutp(iliqlorrii.ri{ussu(l Io )r!rrttr)s)l(lot rql puIotB lirlr()ll()tiLlt UI t|(l [] sli:.rrnpur siniuu^ rlrrr{Jrp P.riJDrpd u.ronbs .r r.tot rLtlL']rro)rsnlr)iqi)u.)rlt i])uitu)r lsjlliql s.i)u.|![r rrr silnriiow Jdorsor]Illr lujriMo(l L' qtr^ ui^r U)rs )q {)l .')rlt l)rtul\ sI Ut .P rot nl r(u.{oul \lrrutsqns uorllrru.lJr ullriqturr rp sl)uLl)ltlM /rll/.redI() rpuur rrE stlr lr)t3 s oulsqns Uojll[u ]noJupqr olu )rtl .\ tu)r.loq(loriiur1]({-rJlFur lu|lituruUorldns r|u.I}lns .ql 8 aI 3ur.)tr|Js ll rl(lol orr sr?ll q(ic.{llerrorsDrrO) r)u)lUir rl(lot :rqt ot itL.'urs or^i lo .4liru.rrP ]o I stLrorLDI:r rsiLll ll! tpqrr)Lr)l:)\ strpJ jo 00t lnoqu^llro lo (1D.rl rlll Lllrpppr uo 1lr.srtnrrloruprllDr iilr .1J p ut p.orrr. uu .lr .tJlpr|t !il(lJruoJ iJuIt.^\lu lnq il)Urnlrirlsl iruilUis )r(lotiqt lorr lo 'J:)u)t(ris )l(lot.{xo prru uorr Jo .lud i)Llt tl lo ilpptru lt LrjlL.(l 'sJl..)tpts tru 1r1.l({rucxr irp ruuolqr pULr IID 'ploiJ lrriJorp.I| pi^1oqs srotrnb()rlr )q-L I I ll s)l)r) ! s)LJJlJ.' ot flq JuplrlrlD It uorlDrcdrs q .r plnorls q(turSulu(i iqt ul sirtli]urs )Llt llV q(lordl.{Jrsseltr .DrrrlLtis .{lutuulslslsrI()) soapl uloN 6ulpu!! plrqro .\{l)qUottrsrroltsu u slrc.{ltrO ll ol (ln iilrpDil smuJturs jiq() lv liqto Lltr^{ 'trolllsLruJl Lroll)npo.1r illpnsnsl t(li)Uo)irll sl(li)uoJ Jsoqlsl.r:{ltslp \rt q 'lqirrl)LIl drr(rrrr.)Lll Jqt Ltr!tolturulotul llt? )Llt lr^o) ol '.ljlp ur .Ipru ot s.)qlorrp rrlro $lltcln lrlrpl(lJrlt tcrll tr)dsnssts UJt)s uoS Zl .is l: 'quPr iqt plrnojp Jr//.prlurrp siJtrutsqns itorzpuru rqlJo i(ro sr tt l)I] uuru ol Lr^.rnoj rr^o rrp rrlll wotv lDu$allu{w a\I 6ulpbau 'q(iulSProd q)L'r r.. .tM )ltl!trl)S l)uu lo.r[u:.ro Ul rilu I|lui(l(lu pUo)is lt st tl si(tll !los 'qdDrlJuru(l ..q prqsuD 'l 'J)Pds Frlqo rrr qtr^ li1l.(xklns tDqtILrl.tL.l . { t r ^ t t r Dp J r L u i q r ' r l 'isiri s npord u)ii.(q'rr.rurlrJo s.l)..rijixO qrrq^{.

'". lirc. During the Middle Agcs in Europe. a formulatedaD atomic theory bascdon his experimcnlation. alld behavioriand that alomsofeach e]cmcntare diffcrcnl ftom lhosc of any other elemcnt.has one clccLron {ras is . and rvatcr. 400 R. was to equal the thickn€ssof this s!. menis. elc(ri( charge.in I 804 lhc EnglishnanJohn Dako n rd abstrac! nd was acco ingly rejeclcd.''arrr.Lil". r.ls. aDdthcrcforethc NiclsBohr l)rc )seda In cnlirealom has Do cha4tc. howevcr.one of thc hcavieslelc Oxygenhas eighl protonsand cighl electrons. the hydrogenalom.wcighl..c-c1-q1!qP-er' in accepted lhe ancient world. n(lllrons whiih hivcno. beyondwhich no furthcr subdivision until a point \aasreached particles a wcre calledalonror.which l)avca neFnli\cclcitri( chart}aTlii in numberofprotons equalslhc numbcr ol clcctroDs cach alom. philon)pher thal maucrcouldbe dividcdinlo smallcrandsmallerl)arlicles theorized Dcmocritus Thcse was possiblc. irhi -zl t] 2/ hsllumolom what is ir'thal makcs iron hard.. are rahichis (allcd the alomic number'All atorrr'lJl lh. but ()day a(tns arc belicvcd!o consist Thc sizeof lbc nrclcLlsillsidc wilh a densenuclcusat lhe ccDtcr.you\( sccrrlhcm. ncrd. mainlv of sDacc.". ff:l. l9ll. Grcck word mcanirg irdivisiblc We indestructiblc know taday that atomsare so smallfia1il would takc nore lhan a million oflhcnl Dcmocritus'thcory. size.r'i'iffi31 alld protoDs. for many bclievedin Arislollc's not universally lh€ory thal matter is composcdoffour elcmcnls:earth.l4 Classitying thc In in The conccplofatoms firn emerged ancienlGreece.cnill(r( whichhavcr posjtivc by Thc nucleusis surrouDJed clcctftrnj.He said that aloms are nol crcaledor dcslroycdLrutrathcr in form new combinations chemicalreacli(. air. . has 92 protonsand 92 cleclrons . lhc most element. thc conceptoI atoms was collsi(lcrcdl(x) FinaUy.\'hd's Itn ebi \\ l I \\ \\ \- ao o. lhcbasison whichourenlirc Llniversc formcd U.i.mnilrln.i"". (lcr'1cr)l Jlik|] ll youvr \ccn orredlom o{ oxvgen. Dalton roughl thal aloms wcrc solid. and mcrcury a liquid? The properlicsof an elcmcnl arc dcrcrmi[ed by thc rumbcf ol clcclronsin ar a(nn.Hc clainled ftal all matter is made of atomsi lhal all arcmsof a singleelcmcnt havc lhc samcshafe. ?zz /. In faci. nucrcus n". thc Danishphysicisl likc thc model of thc alon iD whi(h thc clectronsrcvolved around thc DLI(lcus ofclcclrons is thoughl () be planelsrevolvearouDdthc sul'l Todaythc movemeDt lhc bclwc(rr fositiv( dn)uDd-a hiv( Thc lorceof allrdcli(\n hoveriDs morelikc Lrccs clectnrn\v!hirlilF afinrr]J kecP: thc clccproronsjn ihi irucla[i aid the rrcg:r-ivc lrons in their padts.rll H)JroFrn. oxygen a gas.irillkr /.\l and onc proton.commonalomir lhc universe.c.rhc lrlnr.'nball Eaih cqry.

...qup) :srrr urlr rn0tJo pJs(xJrno) sr.r. ltat?av. 'Jn.\. rfrrr'r rLlirsrsuorul sru)ulJrL'rr sr iirll^{olloJ rqlJo Lt\pa 6uryDaa lu!pup$tapLtD aq Jsnprrq stsrxr llv ... t o r l r r I l ] ) t u l o t L l) L l .ruttrs.'.:'lj ". 'pixli)ru..Hurrrrqr.lt\)N.(r.... suoi))irir{rrM iqr ..'l"lii:li.ri)^tlnt sl()rDJlJ.I 'rs.)ru .LlI z rqt Pf-Pa "lotq 'sruol! upqt r) p[rs L r r ^ JJ r p s ) l n ) i l ( ) w ..1'l1".!'ii:.rU.^..JIrclsr.:. )Lrr r.)p strlo]V .{xo Jrll ' sI 'u!)nlxo j 0 s r u o l po t )rc !. ) L l to t l d i l ) l p s U o _ r l D I n l l r(lt Ln urole LlourLu)) lsolu )Llt st ruolE uJii..ors...rr^ro^).".rrnpllrJo rlrl sr." 1ilXT. ii.rl)Jl) 's to ler.1'. srM .rr.slrojltrJu .1'r5.lllll:lli'il.{xo plre rrr8orptq orur $rrd&rrrp rrlpx.{lrsu.liiif..)rli)^|lL.or ..{rr^q :nLrolD rpPrlrsr ptroMrltl IIV J{r (I 3u!..r os rrp . " n. ) L I t .ll]il .(ro)qt)[Uolp rr]l .li!l u J^!q sUo.r.lt..".p.ul ' a pll) tOSt rropq rsrx)1oU LrJolD Jo ldDrror./t f4...r.qrssPt:) '.(.Lrne.rr tu)urrlrrlij ls u Jo surotc llv ' € I )qt 'suolord .\suc rql lo .rV p)^)rlrq..{l)pr^1 "".{rr^r.n."n...ro. l)rso(lulol J. i..srHV rlpprW)ql n^uunO 'r)lpM plrurrp .)tp n.lrllJl rqt Jtrrrl .i.10)qLrrrruql r ) ) U J o l r ? x ) l l t s t l l | J r u ) 1 .{tlJo sluolv ' .rusrr.. rro r.. t ..ru )l.rrqutru jo JLII l)nu r)qurnu slcnbi ilrr s.{l 'srro..". p r r. U u J o .rorlr "rno. r o t .J:ii:l:1.o .q QIL'rPdrs ro LrJ8. { q r l t u di r .{q L.:'i:::'t#: ..l 'rru !r! )/ts )rlt ()l st Jo rn)l)nlt ! jo iTrsrqI .r.riJ s J o r r .rr. .rr)lLr)l) L..{tuEcti^rsurdx) rrE spuourer( z sitProrlP^r .Jrrits )sJlltJo rlrorflrq sUorl|q puE lpu sJlruULrr III Io rpEU srJo aoul pup r)s rd flurql.slto.L..u 'sooloid .' z t 'ltr^c..rxrlrrD ut {-u4 qoxoA S'I-IDIS 9NINAISI..[))lrpuL).r{Jrp l l r l l U ..9 lutrt)J ulolp uu l)plsUr iilJ| p. 1 'Irri).ij.)Lro.11".. l @tr"w.i 'srrLrJtlrrs isJLIt ur Jo Lltrp:) prsn sr lr sp pro^^ I)rzrrnplrrql Jo SUruEILr Jqr srllrrpru rsrq lEql rr.oru ..r u P p L ] l l q Pq '..tojp.suol()](l rl!M )_t! lril)p(i .{ l:1i.{JrJl rsnetr:q .ft))ql lD!ll s..".rru sr.L.itlbl .{JrJLriiJLr^.rr.....oror(r r)q..iJu.r.rilrL'ru ..

kecp b. Thenoblcgascs a groupof gases arc wilh l?o. delicious b.rrorereorr a. The succccding li)r chaplerscontain suggcstiol)s Sood nolclaking. Sodiunl and chbrinc are the . for a. sonle mushroomsarc safe$ cal. elccrrical 4. Thc Dotcsyou lakc during a lccturc arc likc lhc you take on a lrip. quanlhy prollcrlics. a. a.vi(cwr' Lllivrnb\ n. a. photographs Iy rgcl nlost you will forget. alassified b.cach has charactcristics arc drsllr?d. Just as wilh picturcs. ]nachire b.rio. Thc outcolqc an cxpcrincnlis aflectcd y44'n0LJ. will help)ou lo locuso. characterisiics rcadilywirh othcr clcDrcDts.you will relainj nloritol thc rcst. A. ol olhcf gnscs thc air. of b. dc$cribcd A flowercanonly /aldl.I(r prescnted a leclurc. similar b. mots\\ito is cdkgo zedas al1inscct. changirr! 9. changing nilrogen in I 0 . It was importanl 10 kecp thc temperatllrcar.onstirr?rtr sah. Akhough hydrogcnand oxygenhavc sonc similarilics. bse Note-Tekitrg Many pcoplc likc 1()lakc a camerawhcn they makc a lril) partly bc(ilusclhcy know that they will rememberthe pcoplc arrd placcslhcy havc rccofdcdon filrrr and forget much of thc resl. subii-e.l6 Classifying ) . Oxygenis a very a. . diffcrenl 5 . what you rccord.'and lhcn Llse vour notesto comDlclcthc nexl cxercise. unchaDging b.v?clcmcnl thal combincs a.t. diffcrol}tt t2.iJlrr?t throughout lhc experimenl. Take nolesas you lisrcnlo lhc lccturc "The ChemislryofMa(lcr. quality b. unsrablc 7 . ard o rers are pdlr./rro. a.rq|i. .evcn whcn thc subieclmallcr is ilrlcrcstilrg iD of the malerial to you. stable b.Without noles. Bcsides and oxygcn.ir a shon whilc you will undoublcd . dral a.your goal is !o rccord as nany imporhDl points as will lincrrins irltcrl(r(wirh y('rrr andspccifically po"iblc. lhcrcis a smalll. d-cjldly 8 . similar b.Nole-tdkirrA l10.echnnknl\'r[t:l\ a. whal is Fin! sJirlnn'l rvoirl l(lrir\F your'mind wandcr. as cleady ir on rhc conrrary. of by lbc$rs a. ils lJcauly a shortlinlc. Thc df.&s b.

{t JLloueqt olu sl .)uo.r.{ ul ro e *ll aturlrnoJ LrMol Jorldood asqol asle.tsliiolorP.Ll)p .1!.Z 'uort]odordllrp or llrJsJld Jq.lualLlo) nqt pLrp'lunlltor LtlLuelr^ lutns .urLru is'rt!ns :lulpere(]lllT .Itered LI)eg sqderiJpred otur pizJtll]&o sr lpurtpw u.rJuriur.JJqI ' s 'suur(r lP)lrrlJq) .I rql tuo{ uolteuiroJur rqt rsn .l -n'o) pnnodtuorro '(rt) rrntxrul .{ Zsrulu ZslmLI)s .f/.0plrp Lldprgprpd ul sr lellr Burqlfur^r ro^or plnoqs qrrqM .Z plrn)tno.trallloJ (ulllpos 'srFolpr 0l ilulplo))e spooJ iiullJlssplJ pilsrot!ll .llril|lo)lolnrsSiriilJ .44op rrrlorq aq touueJ tl .{sd alsd3olotoctrur e u atsltu.q tlliiFrt tslrloltlttnu V .{t lpqM r)srid_ Jo rljlJnds u loJ tolp e rqrr)srrd ol popiiu rq plno^t uoltBuloJUJ slql rtai .)turur:rP ue Surqr::srpse sluJrlr..rJ rtp.L st -xr rld|:.ol1lult ul punoJ z6 tnoqg ll() )ru rlrlll ' 0 1 'srrlddlruolllsodruor it!ulrif to M!l )qJ ' 6 'iL()JO iJdrrrcxi sl UoqJP)g ue 'rLloJo ildruPxr srIllw z uc ' ( l u J n l l r s u ' \ J\ t r J ( )$ l l r ) ( l d ( l i q l ( l t l p r rl 9 'J|l)rlolu q)er LrlLlIM(uotp.teld lleql()oJ a. rLIl .tq3noqtatJldruo)I sJssJld Jrdol iql ur pJzuut(ltuns eJprro tqBnoqllpllLliJ srq.toH no/ sINrodNorssn)srq 'slul uL()u pltDtlulru se pizpoiiaut lltuiltbr.Jo rd.{pru sturnlrtsuoJsI .{rsrrt) o! saloNrfio( 6ulsn tI 3u!AJIssq:) .rs uHEodvH Fi:ni.^nJitip .lo slqt rql almqrs sselr ul stlripnls IJrssulr lq8lu ^.ullll!4u9.?l | -ln^f ^ h t^ I |rf ..qsrliJu! ul sazraluastyto"L S]'II'S DNIJTUM ' p atr.$uqeJ ^Jlssulr Zstp) slDnnuosrlp lBqAA aspooJ .t 'sur?arlr ^q IPJrLreLIJrru prlerpLt.l .saq louueJ strrrntrlsuo)sll .nuM .{.tplsrsrqt Jo Llrei lJlss.^"rrrurpro SJJUplsqns .{q rrldluls olul Lr. tslilololqB tsrlrtul lrlitlLuuonsrulsselr sncl.lorldllrDxr sl up lorlo)lv .'lr o1 rrnr).1L 'q(tcrirprpLl rrlt l st tEq^^.rllod e .{nql 'stlllnlllsl|oJ 'zI strJo Jsoqt Lt(xJ NrlrJJIp rre $llsllitJBluqJ sll ' I I .

r .ragfrphs h r x r l dg i v c ( l c l .1y classilied L)c acco inlt lo lx)silion.ncls Rcccnr i|rlcrior All supcrior spncc cxIkrrarions haveuncovered cvidcnce lifc on any of thescflaDcts. your paragraph. |la|lclsbc(nusr is Jlrpiter.s callcd lclrcslrial lhc Lhcy sirrrilaf siTc 1hc nr( cafll). is rol rclcva|llo lhc l(rpic clissiiicntiolr lhcrcfofc .llrrdlhc onc scnlclrcc lo lh. goo(tlol)j( /rd/ scntcncc uDily il. il The sanplc paragraph belowis irr(ompletc.Or il mny .lgraphl Reccnl tpa|e aqllordtiafis. ncilhcfcovcrs I infonnatir)n lhc par..k of . Also. Sla|tthr paragfaph in!eresls with a topicscr)lcllrr t]rirL l statcs Inai!lidca. rxlrlijrr Theresr ofthe senlences shoLrld lhc that or the ropic sentence. Satu l.r. or provc rhe nlah poinl. lo in lo Thosc lhal arc insidc (anh s orl.r (l(x:s l)cloulli lhc pnrngr'alh. Rca(t .r8 Classilying The lopic sentence nray appenrar th€ b e g n i n g o f r h e p . ro ScDlcncc. ard Nc|tlrrc arL'lhcnlajof or larlj(r plan{:ls.Uraplr aboul-Do molc. no of Plnnets mn-v alsotrc Mnrs. T h c l o p i c il senlencc iilcslhc pnraqrnph rrrakcs c l c n ra r ) du d c r s l i r r d i l b l cr Jt h c f c i r d c f . passcd. lo Plinctsmay bc clnssilicd a((o(lir!l lo l)()silior Jrzc. Plnnels nrayLrc classificd accordinll si/c an(lm.' Urarr!s nnd N(l)runr.c x t r l d j n . Uranlrs.ppc.n(l thi. li)f scrrtcnccs an(i4 arc loo Daffowto bc thc topicscntcocc. g f a f h t o n n n o u n c e Lhcrnain idcir. sLrlrpon..)covcrcverylhinit 1hcparagrirfh. u and l in t Thc reslollhc scnlcnccs Lhcp. Mcrcury. Plancls nr.ragf('lph.11 Write a paragraph clasrificatioD you.u\( jr j\ lrx) in all rhc I brca(l. planels Aslfonomers classify accordirg thcir posilioDs rcl. L 4. ol nud lhould n0l bc iucludcd. Vcnr.r(l v(nLrs) (lirss((t lhc if( . r i l s h i r r s u t ) p o a .graphSc r(]rr(c is ror lhc l)r\l l)c.rs. no lcss.l LhcbcsL is LoIic scntcncc is bccausc annouDccs it cxacllywhal the par.lu|ilct the largesl. Whichof thc followingis lhc t)cst lopicscnlcn((lof rhisl).r thc o r d r o s L i l l r i r i T c l h r l i ( l c r .rs planels. writing a Pardgraph of Classificatiotl Poi|lls ol based onc 01 lhc ljiscLrssion on 111.grirl)h? L 2. ll)c in and 2. followcd SalLr'n by ard lhen lhc "twiDs. Io providc detajls rcl. L is specific enough cov€ronly whal i! jn thc |aragr. or scientins classily nrarry rhingsill lhc unrvcrrc. r .it (lhnt is.rss. (o i sonelimL. theolhcf!arccallcd pi.rLioD rhc earlh. is broadcnougb1..ar(l I'krlo ir( classified a(cording lh(ir si/( nr(l mnss.lc to.ir it rlor spccjlic this f.l)h. is . prelcrably Alwaysreread altcrsonrc linrc h:rs chcck 1o seethat ev€ry s€ntencc rclatedto lhc lopic scnlcncc. in lhc scnlcDcc thil bcgin! whi(h sc[lcnccdocs not bcl(Jng lhc par. 10 M{:rcury.

{rql'tou soopi)uots uplunq )lrots!qJrduJqM ll puedx.M asnol J)uetsqns JuluuJlapot 'JIdorexJ rol surrlqord .rq Jo qunrJ E IrlEr uer tuE ue tpqr DeJ JLII'JIdurpxJ rog uollpLuroJuluo J^!DJd$Jd /\Ju e Jpr^oid suosUedluo) 'rlrt lsor It puP'^trtrqPlrE^P 'Itl^!lrnpuor '3uFI^ rrp lerlortlr roJ porEdu-roJ slElrlu snopE^ Iprulrrlr .!et ro'DerluoJ sptnblrrJtlto lle leql .rr^a .roJ qJ!q.rolu! iSuEDe^luo tou suoslrPdluo:l rtl.{rql sp'rrpds ssaldn .uawalgaql tulreduro) 7 lartdetlt .Motls suoslledluo) uJq^ BulisJrJlulrroru sr pllos srLuoJrq urqr\ spnPdxe tl rrrP^/\rPql rrPJrql rus tqlJo lq8lr^{ eqr sJnrrl rrrrlr rq or prD^Dsrp sr qunrr rql urq^\ e^rssrrdui srLUoDqiluo pe.lO t8prl^{ouI Jtr!lurtrsSurrue^pe pup surnq pooM lellt pr)ltou sBrr!Jq 3u!IELu .6I '))uJlrs Jo tJrdsp iir^r Jo lrEd e snql . oslEtnq uo!lelu..ruP) SunlpuPSulIoLus urr^\rrq Iu!l p Jo tur^ors!p:qr ol pil leLJl uoliplndod IPrrurB rql Jo rsotli qlrM s.llssPlf sdlqsuoltel:)r 3u!Ir)s iq uollpLUroJul rzlupBro fut sts!tLrrlrs ot NOIl.Alos01sn slquuJ prp^lotdrts luEliodrulop suoslredLuo) u.rp suosrJ€dllro:) 'r.oJU! 3o!SuprrpJo.)NqOUINI sl.{ei{ cuo s! uollB)l.ltouPsl SulredLuo:) uolleui.u!lJ!^ IrruEJ Sunl Jo srqpq rqt Jo rrosuPdnror e sE/|lrI lJlpllos.

n)n0ulr!i' lrr fact. a abundanl iD thc caflh. ablcro withstand nll arrd rhe iiiifiining malor mcralsarc sodilrm..l)oiassi!rnr.lLrlonn)t)ilcs. c_!1t!itll. to l1)ckets. lhc makingliold but at )cr't by c\pcrinreirlint about thcnl) dlcy nradenlany discovcrics...rtil(.il is prcsclrl scawalcrar)dlhal means ol il. morc chcDrically alr strDply in thcrcis alnlosl cllclless minum. btlt in becausc is so aclivc chcDrically it coDtrasl iron and stccl.rr( Juc irLtn'\tcllllrcl) l(' thfsc inir)'.Like ir)rr it is n)li. mn$nclilL. ] and rusl rcsislaDl than purc iron.\ r(' lechnique cinrvcrt 'brq( mclal'. lron.pcdscicnrislspff1()thc thcl drat i()n is a nlaior contponcnlol thc a'anll'scolc.lsl li. In thc spaccagc.AlthoLrgh is lcss magncsillm cnlergcd ar inll)ortal)t as 1940s.'nlr.kr . Irorr is vcry slrongly magnclic. Lighler aDCl slroDgcr lhnrr slccl.)ld. Thcscqualilicsmakc it uriclirllbr airplar)cs. iron pyriie is oftcn callcd lbolt gold bcca sc oflhc sinlihrity ol ilt cok)r rc ilsclf gold. (lhal is.lhcy rrcvrr\rcccc(l((lirr wilh lhc mclal\ (irr j. lhc nlost wiclcly ulcd rctal." likc ledLL g. ancient Grccks. chcnli(ally nrctal lhal is vcry activc PureiroDis a rclativcly sofi. (i har(lcf t() cxtfacl tltnn alll' aclivc.thc cxtraordinarypropcrlicsol tilaniurt have nrndcil Lllc llcw wondcr mclal. which arc morc durablc l)ol useci ul)til a ccnlury a8o AILlminllft is thc mosl abundanlnlctal.ahnrinuIn is vcry IiSht at)cjlDolc rcsislilt)tto corrosi(nl. (x) active (lhcy rcacl vktcr)tly wilh rittci]l(ia usc ilr corrstrLiciioD. It is usrlnllynlixed with olhcr or elemcnlsor conrpoL)clsro form qugyssuch as slccl.20 Compdring Shott Reading as al1dfind as nrany colrlparisons you can. Readlhe following passagc The wonder MetAk scarchcd for. l)l rit(.a Thi sludy of melalsbcgan in lhc Middlc Agcs when alchcnrisllj l. 'lnihe il nrclal. but il wars and difiicult lo cxtract.who only spcculated All bul 20 of the over 100 elemcntsidcnliiicd to dalc are mclals blrl only 7 of theseare common in thc carth'scrusl. chcmically .lcd irr. housc and lraius.and thc la(llhal the earlh is a il4g_Dglt lip.silvcry it combineswilh oxyAcn to clgoclc or form rU!!). calcitrDr.i lccurrin!(rrmpounLis rorc:l:\u(ha\ hcrlr. shjnlqls -stccl. is rarcly found in thc frce stale (not combiiEil rr'ilh olhcr rielals) and nrusl bc cxlr. it is Drorcrcsislanllo corrosi(D. sidinS.1nd hcal. fromnalLrrallv ('f Thc bcauliful cok)rs ro.

sJJrr iJIlp toLr pue sarluelr(rs rlJqt Ja^o)srpol sLLrJll oJoruro o^^1Suru[rrpxr sr Suupdnrc:) IIUVdWO) OJ HSrr9NA DNrSn IZ SuuEduro) .14t u . lLlqll o1 Fals slel3tu raqlo IIe < ulnulunle :eluppunqs ' ' ' 'IpDUt )Uttpuhqb .ululnlv lt1tLt sl sleleu raqlo iueur < uorl :ssatilJos 'tos tt l.[o [tulrl ul$t4t la asnrraqpp6 s.{eMle si({ lnq ieru iilupdruo:) .allrid uorr :roloc 'ploi ot toto) s .JLoJ s.krJ Iaals pup uotr < unurunlE l5als pup uor! < unununle ot lu)Jtslsat puD rtout ltnAsl unlututkl)t putrLto.)Lrrr4Jtpuo srlerlLrrJtri)r ilu!lsDrl -oo) strluPlrursLro itPlLl.N!IUEIJICI CNIISYUINO3 runultunlE = UOJ! :SSauIos ' ' ' '[os st luulutunlvl ]t Ltofitlt'I plo8 .loo!pdl]Drua{o alltlil Lto.' ' ' 'lLintlunlvLtb|t ulnulurnlP > unrseuSPru :aruPpunqe ssal tl !u'a tql ul ptltpunqt s1la ltsduqo lt qlha\lv :uolsoJroJol etuelslsat tssaulqSll ' ' ' '/ktltl/.ll ts unJ ur .$u fua^lls tla[lLrlrJ st uolt trnd " slqetu reqlo IIP < uor! :asn '' ''|D!AU prsn'1:PP\/A aqt I lsau SAf. s gIIIUY'lthlls DNravdr\io) s. .

b thc mclling .Irry has thc clopper uold havc similar meltirS poinls. . Mr.. I In comparison iron. Lnotas sofl as ) . Rcadthc passagc the sevei ilalicizedmetalliaccordirg to thcir mcllir)g pojnts.I mching noinl /1. jmponanr asJ Las r**. In contrast iron. Lisl thc nrclal wilh lhe rrrjre...i r u ' ' 9 . i ui.. a|1(l lowestmclling poinr ofall the metalspoinrofcoppcr slighlly is highcr lhaDgoldard lowerthanDlalinunr. from ) Ldiff€rs unlike iron.nerar.J to fheavierrhan l than Iron is llessabundant I aluminum." - hqll"'.'...} s paraler | ] sr)\.r. I ' i . grld and approximatclythrlc timcs lhe mehing poi of rrdirrr. u {relarivelv .22 Comparing SentancePattefts COMPARING SIMILARTTIES frire u . I | . n n . aruminum in mdny D CONTRASTING IFFERENCES fis unlike I from Iron 1is dtfferent I aluminum.'.. l(omparauveiyl l bclow () dc(crminclhc oftlcr ol UfiderstafiilingCompansors. }"urr.on '.'". is lcsslharr half the mclling loint of that of chrotfiium. The mehing poiDl ofplnrirrrr is high comparcdto nnsl melalsbut not as high as The mehing point of zir. Lo I alumrnum l'8nr' 's lo cornpared iron..

rdord lErrs.(llpprr slloslrcdluo) trs llrlurlpls Jql sJlJIdLuoJtsJq leqt rJMsup rql .{rl^er8JU!)ods iL riddo) pLrp or niuedu.rls D s! rrooo.\.rpu) \nrp?.(qd ]lPqr III u! nollEltrroJul rql ()1Sulp. .'rurlftrrpBr lPnb.r Jo ll 96' br'l lt l L<( s9L LO6 9962 1. sP ^{ol sE q uer{tra^^ol P iru r re \lelJu. t iu | u c i l l ' ' q d n r : ip r r P s r r e r P .) ttl^t).Ior -rp .I'I Lf..88€ IZf IJnJtrW -(unlllrpPt <zl ntt bE'I I.)f (l 'IulodilrrllloqqBlqe suLI ullluper'funJrau cltl a Z 'fun)r.lrll \ n r l l c u J o r L l o l r p l u r ' .1(r leql Jo sPqBILI lou se O s? qJILIsP e lrurclp ILI| I sl (unlu.'I 9ZI 96 0zn €901 096 €801 (r") tulod 6ultltw 09€I (98 NI'L )slz lI clnor9 PIOD D^lls rrddo3 I dnor9 Tlzz t6I E'O I 68 (v) (r) (r. rln'uDJqt jo \lurodJu||l.l Jo lEql or rellu. lo snlpPrrruor JqJ 'I d uD .. )l[lrads rql sleri)w xts Jo salu..rur 'sllrtodBLrIIoqqilq - ^ enbi q r^eq pto8 pua rtddo) 9 ilqprPdru'r) p IBrUmpl q 'JLII g arc )u!z pup LunllupoJ seluado.. 4 q r L 4 q b l D 6 u l s n lr "l 5z SutrEdruotr .r( Jo )Lllrids '- rl3lrl ^lo^llplar u B l$q:irll rLIl q 'it!^Br8 sell ploB 'rlqel slql uo slerrtu Dqro cqt C)lp pdruo) t relluls e le)0Llrp! cl )rlJ € tunlulpp) Jo .qr J.

Thereis morc than onc way to wrilc each anslver. Atlanric Occan-22./otld'swater: PacificOccan-46% 6. kangaroo-16 ycars cat-23 ycars 3 .10 comparetca aDd coffec. 5.l5 months percentof y. 3. surface lcmpcralurer Mcrcury-3to'C Vcrlus-475oC maximlm life!pall:. bur coffcc is nradefroDr a bcan and tca is prcparcdfrom lcavcs. geitalbnpcriod: elephanl-21 months giraffe. applc(mcdium)-75 cgg. you mighr say. comparc thc items in cach ol lhcsc pairsorally ilr or)cor Notc $al thc itcnrshavc somcthingiD comnlon. is tbcnr.For cxanrplc.9% credtifig compddsons. and a microscopc a lelescopc a submarine a dolphiD and bnd a calcula(t a compuler a descnand a juDglc a photocopier ar1x-raynrachinc ard . 4. 2.800km 5 .l4.I2. cakxies.for odrcrwisctherc two scnlcnccs.70 diameten moon-3.z4 Comparing Creati g Sente ces. "Borh coffcc and lca arc drinks. l. Writc a scntcncc comparinglhc itcursin cach oflhcsc pain. Inchrdc al lcasl onc way thc ilculs arc similar and onc way lhcy arc diffcrcr)t." l.480 km canh.A goocj way $ makea coDrlarison lo would be no poinl in comparin8 begin wilh whal thcy havc iD common.

{q^lclErprluurl P . se^{xq8tru eqr :. L0l^ si)Lrtluis iilrlMolloJrqt Jo qrur u! sluelq rql ul IIt! (plo8 upql elqBellEq.lto d suosueduol sv puo a{\il .1^puat Jo sr)llsoMt illl 'r^ltDfpe up li)UE pLlu iroJrq prsr oslps! ry 'Ies I sPop 'op I sEop l/uod po..pro.lsllurlrs E rM s{ulql eH urlolr u iroJiq pi!I] s! . lou sl re^lls CSuolIIIEnbe era^{ Ipp puE lqSlu oql) 'Ipp aql sr Suol '.r sl le^lts) ssal 'pIoBsi rlqEelletu s.srop uorr lsm lolr siop IoIrrN / ----t!* 1r)iiolpiq sl lqSll tsoLulr? un!liH 9 'Iil)lu lcr u ^^eiq e sl rlPqol g 'uoltour pilplrls LrclMrN'ruiq )rcJ)q oaIlBD 'SJJlndtuo:) rvu.4 rLIl'qrr^ .MolloJsrunouordiounourqtJrlrlg :pDsnst3.ilrel lou p sl'lrrdttloJ Llrrpow € 'op slsllLrJlJs turl'Illrnoxatolr plp stsltuilJs)iiirD tlrilJul] iqI 'l!'li(u oe 'urnlssut(xl !Je)le sl z Et 'tunlpos l '14llto slc pub e\l"l 6ulsn t.14 spro^'\ rLIl Jsn ^0uirlbJ{ : u 1 1 0 U o .)Lll ruiporrl .r7 'ff pur?.^1])r!pP ul rqt pcirq iiu!rl)1.

irlro.r]will. Many livcscouldbc savcd nalLrr. be stretchcd scations eachunil.in thc fca(lilrils lcclurcs' from scrrtcn(cs.yoLr wher your concentration. othcr clucsto hclp yoLr ll)atchcslh( vocabulary in Cortexl. lhc surroundingscntcnccs paragral)h the meanrnS: cold is a ductile metaL one gram of gold can be dlawn into a wlre 1. cxplosioD 4. unijlanrrcd 5. caDconcludc Fromthese or pulledinto wirc. thf Sonlclimcs seDltnccilscll alwayslry 1ofigurc oul its meaningfronr ils con1ex1. occurrcllces a. givcss(nncin(licatiorrof or Al other times. rust of lhc lhc srllrsided. Thcrclbrc. bufnrng causcd.?c. yoLlwill havcthc (hanceto li8nrcoLlt of In the vocabulrry yot can usc alrd Thclr. conlairs a dcllnili(nr: silver sulfide. whc| exposcrl air arrdnn)islurc.1ld of damagc. healirg nnd s(rch if 6. to 2. b air circulaliorr a. lr' ('xcltcnlcllr a.tullyand warm duc lo imfropt:r ventildliatl. Thc room gol s. word mcaLrings thc undcrstand wor(1.ous b. a black chemical substance.8 miles in length' you that a drclilc nc(al is one lhat can two scrrlcnces. when thc flanrcs colll0uslL0n. Circlc lllc lcttcr ol thc answcr lhal L)csL sclllcrr(cs in wo as it is Lrsed cachol lhc follt)wirlg ol meaDing tbc ilalicizcd il becausc is so dLlLtnLlntll lhal is i|rcxpcnsivc clcnlclrt L siliconis a nolrnrclalli( aud rucks.s canhqtrakcs hlrnicnncscould Lrcprcdiclc(1. rcsources . planntd a. policcinvenigalcd cnusc Lhc 3. rarc @ plcrrrilirl iri. b. shinc a. Ll.:rd .26 comparing READING SKILLS VocabularyBrilding will n or Interrupling reading leclurcro look up wordsin a dicli(nrnry break shoLrld yoLrrcador heara ncw worcl. forms on its surface.llprercrt. The spantan. iD mincrals a.

{xotsulitqlrt-sr^to^ul slPleulltl P sSorr{l 8ul^!t q 'rrle.lnspoaitilr4d v gt pjll$r 'P p0urlrlrtlq 'rrlerM ll )Iurll ol rile/urul piJtl-rp pltl6fui6iiqJ g I sEM urru q .. lsnltl stsliirnllsFiu'runulun.rr. 6 I o1 srrlllluled ! stuplnrulN 1l 'sLrollBraoo Aueul p)ol'Aulo! ' 8 1 t)t2 roJstrll)qrsrue Duld ul pcsniSutrq stllr4lsau' lerDuriJ.) 'pmDll e ol pllos u /.Z SutrPdruo:l .._ qriic e .u no^ rPql uotleruroJu! suleruoJ .u u! plre pupl uo r^ll lelll rr/rsltrtro rre snPlqlqdtuY rJDPU nnr^rl I Pnnlq -slpru]trs pup srupldlle Jo &rsrldrlr]/ rql LIIur3^xo sl rrrql " ..{llllrre) pcro]siq plnoqsrullose9 ' 0 2 -. uoruluo) torrlnq snso)slp illuttr Jlllf. llrt 9uo1qlluv L l crlt :uoirru.nlelrlPru cql )qaifl-or ilqesr^ppsr rt '!rsptr luql ut p.rx.{llerrsuIllM noI 'rrlrrt)s Suripnls urqM 6ulw rpls .oordtrrJ p .Spssed SulperJE } A{oul ol luu^\ .{orlstp q c^orx)r 'p _ 'cilirieq uojl ll .2rrrrl s.lotu . 'r^ltrnpordiroru t! aletu o1libsrItLII.?llrpul'.{ roJ ppq sr tlaws 6uuD4ul' 0 r 'q nulqlErrq P rrorrPlnrrlr ro|rrTdrrr uPrunH ' 6 rprxorp uoqre) 3ur'€qt5 puE ntB.lturel tl aijueq|q ssrlcsn q 'e .jaqv tutbl[sl \ asneTrq .re LIrItl^/r'srllnqns luP puP rllu Jtll p€ox I :r8pssL'd trlDs oI'srlr uor sllJo PtprIEDurg e lrg !}1ne I!3LrlpPrr e lno{/r.rrtlsroJselJlqt^ rJfu9'I ' I I ur BurqtpJlq q n1o&tlqtPerq P 's8unl rno.1tl ralerl ls)roJ q IDrulLrD luc39 lp)lurq|E 'zl 'saLrc DllPursueLIltulloseS.mqrs roJ qslFtrs t 'uo )npoour rql peiu -z 'sJucruuns cnlll tlll .rrDeq s3rupSuIlll-uled q ' 'plo./rrrr.rr lerlurrqrc .{ltsp)rru q)}Br ol rlqp q ... ugJ loaH ' € I fuPssr)ilr 'B 'sBulLIl 8ul^!l lle ol /rrl.u crlr:tqo .lo B s3r14) iiullt)i-r?l.

in lopic and thc inli)nrr.ncc o\ygc1r..28 Comparing L Rcadlhc firsl scDtcrlcc ofrvcry p. the scicnlists cachgar nn(llhc ycit o1(liscovcrics. anclhydrogeD. oxrdatron. and hLrnlan bcings crnnoLlivc withoLrl Thi\ slrLrst. b. lo d.gc half minules. rhoroLrghly ) lntcr t. 2. b.li(nr nln! .tcr comlrinc $. ol who discovcrcd d. coflo(ic.tion.onrbinc\ il i!irh olhcr substanccs a proccss in called oxidntioD.klcn.a subnance II rvilh a lovl'kindliIlgtcnr|cr.l i1.annol hL I \ailhoLrt lo it. a( NrlciToskima paragraph conclLrsion wholeb(rck. in Oxygcn vcry activc is chcmically. oils sith lo are all examples slow oxidati(D. odorless. Thcsanrc subslancc causes nrcral.is hcated lhe ibscncc l)rotrcr or in ol vclril.rilgraph.rc. Fo(xl.lnt)lc.rrv li{c to lll a urlrqlreway. and hyd()gcn(liffcrjion lhc othcrclcnrcnls. lo paint to harden. thc (rr 4.?r1 a. conlains mair idca. Thcn answerlhc followinaqucsLious. of (n Thc rapidoxidalr(nr ofluels carscs conbLrsLion. of nilfogcn. of nil()gcn.ilh oxvlcu Vcgclablc uredin p.rny thrrc . nilrogcn. Readlhc summary concllrskrt thc cnd of lhc pasiirgc. A11 oithe followinS topics discLrssedlhc passaltc arc in r. !astclcss room tcntpcrnrurr-cach ancl at onc is ]lcrcss. cs\c!1li. ihc charactcfinics hydrcecn. allhough not always.firc. lhe induslrial Lrscs oxyitcn.r(r. nrcaIirrg thaL fcadilv.. is n1r ingfedient air and waicr and lhc rnoslabuIdnnlclcmcnlin lhc ei|1hs cfU\1. For in)n rolntrinc{ wilh {rxfsci lrom lhc air lo producc ir(D oxidc.nd hydrogcn livinglhin!s. Thc\c 1ofofnrdccay. niuogen.rr(l w.nl clcnrcnls .rll orles\. and il1n lo rusr. lo woo(llo r)1. Readirrg TheLife-Supportitlg cascs llow lonJlcan a hLrnrdrr t)einglivc witholrt oxy|cn2 Whnt il thcrc wrfc rro nitrogcn the air?J!sl how irnponanl hydml.tcnl ir is Thrcc of our nn)slalrunda|lnn(l in|ort.inrqcon)lriDc oxygcn h. thc diffcrcnccs bclwccn(hc lhrcc Hascs. . how oxygcn. AlthoLrgh Lhcydrarenr. l:.lLrfc.and hydr'(rgcn. cx.rc rolt)n)pcrlics-. firc.s oily rag\.\id.rc rhc Niscsr)\)g('|. gas(tirrc bLr r. such. Tfy (Youwill bc givcnLinlc() rcadthe pass.al)l)lcs runrLJrrs. grain. ncwspapcrs. which Ircqucnrly. thc importancc oxygcn. Thc main topicof this readinS is: a.or rtrs1. Someli|nes lirc stins n sponlancously.d firsL rhe and olcachchaptcr Skim thc followingpassagc discovcf m.tion t() irs il contains. to do this all in thrcc an(l .o. a comparison nitrogcD of and oxygcn c.

lJ^IunJrll ur lurturlJ lLlepunqP 'rlP 8LII.{xo iqr nlrp ol tr)iJorrrlr r'rr^'\ Jritll Jl uollsnq ^lrpPJr riqro -llro:) uoildnsrou sropurilorlrLr'trojrr {I s))Lrursqns qrrM)Lrrqtuo.t\ori ol LuJ(lttllrq uiSo.{xo siiulJqLluttlllHL()ltlrlI(ls)l i^ll sillntltLu tlPqlJloLoi^ll x)uLlL)) rnoLItlM :rql ilLrr^rl Jo tusPI(io1(rd Lrlplrn(I sl uinlxo sl or lDrtu)ss.{lddns PLrE ':)tLlllstlol sc(llqt()Jll i)lJLll silnsslt Jrl pool iql LIIIM J^4l8rJLr))Llt iJupnPold 1M rlrrLl^^'uril.L0 tllrM sr1.tlrouiq(l sr 'ralBMsprlqlo4 aJesalpoqlno 6Z Sulredruo:) .rJur lo .rlspoolq.r^lrEr!dL!lol LlJSorlltl'urilxool lsE. LIi sl il.'(xo.)Ll]LIIur3.rlllos s.pup JiiqJ sJnssrl IDLLIILIE lupld llE lsorulPuI punoJosllrsI urnorp/\H Lunrliq ollll LL)iJorpftl uorsri^uoJiql sr .LN.L sp qrns !31up )pnlrtrr spunoduror rrqlo rrp/'!(xl nB PLIP tr:8orl|r llrEtu rsnPrJg ln.trlprrlrrl' rq ol sl)url rr l]lrrluil) rrtllo rlll^ lrErr srop LrrFoIlIu 's nrDrrdruJ] rq qjiqJo dlJq r{lr qrr^'l'rr^.leq(rl ollrl srssPd Luu.rlru ululuorsrJzllllric uollcxriurnoilllrP{lEr p.^ oq urtlM Jlqlssoclrul plno^\ n lloLLIs plrp 'r'.lJ^(loJ ssaror(lc iq JlLlls oslP or ntrr^rl 1Pl1^ sr o)ilorlrN sluurtLrc slLruld sBLrrql ut!1rro) rriiloilrLr IIY l]!ru 'dll^llre lPrls^Llo ol rno ululurulll l)rrll )rnluri(hu)l .ql sr trpoq ir|] ot pi)rr.lltrol 1o! srop ll'sl l!ql lJ^nr!Lrl '.trnsrnO urSorpill r. f!ru stLltltlPlio llu 'tlollsnqruo) slloJLrulLlods os rrLrr'ilsqns lPql.rn(l lsorulu lo lvrlu Jqr sr rrJSorpIH puE Jr! r.{.'{lprdel rn))o :)Lll o)trlslsrnq srtll sitlrolJ pi)llDr uoLr.[)t(lp]rporlor plrlo^'lslErJtU lsq ilrttrr''rxi )q PInoM l.{lPlerpuP '.nl Jo trorlsnqlt()r o(r Jr| 'iqrprrq r^^ rtu .I{I lIikrrrs.4poq ol .rl or spLIn(xlllror prlPstuPId Lliaq sPquJtolllrl Jql LIrltlMtll spllllo(lluoJ iJll sll ol uJl.l'rMoclir'^ ur prsn rre trrql 'rtqPlstrnrrD sPurlodtuor 'sls.ru) pLIe 'rrriJ.rDrs uns rql rs.!rnbll iq rlE rql LLl()lJ pilrlrlxr 'srllorqrrue'suosrod pue'(rPIxo sP3 snorlILI) SLrrqBnel srnJlllsrue rq ulrr LrrSorltN J)iIl sr^rsoldxr .

r 1 ( )g i v c l h c l l u i s h . i J . t c nh . L 'r h . i r . w U n c l e f i l a d i n g t h e R e a d i r g . S .| t . b I O x y g c n . FlLrnnn 6..hyrlrogcn Donllarnnriblc.dcol do jn 12. It is imposslblc f(r'a llrc l() starlsponta|rcously. Tllc cslcnlial ingredicnr fcl1ilizcrs hydfogcn. r L v L i . .lIL . l h c .rts a licc stntcLrya pfoccss to callcdsl)ontancous lo rrjlr)grrr vcly. I1thc air wcrc purc oxylcn. r c l h c c h i c l c l c m c n l ! o l l h r a i r w c b r c . wilhout hn nirgoLrr 8. h o l L h c s c c r l c n r c s . r p r o t ) c n i c \ . !o 14. s s .3 0 Cumpd. . r J / c r . bcjnls can livc Lrplo 15 nrinlrrcs wirhouroxygen.(rlvc is 7. n i t r o 8 c n . 4. r l r .b o r o n l y o x y g c n i s 1 csscnlial 01ife. r n r n . 5. g e . dullncs! shine . wood lo fot is nol thc sanic. L c l u l r c a c l i r U l r h c p .crsc.N j l r ( ) ! r c | r a n d o x y g c n . O L r rc x i s l c n c cc o u l d n o L L ' ct n . o[ L Thc dccayilrg ftxx] isancxnn]plcolrnpidoxidation. l | r i r . \ i l i s r L s c d r c r . Comt)arcd oxyltcn.I t i \ t h e l i g h t e s lk r o * . Nit()llcr'r Lrsccl cxplosiles is in in I0. | l ' r .ing a r e m o r c a L o m so j h y d r c g c i l i D o u r b o d i c s l h a r a r y o l h c r c l c r r c r r b c ( . llydrogcn rhe nron ablrndirnr is clcnrcnr oLl|l)odjc\L)ccaLrsc l)(.rtjc\ oLrr is ll. l) c(trnrast hclium. Thc. Scicnrins DorkDow urhil lhc sun is Dr. l i p l . o l h c i n l b r m a l i o n i n t h c p r c v i o l r sp a \ s a i t cA l i c r a c . . Nitfogcn convc. u \ c o l ] f b o d i e sa r c a b o u t t w o t h i r d s r v a t c r l H y d r o g c n i s a l $ J b L I i r r r o s t l i r c l r n r d i n n l l a c i d s .l c \ r y o u r c o m p r e h c n s i o n y f i n d i n g t h c c r r o l i n c a c l rs L .. E a ( h o l l h c f o l l o w i r ) gn a l c n r c r i l si l i r r c ( ) r s i 1 l c n l i l h . p r . f l . wc couldall snrr)kc h(rlrh bceansc rs so stablc. n c l c m e n t a n d i s h i g h l y f l a n n n a L r l cH c l i L r n r s .a n d h y d r o . c i t . [ s w c r L I L ] Lt r c s l n l i l c h c \ l h c i \ m c a n i n So l l h e i l a l j c i z c dv l o . 1. ". l c n l c n la n d r c n a t i n gi 1 ( o n l c l l y . 11. i \ l p $ . v c s i n i l . o c p o l i s h c dt h c c . s(bslancc lhal carscs Lo causcs. H y d r o g e na D d o x y g c n a r e t h c m a i n ( o n n i l u c n l s o f l h c w i r l c r w L ( l t i r r k . in is LISTENING SKILLS V o c a b u l a r y i n c o n t e x t . l r r o s l .r\lhc orlc th:11 2.r. it 9.pprcs rurlr Dr{)wn. Oxygc| is thc DloslaLruD(lanl clcnrcnt LhcLrni!. . t"ll rl. l c l h c l { : l l c r o l l h c . .

\r.4 noi ssep ul ur)qr iciq no. r!trqlu^s^uPW / rlrJs q tsnJ ...c ur...)qnr.)s !urqr fIr).{ llr. roJ prsn sr rrddo:) ' .lo soJplLIeLU pjo)rr ol sl sJlouilutlpl Jo cK)dtnd rqt iqJ 6uDloJ-atoN srJl .r puc f nr{rrtl|rr.B 'iLtliiut rqlJo slrerl u! l/o]'0.\jncxq \t..ql iztlri{o)rr tBqt os snu)l Mru ol no.{tlrulJtlr pllp rErq srophpuot t2qel.J.1.x'r li. s.) q '.r rt SuuPdruo:) .4pnts oq/!r rsoqt roJ )rp lclllrissi lnq slrrprlt9 llr?Jol lnJJsnsl llulpearJtd JlnlJJI ssslJlnol rtolrq litdsqj {ooqlxil rnol pe nolJr silou.{ UJLI^^ iJnpon t llt/v\iiurpair)rd 1$lJ riiontupl uill (I e ur 3ur.qrI.) rn '.lUiljiliiit Jq uE. I I dot .'slclJW 'llprrr rol (Mop rlu^ ol pi r no^ rrl^'I snroJpr[]rrdor 0Jo L() nrru(lolr^ip./ror prsne) peq plre rrll 9 sPuetliqtlM q sqrosqe P 'ts|u slrljr_r tDql IPtr(u e sl IiJ]l ssrlulets g .|y^l'aI Jo $llslrilJerell) q $r$n s 'rlllulr ii! slett(u l^etLl 'Zl llt2to sa\adoLdat-II pnq$sqc q prleodr|s rnlP^ iLIt ul Prlrrlpr spM nsnoq iqtJo Jllcurl rqt.r).rrlcl ruJt0Mrl^ ./nSJLII uo tpolj sBriqDl ol sru!qs e ----_ surl..l .'. tlullsel iiuol .roIpnls ol rJpro ur rrnFil c. nDalJqt ot Lt)tsrl sDsrlou iIpJ noi .q1 ^^oll(l non(llrq IIr^^ sltll rrcssrlrq] jr)s rJuorrlsEq rqr LlltarnoI ..qqe1i5i.1Lu J\u.1p "P fu.q rlqeleirq 'al!p.!rl tfl.^ puEroDnpuo) pooil e sr tr rsnE):)qiluulM rltlril. tr.q JnJ0nDiq e 'ipeJ n) Iupqs tou lllM pue L()lto) uuql .lu1qs q pJuurts ^trselc rtqDVDut \t ! .rrllrq rlel lll^ nol .q urotloq ! 'LTEi))O iql lO 'Jr/.vu''rt rct Itrr{lLIt'c).)tqc.tr rr. r'.)ilq ! 'rrry'r"rurrl isnP)rq llturnbJ{ pnll$ll{xl ol spDori^lls tJ iq pirpFli|p Piolqtuo) ! 'lJils iJrlpord ol uoil LltlM Pri(o//./qr.]ls.rj"7//'rrr rq I .. sl uoq./r?p itoru e srlrqq.r!f..'JSr-XJxJ rxrn rql ltrldruor ol s)lolr plrp rrrol JsnLIJLI] snorrJrd iLIl.ul ' t n\ l ))uep0nqP q ilneloqs 'e .

r r . Comparc Amcrican wilh onc lrom anoLhcr an . 2. r l r Li | 1 . imagine. 9 .12 Comparing Unde$tahding the Lecture.rnra|] brain.1rc anrons .11)!r)(l.lif.lnrnrc(l lo lfanslatc liorrroDclaDguaitc arx'thcr. . . l i ' / | . bcginwith lhcif sinrilarirics Lbrnt)()ir1r l|(if (liJ]0firxl cnccs. . . .rlcrs l)ccul)rogf.. an." ln whar sucb waysarctheydiffcrerl? Docs A hirven C. 7 . l l . havc I comparca conrputcr Llrc and hr. l .orklltan\hlp. and coppcr valuc(i theirlun(r nrxl scirtcil)'. nrike iLrdgnrenrsi rhcf and will be ablero analyze.r . Purcsilvcris a rclalivcly ntl rrrclal. cold h. silvcrtanrisircs.comlbrr.llloy ol riDa|]dcoppcr. you L Comfarcthc foodsof lwo couDlrics know. . Why are thcy (lillcrurL/ 4.Co0rl)r.lls 1 3 .1 fopular lD your counlry. ' . fowcr. .nulcsonrc ior fihr silvcr con )Lrnds rellccl liithr.rsr 3 .lectric is it (or\(lucror Coppcr uscdli)f clcctric is wiriugbcrilusc is a lrctrcr it than gilvcr. m f l I \ r .appcarancc. cosr. BroDzc.rrrl DISCUSSION POINTS (nr1 To compafc itcnrs.nrc thar is polLrlar lhis connlrywilh oDclhil i\ . Copper as malleable is nnd duclilc 4 . rcliabiliry. r r i | l r .s a t)cautiftrl loncr bLrlir is nol r\ (hlraL)lc silvcf as 6 . wifilrgbo(ausc is nol (lt](lil(. Usc your notcs to dcrclrinc lvhcthcr cd(h oJ rhc .lsinlo gokl.oLrnlry. .Avoid v. colLli\ lhc Drosl ol chcnrically. are for nrcl.clivc nll thc nrcral\. Newlon was dre firs( to srrcceed changirg ill l). thcy cvcr bc al)lcl(r lhinki will thcy n)ilhcDr. "Car A is bcltcr LhnnCar ll. 5 . r ( r L .1gue statenreDls rs. l r . play chcss.1rl(l solvc lo 1o lo p()LtcrDs. . Drnkc dccisions. crcatc? or in 2. be ableto desigD. w i! . hr conrranrc Fol(i. r r .silvcr. lhcif car Coulidcr aD(lra. Comparc sporlor g.silvcr. ' r u { r I .Cold. an(icopl)cr. . T I Gold. silveris Lrsed pholographic bc.r rnorc specific |owc ulnrolor?irslr)|gcr [xx]y? a iaslcr pickup? Bt rte. haf(lcflhirrr(irhcf rirrol is oLrrrrn)sl irrrr. t 0 . Golcl r)ol uscdlor L. .11r(l eo|l)cr. Thc propcflicsof silvcr rcscnlblclhosc ol gokl . t 2 . l . r .ltical complcx Will cvalrarc. r .

rrlorc 6Z-8Z'.)rI tPqr op rl)u) lrPr lErlM tlclutox)qd u plro iillllltll'd P 0dtuo] g I €€ 3ulrPdLUo:) .4rrrL'rtn!UrlpLIEtLInr.( oq ti^ill uer pue lle(mulluor Llr ll rooll ou sttli)ql lrrq'Lrii.4 oltq srl(tucxi )ql pei)u 'iull 0 lp )llslltDelcLlJ illo suloll tlloq rledtrcl re povlrr{ 'pLloJiS iLll Jo lDllslltlJU.Jl's! illP nDo^)It rLIl dn trjlq ^{oqJoiJolettu sl-(Lu ll)r '.tro ttc s.)ilr slu^ )ou sr ulsp lr? lctltlp ptte tlols p LlrrMlrq i)LrirlTJlprtl-L 'rlrur l|l pisI sl polll rr rlrlqMrulutri]ip purr.)'.t.]rrqrunu 'qunot sl! .l!'ll) iL0 rrlrll pu! [rr]l lsrlj tlllJo sjllspil)glDqr tLIl tqu)tta :l paqpw rsruitl iirliu(iruo) Jr) sfollttlu )!seq oMl JIB Jltql s(uill ilotu Jo oMl ilooltlu l.q srt 7a l).{llsor)r(xu.snJ LIxrq rLrn|])lnrc llrilor pIq .. 01.lIip UDLII tliJnoqrlu uu upql.{ JI 't()llls(xl sll lnoqu {ulql uP) noi sie/\^ iq oMl )r0 Jr)ql rolu^ili LIpJ{) Iulql'Jlduexil u0 sv p)lullsL()tuip LlBrll lnq 'poorsrrpuniFr.ns .IIXS 9NIIIUM alotllIPJ riqlo. srlll.'LLInu. nol rql r(){.ro.{Jlspirrorrsrsr!Lunllufuiilorpill.ploM 'lrlllolllr Jo ouo 'rl)lJ .trr(n) lPrlar |loi.'(lolsrno.1.qllt sl rl uolllsod lellSlp tul^!3 rle nol'.t qrluM.trrJ rillu tql qrluil iLIl 'sl leql srq) r ( /t-sirnseilu tl il urulxor(l(lp) vr9 'rillu p qll^4 trnscJtu pLlo']uttutsLiq 'Lrolll()d iJoluucsll iJu|lllsoJrrJq lll.Auq no^ Jl LIJ^J -slps!rrqlunlrrooLlsr!illqM '1|)srrrrd prrnse. rl ll (ln qiirl Morl Isu no.nl.\tt1a.josltuoJrrDro.ro .rlllppLrc 6ultvduo) S.(n)uprllll rLIroo r.I..dd '(t861 'slluM ulnuPrr :vo^ ^\rN) urfiv .4r !p.xll.rullruls Jo oo$isn)s!p s lnbtl uolio ilulllrMrulllril)s iLIr sDurl.Mlrq ^e^ ller{iq Autlr sruu^nliit.

Th€ first paragraph usesMefiod I.and finally forcost. Bcllinwilh a topicsentence statcs maiDidca. thecontrdry. However. TransitionWords In all writing.ften for stability.h astimitarty. paragraph The second usesMefiod 2.reover.n. besides and exDress comDarison Iikc ilcm9.iiJtnhtrt rransillon more. a oI vet. on the other hand.Thendcvclop rcslof rhc paragraph tha! fie thc to supponthe mainidea. The two itcmsare comparcd charactcristic by characteristic: lor fusibility.Frcqucntly. bur it is stable. inih.l4 Comparing is rare.Transition wordslhal indudealthoqh. Words relationships calledlransilion that clarifythese arc words.it is very imponantlo showhow thc idcasarc relatcd. il can be manufacturcdby bombarcling lithium with neutrons. is radioaclivcand can only bc found in traceson the earth. cantrast. Orhel word. Analogdatais described and digilal dala firsl second. Tririum.even rhough.. rhe o[ witlng d Pdragraph of Compdison Writea paragraph comparisou one of lhc Discussion of oD Points.usingMcrhodI or Melhod2 dcs(ribcd abovc. first a combinationof Methods I and 2 are used. in spite a]tl dfspit?.brt. theothcr are usedto showcontrast in an hdkd. nevethelest.although this method makcs ir morc cxpcnsivcthan dclr tedum. su. likewise. however. . same ay.

g€

'pPo.M rno Jo s,ftJ^^p!r! s?^\oq)ql rr^otrsrp Iqrrrql pup sNr^r pue .slJJlJJ srsnP) uorlJErr suo!lPntrs tJruuorol )JuJlrs pu! ureq) Jo qof Jqt s! lI lo snonulruorP sl llnsrr.)qI .strlotp Lunluprn rrqto rllds u'lnj Lrttpql suorlnrlr sesPrlor 'rrlcls LuorE s! rl rrnrrern Juo sv turl lpsnp)Io purl s[J)Jo :ldluexr up sl uorlrP rerlJnu v .prlLJlp Jo )sner rqt s)orlrrrq puo)rs rqt.to rJ{Jr Jtlt pop 'luJ^r prro)isP.lorsnpJrql srlrroJJq JJUJrrnrJo ruoJo tr:JJ))tll sJtrlllru()s slur^r oMt rtll lpql prurnssp touuer tr,rJtll?r rq iq1 rprlr,rrr"n rrll",]:ttJ;J; .Llt JIEnbqueJuE s! ,rrql Jt rrurnbrs ur p)urddlq ,{rqt rsncrrq lsn! rrqloue prsnP) lur^i Jrro tElll i)lunssE lo|I,la^r^^orl ol lnJclpr rq tsnlu slslluJlJs

p ^qeqp.p.^B',iu. oruns rr."' rq'srrq,' .,,^",,';]i'.l3.l"ili't r!)q, i'ili;]lr"J

'ildrupxr roC .uol)drunss!, t() p)s!q srsner3u!rl)rLLros s!ql sr crurt)s IIV .i)sne) ! IDrnluu seq lu)^r lunlpu ^li^r lpql ,sl tprll ,rrntpu ul itllEsnpJ .rrql tpql sl p)tso88ns snddlrni)t Dqdosol!qd Iirrg :) 1r,{rD1oa)-qttrl .DqJ) pur? rlll isnl]) roj tur)loolsrpnl)ur sFeJ)lJ!turlrsSuourrs(t!tlsuoltpl)Sullcrs Jo ss orcl ll

NOIl,)n(lou-tNI

punos pu0'1146!7 "tolo) peJJE pue esnE]
€ raldPq)

16 Causcand Eflecl Short Readiflg r'rs Lrclowlo (iiscovcfwhal caLrsts lo sct diflcrcnl (olors Rcadthc Passag€ The Nature of Color th( 'rnLl grnss Why is th( sky bluc nnd (hc grass lrcen?Why isrrl thc \ky green why is a nrserctl inncadof |urplc? whal wc sccns colof is lhc wav bhrc?arcl oi our bfanrsrcspondlo lhc differcnl rvavclcngths light (lifiercrrl fo n of cleclromailnic encqly thaLlravcls vcry quickly on L{thl is a which wc se( as difltrenl col(rrsFor cxarr|rc' n of frcrtLicncics, wavclcn8ths, ol (nm) caLrscs 1() vi()lelA w'velcrrgth 660 us tce r)l wavelcnglh 400 rran(N(lcrs ol w'vclcrrilLh\' by is us nn, causcs to scererl ThecolorLrrowlr in(lLrced drc nrixing ''vc_ Lry Ycllowcan bc prortucctl cilhtr ils own wavclcnllhof a rrixlrrrcol lht \ arrd ol oxygcrl nrolc(lrlcs i)luc bccnLrse to t.''tgttts rcd'unAgrccr. olrf sk) l(x)ks (olor' than wavclcrrglhs nny olhcr iu niLiogcrr thc air sialtcrn()rc Lrhrc

red oran9e gleen Dlue lndlgo

prlsm
of lionr a mixing of thc wavclcDgtlls all colors sir Isnnc whitc lighl rcsLrlts prism'lhc $'hilc a Slnss passccl tllrough thal whcn sunliShl cliicovercd Ncwt<rn thc jiro"rr"a inu, n tlt"clrunr tllcrlallowcd spccLrurll li8hl Ncw()rl otcolorcd iiot'r, ru"rnL'irr"l lr''rr'rrr! J l\1rrr "l ilir.'"*1 3 *6,' .11,,1.,' In(l lr( c('l"l' i., ' ' r n l r r r r s . rr'llt ( rhn , h * f l"." . i * f . r l . i i ' , . i ' r r f " , ) , I \ c r , m L n l J c n r . ) r ' . r r n t ( s1 i r . l i ; h L i,l r\'rlfl( 'J rlr'''\l r' $lr'r'r . , , i " . 1 l ' n . , . p r : r ' r i r n a b t . r . r L i t.rrrrl r J h J m J r r ' whilc surllillhr ,."rfiehrfalh u; d",ps of watcrir thc air aficra rairr'Thc bc'n ol inlo sDallcrs a rainbowof colors. ';.:";i;;;; than thal ol' shorrcr 1o ;;" invisiblc human evcs wavclcnSlh\ J t c ' k r r r c ( l l \u r v ( ' r i l l r ' ' r ' r i ( rl r i 1 1 ' ru \ i , , l ( | I ' r , , L l u ( cr r \ i r J \ | l i l h r ' l r . r r ( J r r J r n r ' r ' l; J r r r r nri ' r \ ' r . h : r ' , rr h c , , , l r n J t ' " J r r i c i r r t r r r cl' il F l l rr' ' r d i 'w r v r ' \ - - r \ " all(l blll wavclcnglhs' wc c'n nrcas!1rc by we .onnu sce.ulorsproduccd thcsc

sllet ulls prSeurpp .-

rq8!t rato!^plrln .!tsnv)/r)aNril

. Flo!^ Jo lPql ueql ie oqs sqlSuala EAr

( sD{J' ,asne)e cuoJJq LtpJt)rJJJuv) alJ.{Je S!JlAqt SorrllDr.r|os PUpSJSllrr)JO

,6tunp uttJtt4irq6llr)lo!^ 4k ar'ryord lo ttt1tut lr rruot4s stl;l]:;:ff, rtlol^
uaoJt puP per ro} sqt8uele^E^{ }o arnlxlru P aql
qltuale^e^{ ulllo sl!

+

^{olle^

(sDaJJt,{ueur rJnpord^!ur isne) roo pue'srsnu) ,{ueul ,{q pi)npor(l rq ^eur DJ}J;) rLtO xolduro) uruo rlp slraJjapLre liisriuO) 'w 6 pub par rolsqtl; itlt^tt^ aUl uuxtqt u ro 4l6uala^bn u^o l .ta|tlat:qp:,npakl )q uti ^rollr| lo

sqlSuale^En,o SuFlur p +

u^rotq tolor rql

( slJ4la JPr)Jrd SlPMI0 SiSn0J 'rt^JMotl 'tlolllu$ap Ag a)urlues rql Lrl asnBj tqt sJpiJDJd t)ajlr rL0 s urttruos) '|t|$uap^uM Io 6i.1tntu aq tq prtnp i uMa4 raloJ a\J laJOrA OaSa^t

+

ruu o0' Jo qlSurle^B^r

'ta|1ti ))s ot str sasnw(tua) salautouDu )ar lo tltEuatar,D D 'srttrorlno JqlrJstp slJrJla'su)(ldsq ,9rrrqlaruos urBldxJsrsnpl suollpntrs slur^r r}ruuo) stJ{Ja plrc sJsnel ,{qM lo

/

J)Adda aNv !rsnvt ^roHs or HsI'IDNa'9NIsn
/ t DJIr? DUe Jsne'r

18 cause and Effect ol white light rcsults ton a mixi g oI the wavelengths all colod. . . . Tlle bca of whhe sunlight splallercinto a tainbow oI ulors (Sometimes lhere is a correlati{mbclweentwo evcnls that is, ollc cvcnl the alwaysaccompanies other, 'vhcrhcr or nor thcrc is a causalconnccli()lr-

white light --+ a mixture of the _--wavelengtbs of all colors Se tence Pattens

A mixinsor.ll wavelenstls il"^li,'"j. I a whheliBhr. I . Lrnduces J by I fcauscd lduero I

ft**"' c l nII l'..',1

whhe lighl is { lnduc€d by

of I I a result by,, Lproduced

} a mlxing of wav€lengths

ffl Yhen I

all the wavelengthsare mixed, a whilc lighl is produccd

are A while light ts producedlwhen I all fte wavelengths mlx€d
LAS J

IuI

are Note: SoneoI theabove akopredktior akdcanbe.x\ersedwith thetuturetente.Fot exampk,"$ all thewavele ltht arenixed,a white (Ptedictio,ls beditctttted u,ill light wi baproduced." furthet in Chapter 12.)

'Cause ard Effect Thc Roman oralor Ciccro wrole, "Thc causcsof Identryittg " Inorc interestinglhar thc cvcnls thcmsclves In cach of lhc foleve.rti'ure-eue. underlinc lhe causconce and lhc cffe€llwicc. lowing sentenccs, l. When copperjs hcatedto 1083' C, il mclls. lhey absorbencrgyfrom fte sun. 2. changesoccur in planB \,r'hen

r\cJllrt uv 6i) le)lu.rr.rnrurt ll! rr .q] Jo pnnoscqt isrlcr llp rqt u! suo0etql^ 9 'rle rLIt ul puaq ol s.Ilr pup rsner MoLIs u! lurll srtrrrrllr:)s pisn ^llurnbrrJ st 'r.nroloiqt riilLrorlsrql 'rrr(u .1lcr 'ntnlejtdl(tit ul )se )ul uu isncj suolt)ccj lelrrurq) v 'rrort)D)r lp)rrlltq) e Jo iler rqt srsoJl)ul i.Josilrll iql .ql Luorl rlns.ttJo uolti)i)uuorrgt ro 'uonputproqns uolleulp.aplxolp uoqlsr pllos ijultt?itl !!to{ stlnsci se8v e 'sciie s npotd (rrl &p) .ror sisnB) JiteM o! plJeuu tul^losslc ! 'rrluM rI| pn^lossrp ot p!)e uu rsllBJ Jq liuol 'u 'rotuM Lrlpr^losslpsl pljo u9 uiq^^ pcluj(ll rju srlol z 'Jrltorid!uit iqt uuls|?JJJUI 1(l pi(npr.{crlqilll rsn€trsrBBrll^l q rlp iqt U!8ulpu)qslpt lqfrl Luo.uo tEqr os s. sl rrcJIrrour rLIl 'uootu )ql 'I iqt Jo IInd lelroltet!^er3 .^tlp8i)u c s.rnpord rllop p rltr^ qluor e 3lrlqqnlt ' 9 .lnlE.uPrro rq_L 'suole Jo uotlez!uolrqt J:)npursrlrlupd prSreqr 3u!^olu-lseJ :)8ipq) )lrp.r4Jo 3u!l]lnq.9 'ppu rl.iq prsne.snplr o^.rluEr III ol rnp sr rlprru sseduor E Jo uorlexr rql 6t IJ+JA pu! JsnP:) 't .ltdl(lJtarF llulserl)Lrl I 'soJltJluas ts:tqt Jo q)er Jo nuluuitu Jrll sJrl)tlru tsiq lgqt raMslleJqt.re saplts.il srilprlt{ p llnsil Lrer rle rql ul ijulpu. 'p.rsrqsv i plirj rrlruiJErlr s.€ Jo srull rLlt rn$l) iqt 'p ur(! rq ot sr.rqrp to.r rrdPr{ snulrl urnl sprrY ' E 'poo. .rl {rur u.l.rlP lslour ol pJsodx.lo r) rlrql JI)tr) sasbJ4dwbd aulput$Japun 'lqnrlJoLrollJrljir ^q pirnpo{ sr rolo:) ' 0 1 trll 'slsu ll Jrorll Jql'.q riiluorts sl plilJ )JrlJJli aql 'trsolr rru r)roJ Jo saull oqt uoqM .q sIlJ tqiJlliq prsner rte sriJellw E 'p erq urqM pllossLurlt iplxolp uoqre) q .rruiurrs rloJ0 llPd luuuodlur iql LIosnJoJ nol s^1ollB 01 uooelrrproqnsD.qp rlll Lrpqr tlrpuodru!ssrl ro ot rlEulpnxlns s] .lollnsrr e sr purMrqt Jo punosiq! q 'pul.4iql J0 llns u rre suotllrqhrv e 'pul^^.ptxorpuoqreJ pJlos SultEiH t lriilrorts iq ot plru rlnr)lr rqt )sno) oJrct.toqns 'soooarqr^ rru.

r l l c f c L r r ys h c .rrr. w a l c r w i l l n o l ( l o c { ) r l l ) o s c . : l l c d o i r 18. al 2.ldt^e.fd . ds.9'c . \ccondary.t\ lhc lhc ol word alirilysinlrodLrccs rubor(linalc lessinrIwo clauses. hLtn.jscd Lhcrrl{..rl.l. s c ( lL ) t c a L r \L h ev o l u m c ( l c c r c a s r ( l . lcss Thc or inrponanl. ol Recog1|izil1ll Subordifiatior../?rrr. W h c n c o | r ] c t s r [ ] c l c o r s c o l l i ( l c r lw i t h l h c c a r t h . Evcnwhcn hcatcd I000" c.tr1a1li4rntl]t. h c n .?rrrirtlr.. t h c c a l r . Usi g Suborcli ation.r diraLe sc. i Lc o n d c n l c \ r l i r c r l l y t o .. l 7 .efrirrcthereh no dir nt vttrttt 0n thc r?00r) is cxprc.y hilvc bcen rcvcrscd 6 . if. mainclau\e.Lrsrs inlo one lcnLencc that oDc idca is \Lrborclilr. s e s . c 8 I i c i r ( r r rd i o x i d c i s c o o l c d L o 7 9 " C .1l]s!. scnlencc ir l)cc.1rs LhcurainclaLrsc. ll) 4 . ThcnranrclaLrseofrhi\scnrencc. No oDcwas killc(ibccausc ivalanchc thc occLrrrc(l r)ieh(..s /rddir or wntr lhcrr. rombinf (hcts() (l.n whichnleans fiat il cansranLl aloncas.be t$t. \ \ c i l L h r ) U g hi l .lttd1..rt in thr rutiol i(tc. thc lJn(lc ir)clhc rnairl clausc onccand thc colrnccling wo(l LhnL link\ lhc rlau\c\ 1wiac.1t1 btitl!$ antlnot r/] //r(.i a\ .i\i1. \ t ) l i d .lzl la -lS 9' e IJ . is cqu. i(lcnlily rrrnin lhc clnLrse dclcrnrinin! bf which clnLrse conLnius cc|rlfrli(1c. corrucc()f bclrvccu nrcauili.r. bcli)re And.ondary 0r clausr: Human beings cannot live on the moon b€cause there is no air or water there. Iu cach()1 ii)llolvirrg lhc cx.rll). N c o n g i v c s o f f l i g h r n .lusc. ihhoLrgh rvoftl rhr is l]&rrrrr rx)l localcd bctwccrlhc claLrscs. n c l c c L r i c l r r r c n t i s p . Whcn silicorr addcdlo ifoo./.lc thc othcr. nraybc fevcrscd.40 Cause and El{cct il by purLing li a ./&1/r. iLslillnc(\asn conncrtor sincc rclaL!s it lhc nrcir|ring orrclo lhc olhcr.lLric docsnor cxpfcss conUletc a lhoughlb) itself. ot lr thtit. Nolicethal the word .n]. r f o r ) L l c c o n t c J' L L s c s r s l a D t is r rt 3 . A ! t h c l c m p c r a t u r ei n c r c .r|l)c.. r g r ) c t i Li c l ( l o l nl.rnrIlcs.rdrrc lr.tilon. h c. I . idea (l. E.Now lit thc subordin..1ain. scntcncc.orel:l to ll l)oiarrL say.lauses clr(lsc.rht: f/. \ r r . T h c g a s D r c s n r f ci n c f e .lc cl. h c r a L co l n c h c n r i c . c 5 . l r c a c t i o ni n c r c a \ c s .YorL so lo will ncc(l(o add a connectins worrl nrch al r1. caDnor It stanLl irloncas.1/rr'rn in rvhich)s Llqa dent/./rP/4 ot lec. whik thc lcssimporLanL . connc(ling Thc lhc of Notcnlsolhal lhc.1])l)c..rh ol lhc lollowiLrg \crrtcncc\.

. ! i r ^ r r .{qdoft)lq) L u u l r ) u ^p L I l n t l s s r l l J q r J pr0rrl Jq uDr punos ou :l)rJJr :)s'Ir) :trilj. r p .to l)rllr iqr spMluqM . r .\ aisu ot JituMiql Jo)rrrlor huit Jqi pisnur lu(l^.{ lr](lA.)ltr :i)sllur :isn3l :lr)il.{ 'prr urnl s)^!.ro^'l sl.{iJrrui lo./ a.{(l 'i\1. \ r l t r t .lo t))}Jrrrlt roM llqM urltpos}0 spuoqrqt iirrl\crrq.{LI astrllrdrqr nu|l. .{i uc..ri(RIil lt iJulsnu) i)ll1 jo f o() iltr ri lo isl))lrr J]. r u s u o r u r r t l r l o u r e I o s D r u ) i ) ^ D A l ) r ' n o sD prDrq sr otl)r UL' riiruro plrp '^{o r.r rqt.ri. .uru0 u)ql puc )rriLrrurdxi uD ollol rql ppru 'Ltdbr6orDd D ut tlaJJg puD asno) 6ula! 6Dad t()uonilll]srl n"Ur^ p qnrrrlll \iluor)q uosrr(l p :DrjJr uoqs oor sr llDq).surl.r l)isr1u) rql lcllM € z^nrrrr)Jo roqM Z auortroiri(lt dn p. { r l r .) . 4 rp U U( u n l p o so l u t I p J r q o t ! U i ( l l i l n _ u r \ n u ) ' s l i l l ) ( 1r l l p i l .i(l)rl.rlr iLlr srr\ l0qA\ .9 Io arJloM 'E Lrlsl)llr(lrprxorplq utntpos lt Ilurltn{l DrJtr )tprp Ultrr.M Io i)rnl!.L l r I D J q u o l L t rl r t u ^ { i ! r ( ) s l n d \ t u ) p n l s r t l s [ U r q ) .ro urlll oot sr nrrl p :Jsnr:) lrltM l l l J ^ l ( ) s s t ps t p l r D L r c :a! pj p i r L u o Jr .)rl ol . J .t s)lul)lrrr\rp II.srxrJrr(llllro) o\lp L sP.rLIr rcqt lllr.i a.iuirq )prxorp. .rr(i!!rI )rll p l r n o l i ) l l . l . t i .rptxoip. \ r " \ r t i r t t c . n . I :l). ..rP(l irurMou)t st(x)r qsrliluS rI pi)lllrot sProM rrc PrsnIIuorL[Uo) jo JluqUrqr Jro!\]) qtoq ro. t l t s .{LrPtt urDUr sl Lt)lltM'r(x)r rLrorj pru r)t sr pro^{rlsrl:jrrg upd r] rr uy 6u1p11ng tuo1nqmo1 S'ITI>IS DNI(IVgII .L.io rqt pUU srxLlrr(l ltlt ro 1. ') o Z Z i ( l o r r p u n o t p u L i r o i j u J i l u ^ r ) r | J o i l n l u .\1 .prxorp.lt p l[srr spuo(] ! rso(ltIo ilul]lu. i r r i . .1 r l t i .trtpM rqt Ji) rjnt!. .t rq ol . r r l 0 M . f .k)M.\'t r\LrJl).{lt^|l)u ot rurlrpor pisnLl:) iql tLnlM I a(ln:. r U .loor llp rql Mo or qrrqM'srxrtlns ro'x)oi )qt irol)q r(ror rlrrq'\'l. { r q t .u . r i ( i u t ) t ) q l l ) i j n s u J l L ts t ! t i l ) | l l i t l l ' p i ^ l o s s r p l l u ) .lJp ! lr]JJsn Uilto u!:) str iq ( u.r9 ruorjillrprl tsprl P.)q] jo su. f . r i ) ^ { r L l t u ) r t M . . s u o r i p r x o . { j o l p l o q u J r r l u IrIEN:l (I:ltol\ M o o J l E q l ruonsinb)Ltt.) runrpos lo slrlJi(r prppu rrql Lr)LIl oa.{rl . Z It r)tjt3 puP rsnP:) . U o l l ) p i r i r l l ( t n p i ) ( { r o l .'!()rrl')l(lrrruxr roC litrUL'aru luru[lu. r ( .tl]s D.p)rds. r i r I tl c q l t \ . . ) q t o t ) p r x o j p .rilL.1 '1111.

fu . neans nrr .rDrrol A worll of caution is rrccded. For cxample. fasterthin thc sl)ccdol sound t .and i/ makc a word ncgalive will tcll yolr lhal rrt. useall thc mearriuSs = hypet-.Posf-. above.you lnun always scc if Lhc nrcnning(hnl you dhleot tninJlammable.l gucssed lhc way the wod is usedin lhc sc|lcncc. hypertefisit.?dcsrrd/y.Thc clucscan sonrctirnes over many ycars.(Theanl(n)ynris . submatine = a ship used under watcr L hypolhcrn)ia 2. submcfgc h .drllr'"'They both refer to $mclhirg thal can Thcrcforc.rr''l' i. dk. less than the norm. a\1d means ot cantle. subnofinal lhc d. You will nol lnal(h lhe tenns al thc Iisled. in .tr high blood pressure . lldtltnabk .illcr rhc o|craln)r k aftcr(icarh . hypcrsonic LxxlyLctuPeraturc c.f!diJ. hi!hly poisonous i .r r-.te!1.almcanstDl 1oilic. i olti.?drd.absorbil1g nleaninlll be nislcading. fits lhe hypet.'rr.lnd irr4dl rrar1.rld. . p!ll ul)(lefwalcr excclsivcbrcalhirg 8. hlpolensitttl = low blood pressurc postr after. thal has cvolvcclarrd changcd clucslo determirrcmeaning Englirh ls a laDgrragc words from many langu. hyporcxic L hypoa(idic 4.ypo-: under. over. SlLrdy f(tlowing lin of prullxcsand Lh(rr Prefixes: lefl bcbw wilh Lhcir nlcanirrilsal lhc rilhl.rposJirfu ncans not polsibk ina(ttrttta ntcans . beneath.+: Causeand Effect prcfixcs un-..'have thc sarDc cnsily(alch Ilrc. postglaaial= after the glacial period sub-i wder. for you c. htlpo-. bcrrcalh bol(nr ol thc sca c. lcssacidic a.gcs.r/ iliconneded on rely conrl)lctcly nrch howcvcr. hypcwcr)tilali(D t.beyond the norm.

{rUDiiriuo ulr ()t|1.t |rdluDll r.iIr.rrro.r Jqt sl llv I I lP)rIri|1 'uoll).lprlr/ ilutrlrrli s Jr..'J rLIt lu.Jr^^stroJJr IIV -(roqt a)s ur.D tl rqJrcil) rl ir..rprzp{Dt! .rJlu^^ r4.lil)un'u 'lr rliinorLltsrssp(i tqijll ou r.1.uortp$.r?rrdosl poo^ 8 LI slrrup rr lt(' {i^ril I 'trlDr uro4.9 urpprll xb{ q Lr^roul a})Pttfu 'lprriplr)u sp^4 ullll)lu)(l.os pLrrr sr ru)lqor(r e r^los ot ^P.rc(iJs q .u^Ui q ss.i .)rrP.ror(lr pprl I rliirrollltv z ou \l).to r./0r{.lli q urSuo O '.ql.pJr.ta{sut1.tJqtillot iluo) u r.r/ t(ri^'\ JJAllpJrll c 0l npl(l u It)()l 1l '.M l(lrui .P 'slJ^0llpullosll)lLl^{ Llnnolrlt 4r.jo ijurrrprur )LIr s)LI)rerrr tsrll tpllt .t)ol(l .litc.P ll'l q '.p.) c)s q -1I)Jcs 'nl iuul(l oql dotplrpl o p.6i..ql ..€ : rnPrl^\ooI! nrrllri)J e -turlqorcl )qt l() UorNIos! ot pil .l JJeds iql .rrtlslllx.MJqt rll pit)rul)r su^/r isnoq rLlt J<t tl.\tJ.)il) 'q tLrclls .0 'll olur .nt|l)pA u tl l(n)ur )10 pLrp LlllpJ rllt ul)).rrMsLrE . prtu.Jo tur^orslp srrl rpqt p.t.r. J(lt qtiDJiLll lt itP.rrrp rqrpd o^ l )qI ..nrl rqt it}rl )qt tr.tlrr.orrl/lrrr srq .'raM os \lJilqo srii0lLri'u )lqlst^Uls./y'rt x/ i(I0)sojJltu v ' { l prnuctp prilrPluJ u \ 'lL'll(lsoq .arrot) ut troltlqnoA {t lrtJJ3 pue rsnPtr . os soM Joop sselii illl .1 rLIl or lsrq.l 'srtrurtlr)srsi\r Jo q)e) or prsn sr rr sc pro^.t) Sulpllnqplo irll ste?"\ 'zl IU Ur().)J' rqt ur rr/.itrrr!.rqto irll puu Lll_rou $oii rl(i sp.

cxitndc.fcflcctillg lor YoLr lhis ltagc.vcls rd il dlat o(rl. our cyes.Q' .. bccausc sce our eycs.travels \iJ . lionr lhc l)nfcr to yoLlrcycs ao clcflriclight.44 Causeand Eflect Scanhing qLrcsliorrs. oLIrntia()s(opes. il all in firec mirrlrlcs. tbr Fassagc rlle key words. 10 malerialfor alrswcrs spccilic thc lo Lcchnical when you need sear{h wilhoul rcading cvcrv wofLl you will r'vant1o locale drc parlic!lar inlormalior To lct by Thisc.n be accomplishcd s. not sonlcLhirlg fcachcs l|1)ll] srlnol thc liliht. lnslcad is thc lighl lhil lf.lnning Rcadthc lbllowirlglhree qucslions. scan youf cyc\ rurrfapidly pagc and lmk for thc kcy or inlporlanl words lhil yoLrare scrkjrrg down ihc the by Ther Iind lhc answcrs sc.drriri the passagc. Try lo do 1 Whal is lhc st)ccdof light2 (key wordsi a LlrgeDunlbci the oi 2. how (lo we sce: Si!lhli\ an(l with our eycs.lio. who oriSinaled wavc Lhcory lighl?(key wo|ds:a pft)fernirnx lrilh (apilalletters) L What is silvcr brcmide usedfor? (kcy words: silvcr tn'{nni(lc) Readi g Relecting o Light () to otrrabili(y "sf!r" lllc Moslof whal wc krrowaL)out worldconrcs usthrough Bul olrr tcicscopcs.

n:r. qgiq.i:..'.""'Ifi i.'::..rl:.p-trredjo . :ir.ill.lllifl.r.li:1.un1qrltrur5 .:li'r.LuJtll....{uurrr ul .i:*. j:.l.suolDJJ!p. -:iiiiii:l:ltill.!J rrr tJ.".1ullsr.'i:'iiill.ir.:Tll'tii'lll. lln.j...i:ll i:Jl.:i::".rui.:.1.i .Hliti .:tii n.:x#i$iiij:$fi.*t# . lr:ii.ffi .lll..il tiliilin i.nm:r ll.iilr1.l::'1.{.:.il lit. li...trfi 'Ii.ji.^Eqrrn* n.i f. st IDJJg puP asnPi rqr Jououtnnq Lr derllerrsp u.rq.::i.ir^"rirq:n.llj.i"l..-l:iii[...i.ilr'# '3Ce|ln9 qOnol ego 6ullcauer 'oceJlns qpourS lllliltltl il:ti t.?.l[::i )iriii:. ili:frll . .ilidjilll.Ili* :lufili:ily. riiir '.::l1lln!:.ij r.lt::l lllll....ltlti ^.lilillli"l'.:i:i*illili: ri:.i#diT Ii[i]i :i:iiii:il::.:: . ...*r'ili* ii"{+' :ll1:]-s.i"*.1 .]lli.is louuo) lrq JIB.'i.rui:n:.il:..:l'i1".tii1.[i:ililff :# i.:l.*llfll ll.i..]:.l'liiti.:1.iii..llHll*..rrclt) lp &i.il..l srstsrnr ^llenlJe lqil{ Lor0 prln"n srq 11i^*el^I . iut:m ll .:"'1. .^'ir_i"li.?i:'.:.." ilfii ^.o -rpJque) iM ."1.:ilT.i:1.ii rii:.l :..j ill**ill":i.: ffi ilu iill''.ilt.ilt.'. u:t'iJi' :.'.r lpls tcqto cqt uo llrlolxl r:...gsl'?j.l...jiliij-!.#frilt. i iLll . u6n ero 6uncauar lq6r'r j#ji jii:.:iJ::11i"li:..p"ri.::.ii.l.:t.llll::r.jl:.:.

46 Causeand Eflect Light rays changedirectlonin water. l)y irl is slatcurcr\lsslaLc(j llrc Passagc inrPlic(l olhcr irrli)rnrnlion thc l)nssagc rs whclhcl lhc slrlcnlcrrl lfuc Dor (/).rsurrg . Lighttravels lighl. Mosl ol lhc v)Lurd ivc hear is rclleclc(i .A scicrrlist irr' lrla(ctr|nl( accuf.lcly arrdnrc. gct Lo livirg rhirrgs grow. (hc (hal w.lflh an(l bll|n a h(tc in il. J-ighl lravcls al diffcrcrrt sl)eedsirr cliffcrcnt \rrhsril(. Thc rpccd01lighl is 186.or rrcilhcr sL.rxl rccor(lirrg carcftrlly and o6scrvirrf jllcorfccl ol cach lllc li)llo\1'jllg whclhfr Irl(licirlc conclusions.Plarrls Iightcncrgy enablcs gcl ir lionl rhc plarlls theycal. Lighrtravcls lirslcr lhan nrtrnd 3 .lrrlrs c. L i g h t l r a v e l sf i r n c r l h l 1 ) L r g h n l e r l h i D ( ) L r n ( id o c s 6 . Lighl lfavcl\ iu thc sime lvay ns v)Lrn(l 8 . MoonlighL rcfleclc(l w 5 .cs Solrxl wavcsdo Dol travcl irr (rnisht lincs 1 0 . l)y rlrakccvcryclli) lo lrc l)rccisc rcn(lrrrl nlr'rsl Making Inferences.000 nir' lhn)ughgl. S c i c n l i n s( l i l l r o t i l l w a y s k r o l v l h a l l i g h l l r a v e l s 1 . ll js (his ligh( cn(ryy liorr Lh( sLrn (lifcctly Aninrirls lr)nr thc slrrr.sslllan lhl'(nrllh slower 2 . in carr Ii)flDaliorr fcsult in (S).lc(l implic(l {N) l)o. is 4 .tutin(licale s nilcs l)cl rccorl(l l.

lsneJ .{q przleDereqr p sitclult) Iprtdor.o.bqPnb D patuJ^Jid e STlI}IS 9NIN!IISI'T jrl(k)rd ri^ilJ iri^ rq tsnur stslturlrs El '^8riuo rliq ()1prllr^roa iq Lt!) ifirlrr lqiJlt .tl 'iiipllrl pisrr^rl r?st))[Jrr .Ltiuro^ .'Jurtuur.z p uI luiulr^olu fO srslou .()r.jo rrllrl rllt alJrl) $rrroJ u! [Jt4nqDxoA .rullsupll uuql nlilll ilol! stDurr p oV Zl l)rlqo Jul)cdo 'Diqrosqe sl iJulpllnq lr.p/rl rJqSlLI JAeqsJ]m^ s.puc rJp rJd.t Jo.lelJuJS .'rdLUr pJJput \p^ qtlcrq \9 ruod \rH \ 'leluter p /lrual1br.Joor iql uo iltrlllujllltlrltnsrlll.unsrqt .llrrrrlr4 eqt tuo{ SJIJ lno Ditord sJsselSuns 's.M q qliturrls E 's^pr s.J qtstqe .rrJltrnuql .rl(r ruu V €l 'Joo lur.4 pczlJllullrqt Jo SuJuecuj aql siq Llruts)q tPqt tr^\sup rqt .l -t ssrulPr.p 'roolJtLIt Lrr suo'iL1q!^ ll pord lllM i'lrulqreu] ^^eiH I .Jotsot\l Il ult It rlijjf puP.r liil uLr)rloA tet:n 'sr)LlJtuJs i)scrllJorl)Ba Lll pcsn s!I slr pro.

dcsigned b. Becausc dr?plilrA!. Soundr\'avcs lnovein only o|c direction. lhc Drain may srinnnrizc rhc spcakcr ()1 "Thc MLrsic Soun(].benclrl a..sionilly. a. loc(l$ lhc nlaini(lcas.r sl)cnker al of objeclives llrc bc!inrling thc l:irrnlly. srrrldr!'d nn iclrr. Wc hcaf soundwbcn our car drum\ viL)ralc seDd . largcness Dilfcrent wavck'ugths p(xlLrcc vdf.ch ()l lhc i.li()n.rlthc cnd.l lbr in for thc nrain 1)ir\\ng('.1. soundqualily b. Ptriod Note-Takihg l.1o wrjlc (low'r to Takcnolcsasyolr lisren lhc Icctufc main idcas. visual and analyzeall l(illds ol (1.extcnsivc is. cluc\ lo l\cltrfor./7 lhc r. T l. or YoLl lhus musrlistcnli)r thc gcrrcral will hnvcnn idcnol whal il iJ leclurc yoLr Filnl oLrlLhcbpic or titlc of the so \l. slylci 8 . by 2 . poirnsis likc l(x)kiug thc ()t)ic\crrlcrrccs i rcndir)l.r. (innpurc|s can bc f.48 Causeand Effecl is fof lo 6. sNrd a. TiDy daorljtla dcvi(cs arc 11s('d ii(l hcadng lo b.c a. thc preseDt. All lhcorclic. T h e l d . wfjlc\ irrr_ Orc. sli(l(or lfirrrs|nrcncy. Lr.'Ihcn youf nolesto conDlclclhc ncxl cxcr!itc.rr. porlaDl poirlson a chalkboar(i displays lhcnrou . To pracricccnrcrycncypfoccclLrre./rri?/i(. diffcrcnccs a. soundis prodLrced air vibtatior\. r co l .rrrrrd lo prcccss . dcslrcvc(l was fof ol 1 2 .rgcs 10 4 . Lhc ofthc Lrnivcrsc impossiblr Lrs conrt)rchcnd. b.lrcscnrch sLrsfcndcd lhc. and rrc\\. r \ i o l i r i s N .i. picc '). l l l . ljsc your r()1r'! 10 (lctcnriuc whclhcr c. usc all the uhderclanditlg the Lecture. a. irnilared 1 0 . :lllhough is nrorcdilticukl)((.l cn]1hquilc \1. i1 wc nrayneverkDow ho*.lcs lhc goinglo covcralrdwhal yori needlo li5lcr) Son\clinlcs Jl)calicf li)f." Il1. n L A bell rlmg in a vacuumwill lror produce sounti...'o. or pointsoJ lhc lcclufc.d/rdrr in colort. nclrillg on a always WhcrrlnkingnotcsdLrring lectulc. l a n L tr i i h . obscrvcd b.Uscyou (lo not havcfara8lrl])h il ()1 ideas couclusront lhc lccL!Lfc.r. l t .i following starcnrcDrslruc (1) or falsc(F) icco in8 l(r lhc letlLrrc.

llt )qr e leLIA4 8 rrP Z ZrSeuoqsItnJ uJo slr4j) tlqlssod rLLIos leLIA^'9 auo|elndod pFo.! 6t lrJJJll pu! rsnq) .ql Jo slJ.^orslp iqr Jo quPr uo slJ)lli )ql rq lqilllu lPqM E ziJgds otln lJ^prl o1 ttiulo^'\ pLIutJrrl sisnPJlpq^A t auollsroldxJoJPds slJ.{ePtlrc III^^sr)llldluoJ 'zI 'ount rlFo^eJ rnoi .{q pJururltlip sl tl)lld '9 Jo 'punori3.polu Jo slruJ.{pldot p)uurpriSoldJq ueJ rtlnduoJ V ' I t 'J)!o^ u0onrq p rleJnollsol alqPJq rJ^JLIlll^Alilndulo) V ' 0 I 'soorlPrql suolleulqltnJ iuJrrJJIp sJ)r'rpoid Jo rPunts q)e.{rpr s! r^eM pullos E .r.^^ uors edxr prnultLlor nJo slrqjr.L3IJUJ.arJI rnol uo .rnduor .rnpord lu p aSrEI 'st^P.ql q8norqt uPql rlP rql qinorql r)lsPJslr^Prl plrnos .lo 'i)uo V llrtus e ucql punosrrpnol e s. Jsne)oqlJulrPlr e uo{l luilaJJlpsptrnos Y lLrJLunrlsul 'JPnllldLLIE lLInouEJql ' 8 s1!sp ol prrr4tr s! 8u!.{Soloutprttu.lo iolos Jlp IeqM € Jo Z.rP IDLIM Jo Zrrueld roqloue Lro{!lJo fu.lq!\sotl rtll.t{pmros rzls rq} .lJJJtll. llluucq iql Jo rtuos E lutl^ Z ZlrnlLr)J slql ul rJtlJlrs u! sDuB^pele)lilolouqJil aqlJo tlrtlrc lr-'ljlliluiq tql Jo tl(ros !)lP l!\lM l srNlod Nolssntslc ((rr p 1 'srtsodur()J iJeld l- z .

i! indtlc..1 hyd()genbolnb was lcslc(lal Ilikini. Spacc ol nl nlovcfionr 1hccllccts coml)Lrlcrs horncto lhcfllc(ls al a.rnk. lor cx. -voLrr |nptf. x r 1 r . You nrighlorgnnizc thal oDeidca lc. Movc fron lhc llxlili( Lothc gcncral i .r inr.crc c. llcncc a nlr|nL)cr . For examplc. B .d b!.rcc lhe scaithcscr'r.i D d lcd.i |ry. happdls btcatse..11iclc (licl iu . l l r c r 1 .. ajrLint yolr school lhc clltcli n1i work pli(c \rr.ds lo nnothcr.o(ling () onc concctls: of lhc li'lk)wirlg L Tirnclchfonok)gy) cl_ t() inovcJfour iuiliirlcjlccls (orrrl)LLicrsthc rrfcrrl thc oJ a. cxIccrcdradio-.ero. aI'd theftfore.fclnilcs. r c ( l c s c r i b c (i ln c h 1 1 ) r r o k ) g i c a l i o r d c r b e c a u s c l i s a c h a i n r c .anstitLmtlt.h c c l l c c l so { a h y d f t ) g c ub o D l b1 c d . Thc cxl)lo\iorr a IrxlLr. F ( nc x a n r p l c l.r. l h a l i ! .Ls. Movc hom lhc sinrl)lc thc (onrplcx(lrevcr fcvcfscl) lo ol i. u s c o f a n o r h c f . For cxn1nfl(. Olher words rhar calr inlroducc clf€ds iDc]Lr\(lc. r ' f |t f t .rr(l dclc ninc which ol lhc alrovc|rnllcrrr| of_ gar)ization uscd: is lrr 195.h as n storc.T l t t l l t u I d n S l l t . iDgcnrdquirnlilics fndio-iclivc ol S . hldr.rcr.c(l lhc ol arrrlalsoscallcfe(l lall-oul on a rlur)rlJ('f Paci[ic islanris. n r('\ull.?rr. ()r b. For cxanulc. r prokEd br.rlcrl ol apfrarcdir rhf sorall li\h notal)ly lrrrr.ux)vcJionrlhc (lirr(1cllccls conr|ulcfs lhc irxlifccl or sccoDd. clli'cLs onc |crsorl on crnl ro lhc \pccilic (t (the revcfsc lhc fl)ovc) b. c r i o n .t1 thrs.50 Causeand Effecl WRITING SKILLS Patter s of Organizdl[ot1 choosc logicil or(lcr10 l)rc\cnlyolrr itlon'rirlion!) a Whcn wriling n tJntrcr.Lll)a'rcsc lbod. L r \ l l l .td. e a c h c l l c c l i r r l r r n r L r c c o m c l\h e c . 2.o v c l r l r n lrh c s l ) c ( i l ic 1 1 c (o\i a l u c ls h o .rrrplc. ' t . f l 4 n n ( H i r r | c r 6 R o r . and rr . . d r d / . Lollic lo a.7.r lhc by sln.rc.1ry cllcds ol Rcid lhc pnfagra|hbclow . . lo officc 3. Transitiou word! thal inlroduce c.1clivc (iarrgcfolrJ radio-. of dclifis plnnl\which livc i|r lhc surl. 1 l l c o r r o r ) c r ( l () pcrsolr the gcncral orr cllc(Ls llrc world Lhe lo c.(livc nrnlcfinls As ovcrthousands s(lu.tcrrl)y largcf. e ? . ('i ()1 which arc aD inlln)flanl. Movc lrcnr rhc gcncral thc spcciiic nrovc1R)llr effccls (on]rulcfs(nr thc wofl(tin gcrr_ thc ol i. A . t \ A \ i l ' l \ ' l L .ll irrirrrals which iu lunr wcrc c. 1 9 7 1 ) 1] 108 I n l h i s p a r a g r a p h l.uscs i clrrde ls . i c ! : ^ n i r l o ! ] v/ .Iapiu.T h c s e e l l e d s a f c i D t r x l u ( c d w i l h l h c w o r d \ t r o d r .

):rp(ls L I) LmoDzrupij -roJo ur)lrcdr.tol sllrrrs (rrllolro .{ri^oJsrp. rq Irrrlsrsuor nrq':Idot rnoinJr tsrq In)^.M rllo.r)dpdIIt tnoqilnorLll .'!(leiiiBrpd )ql ol lnrl ol nreM no.io Jlro tnoqurlrrM ro pFo.M rsn snr()dL()tssnrsl( rrll.lM l)lrL'rronu)^L ro .^rll{l.lulnlrrrsruo )smq:) trtl.JT put )snDJ lo r4riDt6tupd tt 6u!UM Ig IIaJJE puP rsnP:) .{ tlutqrtur^) rpnlrlrr()l qlinorrrpporqst lpqrirurllrrs r!(ftnc qrrMupts .{ Lrosl)Jll) slr ln(\P rlr.

For cxamDlc. il becomes known as a pritltiple. and it may have to be rejecled allogether or at least reviscd. . he or she formlllatcs a hjpathctis. rhc rheory of relativity). A hypothesis does not always prove 1o be corrccl.When a theory cxplainsor unifies a grca! dcal ol inlbrmatirnr.bul Lhcideawas the prcducl the of many yearsof studyand experimen(alion. As evidence gathcrcd suppon a hypolhesis is to and i! bccomes accepred in the scientific world. Progrcss involves conlinually refining hypotheses new information as comes lighl. Ahhough a hypothesis usuallydevclopsfrom the intuiLionof thc scientist. For cxample.chapter 4 Hlryothesizing Motion and Gravity INTRODUCTION When a scientist discovcrs rclalionship a that scemsto hold lruc wilhout exception. 1() sinceno one has everseenthe structurc an atom.ot ilduttdl ldtyltor example.scienlisls of continually rcvisethcir hypolhesis aboutwhat it lookslikc. it or CharlrsDarwin's hypothesis aboutevolutioncame10him whilc hc was riding in a carriage (hc wrote///I canrcmcmber veryspotin thc road"). it is referred to as a llreory(lbr cxamplc.A hypolhcsis is a rcnLativeor problcmor an cxplanation why somelhing temporary solutionto a scientific for happens. is basedon obseryations facts.Archimedcs' principle of waler displacementor the law of graviry).

Jllolsuv pug p P ^ olrq :BPssPdrLIl peru qutpbavuo4s tE durzrsrqloo^H .qtlM stDr! 1l csnltiq.M riJrlFq piqsllqPtsr-3uolasaqlleql soogl iulr rqt lllun lou sP.ilLro ruots rls oqt Luo4 aruetslstrJJoUJ e uuqr {lMols rrou lleJ lllM sser8Jo rpplq V Duplslsrr rle It lullorslp nol JI 'scrPr Icnb.s.M leql puv DlsPJ uo sl q)rLIM slleJalrc$ e tPql JJs uer Juo.{ nJoM^aqt asneJ..)iLr sl ))loJ s puBtsarte rq ot sl DofqouEJoJtetsIprnleucql lpql paztsrqtod.sqo rH uollour leluozlroqpJrpnlsoslPrllolslrv 'tqSroM rlaqt ol leuoorodordptrds e qtlM llPJ sDafqoleqt puEsDaho lrltll LrEql sDalqol^erq lplll prolturatrp alorslrv DtspJllEJ 'i)JlrilrJdxr {Pp.{uv a)uols P ro ssPJSlo apglq e'r)lsPJsllEJ uoltow ltoqv suoltoNauos 'Lloltoru lnoqd \rsrqrodiq.rllotslrv tul^ordslc 'srllls rqt p)pro)rr puB rrl8lrq B urorJslqSla.1.rq lPruroJu! pUpsr1()l0 rql prrdr$e rrr.M sesrqrodlqs.orlrle) pue s.r irruP) uirqt PUPrlrqM r roJ prllor sIP.&c^a pJsPg pi^altaq${aeJ} tuapuPalll lPq.rFolslrv uollotrl ul Drlqo ue d'')i o] o^^l Iisss.M 'uollP^Jrsqo pLlB )!8oJqll^4 llrJtslsuoJ $9r.H slue(ulli)d -xr rltlM turqt 8ullJlri^ lnoqtlM sgrpl tdo)J9 ot tuctuoJ tou seM orlllPD priiurl ll lpll) iJ'. rP IleJsc!poqllP lEql prulnurlrp l Slsrqtod.{qs.4 tl 'l)i\{qo Dqr() rc l)r).M snolrP^paddorp.{q (4 iH ls.r P le Pqsncl rq ri^ruiqM luql prN.

r x i / / ? r ! r ' r ' i 1 (l f c q L L e n L L r s c (ill r L c r c h i n g c .i/i/{.\r of wlll hrIl)crr i thc h y | o r h c s i z c .rld'J wci8h1. . u o L ) j c t l( l o c \ n o l n r c c l w i r h r c s i n n n c c( l L i c l i o n ) . ) . . r \ L r s c ( l . t ) o o r h o f i z o n ( . l. 1| l r i .tlrct. l l M o n h y p o l h c s c sn f c s l i r l e dj r r l h c p r e s c r r s i r l l ) l c l c r r s c .)'r /rBxr.. i n i n n n ) t i o n L r n l e s s ( .. 1r l n ) r i o n . h!Polh(sis NoLc or.v T h c l o l l o w i n g n f c c x : l n l l ) l r so l h y l l o l h c ! ( s l | 1 ) n rl h c ( i ( t i n g : /?t. s c i c n l i f i cq L r c s l i o nA l h c o L v i s n h t | o t h c s j s l h . r li 1 \ ! i l l h .ll. l i s g c n ( r .yrrU .. N r w l o r r c x l c r x l c ( lc . l l r . l l ) ' . l i o r r . l ) t l i e d H a l f a r ( n t L I y l .zing C a l i l c o . r r r s r w j l l r ' r r r r a j i 1 ( \ 1 .v r l h c i \ ( ) r ( 1 s q . t h c o f y t h n t . l ) l . it II an object does not meet with resistance. ilsclli\ rl\tafs lhc ir rhil allhouglr rruf nIt)cnrwilhin ir scrrtrrrrc. l l h o t r s h i L i \ l ) o s s i t r l ct ) p. t c r . b o { l yI ) u s l r ( lo n .J. r I l ) c r r . ( r ( f .r. ' | L U S I N GE N G I I S H T O H Y P O T H E S I Z T t A h y p o t h ( : ' i sl s n t c n l a L i v { lrr r ) l ) o s i L i o n h i l f c t o l v c s . n r c : r s l ) r c d i r l l r r g h . . . c o r \ l J f l s | e c d r v c D i l n o l i ) r c ci s . . ( c r l ) L c ( l H o w c v f r . r . n r o n n o l o f f c il ) (l w n s r c q u i r c d { o I ( r ( l ) l h c o l i i c r l i n n r o l i l ) n . Thc natural slats of an objcct is ro be at rcst and a forcc is necessary to keep an objcct in motion. r l i l ( r ) ' sj ( l c : r s . r b o L r l\ ( r n r c r h i n gl h n t h i r l ) p c r r c (itr r r h c l c i l i r r L r r cS o n r r l i r c s n h y l n r l h c s i s \ c x p f c \ \ r ( l i \ i p r c t i j .\: All bodies lbll at cqual ratcs. t r ' r.H c ( 1 ) r c l u ( 1 c t h i r l i l . n r co u l \ i ( l c 1 i ) r ( ci ( l \ ( ) n j l T h i \ l h c o r y i \ v r u n i v c n a l l _ !n c c c l ) l e ( il t i \ s r .H c r l r n r ( g o n \ n a r c d h . l s ' . s. . rs lu . / / /T h c m c n n i n g i s l l r c \ n n r c a s r l l h c f r e \ c r r ( l c r r s c 1 v ) m c l h i n g . C. r x l l o n t r l i l c ( l .54 Hypolhcs. r l s o( l j s l r ( ) \ c ( l A f i n o r l c ' s h l l r o l I c s i s . h i s r ) i l w . N .t in the Ji)nn .i l w i l l c o n r i n u c 1 0 n n ) ! c n L . r b o d ) .L r s i | l gh e l t r t L L ' l c n s c .tl objects fall with a speed proportional to thcir . v .\Ir. s r r x ) r h s L r d r c c o u l ( l o | D u c hl r h e f t h n n o n c c p u s h r c lo n i r o u r h m 1 L r . ( . ( t / .. . w i l h r 1 .. u ( l n l . l w n y s h n I l ) c r r l 1 \ l h c t . W h u r n l L r L . I r n ) i ) l ( n ro r d n s w c l \ i l . (lllcslLoLl ()1 ror\\l)lclc l|ngnlclrl n scnlcrrrc scnlc|r. ( x l ) i r f i ) o r i o nw i L l r c r r l . r i c . nffr tr\(o.1fr. speed will continue to movc at a conslant even if no force is applied.

ll!stuil srnloiD ..(rorql illrsg:jlg itll lr g sr"'M tqqv'lr0l)llsor.{Ptusprtg ro 'rrlltolrc01.josJ(l^lululr):) c ! llrrr.Murq rlrqt ol IEl()luodord tou iril^ $nllrq rllrll isrlr?JJq Dlrllx) tluortq tAPq ^errr$ngsoulc 'uJuq Lrptunq rlll i)uos olrql r)iirLrlslrlL'rq i^uq sislo(lnxi puu 'sullldl(D 'stlpq^^ 'sllrutJdrJt .t6b.o suotllltu olu! pipoldxo 'iupol)srJAIrIIl Lr!tultslxJ.4iiiui plr! rilt0or iLlt ill] IIPijltlltlultro) 'll3J Jllus{I) p u)qM o. q 'uluiq rqlJo ipls lrl iL0 Io rrorlrl|lll P rq ()1lq:lnolll sl iilcniiup'l D t 'rniipld rql rrlPlr)J lr.JoslLrrlotur? lorilsiJ 'u.tosrrcdrsillr lo qrDr ur q ro p rlJlrf.qlPor UPI:ipg P Iq Prsodoidrs.'iusjrlii uollllq 8l troqLi oroq slM Dsri ILn iql q 'zz6l tll i.rLlls pirrnrro L()!soldx. si)ild.'(06t ur olrlsulSurqlv iq plroM iLIl Jo uorlnrllB rLIl ol lqSnorq su^{rdrroor srqt Jturl rlnlosqe ro IE:)rolr pup s!)r)ql 1r^rtDIr.lrlt i^)lli)].ql Jo Lrolrlrfi{iur .Joup(l l$:jlel )ql.n ol )lsnlu 's)tv Jlpprw iql iiuJrnc q su qjrrs 'sJstJsrp 'ss.rlJ 'rulrlqrrt) iql sl olerq Ir.lriJuv so'l u! 't{'v oo:0J Lrrql sl lt .r.{q uouulltllr rlJrl Lll pJPl\3 .)t|p lp IIut or srrrlqo srs|!]) rPltl nlDlrLrl)rroJ IFIU E rq ieor )rrql q 'srr\lcrj Lrcql r)lsr+IIEJ slrou '0 z 's..ljt P)sn rL).foiqr ro slsiqlulirl oqr iulpopun 'LldPriluiud ilulMoll([ rLIl '4dt.)Jll Jsllu) lllilllu t^lsstrxS l(xlJ .todv u! slsatlrodtHD 6u!/I!uapl q ! / q 0 9 'lorilsiloll) 'JsDqJ 's8t3 ittqJ l)Lto olullloJ llt-islt"'JLu 'slJultn lr.qr oollPrSrw Jo 'srs )rDrrpur srlt.{H .).{lll IroI ^4rN u! r1jir00il lc sulScqrlueS llPqlfi! B tsoddlls all sl a!\lll rvHM rr! . sall)l .Llotloru DPdsrIII 'rttln snql'AIuJrqJlprlu!l oqr ^Jllurpl sr plft)/ oolDrrlp nDrqJlp e rl )srr^tun rqr lo lled riq()Lre ur iJullr^Brl lroiue e uo rng pilrid(lPq rl iruI rql rrrsribi plno^{ que. saruawdsw sasaqtod[H 6uttIt] apl gs SurzrsJqtod.LrpJlzt)rrjor s! lrll q)tllM uopuo'l !r! 'N r 00:9 pur-i s.l or rq 0odlq P prr)prsuor uur rPqr ro JLtr -Lrrs.r.rcts r(t uns .q . )10 uo srsolr:)lrs'.'l(l Y'l s! ill() Llrl)rl slPrLr!uu luJuJ^oruluuosP:)s.{eturlsntu.

fie Iirsr sentcDcc probibililyrnoslslroully ar(l cach rLrccccdin! cxprcsscs sentcncc cxpresses sliglrlly lcssslrcngly.cr. Th€re miSht be life on Jupiter. It is unlikely that there is iife on Jupiter. It is impossible for there to be life on Jupiter. There arc many ways rLrcxprcssprobabitily.Ic prnl'.c. There could be life on Jupiter.r lh.rlily e. rhc li)llorr'ing differcnr fronl sayinil ln lisl.). .'lhcrcis lilc otrJLtpilcr'. There may be life on Jupiter.I.fcvcryintl)orlanl.c . say.. There must be life on Jupiter. i1 There ls life on Jupiter...lLrt)ilcf. To is enrircly "Lhcrcmay bc lilc on. There is no life on Jupiter. @ 2 ..56 Hypolhesizing o Ptobability Hypotlrcscs oftcDcxpressc(l woftlslhat jndjcalc arc wilh lhcif tclltalivc Da(ufc or unprovcn status. I Ligh! . There is probably life on Jupiter.. The accumulalionof carbondioxide ir fic air is bclicvrd lo bc warnin! lhc earth to a clangerous level..Circle rhe word nr h ord\ thiI lnJ(.rL... Thcsc words. i tr 1rllravel in wavcs. Identifyitlg Probabiliry.

r!lsLro. )q.ro^\ .{Jlilrcpl dlcq iluorou IIrMsupd pro^\ral{lo pue saxU dlo.t 'eldrupxr roc r!\oui ro.{)^uo) rLF ueltt.rqll. r .rjn. = atu + -). .1r rpntJut setduexa 'sqD^ Mru uooJ ol sqrr^ qsrl8ull rJtJro ^uEmor p:pppeq.terlrxne dnoril p arp slppoW tt! qbqordlo slttpovt6ulsn Jo 'nPpol p:IuPrrpun Jo i-ru luql sip^\ ur JlErrr pup ullrsrp ol rlqp. \ r .{pu -3t 'AFe:rIutS'lulrtj. s r r c ..\/r .qt st / ! arler snoDlJlrDp tp SulsEc. .Mru .{ dutntng [.rt|.SprlMorrl y oo.]qf rq ! I '{retlpJraq ilrsiqo lcl0 srsJSSns qrrLjJsar sl luJrru:) ' b 's.q rM srrlndruor '.i pupdxa.r BuruErur)r.hJfiqoxo\ s'r'rrts DNtqvau sDlnd!u0)crv I aplro^lrLIl punor! insnpul SLrlzluoltnlo^rj plloM rql Jo Lrollelftkxl . ' .tu.IPiino nul(uru.{llerr8 oslp lnq sp.rrlrl zaJcqdsoLutP Jql ol Ir\tLuJurl slrolsoldxr reJIlllu ruo4lnolleJ . .'15?1a1put2 2u!utDnat 'llddrat'pttp')ttddr't2tllttqtott tsu)l:)) ahD4r'atD^LtrDat Dluaa"L'pnp0t. .4 0t q. r l r 4 J U . .{ sqrr^ Jo rrqunu rqr rsErrlrr .r^1. )qt sl l zqt..ra^ rltr^ pJsn. r t rt o r \ r r t D | J . n HurplrEdxr ot srp:rldprvJ^run .^4 i)tPInturol .Ln?r)o rrv '€ iL0 zLlliuiiqtJo uollulor)qt ijLrlMols 'z )rlt aDLrltxrijlrl(uo)rq !ulrlf Lrlsr?puP(l rJV isnol]Lri..{qr rtuos Lrrilllltrprlllor pup ilurpuedxi sr rsrJ^run Jgl trqt rlqrss(xlsr tl Z \ l t .{ e) orqt nea rrlnl0.. ' ( .lo iJeFnsiqt uo iJul^ouro ijulllrp stLrolr0r()J iiv'g i)rv t asrlxuleijilulpoldxr /ilturlol^ srusr?nb s)plt s.ullurLrrr(ls trtprder or slsnuJrrs rq rllros iq lqijno4 rrp srpslnd ' ( t< Butztsrqrod^H .I x[Jrd rql ]eqr SulMoul tsnf irelnqp)o^ rno.{ilse^up r/r.I).{llllrnDi{ E slupor!)s)LIt'nultlil )ulllrilrs ol Jrll 'sriqto qrnur E s. SUDJrLL.{eu ^trlrquqord sqrJ^ tsnu slt2poLlr ilpolu lprlr sqrr^ .13t 'tlltLptar'4ol]14111.]JJa '^tol)q sr)uil0rs rlcd luu trlt Jo sr)Lrilu)s Jo UrinPd iLIr ilulMollol )q plnor)o'irq t4litu'tq tfu&/'rqtrr&/ t)LItl.)q) tsJl o^rtJsolpsi st 9 Jrlt zLllrztJql.{lllrqeqordjrSuorts rfl?/4 lupolu)qJ p/ror puD 'nlljlut'A:wu rlltJo rsn Jql qtrM pJssrrdx.A o.

fidio. lrllcr(srrtvolv./ orLr o{ l Thc rcsulls lhe extrcrimcnt n.vcsi il c.d j . through translucenl-allowir'g liSht to pass through l.Jir. J lor hcr. 1.\ lh( in vocabulary corl?xr. s r ( o n ( l l n l r s u .lLbclt nr'llchcs in ()1 ls it is Lr\ctl c. rdr.rxl. r h e yo l i c n ( o r 1 .s:. a w .-r.d.rL'. l g c ManyEnglishwor(lsLrcgilrwilhlhclelters. n i n go l . ' d l . r ( n l a r ) ' v r c h v c r b r .i r l r h o u g ht h c r ( . Marin docsno1spcakEnglish..rrolhcr' lroln orrcpclsoD 8 . lenglhcnc(i . Light cr)ergycan bc r. S l L r d yh t i o l l o w i r l gl ) r c l i x a n d l h c n t o n r l ) l c l ct h c l c n t e n ( c \ t r t l ( ) w u s i r g . ' 4 n . beyond. 1 i n h c n r c .Ijlnssand w a\$ atr t!!1Jg4494!-s 2 .r.rTr'x. lrrjtbtt .t. Circlcthc lcllcf of lhr nnswcrll]. clispr{)vcd U) Pn'vctt onc w.. r ttt1l. r l l i n g i s r l c c c s s a r yi r r s L u ( l c n l s l E r r g l i \ hn \ .r plillcsLhcsiUlral L r s i n g v a c r l l . across.? hour l() nll(nvlrnrclor qucslrolrs 2. S o L l n di s l .tlrlollr. l nl ( l b c .tavrdl..s . o y o t | w i l l h a v ( l o / .ch ol lhcscscrrlenccs' word lnca|lirg thc ilaliciTcd lhcorywa! corrcct thal rc. tLth.fvidr.vcl ln()Ll8lr in 1oanorhcftluivcrsilY his 7 .su(h.r7i.-f. Metal and woo(l irrc ol)aqtrc.fn)rrn. a 5 .. rdllrjc. r i D g l y ./rr.rrd. rcj(t. reJlc. antl l P r e f i x : t r a n s ' . .a\ i\ rrue ol r.th(.rctin. 1. r r l r j irr w.1il . d i c l i o n a r yi l n c c e s s d r Y Ldr?r-: over. I palicrrt a rL'ccilc(l bkxxl Thc hosl)ilnl without i r l .58 Hypolhesizing o l I k ) w c v c r . Thc lcsson lr' shorlcDcil a. or n rcpearcd criolr.fbulrr)llhclrctir.l]r. Mrny livcsarc sivcd bY ki(infY (). a. rcr.Ld.

ix.'JUo slql Lreql.)tsil ol ppLIrM tl iulrliitr 'r-i rLilniJilrl q 'lunbrrr! sipls st llc lt0t!.sltliPrls Jtll 6 (ll]i)o r.rrDr rnol Lron"u!ls).!0/ s! ll 6l rrcrlPredis D uorleulqurcJ 'q 'Lrr3.ldrd pu!^/rt\l 9l qrosqe q llo i^!n e !ru JLll sJtrlllodrlJlq^{ JplxouoLu lroqiu) lr. sJllq(xLlolllv < I iltllsn P tllrl^os 'q 'lllq rqt dnisr )rn qsnd ol i.r1o llu rirllrrrr rtur. lrro rrroMt.{xo plru rrrilorpirlJo srsr4/r.) rxrlr rLIl lPql ilunsse ol /r.ql prrr.LlI t 'srlrlor ls.{llPrrHololttlril prrLIr^PP rroru r(l IIrM tunru.lP^ Lrl Lriil^xo ol lriiio. .r.(s iq pilru([ rq uPr ri)leM 8l rqr prillreq) e fr^o.lo sllllsi.^ -lsPi ilPrlpur dettl :)\1 t'o s)ull/rlrazuaI 6g ButzlseqrodiH .]rl\ q 'lllquMop prlrlls rr rrrtl^^ /.rlrnrj ul prlsll Jrr?\ sJlucll .tttuuu/is Plp(rtLrllutlet\J!!f iqlJo uiilsiP iql (I iltrol]s ! IgnlD o 'p<rrrrlr4JriM srllr]it oMl JLI]rsncJiq rl)lerll poo:i 0 sgM itllud lllqlool tqJ zl 'stroll0Dtdxr r!rLF LIIJ^^ trr..1 riliqJloJsJl iql II dl\$t()llPlrl u iJltulslp q 'J ot s!r.rdur ! 'I! opir ot puLIr/\^ pue llrJtulr)dx. illplturlq oql zI Prllrld u l)illsn(i q 'rtl!^ iU iluolu lpoqllEs. I)rul iql 9 ^lr^llrD P .lPiq z Jo to4Ja.rj.li).r /rart.ui.ql iqr Jo srlrlso./orri rLIl 0l u isliAJJ q l)rllo) 'riPro lr-i)lliquq(lll" .4 JqI z Iq sJlll Jllqoluonru (l11tDl'.)dxi iL0.lr.r/r'l./rl.3r.trr'/srol nDA llrrlull.(lr^orPr|rl 'runrlL'J Prrr riqlei4i l(\ Iq prsnuJse^{r4rrrr srH ! 'sl\od I)^)l 'r sr /r.l Ipoq q 'quoJ L() Jjrrr pLrr-)l lstiJrul ilql dll Jllrlu PItv P!l! Jdoln! 8 pr iiDslp q PiirSLj 0 )nu c nurqqN'q 'rr0.r rrnl)Illrs )ql f .r irll isrloJJq ptsDtFl tri.

rc outsi(lc li)rcc acts il.or changc up. il Ilyolr puslrit ha|licr.or Ncw()r)'s on is thc lirsrlaw of r)toliorr But Ncw()t's curiosity was nol satislic(I.Newton explorcddle qlresrionol lhc solrrceol lbrcc.it is easy get i1$ ntove.New(rt conclr cd tlrala l)(xly.ir was lhe grenrSir lsnacNcwr(nl [etrhoughmany s(ic'ntists r\.a bicyclc har nluch lcss. Ncwt(rt dhcovcrcd that thcrc is a relati(nlshif bctwecn li)fcc at)d pusha swiDg accclc6lion.whi(h is thc quanlilyof malleriu a body. anl(nrnr tbc tbc ol lbrcc is direcdyrelaledto the amorin! ol accclcralion.Thc larger thc mass. ol a body is inversely lo Newton's n'condlaw of |r(ni{rr states lhal lhc acc€leration a body is direclly rclaledlo lhc lbfcc ircliDg il rrd ol on proportioDalto mass.on thc olhcr A hand. lessrhc acccleralior.s noi consislent with his view ol a balanced and synnnerrical Lrnivcrsc. lhc ol vcriJying cxrcndin!thc ra[lierwork and of Calileo and Cofefnicus.lfyou genlly. Ibr cxarnplc. lo i)f you only necd 1o read rhe topic scntcrcesfor a \Lrmnrary all rhe nraiDpoiDli.alsodctcfrnincs aDnruul incniaaDobicclhir. in A hirslirrlc incnia. of Re^ditlg Puisquarc brackcls arcund r(Dic thc scntencc otcvcryparagraph lhc toltorving in passage. Hc olrscrvc(t ihil dre forcc acling on a body comcsfronl anolhcr body.or (hangcdircctiotr. direclion lhc accelcralionin rhcdircclioll inversely ils The ol is of lhe appliedforcc. Newton Explains Motion studic(i motioD. lhe rcn(lcncy a L)ody fcsisl thc of ol ro change its shlc of mori('r or dirc(rioo. Newtor) Dorcd lha!ilyou discounl fictiorl involvcd. BL lhis kic.Il you usc an cqLril amounr Ibrce pusha bicyclc ol lo nnd a lr6ck. lcDnisball. The accelcration alsorelalcci rhe massol thc objccL.cringoD irr horrycvcr. willrnoveslowly. Morcovcr. Notethal hcrc lhe topicscnrcnccs LrsLrally are Iirrlndtowardlhc crr(ls ot' the paragraphs because infornlali(nr thc buikls!| lo a conclusiou. rhc . trucL. Thisplinciplc called law ol inc ia. lhcrcfofc He concluded lhal whenevertherc is a forceplrshingin one dirccti(rr. He dtal whcr)a fo(e actson a body.lhc forccwill sl)ccd sk)w(lown.llion the ln proporrioral ils mnss.hasa glcatdealofincrlia.l rcstwill fctrraitr ai reslrnd thata bodyin nlolbn will rcn)aitr nloti(rtunlcss in son. wondcrcdwhal causcs chaltgc Hc a in nrorion. rcvicwrhenlalcrinl a tcsr. Finally. hcr. Firs!Ncwloltsrudied qualiryof inerlin.] NcwtonnudiedhorizonLal vcriical and nrorirn.lhcfe is nnorhcr .no li)r(cis . Why docsa bodyal rcstbegir) nn)vcor a Lrody nrotion ro ill changc ils direcriolr? dcrermincd if a bodyis at rcsl.lhc bicyclc will go lnuchf. to slop.rslcf rhan lhe lruck.60 Hyporhesizing Fitlditrg Main ldeas A goodway kr rcadany tcxrbook ro brackcl highlighllhc topicsenrcDcc is or ol cachparagraph section. is ro Mass.hoformulalcd lhcorics nlorior'1. thc direclionol lhal body. il will!o faster. or Latcr.ccclcr. the ol A rruck has a grealdealol nass. by ilsclf w.

4.JBupqrlsrsrr ol .{poqe Jo lruJpu Jql st prurut 't 'enrrur ^\pl rql sr ^^el prtrp s..rLFrxo{ EMg) o(u ot lruts no^ 'rld!ucxc.iuEtt' PJrplllssrsuurrtrs J 'c^o(lr-' ({) riiPssed ul uonPuuoJul ol BurproJ]u esleJ (J) rrlrl Jql rqt ro sl scJ ilLrJs ilLrlMolloj Jo qJccraqlJqMJleJlpul 'orlptt a& a4! 6u!publsr apun iqt 'sJei'.rrououl qStloqrty r .T llr^'!uo.l)ql lsulpiJpJJo noi u)qM lllilllsrq.( uo l)pq ilulllnd ll Ir.ro'lsrlSol ol pue IsJlrc^ iJLllp.rt i|qouotnc 0p ^qM ziLult iluol P io.{ ol suiddull lEqn ))ltorr oslv no.{op ftlM pLrB t r siop roou Jqt )Lrlqt Do^Jl puv uolt).{Erut(ir ror slql IrEq Sl rlsndr)joj 'no^ uo arol allsoddopuB 'lle/$e qsnd no^ uaql^ l3nbeue su€xe l! I9 Srrzis)r|odiH .rotle ilrrLli^ p'orpds Lrr) UI p.{ pup pupq Ji)qllnr ()1 ! uo n^Lrrltu(l ruq'rlrlBolur llrlrrrlrp . urJLItLroLrDq r^eq no^ riuE noi trnq 'tr1o rsr^^ sroqsrnoi op.rq c)roJ P lr)x) LU-)J n)rlqo ilqPl P lsulgiiPll ssird ro.4 prlqt SIq prlPts UOIMaN Srlql alllo JU'M Dolqo CUO sr.ql Lltnoqlle llu istrr.rt^tlrl)LIl ul rriq.ror)e slrclDu|UJsrJ^lu )LIt lpql tdiJuol clll uoltoru lenrozlJoq qtoq rztsrqllris pLrB :)s.{lln rolr p)rlr:)llun! s^/rEl lernleu r(liip.rrolMrNuo prsPqrrJM sPrPrsioJlne) ' a 'lsrrJrq1 seM LrorMJN '.{u!u 'tuitxi iuns ot )ltsPI.{rr rq.llsodcb.])r(qo pLroJrlr Lrc U ll UOi)rOJ CtlSOddO lPnbr UUSUrXrt)ilqo pLrO)rS :^Iel ':)JOJ StJOxi U DICLTTLI.{ srsnP) E turll no^ !r(JcJJoJ nulurxi sl IIPMJql llPl .uolMrN t Jo 'Iro^^ s.)rlprtlsoddo rLF Lrlr^ou ot no.iq^ 'tiq rnoi lsutpS!lruq qs[(l rr{ r1o. .{ri^i olqerlldd! rre s^'rcls.').ql Lrlsli)I)olillllllrdx)iq uotlrrrtpro piodssll .llr/\^rot rclror cqr Sulllrdord r)roJ rllsoddo pue lp br R llrxr lrrllt Llrlrl^r 'siscii slildxi tJl)oJ illl Mul slqt uo prseq osle sl IJI)or e Jo tu nl^orll rLIl 'lsll pue Jql'.{ Lr Il4 JJruu rno.LrolMiN 'uoJl)rrlp .)rP slelritPuI silqPt slleM PUE Jo itl)ltsel.^ 'lPl)os prlpunq oMl roJPIroMurrls)M rLIrJoilurlurl0 lErlldosouqd pue 'lP)ltllo(I II osle rnq pFo^{ r$n(rrs rLIl .r(l'lood r?Jo qsnd iiu$ululMs IIE.

62 Hypolhcsizing 5 . Thc fdld/ivradvanLlgcs ir. N c w ( ( D b r l i ( v c d l h i r l l h c u r ) i v c r : . I r l t .lpproxinratcly lf('m day l(' (lay. T h c d i f e c t i o n o f a c ( c l c r i l i o n i s o | l ) o s i t c 1 { )l h c ( l i r c c r i { ) n ) 1l a r .i l n ( l L ) i r l . ol 2.-rir (O) |ath b. . 5. a. nrcaning thc ilali(izcd of irr rr)un{l lho onflh. 1 r tc x . rcpoacd .jmponnrl 8. t r .rr(l 7. n c c ( i .. L Gravilykecls lhc nnx)rr ils o. \ i . r. f \ \ r ) . .r. l o .grrlesrrs$ whcn travclirrltiu sp. positi(rr afc abootthc origirr thc univcrsc.|r LISTENING SKILLS vocabulary in Cohtexl Circlc thc lct('r oi lhc nnswcf lhat L)cstnralchcslhc woKi as it is r. yorr sln)er wcirr out lr(causc yor..at on l). Thc p()lcsmrwas always timc and bcganlhc lc(lurctr. . P u s h i n go f f n g a i r s l l h e s i { l eo f a s w i n r n r i n r | o o l i { . compulcd b. l i ' . cxfcrinrcrrlin8 lall ol l. r r . rhir)king b. A n y c h a n g ci n n r o L i o ni s p r o d u c c ( lb y a l o r c c . A c c c l e r a l i ( ) li s f r o p o n i o D n l r o n r a s s . r ^ r r .'cilii'A. Yourwcight vdrieJ a. A r o c k c t f u D c t i o D s n t h c p r i D c i p l co f d r l i ( n r n r ( l r ( a c l i o r 1 .irhr L lrur rrr. l " t ' .1 r . ( l . Obiccts downwa bccausc tlrcca h'sr/1rvir. cs s y r r l r r ) c r f i c . . chaDges l). irrcrcnscs 6. r . NewloD's idcasinflucnccd rvorldthinkiugin licl(ls oLhcrrh.rscd cachol Lhcte in scnlcnccs. I r ( . Ncwlonrrlcrrrcdthc sizcof lhc plaucts. ( ' . nr()vcnrcnt a.rcc. I r t ) l c o l N c w L o D ' s c c o l r dl a w . 13. cxactlY a. . a. 4. o t 2 .r. s i 9 . c .fc wcaringlhe w(Dtj Lrrand. Scicnlisrs slill spd(r/dtili.. According 1{)Newt(n. conpararivc L). In ofcoppcr and silvcr wifc wcrc sLu(lic(l . Asrronaurs cxpcnenccr. pull rrooD. b. v\. \ ' i . r \ . r .

lr r"t$.r5 ML'_I llur.r.). rqr irnlrrt i)rltot oJrsrlrotr sp sJroLr r:{pt I() ' 10 Jlu^'t tr "uru sr pjo^^ c jt i(tlr^ .\ Ur ur.l lLnlt nol r o Pr^Jrqqu nol .{ua1 l)(x)ii ro .{rqo.rJIL'irls L)u)^3 n_Lrlstl!!r rtrrM rLro )irl J^I]pu noi 1!qr$ur(xlnrL'uoikur ijurljDru .{rnrirrLI ur)^rlrq UOrl).r r tlrqr\ rrurtt)rrt np27 )41 Uutpullts.roM sr tl sL) srJ nuol lo sr!r.)ijul\'rl ll I lrrf rr.rdpun 'isrJrrx.rr\LrD:r \L' tiuol sP Ll^().)ql l).rPuor(rtrqM IPLIr urrlq()r(l sr SLIiuillDrp! sr srn)u iiurlpl liiqr IL )lsLrr s. .IUDuo:) rlrq. r l ur 't"r".f u r u o o u 'r q l r ) \ r M ll ..\.{tt^P.{!rufuD iiUr)lDl sr rotrnnEUr rq rLll'tirrrtrrM llrl{ ).rM I .russi))i)u.lr ot ^.nrrri)ltrPq 'Prlr(t(ioLUiq rlrl'\)sDrsrpUr!lr.is r! rstr rrll !iLrrqtitUos pLr!n"Lrrrlt ol u)tsrllr)rruu..r(l(le si(nlLl|^\ r\n 1)0u ssard solule lJe tuerl) l^ oul !)s eJnsseJd JueqdsorulP r^|r)P IIIe)lLuoq) cSprl^ oul )lJllurlrs iil|ol ! to l'lc(lrs.drl sLrol!r^i.{'rrr t r' l .rlt Iluo l.rlllr uD)ro f L I r D r ) q l u r o .(l)rnl) irr.)ql u r l L r .r(lqu rlo(lLUlr IIJ^1 rP.rPful.)sn ^1oltl l)..r) pUU.r^ t\nru I0. rxrlr rLIt rlilruor or srll)u Inol .{'rn)trrrLlI 'rlr(xl uo lunu. \ t r u r r r o r r L ' u u ( 4 uq r o l i ' u r p r o ) ! ( i ) i ) s l q r o ( .rno.r/irrrdr P sr )rJLlI ' { l I puPs q luJ. sljrq\ ris iqr prqrPM.rp 'rJnp OzH/^{ xlur %06 LU8I € llEur rJrP^{ qrIM xtru luorrod Itrutu rusr8 ouo elllrnp puP elqeellPw z 'su()llul^i.\ lr rt lr )L'\i I 'strr^!Jq.'.)\ | li.roll\ or srstrlr0l) ol .lr tr "r".rl.()Mto surnr piuauoqsisn Allro :.rroN .r.t J 'rrrrl)rt ./r q rql f9 Surzrs)qtodiH .)sn u)ql pue.)Lllro) !. r.'c truuJ nol sp. ) L t I J ^ oL L r o . / ) ) n r l ir sl sirrlrru)s nrllr\oll(f )qr Jl) rt)t.ro^\ rill l Iuur slulLl n"!r^\olr)t )rl-l_'riNll)pq r!r)Llt l)c)i l)l|!.rol l)UrJ )sI P)(|.)r.il)i)lrrt)(!r)rll rtl.

5 .64 Hypothesizing 2 .rvcling sl). 4. 8 .. il 1 0 . Astronaulsweigh lcsson thc Dtoonbccnusc lherc arc no goo(i restauraDls lllcrc. Yqu cannol feel thc gravilatioral pull bctweenyolifscll and lhc personsillinli rexl lo you becausc is lio wcak. The law of graviayis univcGaland applicscvcfywhcre. Thereis a strongcrforce of altraclkn Lielwcelt slln nn(i lhc tltc canh than betwccn lhc eardl and lhc moon. by 9. Newton calculated rclalivc wcightsof (hc planctsby studying the their gravitationalpull. The ocean'stidesare caLlscd cclipses. Planelsarc hcld in thcir orbits by the forcc of gravily.r\ . 3 . j. Aslronalltscxpericnccweighllcssl)css whilc tl. Your masswould bc diffcrcDloD Mar$. 7.1(c in bccause they arc loo far from lhc graviLrti(nlal pull ol lhc enrlh ol lhe moor.

lJpr.r 'IllDurJ uotl'ldo rno.qos Itltonhsltor ')tu)tl 'tu!] '.!\ rrrL.{qujoc t P 'looq)s p ruroc ' t ol Jo lno (lorp\lurprrs ru()s trqMureldxJ srsJtJlocl.(q uuol ' Z ol e 'lleJ'.u()s.r sr4l-/q/prr! tlllt lo .{LIMLT)IuMseMruqMJoi)ruuruluiJls tr 'turod rrlpurJqt !rorJ ttr)raJJlp lotr iulu fuPLLrLulls iq Mr!^rr or L()lurruoJul rTlrurlrrrns z .) 'in)lil)q.ripui.u rIL'ruol ru)rs \tLr)pr!s.{qrLItlo.oop.qtod{rl rllt uoddns plrroqsqdurBerBd lo lsrr III Duolu.rrl(iu.r lcnbi qlrM Iro^{ 'I I(x)qrsrrJLItrrr pJ))r]s stu)pnls rurcs lqM rrrcldxr ot srsJqnxilq p uuol slNrod Norssn)sIc Sa iurTrsrqrodAH .'tt1trr.)(rilurs l)nl)(ro) rrnbrr t{)Lr uorls V 6uulJi4 suolsnlzuoJ S11I>IS 9NIIIUM 'rcu op sr)qlo rllq^\'.I{) 'rJLrrtuJs Jl(iot ll DL0 liLItl.(q 'sir_nrP ruituIl)dxr rlLr)pnl\ qtr^r oluos.ql u'rr(lu(ltioqsoLrt lr .ueJU[r8rs JLIIsJlPlJrlPql luJnrrtels HLrrDnlruo) P rlrr.r0t Llruttr aletsiU I ro si^lo^ul turo(l rilurMoll{)l Jo i)Lro lprr| i)rlritrris ijulpnl)u{)) V rrqlutru i)!lt op -i. tr^^ r^pq noi reqMJo i.{11/.ritl lrs r^eq oq^! noepnts tpqr rJdEcl rno.rM)j NrrlsL'.{ ro] suoseJrr^r3'sr lEql .{|(ltuqr.{ Lrlaletsnotr rsoddns'aldurexJlol 'Lr.sls.r.{q^\ r]ruldxJ srsrqnxl.r.srqrcd.r l) )u0M notrri^ilprlM rullro)Plllotls 't)udrrrl snrlll)rrD.r)r ot lraAIij Jql tLliinoql lsiil(roIsirll surl Ieullitlt sl lr )snu)aq t!rutio(hursrrorsnl)uorv.s rtdot rnoi sr srsorllod.rdl.r trolsnpL().t PiJurru/\^r(l spI()M LIo!rsLrDrl st4t.)rsuluolsnl)!rorpi^uqPlno ill o sroPqdur:Jui!d ri)(lp(l riiiool u luq 'r!r.(llllqc 'sri)qro tlrLl^.).irP lrqr rrolJq rolprlr rlll rtErs ol siurpnts rrnbrr plnoqs slooqrstpql rq lq3rur rrorsnpuotr rlo^ loLri^!q oq^\ rsorll ueql Iooqrs ut rrneq op slPot leuorss{ord .rsnllopu.r!r^{rou oP.{llsDl) p spLrrr.rillrtPu.ttll rpnpur InfirD$ rl l0q^{ art tnoqP.{Lrpl!r urut(ixr rrsrqrftitrq Lruol ' s fut^\ or c 'sre)Iaql ur llt)q rurt.q ucr ruq^{ zi)^Pq llt^^ ao| r)prrr rLlt pllroqs iqr PIrx € t)ijji lurl^{ ztrrutro(hur sr.ldxJ srsJqt(Xllq ttrroJ ot 'lsrt ! rrotP)rlr llrM's{u^\ rrqro rll ls)lloqqijnoqtlD'nLrrplrls luos trqMUrDI(ixJ srsrqnxltrq rurot ot c 'rrurrl pJr({\iqr urqr r)rs|JoHsr)^up.{q rLIt iqJ nrrrod Lrotssnrsr(I ur P)tEInulor s.r.rro uo prsPq rql qdPrSPrPd c rlpM uocnpuoJ It t4trltfi 4dDr6orod e 6u!t!l/A 'l/osr.L iql ot .ldord Jtuos IqM ulet(lxiol slsrql(Xl.{JrDl).)rl LrorsnlJrror 'unsr)1.rud slq-LsrsDq(hLrJ.

L 4.Or yuu mi!:lrr Y"rr r)rrSlrl v('rrrhVnr'tl(si\i: lhat \lutl(rrl\ lnkc tLrrS\l\1'1rr\(rrI l\1r I'r(\sLrr((lrrg5 ro changcthc alti{ude ol young pcopleloward i rn.Hypothesizing {rAsc\l lhJl lhi\ 'uL'i((l rr(((l\ Irrnl(r rsr'irr(h rr'lrl\r\( dJmilttll.is will ir hrvr? What cllt.ri" rttut *" """4 your conclutli|g slalcmentallswcrsc/rdof ll'tcscqucsli(nls: Be surc lhat t. irrrln'rlarrl' t\ lry ir yuur hyPolh!.r What can bc done abo l il? Whal shorld the readcrdo? .t. 2.

L9 -_:r r 'possnrs!p Sulaqs! leq^ Jo slderuoJ rJJrp 're lu tql uf.q/!{ ln)ro s8ulpuPtsropuns!l^t sllqrrer$I Itqlo iq poolsrep!ntre iaql /lu)urllpls raqlo ro slssrllodiqs Sullelu llaqM ns alPru lsnll.|slsltlrolJs NOII)N(IOUINI [6nug tup.yaq g raldeqc .

Thislbrm ofeDcrgy cnergy.mes.whcu a hammcr (auscs to nlovc. processes. lhc of it When lhis cucrgyis rclcascd. will do lhc work of nlovirrg harrds cncrgy. lhcF inclLrding chcrnical cncrgy.A definilion answers the queslion. For example. Communicalion other twolegged creaturcs and pr€cise definilions of substan(es.which calrses lccl hol. "what is i1?" sometimes a deliniiion is because word or concepthas more than one meaning.l)ilily has of it on thc nnjl tlrat crrcrgyl(ilrclic has lhal wc call kilrctic lo (lo work aD(lthcrcfore a li)rnlol cDergy molion. of thal is norcd in lhe nuclcLls cerlairkindsof abnrs. nccds i thc stored lbod moleculcs rhc wofk ol movingthe hands. physicisis use thc lerms lL.likc urariuln .Juslasthewaichllnirlgrrccds be rclcdscd in thalis slorcd gasoline. a necessary wherhcr carbon is a mctal or nonmetal dependson how yoll deline carbon Al oiher t. energy lo do in releascd cnzymesor subslanccs lbe body. a definilion is required becalrsca term is being uscd in a spe(ial and erfltu. Short Reading for to Readthc lbllowingpassagc lind dcfinitions as nranytypcsof cncrllyirs TheManY Fortrlsof EneryY a slrikcs nail. manylypcsol ki|clic and polential Thcrcarc cncfgy cncUyjs polcnlial and Chemical mcchanical. ol Walc| ilr a dam is anothcfexample polcr]lial cncrgy. For examplc. enough !o include all thc items in the calegoryyet narrow enough to eliminate irems that do not bclong.conccpls.i! cxcrls l(ncc a Ellcfgyis thc abilityto do work. polcnlialcrlcrgy is Polentialcncfgy s()rcd is callcd thc walch. cncrgy is lhc crlcflly of ol ol not An objcctInayhavccDcrgy only becausc ils nrolior bul alsoLlccause spriDg wour . in ways thal are way. clcclrical. and lhc cncrly slorcd i by ro be thc gasoline by musl bc releascd lhe sparkplug 1. to food. its Dosili r of shapc.Thcrmalcnergylnay bc dcfincdasrhe kinelic crlcflly olnn)lecules whcrr 1o Lha!slrb:iLance is a subsrnuce h€aled.His critic Diogencs lcfl the room and brought back a bird withoul fealhcrs. nral. nuclcarcncrgy. Mcchauicalenergyis cncrgy relltcd to the movcrlcnl ol objects Elcclfic Nuclcarenergyis LhceDergy cDergyis cDcrgylhat is l)roducedby eleclriccharycs.1r Ibrward.)do i1swofk ol propelling c. is dcpendenl on ideas. "Herc is Plat()'sman!" The problem with Plato'sdefinition was that it did no1distinguisha man Iiom betwccn researchers without feathers. The Greek philosopher Plalo oncc defined man as a two-lcgged crealurc that has no fealhcrs.thc molcculesnove fastcr.Thc novenlcDl thc harl)rlrcr lhc .andoil.otft A dclinition should be complete more specific than thei( common meanings. it is sloriDg is whcn a waLch For examplc. declaring.

ry ANICA(] OJ.{8rJur )lrautI Iro^\ op 01 + llllqe = ^3reuJ ( rsPrqd lPuonrnr(lij(l r o .rur.l|o pJlrs V p p .Qrltr ro :PInturoJ uolltutJrq ':ti.lJ.ouatu.trl.\i)/ 11 y 'sP qtrns 'srllsrr)))P. s c ^ l d J ^ l t $ r l l u ! l r u J o u u o J J L l t.rldruDxi sPIrc rpnpur rorl ssDlr strJosr)qriul Plnoqs {Jerrn" Jo rrortrlfitrp Iiql{r ruort uurl rLIl r)P'l{rrrrurp ruD)ds Ir snl(ltur)l D Io tpql s)ltrl'Jlrpreqr rrollP)rlrssPlrlPrJurit)qtipnl)UrplnoqsLri)rtrurrrppoon^eleqlprlsrlJSnsrllolsr.t)|3 stJelqoJo tueue^our eql ol peleler (sl lPqt) .Dereq3 + ssel3 = urrrl 'oqM )11tlJ Llll.tl \ ).)Lll) rl)qM ul isuDl)i^l)ulJ.lttt|u)t )lta\ .lb lut:tla d4t tl r'. r\t st .rPqr y rrJrr).t IIo pup'pooJ 'Ju!losedu! pJrots s! lpql + iSrJuo IelluJxoo ISrJue lEJIruJqJ qll^ SulLILrl$q isnLrt) )^nrlJr E sp rDrdllD srtlst.. u r l t J t | r o s ) '.Ju qtLi tt)uit"Dutl)t.r su.rpJ(l(lu ^fuillr st t\li. nuat.- .lro )NISN .lAo/trtl ot p)Nla. l r p r P \ r J q 1 s .HSI'IDNII 69 Sulul.at)u.t16 .uuo L1 )I{t1.p ot t:tltul.4v u! r e )J.ls pLrP lL..uoloru Jo .Dnl\.ll to'n4 toqt 'rplry'l1 u sJLurtJruos sJltslrit)u. l p 1 s J l l s u .\ur\rrt^i $1140lb tnut..{8rau.\e LtrDs.rrl)erprt) 'nIurnbrrl) It 'tlo '|loal attUosDll p)ot! !t te4t lli.lI.Dn ut Put lt)tlLt)lad (b' lt) tD)|u)rt) srllslr. Ie)luprl)itu ( prlrl)p rr)rq suq.ltrit.r.

Thedefinile .lly uscdwilh lbc lcfm bcirr!(lclirrc(l lir wc arc stalcnlcnts.($ure.) oDcway 1() thcrmal ener8y kineli( enerSy cn(rlll ts slarcLl erll! e Patenltd! prcccdc class.7dvindicatcs rhcfeis nlorc lhnn thn! defincs0nlcrhing.i" " .J .tnerlt| oltllr ec lct. prcsenl rcquirc 1hc sinple tcnscalld lh(rvc lo lrf.) (Sonlelimes (hrrrclcrislics th( lhc enerSy + €nergy (hc rcnrclnbcr tollowingi N0lEr whcn dclining. is usLr. Definitious bc. a r L e r a n dr l y . ' m e ' ) f " ' .) ".ausc rrc.t'J [*lt.. It***']In.rrur(5 p. lre gifaflc(a spccillc not Pallerns Sentence DEFINING + r(:s cH^R^cr. would (lclincd ltiraflc(irr dcfinitions general girirllc)."i ll*.rr LA lahnhLoryJ [.. lr. t lhua' i< rJnstLn(ri l arc IcxperimeDLs P(rrol'ne. cxa|nl)lc...70 Defining asthc kineti.crhrc rhr fstudics univcrsc.* I**.| .rrndlener!! lnd! b( rlctnc(1 (Thcuseof thc modalol fossil)ilily .nLsr sPr.'r'. I ri! J rnr. gcncrnl). Th..al . not 2.r ) lPhysics I [A volr ] s r u r tI v '.] It'tmir'urrnpetcrtri.rr.r.u:..Irtre lJ u.11i(lc.ir J who rhnL bl wh(h wherc tnt J u r n . l. l"u r n e tIr l lA brrumrrer I IJD nsr I condu*i"n I '' I" p--* 1 f pr.:ll..lJ f r " x ' o n .ili.

to ll . .)ul(liiloU plnorlr.tlllrriIl 'lt )^oi(lrurplnoMlroi ^\orlssrrr\rp uoltl(rt.{Lur i(ll orrqlrlnJ rp rrollr ]oLr Uo rLrrr)p rins rIol.rl:r ro lL'Il trnpuor plr srop lL.lr(il) . ..qt:rrlrDtsqns rolplnsul p sr uy .)tqr:ltllrrpulrorr pup ]qij! sr tpqt sDiJ !I|| Upsr tunrtrH .lJ )lt?0ltrlrJltl) s) st..)ur iq. n_ur.4uS u Jst)Ji(l J!l lrrlt '!urit ssul))rl) r.)x)Usl . rsn IrrrLIr i r n J U o lr' ) u .sUoll(lt.r^.J J] rlro )rp Poronrrd .rol 9 y Ir..l^l.)7rs rnoqL'pUp 'Arorqls.r r)tu)) rLll sr tpqt urcjqrqt Jo lrud.'JqrcLrD ru. r p q t n _ u r l u sr ^ r r : r r f t l or g . ..'. ! ir sr leq^ t.tood r()s i..)rl v I u z z r ( l r u r r r r i ^ I r s l q o L I ^ rL r r l r p w D o l i i r t t o r l s t r r P l ( i x i.^rrr rql jo.Ir) iLlj ..tu).rtu)Lr) luu(lslrDrllpLIl lr^rp e \1.z ___ lI .'rlrrLru D xtrr st Lu()rrrrn ! luJr 'srrrJds .a lo.rno.\ sl tPq.tpoq .{rLr1)uoriJL.lotsrrrllrprniJ )!uos rro xoq iql !tl l))tsr't tuoutu{ao 6ury to) '.)frl)p) rllr^.rot ol ruouorl ..$req tuo)qr u sr . { l l c i rt o r q r . -Lrlt)p no.ur. Jo '.t.usr tpq^{Mou) rr1 lrql ^{oN rrorrrLrrril) r. J(lLUo).s)l(lLltu\!ssflJ p)lr\1.ql pnol) p sr n-{U.8 rrrllouIrrttqr0rPrlt 1p(rtl u tprrsrlrr tp|lsrJr] sr )trlt)lr!\y 'IUIL'uo.')l)uruqr lt :)llDr(l\ .l JrtMl (s)rttstr)trl'rL'qr rlrrlls rql pup'rrlro s\Dt) 'sLlolrru(rpljr ^^o oj Jr iqr lulrrrJn_ )Llrlr)pun sLlourullao Gutz/llouv Jo rt)t:) |t I/ tu:u!tr(l .! 'noruosDr. r l u o ss r ! z r ( l p .'llrrlrrrl) LrLr urnrl)PNI sr 'snorriiuDph.scii st )lrtrotl)u(xl.. ^ l u i r lp l n ( r qU o r l r u r j r p n r s r v.)t(dpUy .9 'irl:rtll:..)rrrLppru t v ..{trnrs sr.rillto(ro. t p i o l p o o i i .)Llj tprlt zs)suil J.)rl(ts (tiJr()r sr srltrlrlul € 'rsuP 'l)rr 'p no' irlr sr.. ?^\rt{ rlosJi(l sr lsrruouorilu ))ill turrurlolsv s!oltlrrrJip u uu.rL' tPrlM'qtnou.ttolo)a.ru sr )L|l 'irItrlror s)rlripp.1 rqt punoriirLItuo rr r()ttr.(or(1u L|rrM Mo oJ urLIlrng |rpr iJtrorM tr ui^!Ll )l(lo l notrr1i)(1M.\\ JurlurJlxl slronrurJlrp uJllu^\ il.(rorlll}trlu)r)s .)^11!n"itr Lrllxr u.4)rll .)^ )rp siolcU.qr sr unrq.LrolllULJil).t Itrl ol .lilpr)irJ^ sr otLnuol rlrl s oltlLrljip. r)q^\ s)rlt)L'r(l juln)jl:)lo i. .t rrl0o pur lrrrrrrsorlcH uD Jo rlppurddp tuorrpnD sr rfr V u l.r puu n^Uo.tp iiutMollol plrpsuo tutlJl) pooiiiiLrr.{uru s(losl.\l i.

gi"s w'o is uscd i" '. Srtl]..)))l) 'l*'t"a **t"o u"l "* *"t"o*a * "*.1[l :ti':"il'll:li: ils changcs L a f a m t .ha.iili'l. n e c e l l r d animal/ constanllY shapc 4.ii."'. A Lrlack i. 2 ..r.iliililxil i liii.iil lgK. t b ..'.s. . i. Aas ol .. l c r r r ' i|r ' r n r ' l r ' r r ' l ' i v e ' l r ' t s .72 Defining iooksiike a clock 8.1n. A amphibian like a frogor a r"rllc ls a blg nova I0.rrc rivc r.ai. **''cal rcacri(n ir\volvrs " t"]'::l:X'ili:i1l.t" i. " ]l'l:ff. fil'i.llti'.liilllil. and "ni.:il.':i.orccrecLforrs rt . A suPcrnova RehTtitleClauses lhat conlai|s a [oLrn' (] a verb A relalrvc A clauscis a pan of a scntence nn)sL rvilh wlL' that \rher'' at wha wl?rf."*. r . r ( . *.iiiiili"".l*ir..i"'ce dcfiDirions...1ii. J r ' .ran.i..lti::i:i"lllll'iliilll:i'ii'i.rlzrz el an altn' l)lrllsolowcllrrl llraL holc is ar)arcniir sl)accl( hasa gf'lvitaliolral 2.ilii u."':fJ'li.riv.0 pcrcenL theair Ir is a tordrcls oLlocss . llr[g / orgal1/ Irrcalnlng . i ( . and '?'r 'rc a". aorr"'ltaa a aze cdlzd' adl44d l/4aJ r:c.'nrs u. ..r*to*t+ lh" ru.l::. iilllli. ' ( .' li)nnii r'hcv lbnnor lileon carh arcbacrcria' afesinrPlc l'.1lii.'. "''. ot thcloss o'c or r. l r L r g.'l'iil'il. r r c ' u a r " ' r a J t r 7 . A conrPass is 9.r*l definilionsolienillclLlLierclallvccIaustscon!aillinSlhccharaclcrislic\Lhaldinin glrishan ilcm lrom othclsin thc class r r" rr' ( r(h ol rh( I' ll' s rrrF'rljr' I i r" rr" Llsinq Riative a/d.lll-.ii..'i.:"1':llHl'l'.. when rcferrinsro pcopl! Sclc'rcc "t. ol in paniclcsTheyarc (ont'ir1((l lht nLrcleLrs chargcd aIc L Pfololls positivcly ^)'.. r ' I l ' .|\er' L''rnL' \ ' .

r rrs ot Ip^ poo8 V .)qt sprpqluoq sntplpddl'/ uorlol). :)s..i ilLrr^.^ 'llltutLt1 st )ut4d4) r..Jord/ stsJtltlr.JldurcxJlol 1l Jsli^ir or sr rlrldruor sr Lrolt$rl.j] .(P uu € r"x rirpFq P z '({1..to rppr r(n P.4sonnld s plrnos JruJrJs sJrlsDorP / / t €/ SururJr( .)^il iq ro qrur tsrl puPsp.as ol sr proM MrLr e Jo.ro.{ 'lrlrrr4 rq] Jo ilu[rE)LLr Morr) lpprrlp no.ulrler'6 snrr^u il litoloiit S lll.rrlrrrq i7 u .{pD..{r '8 / lPiq s userur trun / Juol!) 1 / '9 uorDurr IPr[urqr D iq prfueqr lolr sr rnq dn spir(ls / rruetnlns / lslletl'r pooj rrllrEJnupu stuDld / ss.)Lr r()nruurpI rlElnrrroJ )lP'rbrpeur uouruurp sr iqt sr teql \Dor^qo tr p.rp no.suottlL!{ao6r1!bat) su(nPrc rrltrnu.{ no.{e.)|un$ puesJEe qltM s 6tq ue uv leullue sl lueqd€te rlrnI'|cnb0 0l ou .\oltor rrtt.rFhupxr rol Mou{ .je )u1J4ht) ttD st lplutua ut 1)3 .{Jr )1rc Ol pJtPIir sl llJr .p p .ra^Ji uL1 )^r.!l noIJI rr iJursr.M iuo 0ltlryng tJolnqbtot s1'lIXS TNI(IVAU .Sullturlrriql ssinil ot .

micro-.?4 Delining can gucsstllal the woRl . 7.r/r1refcrs l1) (nnclhing good lltla(c(l wofds 'ln) help you 1()remcmbcra ncw word For crnnldt.r very nrilrrltcorg. or nrcalls cnomrous ahhoughnrlt?/r'r lcad occasioually you astrayFor exanrl)lc.l lhc rillhl You ancl lis(ed.d e n s c D L t c l c u s i.Slr'r(ly ftrlkn^'ilrg oll)rclixcs aL then ma(chthc tcrnrs thc lcli bclow wilh lhcir nrcinirllls. mccr thc earlh.rrlilics ol to ll. l { r r .drrdrrleaDs i1 lx)isorrcd rhe rorlff is thc line whcrc Lhcsk} sccrls10 And il you know llrnL or alcohol. cndoplasnl L Nicx)bc ir.rDivcrsc b. .or sxo-: outside exogefious-due to exiernal causcs endo-t lnside endogenous-dve lo internal causes . 6.?rrirctnrdl rncansliny or v(ry snlalll Thc onlY 'rr(l lils yolr hnvcgucssc(l the s('lrlcnce is nlinakcs lo sc( il rhc nlcanins nrai(ing Iaragfaph. l. il yolr krr()w lhat r0'tr' rrcaDs wilh drugs lhal poi(nroLrs. iurilas woftl fans can sonlclinres nrislcading. thc enlircr. fclaling srrrall hcal h . a uriuuLc l)cfi{Ji1 linrc l. a l i r r g c .rc gocs Uorr 5i(lc Lo snlc i r r l l r r rl l r | . a littlc uni!. t . will no1tsc all thc n1L'anings cclo. maclo. r p . cxlcfDal intcnrnllaycrol l)folol)larln 5.frcr'.lsLrring o din:rnces r anglcs . lin thc Prefixes: ecto-/exo-. \ryillbe caty 10 rL'rrrc1nbcl //tdxl. r r I . vou will rcnrcmberrhat a hotiza'1h l/.ersc ol c. iv']y lo guar(i agirrnst very lnrgc.ycr ol pr)loplnsnr ! 1 .lnlsnl qLr. endo_. an insLfrmcnlIor mf.nicto-i small microscopic-loo small to be seen without a microscopc nacro-i latge flacroscopic-lar9e enough to be scen with the naked eye a L eclol)lasnl 2. rclalcdwo|(lscnn bf Howcvcr.

E .{lrltlun .b lunlpu Jo uollp asuoJ urlorq q .^i arll ul rrlpl .'Inotsed 9 csl9J e rsnpq uiDals B 'MOpUl.LII 6 Jo JtPl'poui q tl J.JruI .Iro^^ :sproM!\r{) gr.rC .M /rrr aq ol pr^ord.uolslllo) uo-pprqarll eudsao € uollp^resqo q uollPlresercl E | 'urrols rql SuFnppesearrur purM rql Jo rirol/ rqI .uirl) -rr.l lprrrlrrlr pr/p.ul8uc aql .M 3 'prtrr prureurpr .rrr .lolloJJql uers 6u!uuvrs p uoll9redrs q uo!leLrlqLuoJ 'IEltuj raSuorlsE salgur teqt slpt rl !.Jrrlul ilou lot rrlptlrnouroql dot LroploJ .M 0q1Io oplsuleqt uo ptlglnurnJJp Jodr.rno tnsslluPuodu4 Jo uDs! slslroJ puPSJJ^D q)ns'sEJJnosaJ sB agl .q rtqpqord(!) 'sptezp\ erg p1!r21od e srr!^ .{.l^ Jprsu!)lnssrld tql lle .loq. J'nol 0r{l '.1.f 'sJJuelursrssql q)ea ur prsn sr se ploM pJzrJnplr III Jo Sulueetu lr Jo aqr saqrrP(rl $rq rPql re^ suP rql Jo rrnDl e\{) dpt\J #ayo) u! tkDlnqvroL gt Sulugrq .z .prddpJunsBMolltoq cql uJqM / pas9rrJulq )nI q rpr] tis P ' rl)lp u J0 Arotslq rqt ul qtnorqUgaiq pug loleul e sp. = t uollPnbr Jqr ur r renrt rql Jo SuruEJnr JrtJ -€ 'ggll :sproM G letlder p roJ lool-rlJu./orrry'rql r(q[trsp)pr l8rcuf 8 sr 'lrsrrlr.pJddorprjlupjed(url eqt urqM .I) aqt ESZI ul sr8upqr lerluJqr prrpnls oq.(.{tooql ulcS s.llxJ p Sululqtuo) q iirrllllds e 'l)l)nu)ruroleJol.g :spro.ro[IrJo oMl |loJJrlp sl .r uolllLluapv I Jo :But^^olloJ Jq1punorpslJ)j)erqlnd pup ssalro s nulur cJlt]t ul a8essed Sul.{ollBLlv 0l Jo 'tuluo.l./ se.{ tslubqr qrLrarC Jo rleu cql Z (p ruap .

c o o k c ( i . mechanlcal k w h c D e n c r y y i s l f a n s l b r ' n l c d o m o n c t y ] r c 1 o a n o l h c f o r l r a l r s l c n c i iI n ) r I o n c rno(lrcr. yolr lili lhc rock higlt. Lhc you liti up a rock.yotrrmrrsclc havc eatc| irlo mlrscle cnergy inlo the rock'spolcnlial chaDginlt Muscleenergyis translormedInto energy.n r r d t h c r r a l e s o n r c ol (hi\ l o o d .76 Delining Reading E = lttcz For Ir()rronc lypc to arrolhcr' ex'rrrplc' or can EDcrgy be iranslormed changc(l a lrcc haspo(cnlhlercrlly.or thc cnerg){)l losilion As rl olr an applehanging lrnrc'rl At dccrcnses lhc s'rnrc ils cncrgybccalrsc hci8h1 falls.it loscspotcnlial i1s of or Lheenergy nnni(m. inlo kincliccncrlly lcntialcncrgyis bcinglransfonncd lo orrebo(ty 'nolhcf Irotrr a ofcncrgyirrvolvcs lrarrsler the transfcr Frcquen(ly. I f w c w c r c r o n l c a s u r ec n r c l l l l y n l l t h c c n c q ] y t h a t r c l n a i n \ n l t h c c n d .Lrccause vclocilyirr(rcrscsPo' gairs kiielic cncrgy. wc iliscovc! thnt Lhc bociy ro l o r a i i l n n r u u t r c n i i r r s i n l a c l s L r | l ) o s cw c l r r c f a r c d . no clrcrgy is losl Whcn ra'cficasufc cncrgy. yor'rire charrging chenri(alcncrllv ol Lhclixxi votl whcn ctrcrg)is As cncrgy.

rDr lt otrrlssld qrrq^{ ru.n ..ljpiur^uo) rq Lrpr.qt lt '.ljp(l! tll(ls ulolurLrnr(rolnl(ljo rrrnr!tpjt\uiqM .LIl )qt piTuorllr urlsurt u)qlv.ps.l)^ slrl i)r^ puu.))d\rqt ol lo l0nbr tuptsIorD srr puu '.rD^..Llt'\nlll .' *ffi mffifs @ * sez 'n''".ssululo onD^.{iiriur ]unor!!.&.iilJrLr.\rrsuor tL.{D.lprllrixrd qrns) ss or(i su Zt 3u!urJaA .rc .{n^rJuJ olul pinuurl) rq lurllprl)tprr(t .ur)lsurJ .\ pLrp r|rxorp uoq.{il.I)suor ruo.JoslunotUl? iJL J(l sIo(r -.{xo or .r..rrq1rn"()r p)pl)pr.ro.r srrll sslrulplol rqr ur )ijupqr ou sl rr..i truuW 'sslrrr uo|Lr^r)sUo) jo rql sr I) Mpl iqt prllD.iollsrp pillrrr]r^ru tnq rJqtolr! ot rtlroJ rlro ruorl pit.) ttluo!up Jql slu)s).[rr l) s! qrns)qlr^\pJuuts sD.1 Jrll jo lo tunorLru sl ll/.r.r:)Lrr rql lo IonE^.urDru).rutnq rrqx)upot rtur)r ruo ruo.iJxl = j/.g8Z ut .$ t!.rr^uor snrltoe] )q .uotlstt u l)illLa ss))oidu 'sluotu LLrnlupin ]lrl(l\.st lLrql )qt rjurtsrp lorr $.tt ! lt-.{n-rrrri tUt\otltu in-rtrl sisurli..!relJlnuts sl Jlrqt llqt.r)\0or to ^^!l .)tiLrrl .r)llo!Lr .xr rrll'.raqlr trlrts Llnl u1 1jq1 (ln suoirniLr sr^riJ st l|.nl! plno^ r^'l .)l)^o)slp sea ll u.()c rnupqr lDrrruiqrD L ssptu.l|rsr!FL' puLr.6t6tur ptlu^rq ol pi.tiirruipuu.)r)rl^.ti'rJtrg(llrrrLrinni plrp i.qt prllp) sr srqt ft) l].(ID)LI puD.r pl r.r!i.)qtiDlll wrt pill:rtsuolurp rrrsro^ut olUy tsrtu)q) rl)orrt iql .rprxorp Iuror u.ur .qrc:.lo ro rrrptoLrsr Jr.rJltPruJo rH llno) rrltprlr uo|!^rrsUo)Jo ^\ul .'uollceer ulEqc ie6tcnN -s'-w & "4" .t l)lnorilj)LtJ..lrliirl p.rodr.rLlr\.rru.rl(luDx.()t Iu rqt Ll urn-.priortsrproUpilp)r:) l rq rrl{ll.r siqsD jo rrd l)oo^ )Ltt sr c U)LI^^'. ! rqt Lrr uiitlxo :')qr Ellldl)oo.ri^ i)!l(i rrlul !rol)pr.^.r)ql to tqijr)^\leuriluo lpnbr llr..).{'{ rllt tLliit..r.{ijr.nxlp^r.\or(ltrjoiqt s...l(xr) )orltp.riltpW rlrl .r Io pLru ill)r(lL'i i.r rr lo Uortp.r!rurlr srrll sruolu .r(irl J tro0u]rbr snor(|ul L p)srirdxt sp^\ l(lDLto)srrll ..n I w i ffi @ # : # '(lt!r(rl ilrLtolp U p lr) !torn)ld\))Llt rrl iiutlln\ir .ru!s I() rlll trnrpxrpun s.p)Urnq poo^4 qllM sJtrrr}Lro) )qt t )rups tv .{(lpJrurl).

I(irrctic of callllolI)ccrealc(l dcslroycd cner8y 3..litlg the Readirg. ol oillratlcrandLhccolrscfvation clrcrgy saidthal thc conservalit)n 5.r nll pu4rosts thal 'nrr sLrpflv ol Lh€ntcds Ior peacclul l. ihc dcvelopnrcrrt alorrlic into Inallef convcrlecl off it 8. S c i e n l i n sd o r r c ! r $ r r l e s o m e l h i l g i s r u c L r D l l le v i ( l c n c cc o r r l i f r n \l t @ o. EinstciD arc unfclalco c ol thcoryaboutlhc conscrvalion nlattcr:1n(l crgy was ncvcr 6. hy(lrogcnalomscombilc lo Ionr htlirt|n t'kc\ is heLium callcdflrsion When fusioD Lrl The transfornalion hldfogcnnlto Inlo ol aInount masswhich i'i uanticrred rrons bsc a tnall place. Circlc the lellcr of thc nnswcf lh'l bcsL r alchcs lhe i w m c a n i n g o l l h e i l a l i c i T e d o f t l n s i l i s L r s c dn e a c h o f l h c s c s c r r l c r l c c \ ' l . lach olLheiollt.l al itrc ceirtcrof th{: ntn.78 Defining can ol fial Allhoughit maYsee slnnge. proccss is lhe cxactopposilc llssion of Undcrco dili(nrs inlcllschcal' rlrchas alrn . rt-a.t"usionproducedon thc crnh can d origilal atnnic bomb Bu lhe prirrciple lLrsrcrr aiso ihan Lrrc morepowedL. canbc lransiirrmcd l. Fulim produccd lhc carlb rcslrlts an alomiccxlrlo\ion LISTENING SKILLS Vocabulary i Conl?.1P cncrgyis lhc cncrgyo1posili(r] 2. b dc'Y .hed W l1 .. Encrgy Iiom onc LDdyLonnolhcr' tfanslcrled I 'aeXq.lhirrgs havc 4. yotr cncrllyis whcDyou lic irr lrcdlhinkjngol all (hc.. tia"dk'rwA h4""1a. whcn au alom is spliL..tia u.ua. Exlremc ill on 12.c lbr a iorrglilnc. givcs clcctrons of reaclion 1l)litling ot rs o(ctrrs d rcstrh thc slourcllairr exprosron 9.tr. An alomrc afc takcsplacc()Dlhc lLlnwllen two trraniufiarclns conllrlrlcLl 10."p.. hYdrogcn lhe rcsuhsjn a hvdrogenl)omb s4tich is mlrch er.crgy.'/t ba . Potcnthl to do. wilh unile$tun.ke placc healor cold is fequifcd 11.L""Lu. Lllal encrgy demor\nratcs cncrllycarrl)c ol .g. Fusion to lor ltrsi(nr t. UnlikcnratLcr. Eiustcin's provcd..eur luantiticsof energy atoms are foun.tqa tr+Pe ta a*touen a't bol4 t/' *uile." "*rgv of lhc human ra.s'ing sLnlctentsis inconsislcnl try compr(hc[sion passag(Tcn your readjDg in informaLion lhc prcvioLrs thc i1 arr(l thc crfof irr cachslatcnrcnl rcslnting corre(lly finding bul il ('nrrot bc fronrorrelypc lo anolhcr./ .cteur.

)pp.4\ s.{3riuJ isn J^{ uiq^{ JsnpJJq I 'llD:)rr no^ dlrq 0l srloLr rnoi .rpDr8rItH[J P i8Jrug Z or srSuPqr SIDAIP uuoj Iqesn ssetP ol r :8uEqr @ .aS r)qumu Jo O rJnJl slLlt sl.r\ uiqM lnJJsnssJlr.{ MJr^rr no.? tref JUo. f u tt o ( r o l ) ' S u l l u l .r 'q .{ U.r ro rJqutnLtar UPJ no^ ssElr rJ+p sJlou rno.rlf J^ . .LIM .rJtPl u r i ) q tp u i i n o t r u l M i s u r s i l u u r o l r l B n o u rr D r l ) r r P ^ i r l l r u l l l ) r n s r I P ( u l s n I n o l 'lpLurtlpjit)irro).rnud1 aql bu!\1uttl epun 'JsDrrxr rxru Jrll JJIdruoJ 0l sJlou Ino^ p J S nU J L I 1 o e J n . J S r J ^ r o n L I It o p u l J q L .rr^4 puE LrrEd .ro j l ( i t j x i s J l o u i n o ..4r sr DJ 9 pjcalrcq prc^rol luJA P lur^r 1l 'turLuLrrdxr qtrMprlrrJdid./.l. J T n D J IJ q l 0 1 L r J l S r l o . .J4r pllos slr rrr rrlP. ( { ' i j r l l u l r l t J L u nJ t s r ? ^o l t u r ? ^ 1 0 u o f n o ^ t u ( [ a l l l l l n o p u t s ! D { o l l o l ^ ^ \ 'oslv or iir rcu op Nq 'p)pt urEttr D Jo s)rdor(lns s! stn)]l lsl ol 0.sion P ! 'uortcrrdo rql )trds.{q 'Luroj pr1!)tplrl p ssr t4rrrrrru sD^'\ lrrs srH t € J^ordur q J)npiLE 'tr&JUJJsn J. { J J s o ) S u r o 8s r J u o o u l p q r p l | r l l r u r ( l J i ) l s s .rlno^ Jr sruarr JLII rJllelJ.{ lsJr '.i l o u L r lt r r u t r o ( l L U r p D i d s) J u l s ) 6u!4r!^aroN 'q dn pisll s oJ^cs 'lrl.rrrrt p seq tu)llpd . tuoleroqplrql Jlnptrrq sDded rqt port tou plno) rM 'Z uortrl)uo) q ss.{prrsJrrnosJr )q rllo'fJ^rJsuo) lou sr l)nlJJ 6 pr^ordrul prlr. ) J U J t U i lS i J i J ( l L r l i t u M o t . ' J l d r u p x ) .{SriLriteUt Jprrr'rl J^\ prrrul P ss:tpu.rJord P '.r. { s 9 s i l o u i D l 'drqsuowlJr rlJql lJuplJ ol 1lrl:.z 6a SururJrC ..1.r'rrlr rr).)tlt rrortrprror JLlt 1l Jo prz[rPBros'p r] p)z[rEBro e 'npiosp ul ser'J.'ot .pt poo3 ! sl rl ' l q l 8 l r l u u i l t r D q o t u o 1 l s o o t D J cl p q l s i s u J ( l dJ o s p r o M i l i J u l s i J u r s n l)ro^V .InosJ lprnlPurno lqinoqt rrrrc sP^^rt.(Jrlt 'streqlJs rql rllds)O ( pJr']r ! '.sO rruilrelpts eseqrJo q)Er s)trldnrcr lsiq lEqr rr^lsue r$ J(J r'1rt lr 3 nrrrtr irt rlnrtrrl rqr Jo rcrsuJllrrdurotrrno.{8rauJJLLu spriu sla^ lP plro/!./44rrr./.

b. r ly o L rl h i r r k L h c wriler nrcanr and whcLlrcr yolr agrcc ivilh lhc wrilcr.l c l l $ 4 r . Thc rnair idcaol tlrisl c c t l r f c i s l h a l c n e r g y I). EvcfyLhiult dlc lrnivcrst b. 10. runs dowIlrill a.disordcr ordcr to of an cxanrplc thc chnnlrc lo crrcrgy t). ir\ a. woD'thappcrr a long tinrc .80 Defining L All cncrly rvtrllLrill) wind\ trl. Etlltttotl . 1.lusc 9. l h c y a r c d c v c l ) p c d L ) y ( h c w r i l e f l o c x p r e s sa n o p i n i t ) 1 .F o r c . kineli. o cr 1() L). oftler 1()dis{)rder inlo lhe air 7 . er('. Wc do not nccdlo worry al)ollll hc dcgrncration the urrjvc|\c a. hcnl crrcrgy changcs 10 mlrsl:lc crrcrgy WhcDyou rob youf hands. Rdh t WdLl. Encrgyalwaysflows nlovc Irom Narllral proccsscs a. cnn't Lrcdcslroyccl DISCUSSION POINTS o Bclow nrc vrnc nonscieDlillc r "crealivc" (lcllnilions Thcy do rrol li)llow lhc I o n n l r l a f o f a s c i c n t i f i cd c l i o i l i ( ) l r i n n c a d . l c h o f l h e s c c r c a l i v cd c f i n i l n J | s . disoder the Separate saltandpepper? il ol bcc. Pcrllrnc cscaping diso cr a. KDowledgc is thc anlidole 1()lenr. polcnllil eucrgy kineLic bc will cvcnlllally in a slatcol irl 8. won r nappcn li)r lr. mosclcenergy b.qy t .

)u Jo l|olll(rlI.rrlruu lo (r1)!rrrru)| 's!ror(llLris uv l)ilqo isu)sllrrr lo tr()LlrLrlrr| sr rPnl)L|| llqu(1o.) 1ll.)tll ! fu! rIl^\ .rol!rl llr's {f (\rrltr.r(l |il)(r')rxJ Plno.roDU U} P s! )lllll \r lo l\r{tr)) \Pruuorlrrrri.)l)))tr rrorlrLrrlrP lP!|r.lrlrluoruriql 'nt3|rlseU rr^.\ Jl) \lsr\rror )roA\ 7 Io nsrsrror.r ()l r))(lsrirrl trorl0)ol il)nlrul lliJllu (liruo).r.1{)nrc({)lsfq rL| srl)nl)Lrr rru 's))o)lrlr\ oMr . ) r r r d 6 l 6 n l l L J .tt\.t(l IrUL|op ol I.tl .lo'.trorrur^rr(l |rItr. n o i r P r l Mo l r o l ) l q D : r q o l .(I!.)l) |.Ir .r(t l)l'r').lo iur) r11 l)itlllrI J(l ol xrltltul))o()l sl ld tlo) u l)il)Lrrtxr v u.) -iP.{!l(l P.)urIlnoqs q!lurir_Pr!(l l1)rs)riql 'srlretlPq uo slron^ leqr 1q3!l rlqPrrod e sl lq8llqsPu v 'rrnlpredlurl SuFnsEJru roJ erl^rp P s! rrrrluoureql Y snl(l :srnsrr.rlir/rllrsr I8 Sutultia .) lfur^rii tlo!t!LttJiQ PaPua$A uv 6utl!t8 'sirlrrrlord trr sll lr Iu)rs..t\ '.Jo rlr sisn l)uus!roll)unJ ipnl)rrl ll(lu(loi(l Pln(r!\r(rrLl)uru rrolltLrl. \ r y E ^ l v s r u k \ l J .t!.lxi' rrv r'rnr ILrP l)lnoMl!)tlLr l) . ) L L\"r .J 'ssuLluro) so qrns P rrLr)drprls lrJlrrd uuJ)ul./ 1 ' l ! o l ) o r l r r i j ! l q ol o l r \ r ' { | o q ! r : r ^ r r u r l d (l)orl ! r)^. urwru! oll11A\ 4rl/.ro riuL.lo:l sllul uu su q)rrs)rro( !()!r l(1luinr!tr! lo tlolllllll.)tlr\. ! \ o r r ) l .l(iu sD tl)ns) r))lqo lull\rlr.rrLu)Ltr l)rrrr. l r l l l Y t)Lttt\t ).)pnprrr l)tru '.)2 .ro ru r.)P P)ptrilxi trV p)l)tr.rlx) c.rolLrrLurlrrsor lo PJItrrlx.t)Llt)Hrtuo.rl suo!t!ullao P.rrnrq Jql . v slr or Jo '\Iro^{ uY { srr tr Moq ro uourrrdolo rldr)Lrud to (rorr!upldxr pLIn llo rl)L'l|r rr lPq^{lo uorrLlur\rp z sr Y rroll))prrP strJorr0rxlu)sip I )/rs'idLnis se rl) s'r)LrLrrfr(l(lu !tl v :s! qrnss)rr!ui1)!.|t ) L r l l o u u f r ) ^ \ l u t l l i ] ( r r ^ l o t r )r t i l s r ) n p r l .rrrluu s.' r u o p r ) ^ ) u i ^ .)pnl) 'trorlu)rJlssLll) 'uo!urD(ktro.)p ()rLu)r. .)lcnl)Lllrui'is(1rl)) uv st)ilJi luu s)snuril)rrurr .L t r ) L ' r u n o r i \ l u ) t L I u J d x r J r o ( r r) q L l L r t r r r r ( l x .nr! iiurqsrniJUrNlf ssEIr ll ruqr 'rolPlrl)lDr 'sr 'uotrtrllJip rPrtr lulurojP iil plnorl\rrlrrlurs rrikn rno^ rrlscol ro .{1Ll'rq(.t t o r l D l r ( l \ r r (rlL I .rl(ll(ruxi.rr)Do ir./'\ sll .ru. l (r)i l s P t r r ' r r i i o l I u L r r \ i r r \ r r n P r r r r ) f ! 'i/s sr r)rr)Ds I sr rrv IDuDtt llr111la 'LrorlDrr(l{rr IJ)rr{l !r \rrrLIr:) rL o t ! ( . r D i J .)rrq.{lui^p l -rrLl1()Lru Lro\lru({tL().rPrt) it) tl JuLrorrrt)|! l.rr\tl .r)Lllo '(rorrutrul(lxr \rl(lLtrux) ro trrl.puaJxa S'T-II)IS SNIIIU. a s t ) t u Er p q i l r / t l r ) .rsn rqursrp ot sr Lrortrlrrrrp r(iritsrlr irPnlrlro) 1!^\ poo.'s.)l)tl)lxi llD '!ror](ir'r)srP.rrl)eiPrl) ssrl)l Lroll l!uorrrliP!'s! !ir LrorlrtrrlrI Prlrrrlx) Lrv l)..)P -1fi t tr!tlrtrrlt uolru!!r.)il) qdurlurP(1 u rluM tr! it(lu|! r? rrorlrurJrP rrl^rP.)qM :{ooq! s! q)nrlr'ic.\ ' r e ) r l r t r o r l u r D p l rr:)l I() rr11lru)'l]r'! r J l r r n l p l o u .

chapter 6 Exemplifying Heat INTRODUCTION the stat€mcnt. well as providingevidence il' and 10give evidence or clarifya conccpt to use Scientisis examples explain se e to tes! the validity ofa point lf to suppo it. makingthestatement addsimpact. example thousand it €xamplc.scan somclimes can no example be found to illustratea point. Exampl. example for as and morepersuasive. bcstway lo After giving a definitionor makingany 8en€ral provcrbsaysthata picture of clartfya potnt is to Sivean example it. is one thing to saythat image For or down to a specific concrete smokingis bad for your healthand anothcrto saythat a regularsmoker-loscs smokedThc fol and a haliminutesoflife expeclancy cachcigarctte aboutfi-ve moreinteresting' moremcmorablc. A chinese is is woith-a tholsand words lt might alsobe said that one example worth a staterncnt the generalor abstracl brings An explanations. therc maynot be a point Short Readitrg below and underlinc examplcsof how hear affc'ls lhe propReadthe passage efiies ol matter. a2 .

liL|]() lrlrJlruq pru llrrrrrzln)rsL1(liM'il(lpul.)lr.{ PuI ul rrlrPu slr4jc JlnrurJdutrl e lollr srr atnvrad tal lo slDllg a4t ta SutlltldurJxE .]dur.t.l )qJ sjL.)l iL0 lu)tu)^oru l!rl-rlr.{lprdEr ssullj osl! JrnlPrr(tlrr.l ' pllos e le 'rlduexr Jod (lI rr(Xl(lns P srl(iluexS) or rrurpr^r )^riJ' lru JurEs ]P pLrfr.rJrle 'rrntrlrd(trJt Iq p.L illl ulu(llirl Pl|!l)lo)-roxnl r{ri^ ilurqlir!()s 'siijuurl) irnlori(huir lluursili^ rJrp(l!uo) )^Ilslris./l^olaqro ) q0Jo rrnrPrrdru.LrrnrBrrdurJl rl!^{ siuP^lrl)lr)rl) rsls)r lDlrur IlrIqP iq.lq 'lL|lo(l rtP.runq uorrrql Lrrrs rE)rrq^ LI:)t0 'rilupro rlrnPrr.)uLU.I Jql'prr srunr'JIdurpxr rot'rrort rirlDUlo rolor rql e.{ ) er .JJD.snc. lu)l.to upd ..lr lLrrcd rIPrLr JrJr a .rrLIr r^Eq no^) srrnrPrJdur)l i..t)r.r p)uoIlpuo)'.{P.r)x.E st rrle^{ '.lo Jrrs iql 'rluPLlr rclor 'toll sr r UJLI^{ tqijrl rtrLI^l E.to slr p)|D)J]LII |l'l)rlerq sl )rlnl rrnssr.1 uiq^{ pirJrl(hrr)x) slq.' )LIl llEql dn rqr.roJ qlnq ll1 t [rJ)srpup)ulLrv (pri urnr .tr 0rrsilunr slr .to pLIE qSrqilSLrrsEJ.'^orr e LIo )ldlupxr rrqup srpr^ord !D.t or !.'w)llor lrrrLLrrlPls iq rLlr or srt(lurDri rPrtr 'ri]rlPtu r^oqFJql srlurtl i)3lssrcl slr{Je rrnlPr)(i(rI Moq rnoqpslurDp IurJ^Js ACI]dWAXA Of HSI'I'NA DNISN pllP ruJq)q) Jru-rJlol n)urru) luLllstutltluillo.nsrlllr r^rrs r1 rlrca :)$rr:)rls pr.\.)lllrJ P .).ri)rno ul i)qro ']lrJllri^o!!r -luol s)ulqlDru isnLrr sJlr^\ riiour!| uur rprLlM ss.(l lurrq or rr rsnur llr^{rl)rsur prsop p ll r flEnror r^otu ol LI8)tl rLItJos cM tt rlrt^.)lJ luclsrsJ-r sJlrr)Jloru s)riuu silnri)lotu prsrJIUl l.nl orur prrnoLlsrrrrPM .rigroIIPrsorutY(rrPrls)sPir rprnbrl slrorJq ll I a0 r^oqa r())r) pllosP sr.rilDM P r-'orsurnl rr I o00t lE pLrE '^ olrq r0 -J lo )nnPrJdllrrr P rP 'rt(luDi) loc )Illpr)dlller nr iq prlrrllD sI "0 )rlrErsqns jo ilPls IPrIsIqdrql pJ.lJlloLl nJil JruPrsqns sY s.rnru ir0 lnlllrorl llrl or )u)rlr:{oo) -iDdrtril.t l)F3Jlt st )rut1!sqnsfr ?ui$ latslq.rlP rsrrluorr)Irl si)urrl.rl)ill) P)lL)iH 'i)iiuq) slr.kl iLUUs JLllSn.r.Ui)^ riu siJrrqliJul^]1 or 'sr!(x).q^^l)prlllorpuEp EJqrre 1)q) v lErrq.L s)lnrrlou nr 'P DrqsrsP8c sv seilujorrnssrnl rqr sr).Jo ol ss.lrl0 P .{Ettr (r)q^'\puPrlx) slPurlPu tn)w Jrnlerrdrurr lq pl)rl|r sl rr.llo si^r3 rr. .)^rltsurs pu0 s.)]lp 'ls).Jo LriIxJ pLruts ullrd siLIqt JurAIl Jsn!))q 'srrtJ)toid ol s)/'!ris s roul|uJ sl rlrno)i.{trDtrurss)ruPlsqns r.rD .ltu).rorusplrDdxrpLrE stErqssElH rt Surlroq UrLIM ssEIH prl(nr rIL'irq] u.rttt.r JurPrlto)'.'illP)'P s)IlrrLlordsll pLIl lrlsrl J^ottl s.

Jrrr' TtfiNraturt t1lsa "/ pressure insidc lf a closed glass tube is heated' the increascd will cause it to break r|irlr its lckl'ttrtltur(' c/itrrlti4' vdfi(.?.84 ExemPlilYing the Tempentur(nlters coldrql nldtttr' of m('rc'' a a ntoy..t".s Thcabilit\tol'a fittat to rctiJ/ which can Heated wires €ause excess €lectrlcal movemcnt' damage machines' n\1+xrdlttlrtltntr!lc\ sDtdll !!nsiliw ln ca'll11drttli|tll ' l"irilllthihllt drc vcr''/ asl)c(ls vnriolrs is nt.untt'rise ltw wor(ls a \cnlcncc' 1tnrdilraIlr i.in.organisms that cannot tolerate ' .pt. and then white at Ilon.ni". ) of a coll(cPt very hot or cold This is exemplified when we touch something and feel Pain' to kill harmful bacteria and '.. We pasteurizemilk and cool( meat heat' othe.tton')rlccxarrl)lc usc(llo cxplainlhc ii.''. for example.'1 a .. turns red' lhen orange' increasinBly higher temperatures' br.' nti ).qn "*on.molcs are nol alwayslnnrk((l wilh oricn carrornv bc i(rcntiricdLrvthc co'tcxr .'.LtJIeitul Thesizeol t1nobJet:t /d' (lLrcwords \u(h ns /'"xd'4"' tFx..tunpcrdtLttt is.'.i:.'.il.i1.t. thc faraglaph) is poured into it A glass may break when boilin8 waler he allcctt pr'r"n/rc d '..

ts sg SuriJrtdrurxE .r f \ q q t t $ U .*"..LL:li\x| l r r p U ) j r . 5NI.rlroqlr^r sJrll|]srp srlorurolrr Ir^rI \prr(l uos .tr :6rL\\o il |t ottutitai $Itt!r1x.'sntr' I s! rot(') itutr)r lr lP)rt to Kl)iuoi II xotorSurr)rljp iqr rerqlo rdn)uo) rl I s)r'rrsn isrlJlou'ix'j ' t ) r r e ) qu url [. 4 r J ^ r I l p ^ { p Ho l p l s p t V L r r c r J o t \ U o u \ i r L l d .j [ "*"*Ji'iJ f o ..kt pltltu)p J0 put' )q 1\tLtr tL1u0 st^i\ )tIr qJtt\t u111 to! lt:t.iil]*''' I lprlJllott'ix'..r.tt.\dutx? | .trtur tl s 't tt.i 'p)rerqu)q^{piI u. x r . 1 s i r t r .r rql nLUtsi. u e s r r r d d o J .nurddo.u . .i . l l t t \ 1 ) L! . p(rru<l:r {. . d t t t .u]. .1.l! r'tttn[^np 0 pur 4i1fi11!) l^ttl r ' l p r r r u u J o i t d u r p x .9n- r ')rMl s J l { h u e x iJ r l t p u ! i ) u o s t r r r u r i t u r s L i .tttoJtltsf 0stt1 nltl.1stnt rldtt!! ttn d )ttt r! u411.Ln m|/A :3r)t.rtrD.ln']:t a t. l r r u l l t |'r] r l z pril L(trlr r|l|]rrllr|-p !trr.re:xnrrrr 'prPrq !! I urrtMprr nunr I ra".u.jo \)c.^\ t1tl1tl )/npl ! t..rrljr.\lttdl lexa sutzllD. lj oltbr{l4aaxA (iLt!?llol.lo sdnorij ro srrp({isillt.rurr.rrornunr ^|Pn. l pJ|e.tDtt s^l1^tlr uo srttltuLixst 'ltdtuoo nry) urwltltltitt )..r.' r c r i . r i u i n " r l ti u r l :) I -ril)ul1 'sirruinrrs. i u t l J s nr J t .x]LrnD]-ru o -pnnannn-.1 ULttt. r / . $/. t.rl.it p rt lut xr tnTlod lo J0 ttt..tv 'tdHti'ttd )tlt )xr)rr) tt).l )JuJlu.!r 1-t.ljrr/rtltJ 'ltnt l]tr./rdr{.ro'relsnrrr t M p i r s u r n l l e q r $ u ? r s q n sPl o rur 'n)rpJq urqa p)r surnrI D u P r \ u rrll I rr.

l " . A carcngrne energy b. . (x llholons treneliLPla'rl is 5. A Kclvin thcfmolncler lncasLlrcs 4. i\ Exanples Er'l t'l h(\ . mall]ltlrition lo lhcoriesha!e becn prol)osecl explain thc nalurc of lighl Christian 4.oexislcrlccd livinf thirg\ lbr LhcifnlulLral relaliorrshif live wilb antsin a symbiolic licc or aphids prcl)ared clcnlc'rLs oi thc has 6. Symbiosis lhc .maPl€. c n L i ' u e . ' ' . A machineis a devicethat lranslormscnergyfron one form lo anolhcl . r i l ' .l g"n. ' r u r ' l r ( ! r r r L . aynal o changer 5. itr() nrcchnrrical of en€rgy gasolinc tne cotrven! cncmical a.oro. A baromelcrneasuresalmosphcrlc lerrperarLrrr' alrsolrtlc c.i Rz. . ( r r . Tlle Cclsius prcssllrc b. vilamin C car lo suscrpLibililYdi\casc of VilaminA may incfcasr arrourlls b. Alomicrcsear.two or thrccscnlcnccs gcncral slatenlcnr. Radianlencrgycomer ir lhe fonn of nrnligh!' x rays' or from one form to anothcr' maYbe coiverl€d c. clemcnts. berkcliLrln all manmade Einslcilliuln. Encrgyhas nany lomrs ilrlrl Lhe a. @ doscs may bc harmfil ir cxcessivc 2. VilaminD by L Tempcraturcmay bc mcasured diftcrenttypesol rlrcrnxrnlclcrs' lclalivclenll)cr'lurc' lhc and Fahrenhci! rolnclcrsmcasllfc a. Several lhal lighl travclsin w'rvc! Albcn Enrslcirlproposcdthal suggested Huygcrrs as light is lransmilled Linypa(i'lcs.Ncplunc. Vilamins witllolrL h'1rln bc takcn in largeLloscs a. r .( r(r-rl\r'rrrrr'(rrr' ' l'' -' ' ll l]'l:. lucLear energycomesfrom sJrlilting nucleusol uranilrln or lllrlo aloms ganlma rays b. The food wc eat is convcnedinlo cncrgy in olrr bo(lies c!rcrgy inlo eltclrical encrgy mcchani(a1 . l ( r L l r r r . EnergY .. .and poplar 1rces.h led 1{) dev€lopmcn! arLificially arc an(l termium californiLrnr.u. r ' ' r t r ' -L ( \ r circlc(l' nlay L)c Onc. Thcrcis liltlc l)ossibili(y Lhcrc lilc on anf other lilc' (i) ucrcurv and vcnusarc !(x)ho( rc slrppon systcnr' in Y Thercarc onlv ninc plarrcls our solar arldPlutoarc cxlrc rcly coldnn(ldark urunur.86 Exemplifying minlctot l)lanl arc 3. Parasilcs living lhings lbat fced of{ other livirg lhings lhr 'ausirg them lo dic lrom livcs off apple. . .. Exccssivc ri(kcls prcvenls discase Lhc c.ognizing ' r l 1 1 'f l r n ( L r . plarrcl wilhin our solar is that l.

u r n r i l P M l e ) rorcr)u. Jog -.tn1t't s(e*x 'r 'scstqluJrEd qit^ aql Lll ..xlx.vrr!o^.s E srullrtuos pue.{lrplnJlued JPrluqJtl 'uosPas.{llssarrr Jo slEporurlsrlSuE.^!sspdtql uI .Jxrt uBrJl 1!qro u! uPuler ol allleles aq7rc! ?eulbtultu aqtm / rnoq rad selJru 00O'8IJo peadsV 'rlqlssodLu! asleSulq].'?^1t^ s!4t t! ryat D aq $ u anql '.{tlssrrru slepow aql .ued)rd) pl)p rlrolq)orp^H z '.fup eql Sulrnp :/"ep^E^5 peraM/tr nno4t dotr slql 2q 'uoll?pu)uuro)Jr scssaldxe eleJepou ojolrlsl //.tduPx.ro{.{uP selcltul prru sl ll leql 'illuanba4rsou readdP Suors&a^ p sassardxr isrr. ugotuol p)sn 'suolDnrtsu! ul 'Io^e^.q ( J l i .uolsoldxaaql aq J[v lo eeJ! eql utort pawrrtb\a tsnu leuljostad lEtluesseuou 'uolsoldxe aqt Jo Eere aql ruo{ prtrnrv^a aq mfioqt lawrtosred lPFuassauou IIV 'Ittlr.^lssPdaql Jo ul.1^ .!:l?.l^esnoi'rerdEqlu le4ssataN sttpow lo 49 SuttIdrurxr ..{lgssaJru -(rus$!u$p^Fro) uaqM Fata/Wt? po 4@ 7.MoLl.{lluenbe{sl //rorlj SBulurs."i.{rllqPqoxl tuols ss.8Jql t 'lpoq iqr ur {)rnpord) slpr poolq crrqM 3ulra3 lBquor or ipoq cqr roJ € 'plre rlrnJlns pare4ua)uorqllM sprrolqr unlpos 3u9p3q lq (. or ptsn oslP sl rt w} (:IPrtur rou) puP sno osroorre appollrerlrl uoqrPrJo sroclE^ rql ' E 'uolredsu ue aroJ.IoJ 3ulMolloJoql Jo q)ea oL ttlssataN slopow 6ulsn osnpup lsru ppe'saJualuas lo 'SulupJur aurps ." 'plno|sot)^t4 + ls w arE ssrrdxJ prsnoqPaIP ol . pq saJurluos rsrql rql oMl .|oH roJ .&lllqpqordssrrdxrolprsnrreslpporu.{llensn ts a puennaTs slpn lppedsrt pesnrre qepolue$qr'srlruM .

l' LfuuLld. Thc Daticnts rrotbci..i\ivc I Thc clcctricityis not shul off 'U. 1. l akflrrlher clLrt lo its Inean'rrg .aan a.r$ing r_l?d.\.88 ExemplifYing 6.Ih.kd. Thc blfi1JJon('rtirr n('l bcrnF rcSLrlarly calilrralc(l are dcviccs nol Lrcing monilorinll i. Ue JrUu ar.:..rlli..i a \ t t a L ' | a t 1 ^ / d ] I w . The Dccdlcs ro( beirlg thc inmunizcdagailrst fltr' arc 8. ." arattndlherearthgive! .lcvl(ci 11..g READINGSKILLS Buildirrg vocabulary will s(tneLrrnes of ndvcrb Knowingwhelhcra word is a noun' vcfu' adicctivc' Ji. I."ilil.)llowin!th( filtLLrn lh( Ir\t po. ..slv(.i.i..ll...il. rhc rarliation in thc lalx)ra()ry' 4. cdrctl/) ro orakc ".. l('jl(Llft\r '1r(1ni'] 2. * " .r':". ' .. \.i:l :'ilxiiliii: has (r"dl') and arr'c'r rnc . l | s .'r ' ' l " ' l r ( .""'" u r"lltiws sui'lccr l]l11'll o".nNC.. | c ' h l l 'n|\| ..c . ' ' .'li. | . A i you j ' .1"n'ot" rr'\ bcinsfK'rLit' thc trcli)fc irrjccli(nrs slerilizcd are 7.\fr^11(rlv 'i lr'\m (rc(\'r\c rirlillr''n i.i . ) .j.' t | | i r ' r . an cgg cell ilr lhc larllalc (fcftilizc) a slcrn I)y (ncvcrnllow)lo conrc i r l c o n l a c tw l l n w a l c r L Thc faccPiecc scal on aD oxyitcn breathillg ( n c v f r r c l c a s c )l n a l l u l l s a l c a l l r ( ) s l h c r e c v c | 1 l diflicull./o?.rtn'.l'il.rl * 'ili . Th( cxl'l.. v t u ' u l | k ..j. inhalalbnbcconles in r. -f l "r ''r"u rrr"r 'r' 'Lr[[i\-"' rr{ l 'p..ltl...l:il ..r.lll In sincei! appcars lrc pos an action.iii...:#'f H'ffi: e"'l'l **#ixi:m. iita t".til.' d l h ( \ l r ( r r r ( r ' r '"v l L ."'i"' can Lrcaddcd 10 mnry for verbs iD thc silnpie pasr lense ald lhat thc nrflix fu rhcm advcrbs(s'll1r' 'df{tr'h') frr."'. l : ..r.. For humanlifc ro bcgin... A firc cxlinguishcrh nol availablc lllilrlnlfLr arc 5.c h r"r c\rrr'li' v"rrr''Lr'lr -".iii".\'"' .ii./rl thc with Nee\sitv l-"rrnulnr( scu(c|lccs Fotuulaling Sentences i)clow rlirr of scllLctlccs.ll'. L'l \'\i(c...

' (lr.'ue.r sqr)^i)rlros ' lqnrErls 9 1 orPqs ' s l I:)ctq 8 uos '9 ipt^l llPp qriiLril ' t l qlnurrls' I I lqij14 zl nlilutl ] I .Llr a^{ 'PrrrlJ^|rJlpc JLI1 Lr!) ruort 'uorler.8 .1l.LIl Jo LuroJ rtelr(iord(ieiqt rltr^4 '.ds ul riiupllJ uos irlrlbar slsFrlsPqtl/\^ spro/$ rql sr)pds lul^/LolloJ iqr ul qrr^ .ur ol ffitrap t oJ rArnt:./.lrrrr' pupr 01.'A}l.L '9 t a '.ri(ll lri^uo:) !|](nr u sJleJlprrl i +.l))iq) '&pss.ruila)jcllr ot 8 qtt^\riJrpqr '/ or nirtrurtrl) prllllrqrleru 01 '9 i * i l d L L r e x iL r P ^ r i l o t ( +irl(i rluru ol nlutu o1 € NprnDrl 'z frlos i\r.tttF f rrrjL\r I 'fiEuolt:)lp rno.sool 0l rq.lr4 \unou asiqtlo rlJua nurlllJruos JIeu ot slrealu lrJ^uo) preq o/ (lrJ^rLIt.)iull ilulll.1'JLl1 ikrtplrc ijuriupqri(1 unoo s o1t|lr^oqu sqrr^ i]l.)lr.p ' € pPoIq 'z I utitls 'rr-ppu rqr or sr^llllpu rsnl'.rr'6 7/4"t1.rp.rqr lo LIJUi xljjr)s ll0rr.! x4Jns n^ursrl'sqr)^ pur-' qrlqM r.xuJnsrql qtl^{ pruuoJ rr.r-Urspurpnr^\rLIlJI r/.:sax[lns 68 SuriJrtdurexa .

firn irrerl thc kcy in rhe lock. Sollnd cannol bc . when there is . differcDce a.1drrprrill bclwccn lcsl results.) l. How doesthis heal lransferlake place? . absorbcd a. wies were ins Lated preventthe trans{crof clcclricity or heal. b. Heal Is Trafisfetred Hcal is the energythal warms our housesand cooksour lood. unable1()bc sccn 7. tum tb. a. solids 6. l. cxposcd t. the nuclearreactorwas er?itlirgradiation. unablc lo be dividcd a. abrorbing a. giving off 8.led in a vacuum because transmil il.ordl. a. Flrids are Dor rigid aDd caDflolv from onc conlaincr ro another.90 Exemplifying Vocabularyifi Context.and 3. onc cxamltc ()1conveclion. ol Keep in mind lhar cxamples nslrally comc dircLllyafler delinirions gcncfal or Reading Ho$. liquids and gascs a.ihc lcst should bc rcpcaLc(i. gives oll 9.The submarincwas complctclys bnerged b. uncovered a. ro a. b. enter iithe water and could uor bc sccn. takcsin b. sunk there are no air wavcs1. 2. Citclc rbe letter of the answer lhal bcsl malchcsrhe meaningof the italicizcdword as il is usedin eachof lhesesentcnccs. of 2. To open the door. Altcr the fire. The sun fdlidteshearand light. b. covercd b. b. 1l is lhe lransfcr ol cnergyfron a warmcr body to a coolerbody. sirnilarity Scdt ing passagc !hrccminutcs lcss Scan lbllowing thc ilt or and pL( Lrrackets aroLlnd tltc followiDit: l Oneexample conduclion. cerms are irririr& wilhoul lhc aid oia microscope. carried 4. b. one example radialion.

rp ')rtsDlo ^nrrui) r)lsuPrt srlrn)loLLl Jsn!)Jqsrolulrsur lJul)oo^\ ssDl.) 'I(r rDJr ire stJrlqL) Lrrq^r 0^\1 rol rronprppl J.rol)q rLr()ir p uL'sr I lriluJ(lr.rqr rlFrPq rql 'Prl niq lo rod c olur p)rr. I ii.r\lnq'l)tor lup liup sr uns rqt l)Lr!quu) rql \l .\i) \ 1 .)rll|LrPl).{t^otsos r. t .r.rns)ql iql !Jrrls.r lqn_rl rllLUi!^{ l!rll s.)Dpnor rr! st$ILr )Irt r)rlrDtsqnS IEnbr rrP sfnrErrdrlr )qt |[rn iuo].1(J jotprpL'r r^orl! ijur\lr Ip loq )q. .)lDt sr rL'LtrrtM LI's)rPlrrnjrr! x)rl LI |rrr sr uour)^Io:) s)su pur Jsllrpssrls mrrq \)snP) )l(lLLrPx) tr 'luDdx) ol. r ' i r .qt \r rPrq^ 'rre llor rql r)Dld)i ot ruooi ! otrr pDrol u.rotu DJ0)r si))e!n\ .0 lrqr' )^1 lrr^ tl'rq Drlpuorn)u op prnUD ur \)lnrrloru qSnoqttv 'tDJLI ptno.rtrro) 1)1. l |.\rrq.loor E or DJlc]o r:urr!. ' $ ' U t r s .)u^qirnorqt u srssuo luJq p rrPD.rll) q)e)r \iu lt uirt.rpslDlr. t . 1 $ . \ \ ) ' i .{trpDrr srJt\uDIrr)q )sDpr.||ui)Lll luirl Jrll sv 'uor)))^Lro).ro sr r^our ot prrr Plor iqr lP srln))toru tul^otu . .{ijritr trtijrl InrL..rP) )lliuilurL()il)il)rrll luqrrr uollelp!.1. 1 .{cr s. r ) .irur. .rJl(x))rqt uPqt iijrrlri Jrour .1.rrql )rcp LrPql.aru.(t s. \ .)rnrprrdrurrrrrl)r{Ip ur ! !r Jr:r| LrII^r )rP[l sr)El rEqr r{srErl lE)rl Jo poqi)LrrJtro sr Lrotl]npLlof l6 3ulilldurrxa .{tq3rH tlrp lJllsrto(l 's.rrjsu!.ru II sp s)lnrrlolrr v i .l r'.\\)rll .{.lruj.()^\ rururlpuu)r)qdn)turu rl{n"ll i)qr'qtr!.L .{srrur JLtl lo sspilo) Lt)rlt.{3r)uJ Jlll srlrll lou IIPqrosqP op sDJqo'IttDnsn rJ(tl'J o1 r0 ttl()4li]. . r r l ) r .()10 J.lrqslrp.)lsLrDrl s)t'r)rtl) r r)rr\LlLt }llc)iq rotpIrsl|r o) I tprt)rLrP.rotor rrourtrrltJr snrlorrLliJrI rrJo)LLux lr)Ltir lnq.!(Is rqr P)rr{suL'r snLF iiirJut rJrsPI sJsDrrqrrq^\ tn pirlls prrr p.uotJ rprH 'l)rl)npuor. . ' r'|| '\r'"' i.).)tcur ru'r'|E^ V uMop pLrE'sots)qsD'rspttrrqq'too^\ sc Lt)Ds're|o st))rod dDrttpql .)slrl Jo \r uoodsri^lrs L'lr'ildru€xr ro:I srDkloo^ll rrrr.r\r.)Irl rrJrll sc I)('e s))LrEleqns ol nlq'rD)q )uor lrnpuoJri.ll 'auo .bs roj qslliug 3 'sJLro urrlt l.))oDlsq'ls ltv 'rLl)ouLr )lur)l{)ru)uo [rorJ pooi . .ur ijlrr. .\13 .n P urorl s. lro trr)purll)pst rt!ci uo rtrl llv rrJsl|Dir rDrr{ l)orit U pirlt lt sr uorrErpuu lo rr]rrDu rr uorlrr^rro) 1.rpu tsrlrup. r ' I ' rr l ' r t " \ n .\rl J i)p .rol.{triu.$qtr^ trptui)r rl]lrl lrJ^ J)jpru s.lnrrtou rqt )\nprrq notrnprio)..root{ sIrnbrlpuDsrspS .r ro strilqollv 'uoltetper a^!6 s6urql go v rLrnn.)l(h!rux) \lI)rin) !rc))opupsputM p)lc)q rq ol )ip l)Lrnol lo lrrjul iLlr orrrr UMDrP u.llo J^rn" Ilt^\ l)rulr^\ st lpr1liuo Jqt laqto q:rp:) 'rldlr'!x. I r l .!\ )q1r.firlrrLtrls. .qr lE s.tnrrtou rqr rsnprrq sr s'LlI x[l rrcrrq itJrErp ururIIrMrroor:ls.r'lurq prl)i^uo) PUu or ul ino iqr PiDnl)uo) r!!.uurrql Jo Uoltplpur t()l)r(ls! ijrrrlcurrs!l rO . c pu! rlliui III ol r'. rt L r \ | \ .

luct(lr L. tc. The mon comforlablc clolhing oD a nor. that ir |ot l:dn iDdicatc what conclLrsions bc Afler rcading pfeviorspassagc thc carefully.poor a. hcal is Lrauslcrrcd ouly subiecl lwo conditions: and in lcmperalufe.fh(r. hor b .. convccLion. good ol' that causes air () riseo|cr. An air'conditiolcr lhltnrgh 7. is a Lr. On a lrip lfonrthc canh to lhc nxxrnyou worritlpass a. it is Lmcthal wood is a bcltcrinsulaL()r rlrclal. in L Ii lhc molecules your Lcaarc m()vjug @l. cold -1hc 8. Opening door bctwecn warnr in lcmpcralurc lhc b. poor a. lood il irrsLrlato| t. . A doublc-iilass b.runny (layls . b L r td o c s n ' l r a d i a l c i l 9 . window tha! trapsair is a 4. radidtiolr-arc when lhcfc i\ a (ii5pirity lo First. and radialcs b.ln one with (lark rvalls.n facts. Oyy[cn i\ r a. darkcolorcd a.92 Exemplifying and The lhrccmodcs ofhcal transfcr-conductioD. increasc a. A h o u s ew i l h w h i l e w a l h w i l l b e lh. examplc. poor' insr.lcs on Lhcprinciplc hot 6. canh ab$rbs hcal h a. b. cold thc thc a room and n col(iorc will aausc 2. Dlauifig Co clusions. b. For if availablc is a kritical conclusion wood would nlakca bcLlcr handlethan nrctnl. lighl colored 1 0 .thc flow is alwayslrom hoL1ocold. itood cnl]. Sin(ecork hasair pockcls. it rhc lctlcr ol lhc nnsrver lhal drawn fftnn thc infonnarion coDlains circling by bcst complclcscach of thescscrllcnccs yoLrr is vcry rapi(lly.r b. secold. A scicDrislmusl bc ablc Lo draw conclusionsfionr Lhc lh. cqLralrzc 3.rlal{)r.

Drrl uollelndod pljo^.{l Enbrl8lq e 'urnrr.(q otlpr.{llpnsn rrnl)cl p ul srldurpxa'lpfrtpnr uenu^ r sv srldruPxs qrns qlelcp lPuolllppP sp uMop a1!.rr.))PId P sl Furple LrEieSrrlspr.unn)P1\ pale 'sJJLrJlLrrS JSJqI Jo qJPr UI prsn SI 1l SEprOM pJzlJ:lBll Jql JO nulUpJtLI '$atuoJ u! lubpqbrot rLIl srqrrPllr N}q rPql ra. 'qJle^.|oMp lo uat a uor .rqoa s! unsrpv 6 Jo IrEI e .unJrad urprPq q 4rnbl q 'qtnou!prtoor 4fpros IM ptnblV g JI q8nolri q . 9 lll^4or.r S pcids'q .{etuquer rqlJo r]etullJtrll rq uollEredrsq IIFIde|q llMoF e { roll9uuoJsuPJt'r.laqJ Ol sslulrp q 'rlBoqt lrl .Jrlodrn.r tulleupseJ ol uolt!ppP e ) rle aql le yr uolpt lqnt .rprrt .tr.\L 1 sr ^ljrrllnq lnJllnDrqB olul rpllloDls) nllll.qI zl Jo DtlBIBq q rspjoslp B JOtlgls ! tler auiesiq1 te rnJJo suonJear lE)ltulqJ JllsoudoUJLIM I I '.rM 'rtulle^Pq no^Jr osle 'rr^rMoH serPluteur aql uo rlelusruor 'ernDrl P Suunp saro SuDIPl urql 6u!4oLatoN q SurBueqrun 3u!8ueq|e 'lrrl3rorsrralpMut uii3ixo ol uc8orp.{q pazlDtJprsqr eurllJ 'al!1r10 q l! isnDJaq pasolJ prl ^llqSlle qtlM rrulPluoj e Lrlrdrl rq Fnlll lluoururv I pJr lP)s q saurnbllq stlDrod9^t e 'pl)$ .LlL z le^ourr oe 'r.qr rr^o prDqlPB e IIe s)^erl aqtPtsradslP ntrL L Pulr'r'' tzFode^ e lltu|E 'rlloq uadoue urolJiplJlnb .u.L t 'DrurpM Bu[uo)rqi{//r.r tou trq dpl rql rleu ot .pup puplsr.{lt)oilp aruor.pun nor{ dlrq IIr^{ stldruexg ro llnrujrp s! leql lurocl ^ue rrqurur -rlersnllr lrql slulodrqt rr+E .ruroqt lrl rullosgii ot trrprhr sl Drnq.4 sue 'rII Jo Dllol ttlt )prl} Sl1IXS 'NINIIISI'I €6 3u!iJ!ldruJxl .

an ar$wer lo an cssay Takenotesasyou iistento the lecnrre"The Changing Sta!cof Matter" aDdthen us€your rotes to completethe rext exercrse. 7. can evaporalioD. 5. L The convcrsion a sdid lo a liquidis called of 4. A volalile rubnan(( r5onc rhJt ir <talrlL. f t. L 4.94 Exemplifying your poinl when wriling uDfamiliar. you would not want !o live without. dre k) 6. discoveries would like to havc wilnessed Thingsyou wonld like somconeto iDvcn! you would like Io explorc Placcs you $ink sciertins will neverkDow Things . 5. 2. a changeof statecannotoccur wilholrl addingor sublEclirrghcnl. casessuch as oxygcn cannot bc solidificd. 6. point is lhc samcas the boiliDg 10. Fog is an cxamplc ol evaporation. ody a few substaDces (onvcrLIiom one physicalslalc lL. Thcy can alsobc nscdlo provc or subslanliatc qucstion. a 7. Clouds formcdby lhc process cvaporntion. Hcating liquidcauscs molecules novc laslcr. All substances nlelt at the sane lempcrallrrc. are DISCUSSION POINTS cive one or two cxamplcsol cach ol lhe followirg. is the Understanding Lectrrr. Explairryour answers l. 9. Machines Machinesyou wish had never bccn invenlcd you scientifi. Equilibrium exists whcn thc ralcol concicnsatj(. 8.l thc ralcol ate tnc same. Scienific factsthal still amazcyou. Alcoholis a volatile liquid. 2. poinl. cvaporallon of 12. lndicarewheiher eachof lhc Ibllowillg slatelnenls rrue (T) or false (i) accordirgto the iDformationin lhc lecllrre. Thc coDdcnsalion aud 11.

]rh/.()N A\ ]t\) r. r ! ( il l ! r s i ) .lo Jr\ iJuluu U .'trrij 'l)Pora 'lLloc{D Hrrr. .JJpfJr 6u!. ) l ( 1 u r P r (q l 'l)ul ul ilqPiolui(rr l ) r r P r u i p i ) l ) u r t u i s) l ( l 0 1i q l i I c r L r r i i d u f r x i i ( l l M o r l ) ) l l o N (lnl i ltL6l "o) .11.lornbrrt rrP \lu)ru:)lPlslt'I.q) )rD r)tdlupx)'.\ rldrlrrxr rs)tuorts rrrotrJ\nerJq lnJDroJ oru SL tu^\.r oi r)pur 1lr^ sllll .1]?tn. r i p ! Io l s .t!!lduaxa s'l'rI>Is :)Ntrlt{M s6 SotIJrldrurxE .to uosJo srldrlrpxr r^rB ' nrlu iL0 'Jsri^rLrn lnoqp^{ooI jr^ru puP'rsDd 'silurrq iqt nrpurnLl rqt r^{ IJl^'\ siurqrrrE Jrrqr reqlrrElsno. f t q l u r ) ) llP lsotulY illlltF. pll0 su tl) s ttoltstrtt ot a Dtsut . ) t p r .tod t1 qulllA 'llL1lLtU!t' 1 .rxE rt-ul^1oll(.'xr t!.1 'uol)i)l .ul sild(rexr Surrnporllrrroj spro^{ l|oltlsulrl srl(kupxr qrr^'l I lrodclnsu)ql plrp p aJ!JtuJs rldot P L0r^\ urijrg stLIod(orssnrsrC Jo ruo uo qdErljErBdJtrrM alo saldtuoxl 4vxr tldoJqt.^rl or rrrs rft .). { qr o r L I s D ) s l t n p p o V l u r q r r ! ( ) t s r i q r o o J rlrq^{ 'irunru(u rpPrr tr J I r .{ pLrrl sr)pprrrnon rrln^uor ln)LU p dt)q lit^{srtdlupxln'JrunfipuE iiurlpruirr noI I N r')r':rs Jo irltq'parj )rtl s.r. J l L r i ^ i )i ) ( r i r u i s J l ( o l l l p u L ) l s .rrrurl'l rzrlPnsr^ rqr LlsrlqPtsr sJldrrrxJ d1)LI Iptrrlupdrrrljunua rlr rir)su1 rLIod s'tll PrrElr^rl rrroor )qr or r)lrriiqD rql urcrJ )^ou' rrPerr Jr| (rlrq srlotuP -xE r^rsDnsrrcl rolr SuosrrJtrrr rrqrrru r'.l trol.{tr'i)ldrusxrrol eJpr rnoiJ0 t)rdsu.Lruul IM 'M :)roi MiN) \ p L I r o M l ( ) i j l | r l P ) ! li q l o t p ) t l r r l l t r l l s ( r r u r s l c L U r u ic J L l l u r u o r L r J u J i i J .tol tttlulax' -tal rp'rl:.rruer -rodrurijursprj)L Jo ri)pm Lrt(rrl{t JSupre 'p)pr )Lro lrod(lrrsol srtdrUr.rJpJsuoJ rall Jroi il 0rer0rj01.r c ) ) ) ) l d q r P ) p u l r s J r J r d q r .qt Jotred rqr or iq llr^.qr sDqlDqrLldprtcre(l ro .llri14 l)irur J.M rlol to tu)Llr)l). )s p i P z l l r p r r Ps r r P U D r u u l u s l u q r r q r o r q r u r r u r n i r u c r r r u u P U c l (c I e H l ! n p r ^ n r u l 1 t J I ( ) r l Me ) L L r O ) JO l S l . r \ u D i j i o M J u ) l o q n \ ./(l4:.i//.td!uexJ rlP .15 l11tAlt) ! t n L\ :l | r. ) u J i J ) r s s t s ) n ) u u D r s l P u [ u c l t r l ) L r P | r q r l n p L . r a s l ] ! r ^ \ i u i l e i J l r J i r J r r r r . { L r o l u l u r p r d d o q ) r q L r p )D i p .)rlt ^1orLI J) l o L ro p i i r l r .111. r i p r . r r r l Ps r r r L ] ! ( l P r s l l u l e l r r s l D l L l l u Pr u o s ' s ) r l r ) P ( l e ) ^ r l u r J L r ) i i J ir^ r s L r J l x J ^ P q s l c ! ! I U r r l l l o . r iirl q D l r i s . ) u l l u J l p r i u J n _ ar.ti^r itprtsnlllol.tqLtLl ^iUldr].{Jrrrp iiurrll!Jdrr jo stre^\ ro Intrsn rrolu )qr Jo rtro sr iirrr'{trldu.'DpdLLrr stsillduritsoru.ri)^rs r^rii no^JI ^{oul rr^rlr llr^^i^\ siiurqtrsJqt.

likt lhe seasons lhc thcoryexplained Then.tcplcd and the sun revolved aroundIhc carth. Davyon(c l)Lrnrcd diar)l{txls is lhe cvidcn(c?" Thc Bri!ishscicnlist Htlnrphry Sir igoorju!lthecxpc|rsc. Hc a(lchis point.ura(y. thc sccond planets His lhcorywas a. tha! lhc it because prediclcdthc posilion ol lhc planctswilh somc a(.chapter 7 Giving Evidence Smoking. carbon. and Alcohol INTRODUCTION has lhc "whcrc Oncca hypothcsis l)ccnprcposed. lrulh. Bnt scientific no one can stand far enough oul in spaccto observcthe planelsrcvolving aroundthe sunl 96 . (cntury. in 1905 the relrograde backwardmolion ol lhc planels.Thirteencenlrrieslater.claudiLrs P()lcnryp(Dostd In mosl suppo4ingrvidence.Drugs.ro be discarded Copernicus lacts.After all. or ca(h and Albert Einsteinshookeveryone by sayingthal motion is relativeand that up on whetherthe sun is moving or rhc ca(h is moving depends your point ol view! And on and on wc go.lhc PolishscicntistNicolaus morc plarets revolvearound thc sun by dem(mslrat'ng thal his "provcd" that lhe ol ihingsthat Ptolemy's thcorycouldnot. Bul all when anolhcr theorycnrcrgcsthat cxplains "proofs" are !cnlative. alwaysslriving to get closcra|rd closcrm thc theories can seldombc prcvcn bcyonda doub1. demonsrralc diarlror)ds graphilc ro thal and inro graphitc. Thc rheoricslhat arc acccptcd arc lhosewith the co bincd \aith reasoning. arc both crystallizrd is or P(rcf or eviclcncc usuallylhc rcsult ol obscrvation cxpcrilnenlatior). qucslionis alwaysaskcd.

1i .).{cl ilullirurs rpllrolletltroJ x.ruurq rruurqr :l"l:l lllli.q1 silunl rqt pup .!prq aqrJo orerlqr srsBolulounorluruqtpaterisirorucp \t.{ltprrs.s'ssi^ .1u*g " PJo rrslrc iq1 Lri^E-dotsot xlurnp.qrro poorq iruru.)rq.)1.44 tput i)||.)LU.an4L afiqA| atll s.1.rLU M \qrq p ro .jlu^slpMerpqll^. iu.\^rl'rruJ nrrrnpr {(lrr.lporqt .^ stlllpe.rqt .Jiipr|lc\rurpJUr^prJJ.rr^orlilp ot .l31.)I\l s L Lro.nlI \..\ LI o\tp rq.r q)rpr{.sl)rlrp LtcJrl Uol|eplpt.rllrssed itulqle.0l'll1l(uuq nlllif)us tuql pr)unoltlrp srtptsprllun rqlJo oqt leraucauo.].L.qlnottr rql se Llrns 'rlll.'iljT:].air oot 124ows s.r. lrlrr'.iliii Io slrljli .ll?lLri(ulltap ol Ll)lBcscl rq JUlluJIJs ur.rr ro q tpt .{urr rtlt rilp(lep Lr-.lpln)I) pue uerq iupru . urr^4t. \1p.)l.ruepl^q 3ur^tC .{li^t(nl]Lr()) oi)l ruu pcq pllp Jlqlsr^x\u i\.r8rn5 7961 u1.{pp srnrrL. tl i.eq nllllo(rs lpqt ilBJrpul ot pi)ltrllrtun)Jp n)urp1..)qt(.l n) fru.runo)tu s t!tLftr) Ie)tLuJq)! tuptd rr)r'rlul .J.rnu .1t.i.!lu.lrlr rr.)a st))Ucuu)t-BLtot slr 'rn('Jir:1lrcl1 rp pidirt\ t.^olloJ.rq'.qt .ft:iti:llfi.tpssed 8ul..r .lods! tpL{t tr.rIpl rI\ c ur1".rl reqr rerlr.... r.{olli r4Jns purl Jr srjol._qtlp..r:rr15 _Io.{otd uJnq ppq ^q d.tut)J 1l sinsso lue ul JiJUeJJJnpOtdnpJ 1r jr teql .ru..(qd ruorrq uruo srrtouli "qr .StrJo lr uJruoMtreLL:'Jrd srteJrour ltred e rlorus oq.\[r .\ rr(tpq rr)qt Lro ruipuJtii'p.4 lrPlt()J Llt s.)Lt st.. rouorrtrlrsuor ).1 n"tclct sl JullorrS IrrJu.isrrerl .qt pBnU aulpoav uotts Z6 .ataw 'lrllturlrl sl iJullolr|s lullt oJlripr^i.1'liupJrl rrl iqr rrqr \LurljUr'.1 | (qrq rIllpLJrd c.rrurSoul) .)Ll.r1)..orirlJlrl raterrii p r^pq .r si$ersrpfuoterlds u!rolrpJ tuni.l lrrrpii rIour.11\ qur..uiq.1 'l)irlcMr.ll ororu pue otoru spq t..{[e)rSotoqJtsd pup..1t{I iluJL(rlre fi.Tj.u ser.qr siulslr ul .l-r.q ]l (UrLl .1llcur\ l!.

.. /?dr is supporlcdby evidcncc.) Smok€rs often. .ake^ markcdwilh a cluc wofd and ollcrrcan orrlvbe (Evidcnce not always is idcntilied by drc conlext of lhc paragraph..v It can damage the tiny hairs (cilia) that linc the brcathing passages.or hypothesis. . the previous cnch ol vrhich gcrolrsio your health. dtld !11aki1!l birth dtJtel! bilNeen Therc abaa correltitian i! pregnant women who smoke a pack The evidence indicates that of cigarettes a day have a greater likelihood of having a miscarriage. . . suffer withdrawal symptoms il they attempt to stoP. tli.. .Thc arglrmentis bascdon four stalcnlcnts. aflenbe ne phlsirdlb'trndPsrtltolalitlllr tl41utla1t0n thcit hdlli! S|/. opirr()n') evidcnccnlusLbc Incl.. . Research also confirms that the tar in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic. . .) of nrcstscientillc Ix has been demonstrated that nicotine increases the rate of the llear!' . Even the onse! of a smoking_related illness is not always sufficient !o €nable heavy smokers to quit.98 Giving Evidence illnessis nol .ltts Snlokin!is th! losts1nilicaktlhclatin rcslittltot..000prcoralrrre AmericanLuig Association smokingin the UDitedSlalesper year' duc !o USING ENGLISH TO GIVE EVIDENCE passagc thal snokingis darris of The main poinl.(Note that scicnLilic ailtlktlls Smokifi!is rdatedta fian! heartand citttLldlor! wilh wo s like indialcs at ilr lontrt (s (Evidcnce iicqlrcnlly int()duccd is ralhcr ihaD lhc strongerwor(l frrvas This rcllcc(slhc "trrrproval)lc"nalurc hypolhescs.lways suiilcient to enablehcavy smokerslo quil smoking-related all thc infomlation madc availablclo the Public since 1964 in 1985 thc Despite Lieauls enimatedthal thcre were 250.. . .

lr.t stlrauluor iql P eFznd plo Mas8rt3rq s.^'\erp r(l Jo sllrJurJters uu) rBllr Lrorsrllruor Jo .s^qdtu.rqllo srdeqs rql Z tnP)Lt uirt^\ sprPdxrrJrEMo 'PrlPJrl rrJt{^!srlerooE^J rJley''{ e 'srsu rrlE^r Jrll 'P sJrJsr Jploq prsolr e ul rclcM rqr i)LIM I 'riurpr^J JsJr0J() rlJPaluo{l u.unuor s.riup:.rn))o Lrrllotoua(J u!P1l') rCqtcSot 'linlp .I?rlc uo pc(kiorpcllrfil ssclSv ol(ls)iui.).urlorus q Jo 'Jlorus ol rlq sluJrlEoPruJslqoruq e pnrJs.^rlrrppu s! aulqdrow '5nurA ruorJteM ro lraSixo olr sr JrJrlI snur^ uo tslxr toulrP) tl ^lolll r^r sc Jlfl 'lr lrursuerlol s)JlDtlotua.rrlt)l )qr .I \r .r rl..rns IIt 'rttoor Psolr E r rdo {rl sr rurnlrd.{liIll sl r)clns p.ullours UJJ^rDquouElrrror lerrlsnelsq8lq e s! irtqt t 'sr Jsl]^run rqr se $nl SurpuEdxr qrrer rql q sr 'urclP pJlJuprpql sued otur J)iorq lerF sseurpuel Juo Jruo J.I '9 rrlpd p sp iulrldrour ul^liJ .lnr.\'l\ctd I rrl 'z I uro{l urer Jrl slui^rjcl lPoJ IPr ruseld Y ')Jr^{l JJLrip!^r )ql puP J]uo uors ntr or rqr J rrrrpun 'sruJrurrprsJo srrpd rs. rsnpr e sr .{qdu dolr^ip s)ur!t uos rt^oll.^Prl uosradv punor sr qucr Jlll 'ParE rrlluJ Jqt llu or 'JsnJJlp 'pPards P Jo s.rd illlr:)qti8ot lg sl .]Lu LLrnn)D^ ur 8ulrl IIrq v 'rrEld Surtrels ol u]nlir ^llPnl r^r Jql 's 't llrM rorenbr rqr luo{ rsr..lou rqt ruoor rql rr^o Ilc pe.rrp oLIMsluc|cd lllldsoH .IP rlrql E uiq^! prtrnpordllro sr Punos punos ou srtr.1o rlrroq D}I tou \r tnos f saop lEor loo^! E lnq'tuDPrlruJd p rrtpM.rds ro sB8 d pll1l'J^) I M .r.ql uo i)uapuidcp lorrs.qro')lr8P+ s! sselo 'lt 'lalqlrq uu) siJ p plro lorlorlB slrcllPulquro) Jo prsnrre loqo)lupuu sSup oirlM s.{rldrur pue .|J^.'rIIDi)rp 8ull.lIrf )rlr a2u2p1^g tuo4 suolstlpuo) 6u!^rorQ 'lPrrq or.lpruuJ.ql Jo tpc) q uap!^g 6Lt14l!tu2PI 66 rruepr^a 3ur^!5 .'Eur.

rndn|rl b.dnj|l A riu. b.Thcrcrnaybc li)r 1 AI(oholis dangc|1)us drivcfs. n d c x h i l t o x y g c n W h ( n . Mosrsulrltanccs combu(roir. T h c s f a c c b c t w c c n l h c s u n a n d 1 h ec a ( h i s c o l d . fron bauxi!c.cggs. a. AlunlinLrln pr(xiuccd clcn]cnts. is addicLivc. . Thc rrys offiesun wafln whal they t(Nth lrtll . vira|ninA is csscntial a healthy a. scvcrflslilcnlcnls Elaluati g Er'idence. is a. A l c o h o l d o c s n o l a f f c c ld t i v i n g a b i l i t r . b . s i l u s e d1 o b c . t h c l ) L l l r l\ ( n ) r rd i c s . Oxygcn suppons on a. 5 . Alcohol nnnrullts nl(ohol. b . c. d.. BlowiDg i fire makcsil bum morc brighlly. . frcczcal diffcrenl tcnrpcratlrfcs c. ft l-rt..silvcr. doesnot supponcombuslion.f in lrjl'l'rrFlft1tr..) Alcohulinr)iriAiud{m(nl. Ioresl llrcl are worsc in a s!fttrg wind. VilaminA is lound in buitcr. {i)r dicl. o r r ( l n ) x r c l e b . n . Difi$cnl slrbstanccs when frozcll.l Jr( 0) M. coDlract d. b c a n l e e d i s g r o w r r i n r b c d a r k .Tinc. .Altcrcachofthe following l)roposilions or statcnlcnls givc cvidcncc nrPl)ol Iof lhnt lbc IcLlcrs lhosc ol rfe givell. H u n r a n b c i n g si n h a l c c t r L m r d i o x i l e .rnyi ur. . walef icc/cs at o" C... Alcohol cnn blur your visiort. 7 . ol build up a $lcranccft)rill(reasing b. b.rc rrot hot lhcnrlchc\' 5 . c a r b o n d i o x i d c g r a d u a U yr e | i a c c s t h c o x y g c n i r L h c : ' i f a . I D a c r o w d e d r o o m . B c : l n p l a n t sr c ( d l i g h LL o t L u n g r c c n .r(i Llcrr(. |lr.Circle fof nrcrcthaDonc answcr cach tbc p(rlxxitiou. A l u r r i n L r in r. a . Alunrinuru onc ol rhc nr{)sl gol(1. is d. co|pcr' an(j wcighslcssthaDiIorr.. . \i. b.lc . T h c s l r n i s n o 1 a s h o l . is abr. l i g h ln r c l a l . c. cra(k in vcry coldwcathcf. A l c o h o l a i l c c i sd r i v i n g a b i l i t y . Nilrogcn a d. Smolhcring firc will prl it oul. Thc [rehinl. a .i00 Civing Evidencc 4 .'r.r AD over&)sco[ vilamin A can be roxic- . H u m a r l b c i n g si n h a l c o x y g c a r r d e x h a l cc . A Lackof vi|amirr may {auscrlighlblindncss and fish liveroils. Alcol()licr ((.l L watcr expilrldswhcn il freczes. AllnriDunr ()1 poir)r allrnlinuDr 660"C.rlc'1h"1 s 2 . walcr fipcs so rclimcs b.l'. B c a n p l a n t sn e e d l i g h l t o \ u r v i v c .

r)llP!!r iql r.rrlu . ) u P rs i l n ! r J I o r u s n f l u r r r r r ' r 'lrrJrolor r! 5l)uIo(llLror ofi r u Tlv '7 uo.rr^|lor rr! lJr)trlod lp'xl iql ur rL'l'l\ olur LprflsuJ^Lror rJDrplqoqrel n 'slrPr i ^ r L t \ t ! t u r L r r p r i l i l J l r r r o r I t V s t r e li ^ p r t s i l o | p r l ] 'silrrlrlr n _ L r l ^Iill! L r l r ) . r . .rurpr^a 3ur^r3 .r.eu)l)cq Iq l)rsrDr\r DruotunrLrd eu. .rLll J(l sJsnlrir(l )!ll jr pLlr 1). .rc(l turlliurnssD !. { r p Drr.r)^ !)q tlu) iil|uosu).rl llr/r\lror\nl)uo).r luqr s)l(lrruri(l luLlurx)(l rsourrrs ijurl.ln)r].r pLr!'u^ro. r r fp l o : ) i l ) ) u r \ l ) n o t ) J L t .r(l .\ll rLlP)LflPrtro. I r r.rpts rrolulod srlrrplqoqrDr l.niO l .FpqJo LIl^\orlJL0sLlors urrlrJLrrd 'rptnsonrr qr.r J^rt)npLrr'lsu.^ri)nprrr (o) r..rt )^llrnful lscrtuor Lrl lc.!\ I() \rrldolp srur(! . \ r ' r l t. . .r^|])npifl sr ll jl 'oP Arrll 'r)Lrl jo. \ .rr(lLUir t rriq^\ ^ ous ol snrnr urD)t p lltijru. . .r )ul)JdsD LLk).r.rJsqo.()rr ilurrroslrrr^|)np)o iJLIUosPrr r^!)nfrrr PLr!iirrruos!rr i^|rntl -)p:Lrolsnl:)uor ot )rrrrpr^) LLrorI I )^oLLr \loqt)u rtslLlo^41 slsrturrrs ol :rsn LrltltosDad 2^ltrnpul pLtD aA!lrnp)o rq I q0 ^lolJq \(lorp .rlP s)^otu iJuluosui. r .^lrrflput pult aNDnpao EUtII!tuapl f l .)tcts.r.r . r o s r s l ' ) p r L o rl L ' ) ) e t l | r \ p l { ) r p q l r ^ .)rnlr.)oo.f tLIllru ildruu llP'snouosro({ -xi.t-)rr.)q lrlnrLll uoll(lrunssL) llc '. .r Jr uolsrrlruo) ir|.l srorsq.ro.nrro) 'sJsrrlrir({ ift ')nil )rr.Lrnouosro(l rsnru s(rr(x)iqsnrrr sr(rooiqsnlrl iL.t{) qrcir rirLltr(t^1 il!)|rrrt 1'irlrosrry .riul!tuor p!ru!lxiol l!rrrlll.lJsr rrrllt)r)d .n uJrriJ)rf s crlllstlort I -f(/) ijoruosur.r .{\slql )^PrlJ(l rasun lrLIJl)! r . ' r i t .r)l|ril! ot uoltu^r)sqo 'AtlrutJalr rolrnpuoJ pooSe sl Ju!z'aroJaraql Jo 'l€lJm P s! Julz v '.]^o !!Prl uo str. ' t i J r .)uriruls ro ilrnMoltol irqr.l)rl].r( sl turll'l)llP^rArrll! sr nIrflos!ir.rq al()ltri i||r \r)urr(rtror |l(.{1lr!rlrrla Jo srolrnpuor poo8 rre stPrru rrl(kLrex) ro. \ q. .^iNrro (lurnss! )sluJ! il 1)lno^1 rq lurl.\.rtuo)io sr ll')l(huIxi ro.)uor aslulol lruJluu) n_uruospi. 1 i r r l . ' . tr .Jr i.\urnprps uirsn r nLr.)lq!nlp^ )^llrnput 'ss. . or rrI ur i.sv Iu.l Lrolsnl)uor l)i^.lo|)rr. \ r r t p ^ ' l U r q M 9 I0I .\1. . rt ) D t r r o )| r l i l { r o r i o ( l p . . r .'r'LrcurnrLt(l lnIcile )^rl))l. ! \t l r l n u u o J s d o r p l r r f l t q plo) rql r'r')rt D ')lLr) nol U r L t n \d n p n o p \ i s s r .t |lorsnt}ro) rrlrr)tlsp ot LroniltUn\ED ro )q[urrd lu)url I u'orj \r. r .

it can l]y. Conet passcd 7 . Therefok. thisdoesnot mc. Someclcmentsarc gases. ln coD(l(rti(nrs?lhe llrsl cxnnulelhc oriSir)al at How did wc arrive su(hridiclrlolrs cxanrple. sulfur is a liquiclTh€reforc. A chickencanno{fly. Sulfuris a solid. Everyone here is a student.sul{ur is a nrclalon all pcnguins.k' "r( ihc discovered prnrcipleof water disltacementin the balhtub 5. placc 1o make a major scicntilicdiscoveryis iI the baLhlub Lhe and olhers are liq ids 6.Carborrnronoxidcis a poisonousgas.' e y c n (rrb(f. nlay bc lransmitlcd vencfcaldiseases and nearthe earlhin 1758. All metalsare rclid.ul l.rtiorr- lcad lo {nlsecorclusiorrs Using Reasoi g.and it is 'lot a gas. all gasesare liquids.e'dnr('ltc. lbf. lhcrc.102 Giving Evidcn€e traDvnilrcdby bi(x)d All It 6. ' I h e . is somelimes by blood. 2. All liquids can flow. . Halley's 1986. ln prcmisc false. AIDS is a vencrealdisease.llhough docsnol lbllow froln thc thc conclusion (bolh canllow). does thc ADdsomctimes con(lLrsioD nol lbllow funn lhc cvidencc why h cach of thc lbllowing. People. Archimedes principle i! a major scienlillcdiscovcry The displaccment Thereforc. Sulfur is an elemenl. All gasescan flow. 1910. Therefore.and ostrichcs 14'alk 1wo lcc! 4.e l u r r l. a chickcn is nol a bird.rss llle conclusionis falsc t. Thereforc. discr.ttalley's Comcl will retu lo dre ea|lh irr Lhcyear 2062 8 .n they are lhc sanlcirl sharconc characlcristic olhcr ways. EiNtcin was noi a Soodsludcnl.lrcnol sonlelilrrcs cor'rclusiolrs. can lrduclivercasoning alsoleadlo lalsc of arc lr()tfcPrcscnlalivc nol lypical rhc SonrelintcJ cxanrples cnoughcxamDles.kangaroos. Einstein Thereforc. Deduclivercasoningcan somclimes two examplesi Herc arc All stud€nts are lazy.lEl4.aoyoDewho is not a good sludcnl k a gcnius l. Il ir is a bifd. Therefore. everyone here is lazy. was a genilrs. Autonobilcs givc oll carbonmonoxide. leadto lalsc(onclusiolr$ lhe sccon(l is Falsc frcmises gascs and li(lLlids prclniscs.Thereforcaulonobiies causcair pollr.

{ )rrq) Jr .r\ stpoiJ .rltrg .qt ueqt rJtq3n Jrp sprros rJle..lrlt P sPLl tJruoJ v uP lr 'lPLLrmP sr lr Jl ' o t trPrP sErJ '8nrp snorrSuppE 'rrotrr:qJ tor sr Dueniupru 'lnJturDrl ol ur^ord urrq iq rcu spq pucnluew prpq )roa rou prp ortrlP9 .JJor.ro. tt1lujt14irl upr sJsopq31H .A qr.{rpuorlrrp 'riuL'qr SurllJds irnbrr p rtil Isurlsp u! qtt^{ sprcA{ stslxrI Jr ..toqpJ]ltou srLI oqM s)BVolpplt\l)ql Lrt spMi.ql dn r^rs ot rldorri 'rros . . 70..J l u l r l s u ro l i '€ 'z .rrojir)ql srlrlrrnP sP^ro)lnE) -Prellp.:{ro^4:)rl ro snrur.trd o.MrlPo aor rrurpr^g 8ur^r) .tspg rlpplhl Jllt Jo sJrpld ulEtDJ ul IJ4JJ Jluesiq1 JJnpolclot pcprao Jle srsopliLISlq teql os DUI{Jprroj rrrr.prrr. ryfror.ral)P sJlPlnru s .!r uPqt rrlllnl sr poo.lrl0 .tir'ii 'qtuip iq rlqpqsrund sE^.rilr.n ?t?vuq) Daunoa ot I 'Irpssi)ro rno.trlllqerpr! Irr)l)rJJnsLrl 'prlsrlspio^\rql DoA II! rsrrlou Il1^\ ^roliq lsrl )Lll ruorl urluou. )lorll plte lr.\ .{Is!J ^.utpllng ltolfiqbtot S'I'II'S DNI(VAU 'lPruruP sr rrE trluo) e 'JloliuJrJl .r Sutlulrp rillor urqM srllrlt rlr^. rserrJtrl ot .IeLrU rlor0 . 8 'spmbrl 'aroJrr. leqi ':)uBlsqnsp .rr^orsrp ]IJJP JlILrJlLrUt)p srule) lu!)rtrurq pinnllBJ .f1q"qu.rxujns rq1 :urppp .|n1.{ s)trrrq Lritr-"ppq irqt r)tlD ir.(s sno^JDtr sr/rrx.zl)rtLitr Llrpr )rplr1)t 'pro/!\ l]qtoup se )trlns rqt sln?rtulerJl pjo^{ u sl ru..{s p qltM rldurSerpd iiul^\olloJJrll ur proM p.lorro?lrd itprtpow LuJls.lqlssod sr tI fiutqrtnxa Bulsne.{uolris V l./uoF :s?rrlns BururoLu rt.pltJilrl Sulpro)rv ol {Lrou c ^q p.r4 ssJIIr{ Irsn Jqt o)ieurJur:IJpr.i)uriJJcJ rqt sulstuoj J4Jo:) ')).{q sunou ol sqre^ 8L ^^o oJ Jqr rBueql .n^ . e sp^{orlrrp9 r..ll rrjJor u ruo.

l. () irlsulate t . to 6. . improvcd . 8. Circlc thc I r L r ( r.t o 1 7 . l() lubricate 10. r scrrlcnccs word as il is uscdin cacho{ thcsc ol meaning lhe ilalicized I The droughl drerddcondili()ls lfi thc larmcrs (. r r ( . $. lo 12. 3 .104 Giving Evidence 5. !o gravilate lubricale 8. 1o IL to spccLllatc 1 5 . 9 . r r r r l \ L r (L l r ( \ l Vocdbularyin Corlexl.r o [.tlr4pgtan 2. ' l r h ( . r r ' $ \ r l l r . chaDgcd a.)rmuhte -of D()l) lhc Iinnl by changethc lbllowinilvcrbs() noLllls addi|8 thc sLrlllx -c if ir cxins. () acceleralc 7.l o ll.r o 1 6 . r() climinate 1 0 .

{Ltelx tpql .rrlr.rl<le llr^^.Idsy ' .u 'pJuueld su^{luillllD(lxi puo)Jst?os. JSPJ!rp rl tro\.r I0Lrrnbr{ IIrM Ur.!olo|q idPqsJo nro .p lonunq q JniilteJ .qt um{l prrlr14. o) uclton . sr unl)lp) .{tperp .e '14r0.q str!nb u 6 'rpl.rr./) Jrtrq r-i prdoli^ip rq UiqM qol srq (((xJpirl)o.()lllr u llrler Jo slsilolt)ip .e 'srltoqllup qlr./ .\OLui|Cl 'rolrrrlrnq) inliq uoltjisu! c p/rllrits liu^'lilp''U )ql .a^lsnlauo)Ul qrlprs)i /rrrrr Jql .(lot )Llt prqreJ.e ')lltrdc{p srq rsrrlldrr ot sllKl loot rq .ro?trJurs p))npold u uletunouriql trx)lj Mi)! rqJ .rJpitiJJns slrqull) ulutunoul aql .0 lo sillJxi q 'sritoaj i^JJU iql l?lrl?4/4s nJ.1 snolrsuorlrn .81 p.€l suM IP. os sr Burlorus rn)tptrl SLrluuoJ trqEq e EOI rJuJpr^E 3ur^r5 .r .6I .4\fIp \l.q suJsruenro sJsPislp.rrlc^^ur pili uqns lrlls tllSterlsv .r0J ssiull /r4rl e sr sctv.rr^{ tEqlsrrrrrrAror peq lururtrrdxr)ql .4. uo.rt.P 'p)110$tp rE.rl tslu q tsDI.z I q iiullspl iiuol u 'ssrulll ror./I ul?Jlsrr .Z nqllprqun q lr r^tH loullp) Jldord .tq8rr^{ rsol oI ..e Jo re.s I .{J(lluJrl^^ r.\ patn) rq nnruE) s.(olls)p ! 's 'snoq ^{{ P roJ Lrrpd .91 pl|tu q ./o4s/?rrlf.9 ruPtsr!J|q 'ssrul| or r/4rdrrrrr.\ rllofi i^.r.rrllcrrdrrrl r\I saut lxa nl 'prtpdlrnue lolr.r./orrrlrr snl! .q JSP.D 'tr slrerlLrcr oq^.n.tlurlp.r rl sp^'{ rsnEDq prrrrddeq r DLI tpq^/l^toul tou plp uflt)r^ tuiplJre rLIt ..I )tal rl rl r^pq sSl aq rrerrnH .lrr .\r... dtp ud 'cln f.l \ca Jrl\ 1 .roltl noI o)eur llrM Lrcrlrpuor l(Dd IErlstLId pi.ol JrllElslst|q 'J.8 i)IP^ P 1.l iH ilorlr:)J q rDrJ u 'ssiulzTlp .

cocainc. Lrsc(i hos|ilil\ a\ a |nin oblaining becorc addirLc(l nn)rphidc patients rcceiving occasi ully. paper.iL lrcqucnll-v addicled inrcnsely . '1 syslcm' Lhe fro(tLrcrrrg (or Cocainc "cokc") is a dr!! lhat stinlulalct ncrvolrs sniffingcocainc sc|lliari(nrs |itwdcr ovcr ' lo|lg alr(lqlrong ol leeling well-being .skim rhc reterenccs vou lind in Z. Always skirn a lcxlbook chapterbclbre readingit 'losely' Il you folloh'lhis you will rcad fast€rand wilh greatcrintercn and colnprehcnsxrn' proccdure. anlphclarnincs. cfinrcto pay for lhc high cosl ol leadsrhc Lrscr'to it heroiDis addiclive.Likc hcroin.rJnl"L' hnrmful. and evcn(lenth lo and highlysusccptiblc infecli()D. inhalirrts.tarijuarra a diug rhat hasbccn nlLrch Al happylcclingin nlanyLrscrs lhc s'lnre a miDdairdbodyand fr(xlLrceslrlcasrnl. lime. Anolhernafcotic morphinc."a lonn hypcraclivity pcriorl car ca se paranoia.i! hanllcls lh. undernaDdiDg.l nL'lbcaslLrmcd iL. b. Drugsirrenol l)crrtti(i'l h. Drug\arc alwirys lolcnliallyh. habil arc lclh.r06 Giving Evidcnce g Skinmi is Skimmi g for mairl icteas a rcadingskiLllhai is useful in a number ot waYs: l.r vigor. Lhal sLrbslarrccs allcr tllc Lrody Drlrgs.nd chronicinsomnia"Cfnck.rnrfulbtlt Lrsually are c. Seep.m'lnltrnn'r' nar(olics.lrc d. olicn is b! thc drug. Wtren you need 10 write a rcsearch malcrial you need the 1ibraryto scc whi(h contah the fird difiicull Onceyou havc a gcncralidca of dlc thal YoLr L skim any passage wilh betlcr you $rilL abl€to rcadil lhoroughly be contenland organizalion.insl carcfully bc drug should weighc(l lt an(l discusscd (lcL)alcd fclaxclLhc is l. lhc tr\cr tan Lrcco']rc bc(drr\c ilangcrorrs is is snroked. ir canaltcrflrndbrrsthat may alfect alrohol' lc\\ miy L)e lraflrlirllharr iLs cl{ccts Although oflhc Lrscr' span andallcntion or any drug. cspecially ol cocairclhal le'(ls irr a v€rv shon pcriodof 1imc. 27 !o review skinnrirrg l€chniques qucslio'rs: and dlcn answcrLhesc in Siim the followinglassage rhreenlinutes is I Whichof thc lbllolving Lhenlairr cal a. hcrcin.opiuma|cl mor|hirrc)arc consi(lctcd Narcolics tv\lcrll' oD Theya(! asdcl)rcssnnts 1hencNolrs ftrrDling or . nn)ljvnl1()11 coodinaLiorl. llrLrgs o((asi(mallY irr drllgsaf(rdiscusscd lhc lassilllci 2. Re6d{ng The Dakger of Dtugs cllcd\ ol any Thc plcalirr!l chcnri\lry.Hcft)in pairranLl decrcasing relicviDg ovc(lore BccaLrsc lnrDr cona. thc mcnr{)ry. il shoulLl "h'f(l drLrS\" (codciDc. PcP.1Dd addicLivc. relicver.rrgic thc mnkcs LLrcr alc|!rrell.rgcr's ils scriotrs ag. and hashish? barbi(uralcs. which ol 1hciollolving rnll(jnc.

)J! UrIut sr lltnorr|u c letpJ p ! .s.)t.p.stlJl]i iLIl J^ilq)u ol uu uLis sisol)lJulsuir)ul iiuuruh)r'Jnrp I] rll .{q.rd pootqi'ql ispJrrur siJn.rp nLriprrls IDrrsnq(l r^ordrur sJtrll0D.rlpMp I(l prsn )rp .)pn)srp r)Llto pLrc\Lro pL rnlluq rtrnpord IprLrJtrr tDql\J p r...rureo u sDslDtr(s(nl |rsn Lr)qM rrppE |o))q t(x[rcr I qdrow i(l !)^ ssrtLLriurl ^lq!(lor(r rrotJjrqt puu loqorluuuql snoiiiiuep sr ss)lsr urrpntlrp!!. l c q l l M i l l ? ) | ) u t 6 u t p v a Ua r [ i u ! p u r $ ) a p u n is 's))uinl)isUo:r srlor.tlJsJi lo 'uoru)rl rpnt)!rtsl)rltB .tlrv /illpturpr.rll(l n)r^Pqrq rsne) uDr srrtrprqr.s)rtrprLl).)^o uv ss)ur^'ssrIiJSE prrp rr .1!l spou)d.{q p.q-ltr. jo srsrnqtErr8. l o q r e c .ql ot turplo)lp (J) islej ro (J) inlt sl s s r t r ) ( L l ) r P r J L l r M o l l q l f l r .rp rsrllt )L rp)rllil^l pUr: ':)Lruprxrc'irr'rp'rrJa rpnlrLrr(.l rpr^ordtrrql rsrlrrq s)L tUelr(tdurp sru)ptrls ||oS ' 8 rsn 'r^rDrPpE sr rpllt nnrpi)lrost loLr e)o) 'striJlJ tturl ijr()t ou sL'rlJL p.iJ Ien|l uo Suuq srlrrLLrul)Ll(lorc rr^rMoH rtrtiddpl|rqrrsprrtrrp p olsrrtrlp.ur'rtsnprtxr.'IoLIorlD LItr^^ rrr)el LTJLIM snor.rrlol dn plrnqsrsn i^|])rppurrLr o 'nuonlljp(l uolt(h)xJ)Lll rlltM siirip )^oqu)rll Joln)rutuqtsrtp)rpur LI).Jo os sr r.{3rlrr to sSLt.{sd fuD'iiu'tL ql'poorrr ur sriluDLl) rIL' lP!t^\JtUos slrrui rl)Ll.)ultup]iqdrlrv r0t 'uJpr^a 3ur^r9 'JPTEJ UPJ SJLIIILID]Jq(I Jq .iJrrpp nrp]$ruiJrs ' E V rr^rrlr.srrddn.rrorss)rdrp I() Jo "{lrlr.(sd ro \ 'tclulJq J\l s$Id(lr)!' l)tlusr lrrr HLLltpirq .riiluup iq.rrsnrqt r^r3 ()1LuJs.^3 Jo '^nr)ua $sln(l Jo Irprxhu.s:)tprnlrqrlg . -rLrL' )sopr.{uLuJ)uprrlots.ro)srlr luD'.{luo I 'iiJl'ssud nol^ird.]ol 9 InJlu.rJ:).)llEr) \.{t)rxuP'rrrsrrpr'ssrurzzrp Iup .))up.lpoq I jotc strup urul.Suep llrElrlrrliDtl \ erntriFDI' 0 1 rr! 'IPrPl rcLr )q ^lqcqoidIIrMs)Lrlurctrridurp)sqxi^o up u.\ prrE .rP'(.]ELI 'i^rrrrppP sr lt lPtJl urcjrq.t 'uorlc^ltoru JsPir]rP ul jo isn u ILrucrrPnlLrDLu arlt urJ^\l)q ltollulJttor sr )r ll z oo '..rl)rrds tuD) r)LIl)5oltorl('rlu srturlllqrPq isn rql oorsrllrorIDII r pLrL] PLrP Jo prr IrlF'r()r)uLl|l)I(J(') JpsrlttrJo ssolrpnt)ur striuJJqI ss)urd)rlr rsnc)pupIlrrxue ))rp)r ol LIDrq Io spJrp trp'(slt SLr Ji)ts) rqt Llo ro.{i)qt's]lrnotuellprllsut .rru^.-reds pUr )tlrrlJo rUo .rrll'rsJruplrDCSt turpnl)Ur) srrJljouDrlllDq .!op. ro..L sr.{ol iq pr^\o ({ )rp tDql5ut..pJrds.{8riu.LI) s.trstrLr.tDDtpr.ris illelllr))(xlrrll to irrMu iq plnolls .t)lppp sJ!!ltlJuI())^..rliJrrl Iiup.{s sno^rru ritl Ietnurns plrFJrnssJ.Duu Jo!rrcnrrlirr LruoJrril IJttl ot pr! ipls ol srr^r.{l\no.{uu ilutsu ii|Lrrprsuor )uo.

l\.rsc d|ivcr wa\ /.irL)ilily tliil nol likc bccnusc lcnarrl! Lhf ol 10.. ha nJirl cllccroD youf lccrh./oJr(ir/rt.rlcr./(3rr.i|.1u!er r l..s. Circlc the lcLlcr ol lhc answcr lh. wc.. SLritar a dctdrk.1 a.rrf lhr\tilc o1 . g(xxi n.in idc.l pcrson hc carr o.. slrengthenin! 1o nr1(l ri(ii.rl.tiir'.r 8 . thc 4. r / . worscnc(l Note-Taki g Afterwritirg dorvnm. its ./.rr allc(l rcl)|1xltl(tio1r (rtrsc. A u\cf who buildsLrpir (tcfanrc li)r a droitis h (1. srrong to t) unal)lc hnvcchil(lftr) l). Thc corldili()D thc L)uilding. Thc nrcssagc /rr?rJrrlll.ril.l k) lor 2. l).108 Giving Eviclencc ./!?/rtr ll)c Lrorl!.onrcpl\ nrr(1 help\yolr ro fecnllthcn l. I l a l a i l i s c l r l o l f ..1 physictl tJ. rcnrlls cxpcdurcnls.|d lhcsc jorringclown if yoLrhavc linrc. llrgh (1.{)\! nclv onri a cil rlocs 10 a 9 . dangcrous nl.rl I heilllhyir1(livi(ltrnl. q)cainc hasp/?'.1Li(. nrenr. lhc 5. cvaIoratc(i llis lhc.l^. arrcslc(l oJ .or icleas.(n rlntthcs Lh( word ns il is ulicdiD ca(h ol lh(\( \clrlcrr(cs..l eI1c.((Lrri(f lh( cllccl\ol LSI) l l.l L. . Excrcisc 1]d?{riti. a lizdr(l L). LISTENING SKILLS Vocabularyh Cotrsxf. rcccivc(i l)ftar.lry 10 wfilc (lorln nuy cliilcu. Ol(iagebrirrSs $r'. rrcaning thc italiLizcd ol a\ well .i1hrca(maLrlc ran ol 12.\cnl a. l l !o1 l thc cnginc. Factt. irD|ft)vc(i n.14r. l). crllirnnriorr!.t?lry L).^(\.rl.s |sy(holo!ic. is t).r.l pr{)percnrc ol n.krlrilrg a.rkrl has inrpaifirrg luntli(nr. (lnlnk a.dLril L). l ) t r s td a a r r r . wns clccln)nic 3. 7. !arhcfcd a. Scientists prcdi(l . Thc accidcnl o((Lrffc(l l). l.c thnl nrl)por1\ \\.Thc cvi(lcncc rcllrlorcc\ lhc nrain. g|. staliniG.l ovcr(losc.ji.fu/!fl.

({ll))qn_riMlno. .rls ! iJLIlutic II 'sr pit)rpP! Jluo))q )l(lo)(laluos ' 0 1 illsuJ a.!ju{)l . .r.tFD) Jo rrunsuo)ot rrrrLrl)rl iol t(ruuliri({ t(liir.{llpnsn lorlorl! lo rl)iJjr lelrlJ.r i!rLr lorto)lP sr tlu!nh ll!rus jo i i i r r l ' p o o i Jt ) r i ) l ( l o ) ( l ) ) ! u 'rlur uDiq rqr ss drP u I o r l o r l L ' t o\ r n r n r ! ] r t ) l l L ' r u s r ^ 3 z '.)Lllo u1lrrlrur0rl Lliinorlllv ' . . 4 . ) ) ! L LlrL l n o r u p I tortorlr JoiLrrrourf erur )IIS I ') InDrl .r r Jllr rr)rltp lorlo)lLr r)u)l)r^) rL'rll 1l )l(io)i{ p)tPrrxolur uorsr^ jo q)rrds r0)trunrq.)u)q rr! llrrt-lioqS Zt 'loqo:rlu sl)iur Io )rll )rL()).roJ pJrlorls s iq (rri)rrtrn.))uil)r^iou sl ). t .L .^o uos.l.rrl-.rotijlusrur^p!plnorts I i| rot r)t1iPr^rn"rrrrrll() \rr(ll)) rsrqr to 'op n')1 . .rr^rt r\r uo l))jj) lPr)!i!rrq u suq1r)qo)lc's. .L |)'|'|ntqt)uLr 'Uor\!1)l r^Jlt).u11D'r)qt autyuotsapun 'i\rrrr\r 1\irr iqt rlil(huor or lrlor . ' r rr \ .]u SINIOd NOISSN)SI(I st)ilJ) r^rlDilJrrrr.\L'^\L'ur:{ur rro asrl(hLr!.)t !oenrupr(I lrsuJ:)rt rrrqr )^ert ljur^ut) LrilrijrjI Io piDr^Lror rt(lo)(lplnorts t i. sijruI SLIsn. . . t l f . .asr)!l(i)rtqn(ll|rrut|iuLrrq Jq iur)ot's pt'rorts 1 rq riJL'l|rnru|| irl] ptnotls 9 rll al)rn"UeLl) iUrlL rp./) irul sr sru rrrllrls )qt iJurMoll()t .r\ ol irl :rqt ur iql'. .\ur\.k)l looLp\qtrq u)rr l))|r(lxi rq nurpnr\ plnoqs t rol aPruuP!)(t Lr)Lto)lf ii!r.r. r .rroi )srr Lr)rt-L srLlorl orPltr or uonrPlD :)ru)lr^) rr^()l )tu. J. ' l r . lorlo)tv jo sl)r a ll1)rijolorslqd 60I . rI' ..1 ro rro rro|l rlo rnoi )^ri r)t 1)rrp(1. r J li sn p ) u L ) )! u s r l o q o ) l L)jl u o i r l : ) r . { l r l r .iirr^l)! ptnoqs z rru(l r(l si iiuiJr). t I .(r ||ro^. . r .r )rulq iiro.{)rLoull)r(l srlrroLU. .rl!.tuitq i q l l o t L r i L ! r i n " i L l l r \rr P ) l ) r r r s i l ) s 1 r ! ! i ! l l ) ! L D l l L r u P ) r ! r \ r l o q o r l v ! r l u 'rLr.r.rrrlrq \ t r ) t ( L r ) L l r .1:)crop!^3 Bur^r5 .)(l(llill llr^\r{Jo. i .rqr ur Lroufrtuojor ot iiurp!))P (J) )strt ro (. ) .iu^1rLtl rjuqt n()triq.rntrrlrllt or u)tsrlnol \P \irolr rIPL ..)r({ .rrtLr lorlorlu ll0 'uluil irlt !lr)Jlu tPrll 8 Io!lo)lL) .roru Ilo rrLnlt . .rq. i .r.r sr ll ll r. I ').\.

orr incrcnsc docsrr()L orr L Thc dcnlllratclionr lf.! .'l r y (lrr U. In Chaplcr6 we di\cusse(l uscol ex'r plcs'L)"1 argunlenl tesl rcsulL\'!Lrfvcy slillinics.n r t i r . nrnn-lnadc wlro (lcnnnr_ irl Thiswas lirs(Lliscovcfed l98l by a (eamol llrilishscicnLjsls il) ol slritedlhat collccnlralktls ozonevlcredccrcasins thc slr'()s|hcrc overA|lrarctica. Thc proccss cvolLrtion l)c ovcf l(rrhurnaobcinls For thorsnrr(ls ol instead trcirlg theircnvironnlcnl charrging havel)ccrr ycari. Drinkin! apl)cars ilrcrcasc incidcncc hyl)c(cnsioll. 1 ( r i .1 pl1)vi(lc or by poinl. llescarchers a nli(iwcstcrn (iis()l!crs alr(lnrellLal cfcalivily llclvl'ccll aD an(i lirLrn(l associatioll writers i(l 'u. lhc by sLtll)lic(l conlftrllcd nonuclcar will L)c . expcnopiniorr' and nrorclh'n orc lorln ')l (Arr txam|lc mav irrcllrdc eachol lhc examdesbclow oj nlay ol l.ConcluLle slrnnnafiTing Yotrri(lca\'\l'lirrg lhcif \iS!rilicnrrcc' rcconr ' r r ' l r rr " l ' r r .ll0 Giving Evidence WRITING SKILLS Giving E lidence yoLLr 1o evid(ncc sr'rpporL tt'rlcr crrLs' lhal wrililg requircs yolrprovidc scicnlific ()r il is.t daiigcr light t() rcnchLhccrrlh ullravi(rlcl albwing barrrrlirl che. .' iDlcr!ic rcd lhi|1ycrcnlivc ol collegc lircdicilrc nl 6.D(l\rtlrrl(nr En(rt! i:'\u(.S. .r(ls ollc l)y ilr(rcascs ai)ouL of wcckcndsAllhooghlhc rltlnll)cr lhl.r ' r ( r ( . .lilc ac(i(lcnls lJ s ll).li(ics holiclay oD nroredriv('ls lhe ro'd\' lhrcc pcrccnl perccni. oL'her irl arc which ol lhcsclbrmsol cvi!i(ncc rrscd Discuss resuhs. sigrlillcanl ol lhc wofl(l'sclcclricjly lo 'lccorlrrlll rcl)orls lirsio|l. r . 1 t r . by thc rri(l(llcolLhc21sl(cnttrfy.lcts forrnsof evirlence.licals.obscrvali()ns includingi.htrnran bcirrgs bY changc(l it Lry dcn()YC(l in rhat1heozorlc (hc trpfcralr )s|hcren1'y Lrc cxists z. llnivcrsily' al nlcrl hy rcscarcllcrs Stanli)nl pcrlorrDcd adr'llt orr a l]an 5.lrrr.lr r\ (l(t\i*. itc aboLll thcrc lo accor(11n9lfs(s () ol lhc 4."r nrr. the nrorrgc'your sl(rlcmcnt you havcand thc bcLLer Thc morecvidcncc thc( ife thc will bc. .r'rr( n\\r"rr' Writitlg wilh Evide ce 's PoirrtsFirslsl'rlcyoLLfol)irrr)n Dit'Lr\liion orr Wrilc a paragrdlrh orrcol Ll1c o1 cfc(lil'iliL] yotrl cvj(lclltcL()cn't)lishthr lhcD the topicsi'ntencc-an.i.

r .{rr^r'slsrll(xl.Ml rql'sls)qlod^rl s lioddns lou op sltttLuIlrdxtII sPrp!pisErq slsrqrcd.rrllrrPtsrr rql lPtl^\ LtPqr +.o[o]sFY luql pi^ord sluitulrrdxc s. r r r r ' s ' r r4 .rPrq purt srt^rtsqoJo suo!ll!qqSnoqlur^3.{rnlurr-Lllrllur.)lor^/\ .i .llpottr 'l8uls sll JJrOJ lsnru 1! qlLM luJlslsuo)ulsl ro slrlpPrluo)leql uollP^rJsqo ol ! s 'uolreT!lErru.qI ptlJ!pourro prptFr rq ^olursv rpr?sl lsttuclrs-r tr.o)lllcD lng )l3ol puP ijuluosurruro'|l srtqdosollqd Irr'rD luiJ)ue'ql )srr^lun )qr lnoqariJptlMou)rlrql pou!utqo NOII)NOOUTNI puo flnupal{ Ms4au6aw Supueu4radxE g raldeqr .t srlir^orslp le S iuPW prpurlu! sr^orci lurLulreclxJue s:LulrJuros rrqlo BLr!LIlruros .{q P Bullstl urlt^{ '1! lroddnsol rru)p!^r sr rrrul ssilun lou prr(lir)B st rd no) rullorl)s otr 'urLll r)ulS plle^ s.4uMls se^\ tuluosEor s.ttt 'sloos trre{:loI tj d'(?rat ' r j . t ! . u r r r v ( n o r s v r u r s l + 'pu!u ordo ue puP rir dlPqsE drrl o1sprru lsllurlrs JLll 'snqJ 'r)dPd '3u!lu Ulridxr rtrq14 prrr^orslp re^ s. r. N ) .{q rsnLu ro )^lrrrlilns ireuluttlt ol rPeu s! uojJr.M...{Pr-x IrPlq prlPllrurd '<681 uI siEr rpoltlpr lpqr prrlrou urSlurou tulrqllM lsllurl)s uPturr5 tql 'uillpturd prr^orsrp illEnliplr)P pPq rH plolu E Iq pi^orlsrp uirq pPq e'r'DPq tqt'JIdtuPxr rol SuIrutll i)puPxrlY i!s rrqrrers)r LIsInors Jros lPqrprJlroLr '626I ut ruiurrrrc{xru! Jo sruJplrrPrrr.3 rno .11()rlPJl.

I r l s i ( i 0n o l . w h i c h u r c n n si r n l b e r . an. v i r r g i l . r r r c \ l ) f f i r n c n l Lightni g Strikes o Y o u k r ) { ) $ . c A s p c c t . T h c E n g l i s ht ! ( ) r ( l f / { . r r r r l ) c r a1 j l h w ( ! ) l T h c : r n c i c n lC r c e k s r o r l i r r .l o l d1 h c c o r l r bo v c r L h e t ) i e c t so l l ) i r l ) c r .rly/rr l'rocc\\L)vliicilirrs ir iLs. R L r Ln t l i n i c ( o r r ) l )w i l h n J n c w o o l ( r r l a l ) f i t .112 Experimenling Short Readifig l t e a d t h c l o l l o w i l l g t .r r t r \ lh c r t r L ) L ) c ( l tl r l .ir. a n ( l . r rl\r r ( n t r \ ( f t l b [ ) r r r gl ] r ( o r l r t r l c a u s c 5s o r r r cc l c c l ( ) r r sl | 1 ) r ) t h c c l o l h L o n l l r o l 1 l ( ' t h c ( o l l r l r . c l l c ( t ( ) c ( r . I . c \ ( ) 1l i r . c l c a c h o l h c r . r . r h . g r r c l i . c a t t r a c L s h c p a t ) c rb c c a u s co 1 ) l i o s i l c h a r l l c E t l l | a ( l S i n r i L l r 1 yy o L rh a v c l J r { ) l \ r t ) l ! L ( a c x l ) c r j c r l c c c lu c l c r l r i c s h o c l (w h c n y o u r r r n o v c ( l s Y r n h c l i r l o l h i l r g I i o n r . cilt)i(i1y. / / r r o n r ( t l l o r n l h c C r c c l ' $ 1 ) 1 1 1 l ) f l . L)y we is Au cxpcrin'cnl n kind of pr()(csri. l s f c w c f c l c c ( ( r r l s ( w l l i c h r | . r r i i r ) ! ) i l \ ' . f l l r s n l l f i r . l l j k c . h l c h i l r y c . .rr(l dow| inro scps of ptuccdufes arf. c l . lt h i c L rLrll.s . y c l l o w i \ | h ( ) w n { n ) \ 1 i f . r t f .lyTci strt\\l.c i ( t l l i s l s i \ r o v c r c ( ll l l i l l l h f r r ' a r r 1 \ \ . I c f l o r r l l t h f I n I n ! j r r f l . ( N . n t l l h L r sl ) c ( o n r c \ l x ) s i 1 i ! c l y( l l i l r S r ( l l L l ( ' si c o n r b r h c r c l i ) r c h a s a ( l d i l i ( n r a lc l c c l 1 1 ) r r g . r .L h 1n r . . l r c g . Y ( \ o r l l u \ 1 . l r l r . hi .ngiugLhcr in chronolo!. L J CI(lIrit c o l . r i t d L n. l l i g h l n i r g i s . l n .1gain r)!Lrslailirs nrrgncti. l 1 w n s n o L ( ( i t h .l r c ( . r / r ' l h t ( o r r 1 Lr. l l i v cc h a r s C l . r 2 . o r ( ) u c h c ( l a n r c l a ld o o r k n ( ' t )d l l ( f r v . h r f g c s r c l x l c r ( l r o l h f f n r l ( 1L r r r l i l i (( h . ( ' r r c g a t i v c ). A n ' a n g el i n y p i c c e so l l l l t r c r o | r . T l r c c l { ) l h l l l r l r l l . o .rr(c. ' 1 1d c r D o l r \ l f n l c h i s ( o r r ( c | 1 . i { h l r ) i r r r li s l ) r o ( i r r ( r i l USING ENGLISH TO GTVEDIRECTIONS slrch. u r l \ n o l i ( c ( 1 l h . l l r l r ) t h c e x I c f i r n c n l i r b o v c . g c l o l i n ( l d i r t c t i o n sl o r l ) c r l o r n i n g . (t)f l ) ( s o l c L r .l h . t h c a m L ) e w o u l ( l a l l r a c l o r t i t k u l ) ! n ) . o r l l t ) ( . 1 l r n ( l r ( l L ( )t h c ( o r r r t . Wc irn.c r . l h c A f i r c r i r a n l l c u i i | ] 1 i r 1 ' f n n k l i n n r n r c ( l l l r c n ( h n r g c sl ) o l r i v r n r ( l r r t l l a l i v c . : 1 . s s .ical in or'{icr r. n i l o L r s r r v r$ l r . l \ ' v h c nt h c y r L r L . l l l ( p . l c r s h o L l 1 ( ) c . l l l ) i c .hich rh1lurhappcn). B r r Lh o w t l o ! \ l i S h l r r i r r s r . r ( l l ) 1 h c s d r y c f . 'Anrbcr !s . l c l u a l l } t l c c l r i c i t ) .h L r s . n L r c t c l l c c l . L l r r c n l s f a i f r L r La g n i u s Lh c r i l i n ( 1 f i ' l ) sA s t h c c l c ( 1 n ) | s i r c r ' t r l r t r c d l 1 " p b c o D cc l o L r d c c o n r c s o s i l i v e l y h a r g c da r r ( i D o t h c f n c g a l i v c l rc h : r r ! c ( l l ' h c( ' l ) l r o s i l c 1 p c h a r g e s. l c u l a r x a l n I l c o l t h i : ' l ) h c n o n r c n o no c c r r $ t l u r i r l g a s l o f n r . r r .omponenl5 ard idenrifying sctafaling ordcr (llic .i . r | | e n s . l ' h i ! l v i r \ c a l l c d t h c . c o m b c d y o u r h a i r . n c r r o r r r r o l r\s a t k o l c l o c L r i c i l li L r r r ) | s ( r n r o r ) e T l l c l N d t ( ) a | r o l h t r o r l r o r n a c k ) L r (L o L h c g r ( n r r r ( 1 .) d s I n t h ( c j g h L c c r r l c c n L L r f y . c c l o L r d . l l k j n gi l c f o s s .

tv 'l rql r^nErJ(lLul sr :p)tDls rr^.r$Ji 's{lr)^ )^rrurlltlrr itll ll" r -1" lr'\'\r'|'l^ z | (lJlsrl!ruors llf rurlrit)rrn \\Dor(1 irll ur sqraA 2^4ohdutl ElttzluaoraA u ) L' \l r L r i ) lq r P ) r P q l r ) r l o N .lrris ruo qri)^ .'& z 'rlqel E uo rrded Jo sarald ArJl]} a6utt.rt(ixE .tur^a l\rl r^oqPiLll Io uuol lrllDrrdJLll oslD rre J^ltp. \i ^ l l o r r ( l L ! | l ' t z I sq)aA 2itllbJaawI 'LrollrrrPP r^tii x)Lr srop ll rsnurrq rrlJ) Iu. r tllrl t r n f t L r! l r r s u l { 'rrql)lol )rr^r )ql i J o s P L r Jq l r r l .t)tlttd J^ELI qr.ql rr^o qtuo) rqt p/og t 'rlrqPJ ualoo^ euos tlrl^ quror )nseld P 4.o 'p)rFIurr (no.4 !|t|oqs. pitrllol )lP p l r Dr ( n { ) i ) l ) i l u l s / r .lirM rlqPr.lre4lP aq plnoqs rrded aql sueddPq lpqn^ rnrrr4d pue redEd Jo sereld. )u i ( l t l u l t l o l l ) ) r J p l o p u e ( u r u o )P ) A I n i s ( l r ) .li(l roj suonrJrrp rttl )r! ^\olrtl 'ru)^ Jql Jois!lil lLl)sil(l II (uol.' t r o r r q r L l i r r l o .^ r^rrrrrdrlrlLrD l(nr s)op ( rmDlr . r / ' P ) r l ( l t u s l l 0 t l l l ) t l i l n s s ) ^ u t l l l q l ) s n u l ) l r J o l J L l l L l u l i i i il r t l l l r .() lr)lqns:)qf prsnsr qr)^ )qr lo tLtrol 'q(llliiprpd ueLIl \r ^llPnsn ll ol suollrrrrP.rrLkur !l]l^^slrrilrq qloqr')IsuorlrrrrP r^lniutu qrr^ DlDtllr)rloN p irlloN srrtr^nJe IPrrsiqd P lDlLrrLLr 'qruor aq101 p. { r r r r . r D r l s ) r r r p o f t l t t r s r l ) t L i l u rM o t l i l u t ^ t o q sl l r r t u r r r d r rl! ilrrrruot.)Jird r)qrPr s(lilsJo P sP ! lsll ss))ordt ruto{]'d oi suotDatlo 6u!^!9 tl I Surlururl.

it Aftangi g ltefis Chronologically. Place a conpass ncar lhc wire blrl away frcm thc nragucl.{ A m o v i n g n c c ( i l c i n ( i i c a t c s c l h a t c l c c t r i cc u r r c n t i s f l o w i n g l h ( n r l h l h e w i r e a n d t h a l n r a g r r c L i n n n n producc eleclricily. Thc lirstslcphasbcerr bclowin chronok)gical cachgrollpol slcl)s in eachlisl. lhc bkJodgivesup carbot dioxide (which we brcaLh(' oxygcr. Typc thc {lrsr line. 1 C h c c k l h c c o m p a s s ( )s e ei f t h c n c c d l c i s n r o v i n g . J / 4 The oxyiten-richblood retllrus 10 thc lcft sidc of lhc hcan. key beforc lyping eachlinc. 5 . oul) and absorbs 2 on 2.) lhe the Remove bulb . In the lurgs. Il is easylo prini a simple mcssage this (L'ml)ulcr Turn oli lhc computcf. Press pRrNr thc . Tun on thc compulerkcy Prcssdre RETLRN aftcr typing cach line.thc bbod is pumPed ol lhe body through lhc arleriesand rclurrrs1o lhe hcart lhrcugh tlre venrs. The right sidcol thc hcarlpumpsbloodinto thc lur)gs out lo lllc rcsl From rhc lefl sideof thc hcan.l14 Experimenting 4. is csscnlinl() Ntrnrbcr thal is (hror)ologically in slcps thc orderin which lhcy happcll. Movc dre magDel back and Ibrth !hrolrgh thc coil. alter dlsconnectlng elecl clty... When cxplainirrila l)roccss. describc irr(licalcd order. L Thc hean pumfs blood!h()ugh thc hunaD body.

(! u)rq suq Ilos pooD 'ss))or(l iirrol I sr LlollurLOoJ ' 9 Iros 'suoJtlru .llrs)lPru pru ql'^. aleredis 'llir )rtl rrluJ) Jqr q8norrllsuuoj Jo lleM ll)) v )pr^rp 01 surSrqlr /rzrsLrrPlrrrP ol s^!or8ltrr P LTTLI^^ 'uorsr^rp Jrlt IlJr lo ssJJord sl tlsorlw t 'Lrnlper suint'J^llJcolper ot oslc'Lunl]oqJ.r s.uErlJ'llr u.lul6u!sn (ln 3u[Iirr^J puE pup l3ulx[Ll'sntunq slro.r Jll] orn!a^o stJasul s(uJoMquu! 's..rrpn) or Il'rrnol(nrorqr )rP sLl s IIDr.r.^nliui) Jo lllnouu snotruotli) 'sruotB Lrp iiLrlsurlJr SLrlll(lsJo uolt)BJr ul0qJ! rrl stlnsar slrll 'uotr iql i(lt ru)l)nu u Jo r.)l(l Jo puu.pprEd ILI] ilLIJnpor({'s)j)or ie^^uruiM ulul puc'puus'p lM tsllJ iqt 'lro.)^tleri(llul rre qtla (li1sqrPr p oriji8 tlBoc poe'rrM pilrlnsur'turDeq LIlr^\ roJ truiJuluorlrrl) p 3ur)p|u suorl -)rrlp irtr^^'iptlli P sc uortcrlsnllriur.sllJ).iJlot s1.rpdrs ulSJq uosoruorLlJ JLI.LruoJ o.llJ) Ilrd pup sdnortoMl olul )tp.. { q p J l e l J l e ) s r l J o r P I o r 8 P r q l 5II SUIIuJTuJIJdxg .rJ^Lro) lunlpPu 'alqels pue sureurJr a^nJPorppr sr pPc'I lou 'rcnuoql onrt sr.rJlrl8nPf.loll({ rqr ijursO 54rrl1a^lpQ.r^\od cqI Jo illrllt!lds iq pi)npord sl uolsoldx.lr r^rlrEorpPr P -runruErn / 'pPJl or pJlrJ^uoJ uariq SPLI l P q l u n l l r P r n s l l t o t u l l o r u Pa q t S l r u n s e J r . 'lli) preMol aLltIo sprra Jlrso(ldo ot s s.L 'p.)lpslrrcl({ Iull rql ol sntunqiJurppp snql'isodrrrcrip uorlJ 'pi)tlr.\\I llJtaldruo)lr''q snqtJ^cLl.lrlllo 'stlldssnrl)nU JJoilul^liJ iq1 'L()InJLr ^q tlLIS!r()lu tunluurnp lo sn)l)rluallt LriLI^\ U 'su()tcrunlruinr Jiqlo II lto tlldsuiqt sl()flr1iu '. 'pr.

an iDfinilive\tilhoul lo ladvanc.Thc vcrb p/.lfioiL. Astronomers oDselv?dLhe stJpefnofa explode.. tlctecl). Astronomeru orssrved the supetnova exploditrg. a gcrund \advdncikg. vcrbs folbwcd by inlinitivcs: tail .thc vcrL)bci]i. or 2.{rsl may only bc followcd by aDinlinilivc withor. dctectinl) 3.lcof thrcc lormsl lo L an infinitivo 1loirdvrnce.tr nlust bc lbllowcd by in infinitivc.( wlrich forn ol lhc verb10 !sc? The arlslvcr Lhalthc fiNLvcrL) rllay bc lblk)wcd thl lbrnr of lhc sccond For cxanlple.ly bc tblbwcd by a gcrund or ar) il)fiDilivc wilhoul to. Researchers . dclact). the se(oll(l vcd) can ln an English scnlcrrce. Thc rd modal . Researche$ pldhheal to /epdd.116 Experim€ntidg verb Fofms:Infi ithtesand Gerun* whcn ol)c vcrb {bllows anothcr.r)l. Etnstein began studlifig the photoelectric effect. Hcrc nrc son)ccxanrpl0si Elnstein began to study the photoelectric effect.rcs by an ioliDilivc or a gcrlnl(l.tcrr.tf rep?4. the experiment. Slud(xlt{of En$lishas a secondlangllage{icquenlly lirr(l lhis conlirsins How (lo is you cic'l.the experiment. wriLing: Bclowis a lisl oI somcvcrbsthal arc usclulin saicntilic l.? iletcnrri.rt Thc vcA d. takc ol.

r'a : Iu rrponlll iql 'suo.r) ll ot srp|ru(l urFltP 'sJltril!lJs istql surol qraA 6tt!soo4) lo q)ci ul qri^ )qt Jo rrlroj DirroJ ilql jo lrllrl .(.{!t.)(lxr rM { iolsol u rsol o|q purr .{pnls peddols aM piuueld I'e^Up ol paredotdl'5^!lp oi pturerl I ' e^!rp ol ot II!^r I'o3 rqSlu l'.r/vloll(!s(lrr.tnl. \ l u n r i i J r i ) .l ollol sqrr]\ t r!liinu (ll)q t.tttrrtrt!t.^()rrori(10sru s$r^ is.r ttl']|'rl(lL!!!i rr)d-urnrrSP {q f. ' I r l l l M ( i ^ l r r L r r l u r r q l l i ^ .^rrrulJLrl p.ril* \1.p rruIu rtstuu :spunri3 {q pi.r)Ll(lnnrlc .\11tl.qr rsuPr)q slllrill] iiu!)!rprr |rlll'r .rtJ)Ir'r.rni rrt\ IIl^1 Iq :or nn)LIrt/'a s.\r1t rPiq or 1l 'ilunrrqiill rqt rtus .o8 plnot I'.\ 'z l1l BLrtluJutrJdx{ .o8 ieul I'.supe.ttll bu!lqrntt 4)nn rLItl'1rMttrrexr)tqL11lu1 ts)utt.q D pilr.o8 uet I :l!qutl! sitllo)iq isn pir'()) jltLF Illtrn sisurrld uorlr !rl r!r)qt ijtrlsr Dlt)L'rd ol sl sruloJ qliA tsiql iJlsPtu ol icM Pooit V ilI rrrilnr lni oJ l(lurnnu '{rl r .{pntspDp!o^e3^r '8ullpnls peqsluu a^{ '8u!.rltut btttlxpq Lru.rt) 3ut. ' l a t r l l r ls q l i ^ t lslr . 1 l \ .lu \lDlrw z lriltP o rr ip or '(l r)l^rp iitrl(nlll(xurqI 'l 1)lLr.

eLo. b.... Thc wourd sloppcd a. -ele. moli(D. Thc rool ol a wofd (sonrclimes callc(l r/(r. cvidcrrcc.(toot 'lreanilrg light. The caietcria oIly alk)w\sll|dcnrs _ a.e-unpleasant sound d. 5 ..nr. was b.r/o-. 1oexin 6. In lhc 1920s.tring timel -ize (suffix indicating verb) drlsdndr. lo vrDrare cxriu(L rheywrrc not bfcd in raprivily.rr.n h(lp you n((luirc.llilco'swL'rk inspircd Newlol _ a. word r(x)lr(.(prefix meaning . bleeding whco prcssure al|licd. snoke b.\rooL mea.)is lhe bascl|1)rrr thc whi(h il is fonned. wilh or wilhoul prcfixcs. to blccd on Satrrrn's ln(xD Tilnn. Somescientist\ bclicve that lifc mighl a.. vibraling 8.n(1 f(ntcntt)cf ncw worcis.r. Lr.1osludy 7.s.l$. indicnrc READINGSKILLS vocabulary Building I-ikcIrcfixcsaud sulllxcs.ry b. L. l).ll8 Experimenting 4 ..(root meaning electficityl -ir (suffix indicating adjectivc) F .sulfixcs. it 1. to snokc 10. wc lclt thc house_ a. 9. Thc roor is lhe pan nn)sr likclylo itivcyou a cluc to Lhcntcaning thc ol wo . began _ a.or both. IIcrc afc sonrccxatltplclil ty/rchrcnize-to happen at the same time syr" (prefix meaning togetheror t lith) -throno.or) -sor.e (suffix indi€ating noun) photoelectric-pertaining to the emission of electrons when a substance is exposed ro light photo. Mnny aninalswoul(l_ .(root meaning rd rd) -dfl. cxist b. G.r. An Er)ijlhhwonl nray bc buill lionr onc or nr(nc|1x)rs. slL ying whcn thc rrainwenr [)y. lo inLlicate rharill gilirxics ivcre|1rdri]l{.

L| lo uPd Jql sr nror trll rertr 6II 3ulurlu!rtdxg . ( x ) p u l H u l l u l n i l i ).ynapo4trt! itale^A i-otpl4 leeq SuFnspeu.rrLs iqortu t sJTLLI?LL{l)ol)p { slPurltrc oe slLr0ll:r P Jo uoIrso(rlro) )ql Jo ^prlrs s u u J r ul u J l t l e L I : ) J l u .M t.()l ltl)ttln nsul JaMOd rale^{ Iq slsrqru.M nlrrsolJo ssrroro 'ii rJIP^'r lul l0tL()J l rcnEjp^q)p 6 :rrlnurplq 9 snorpiq. l o l i ) l ^ ) P trll^ulti )Lll>ds iiL[trrtci)tu .) sgulql 8u!^!t Jo . t i u .r'\s'.{n)lq z .{3iiurler|lrPqrrur Jqt jo tDJq LrorsrJ^nor lo Ipnls (rp) LIrSixo Jru.'t rl' \l rrl\ 'ulPne pue 'rlrtl'4'\c rruY oretP rrrrll i)s nol sPrPnrluPlJttrorrq III^'Isnxt r)qlo !t'e JsJtll -spro^\rrrrllrrrrs LII punoj IItroLlrLL()r Jre Iooq slql ur nlilnPl sloor proM tql '(qrr^ppro')^rr))lpP'qrJ^'LInou) xl}ns Jql xxx Ll)rrds ued Jql srlarlPtrr Jo .rrie.lrLll0 ptle rlr? lo lLlJttri^ottl Jtll lo Ipnls irlllu.srrd Jo rql ur IILr0 sr^ll ruql tusrlllnro Surqltur^n 'q e lq nuJ(.lo1rrnss)ld ril!^{ lo rsn p sJs0n.i'r)slu:rtl)olqI parnpord AlpFpelo = tq!.Z srl(!leuipo1urrL0 9 tLltsoLu.qt Jo lillur)lll rt1] ol sppe ro srlllu)tll xPrd rql ilurtrurttrslr ol )nlr ls)tuorls 'srldtuPxr J^oqPrql IIlr ur lcql )n)N i)rtrsr^rn_ pro^\ .{Pnrs aqt = [6oP!q 1alll t-o'q 'prlsll sijLIruP rql lle )sn xrLIIlrMnoi rr ' r ..IroJ etl^tp e = Jatawou)aLll lleeq t-our.'. . 1 1rr' \ : r r r r " ' r rrrr i l r l r s $ " 1 \ I r l \ ' \ r l r r ' \ r ' r i r ' i r r r r l l t r u r ' ' r l r ' r ' r ' n o ' \ l r -orpIq lolur)ql rorJP rolq 1/ooy pJotl l.' F I i.4l 'lJerJrlP Sullerado Jo 3)uJltrs 3ql = stlttrouoJat !tle r-o12.r.JS'IJAJI olLrr rqr PUP.ti) Jo uolllurqulor .li(lLuJl i .

in thc sanrc b . a coplcr |cnny? M.. Circlc rhc leucr o l l h c a n s w | | l h . rolalcd [r. to lhc I Who wasWilliamCilberL? 2.oo(lcll a lo i1 pcncil.a rubbcrcraser.nilcslsitsclldiJlcrc|llyin is . corre(t L).nd nnx)[ wcr'c lhc d1itrr. a. to .t cithcrcrr(1. To nrakeslrrcthc rranrcs wcrc choscn chan((./Lonr. scparalc b. wilhout orcicr l). l)y a. sct.sun. rcsisl 2. jn a linc L). a. i|lrrcsling L Maric irndPicrrc Cufiewcrc al)lclo 6./.dri.) lhc answcrs lhcscqlresli(ns.fnddd cablcs lion sup|]ortc(l loivcrs.120 Experimenting Vocabularyik Cor?l?xl.gDcLi\n. Duringthc cclipsc.s rais0{l in(l l{)\ry(r((1. hlLng b. 1 ( h c \ l h ( nreaning thc italicizcd of wo(] as it is r|sc(ln c a .. Thc possibilily Iifc exisLine of clscivhcrc lhf Lrlrivcrlc trrltrll/. a. a t t h c s a r n ct i n r c Scohning Scanlhe f(tlowiDgfassagc rhreeminutcsarld put nluarc brackcrs. firlicul(rus b. rcvcrscrl 6. l L ) c s lI n .1. Ji)r a.lc 4.thc (onrl)u(cr l)y r\'ns progranrnrcd list Lhcm4t fdrrorr. itr o|1icr ll.. a.clivc a clcnrcrrL.j/drr new r:r(li('. 1)1 L o n ( l o r ra r r ( l R o n r c ..cxccJrlor)ccrror.1|1ILu(l in (Firsli(lcntjfy kcy wor(ls. Thc hands lhc dialplydl.rc(l 5.d rhe gasprcssurc on as rv. Thc blucl)rinl lhc nra(hincry li)r wasdrar. calth. crc. Whcrcis thc magncric Nonh Polc? L Whal dki MichaelFirndayan(lJ(xcphHenryl)orh(li{cov0r? Readihg The Magic oJ a Magnet Whal is lhc magic thalenablcs magnel pickup irn ir{)llrrailliut rr(n r.rn) in i:. The cxpcrimcnts wcre conductcrlt n u l l t \ t l r o i l l .our ol liuo 9. ndium.lrnlrrc(l thc. in(orre(( 7. Oil and watcrrclcl eacholhcr. Thc bridgc wasJl/r/. ti \ placc a. a li)rrc of narlrfcthal m. i t.r.ncicnt or lir Grcckrown of Magnesia. h o l l h c s c s c n l ( n r c \ .

rr^r(r \ r l o r { ) I ) u i i p r ^ j r l 1 ) ( lq r n o \ . r . ) q r ^ ) sr r i t L r ( ) ) .L[ r.'1'|urHq(l)\of u!.r q l r ! r l r l ) . ( ) r L r ^ l P r lr i r t I u r t l r D u ) r q ) r L l . )o r ) l ( l P U J . ) L tlln ) { ) r ).)l(xlqlnosrqr i)qr PUD'l)trijour lo rtorl qlrro\ tt ot Iit:)pr]lpsr (lrtrir(lpa rLIt l() rt(nl quou rrtt rr. N ^ . ) ^ us lr \ r r u J r .)lrL.rf \uroLUoP i\iLI rlrqM rurp'u()l) c) sfiiu )tt:)lrijpur ltrpur l') dr' . ) q u q l r ) ( o o L r L D l r l MD r L i p s l r ) s i l r i r ! f u r l f ) r i J ) L l l l o ) U o \ r r L r \ r . r J) l l u i l ) r f \ r ( i r I u .i p l L r ) t 1 ) l) r l .t rqt.r r M o ( li L | ] ^ l o u l r o . ! 1 lD ' J r l l r ^ 1r ) r o t l r l . 'iuolu l\rx. ) q l ( ) 0 V r u s t r i l r i l e L Lrrl s ) \ ' ) l 0 r ) r ( q r i L ) ) l ) q 1o . r o )! r o . r . ) . s r . r L t tl t r ( x j p i ] D l o \ r r q l o u u p r ) l o ( { L t L r ) rr q r ' ) 1 1 ) ( { r l l r o \ p r L L ' r l l r o u! r l l r ^ \ q r c r ' s r r u n L r l t r r n o t r ^ c q P l n o ^ { r ^ 1 ' \ l r u n L ' u ro ^ 1 r . ) l o . ) r I P u r o . r c ) . ) q . l 'li)uJurrl rluciJlN \L'^ ) ! ) l l i ! l r q l r L r . ) L I . l t ) u L 1 . r i r r . ) 0 . ) . r r D r r I L ' 1 r i ^ D i i L r r . r u )) L t l l ( ) s i l r l \ r n x l ( l o ( l t ) L ' r r l 0 r .) r(t or uri\ i)q ucr uo. ) u J ! ( r ^ \ r u o ^ \ r 1 l ! L l u r f r ) ! r r r L r i r u uP L r r l l M r c q l D L ' tr L | ^ ( l I i r r I u r L l L r .)rrn"u(r ro.lo surcu)p )!)!ileru. r o N) r l l u r o .)u)Lrv rqr puc. r l o t ll l l n o s p U u r l t . ) r l i r u L I r ) u t .)1lD(l lo . ) l ( x l ) l | . ) q t { l l r ( L r 'r). r ) ^ o ) s l l ) . l o r l r | n o \ | r r P L l u o r r! q r t . \ \ D ( h L r o r . r i ) ) r ^ l ) u ! i l { ) J r l l r ( ) N) l l r L r J u t t r . ) l n . { u r 1 r . u i i ! L t I o $ l r l r r \ l ) ) t r f t ( l r r ^ r ) ^ D q n o l J I '\rptij l r L r pr ) ( l ( l o ) ' r ) q q n r ' f o o M r s ! q r r s s t u r .rlr pup rusrtiuiJDLu rPM Lrrr^4riq l|orlrruuorrrlt'a€8t uI 't)rlprr rL| )rlt tr)ilo(l quou rqt ot prtrllltD sr drP r. l p r\ n L | ' q r n o ! l ) L | | L | l ] ( n L U ( r l l r r t r o ^ r ( l u r ' r t t l P t n o ^ { r ' P ! . r ^ ol ) .\lur')P'r!r.^trsur)\] uiJrtD (lrL:) or ]'(l!11 )rlr. ) q 1 ) 0 r L r ) I ) q rI u n o r r ' r ) l c ' t \ f i r r t t u i r r u D i L | ] r )u M r ) u )\ r .rtI r l o s ) l l i u i l c L u ) r I s L ) J l i s ! s . r \r l r l ' ) ' p U ] o Jr . r l | | r s D r lr l l i D i i q r q n n o q ) l v r r r u{ r x . r J) . ) L l rt o A . r i M . r l t r q ! 7 r t . { ' s r . r t . r u r .). r u I l o l r ( I r r u o . r ! s r .trr ^trrr l). ) f . t . ) t 1 l ! s r o r ) r r ) q r o q . n r J u r L . ) r PL U r MU P L I I i . )lu 1 . ) r l rl ) u f r ) q r o L p r i l ) ( J r \ i l o ( r r J u o u ( | ^ l r . ) r i l l r l ) ) J IZI Sultu)Lugtdxg . r ( ' )t L ' r l l ' i . ) l u L t lL\rl l l c r l l I r . \ r l d r 'rrqu) q)r) t r P i r l ! \ i l ( x l L I r n o \' ) .J l r .. r .: i L ) s .iq prrr^o)\rp IrcqJlWuDrrLt\rtiJlrg il\r")rrrPrlfur|s . ) l. { r 1 L. r 1 $ ] |. r r ^ o r s r l ) r \ r u L q 1 . s . ) r s l ) l | P r r o r r q ) r r { t ! r I r r M ( x l ) r o L u L P n t L I r ! s D ) l J r r tl I r n i L r l 0 L r r ' i . I . u n r L Lrrq t i . r\l I f ^ \ l r r ^ ! q \ l s r r r ! i . ) p o J r ) . ) r P ) o l l r ! l l l c ] l r ) u .ro r. tr l i i n a ) ' l r r q t r l ! u D r l l r M^ r t 00r)l ur p. f D L r r N r ) r ' s r u o t \ i | o l i 0 ' \ r r o u o j l ) r r L r n L r r J r )^ l r t r l r ) q l . ) u i r [ L ts r ) ) u e ] \ q r l { . L l l . ) . ) ^ r \ s t o L ri . r { r . J i l l r r ) r L t l l L l] ! 0 0 0 1 r ) ^ o ) { r u i q r r r r n r f r s f r . n r i i r r rs . r ! \ . ) t | o r \ . ! \ \ r ) r ' ! l \ l r ( l n s r ) r l r o l ) u L ' u { j . ) l r i u L r . r o r s r ) L l l u L . r . ! \ L r t s n ( i! | L r i r I o I u u r i r l 1 i ) q r r i I r c . ) l ) I | .{Lt^ sr l'l(lxr srLll rrrrtPur !c Du r(xr IlrM uorr rql'prtLrDr r t)r(1 rM r.rir\ )M .r t o .{rpcrD. ) r . n l r . ) s r| ( '!)l)o.{uI rql U sJs er (ln )ql l)uiJpLU to iriol lj (lrlrri{lud lrrls u slrqrnslDl)ru sDrr(lpJzrrruiJcl||Lrn lo p.l|I()D)Itl uol' paz!lau6eurun uor!p€z!lau6eht -) -: . ) L U o .{]lrutr. { r r ^ r L l i l n ' ) q ) l Vs l f u D u rr l r .rLIL'l'l\r i q ( l \ r q . r r L r l n ) r (( n t M {t '. t q u o t P l ) uu t r l l .)rr? surp'rr')p tt uiqM pirrrrui-L'ur uor rqr'priirrL'rru rs sr iUrf. r i ^ i r . r u r ) i L l r ' r l l . ) r ] l $ l . r n _i!L t l i i u l i p n t s .. s r . n r n u r IP l I s .rol)r)p s . r tr u r l r l ) .

Scicnrisls bcticvclh. Thc carth'snlagnclic ficld rcvcr{s ir\cll pcrio(ii(ally. il The Dlagncric polcsof lllC eanh arc l()cal('(l al t)rcciscly lhc gcographical Nonh arxl SouthPolcs. All subs|arlccs somcwhal are magDclic.rrlhis a Dral. U derstandingthe Readr'rg.This is the rruc nagic ol n ntagncr. v)L h pole. Wc know thrl lhc eaflh is a ntngt)ct bccausc hasan iron cofc. magnctic A ficld movinf nearlhc wirc pnllsthcscfrcc clccrron\ atong thc rrilc.rr eleclric current in dre wirc.cvious passagc. ID{ti(ate whclhcr eachof lbcscscrlcnres i\ lnre (7. ill 4 . A nagnct can cxc( ils ldcc across opcn spa(c. lhc 7. 5 . bL lhc opfosircis also true. Willian Cilbci sLrltljcstcd a contpnss('cdlcpoiDls rhal |lo h at)(l soulhbecausc c. This o(curs bccauscthc wirc conrainsun. 9 . Thlrsa nr. elcclrjciry bu1 cann('t Iroducc magneli!m. .]l ilt nriiDetic fieldsarc produccdby elcdric currcnrs. il p()duce\. poleslbnl arc alikealtrad cacholhcr. CoDrpnsscs uscdby thc ancient wcre Grccks. A norlh nolc of a nragnclc. crenlingan clcctriccltrrcnl. Magnclic 3 .ttcredilr .gncrir field may be induccdby an ctecrric currcnl. A picceof iron is magnetizcd whclt ils (lontaitrs s(.rc diffcrenl dircclious. Magnels prodLrcc can clcctlicily.122 Experimenting Tiry found fiat whcn a magnctis passcd througha coil ot wire. t 0 . Electriccrrrrentsp(xluce nragnelism.rnnol(xisl scpararcly liour .) or falsc 1F) accordinf lo lhc l)r.lnct.(achcd electrons. Whcn n corfcnr ol elcdricily i\ passcd througha ronductor. magneijc a field forns aroundil. T l. Not only docsa movingmagnclic fiekl induceelcclfi(ity. 2. Melalsaregoodclcclrical condLrclorr bccausc lhcy conlainnrany t 2 .

{ srxnr rlpt so 'rlLrllls.)J!lo) )l(lc )q or ruu^4 noA o)lllrM J^uq no^ lcrlM pui-ri.{l iirlidor iq ull )tsL'M irc . suclur{lllluJ lrrdo q JI]'P 'puuoM)qlP.u(.L z .r1.rl L|lturlirig { .qr prrprlrssspt).r llniuJlpiq ^utli ll rulrru ot 'spjoM -ulun sl raltr.ilicilJ itlt^ sluMly POr.() to^irr 'oslV '.Jr.rlrtrj srsnPr ruql rrrct 1\tL | 3- '(E) rrl)LriJDLrr (N.rr:) tx?lroJ u! trrtry1qfioA S']1IYS DNINAJSIT tZI Surrunl| id\f r .tsll n{).)l ll Lrl uorrc(uolur It uo p)s!g ar1tr21 a4t gulpuDfrapun 'aslJrrxr lxru rql rrrl(huoJol $lou rnoi isu rarll puD. rnlrrl )ql ol Ui.rrssrllr '996t Lrt c Z .(t ro iJ(|rldor no.e.tr'(9) IuuoIBr^ei3 srsDrq(l sr rsrql J0 rtrpr Ur frqursrp rrlot iql r)qtrq^\ rle)tprll 'irnrr.{illqM sit(xrrnol iiul(1.r ltL'tU Jo )i)ul 'rrn tsrn)t rLIl p)lrlts )lt)rpiir) lll D qiirorlllv t I scM i$rc) l'ilriTrrp ru uoll)PrrP q )Illslp u sJliuqr lorulDlr r)rlJo !o^Jr.t"uxro.r 6u!4bJ-aNN itLrulrroP (l J/rlrji)n)r| Ll ' s u o .rr.r(l[r rLIt J)ol l laritlrLr I] iiutqiosqurdrl)rc no.q reqr rJMsrp .r(l suoltulAiJqqP noi qijnoqlur^r'si)x)lr )sn ijullut u l^4/.r l ) ) l JJ ^ l l u l J J t r / .{ 'tu(I.r ll prrr)ourlluir!.4^przrrrll-'lr Jo SLrruerLll rqr sitl)relLr rs. u t r t .rrFqro plrD 'srrurlr.qr lo rrn)l JLII )lr.rq fn) 'srr.s rsrll]. .{jDurilDrur 1t llur:r.W Ur rlcnbqurr . 1 s ( r o t io r!( l s o ( i i s n u ) ) q J i J r 0 ! l )o u s u r l r L ( ) l u( r V ^ l I P nru..L < lrurl) u p:)sn :)rsuq 1l .1()LlrPr ur rqt Prsn sr lr sa p().ri)i)roc .()rls )qt Dalilrls JsnP)Jq ul luql IrrltLr d)a)l Jo sru..)rroj tsJlo)^^ I.lq() 'uoolu rL| 'uns .rtr p)uil.rLl rqr ^lic)lJ rlu^^ 01 l.rrrl ol li)^/lot uu(rr)rl(xl iq.asu r!! 1 /rasrl.lu-rrPou q rilnrt e 'rtclo)clIUDnLp)ltrt III oIx..ruJ luirLllrqt '9 jo iru Jo .toIM r1otr ol tcll^^ tuo iirUnil !o tolt 'suJpl)qt uo alcJlu..44) rD)p'rulcra ro'(Ns) irrpno liuorrs -olr.ro!riil (l snolJstlo:) 'srlur\l)rll.rno:I rLIL.)lulPr(rru|u tu..

Thc lor(c th. ) .1 |ircc ol fnpcr. 2. Thc nn)stinrportnnl The forcclhnl holdsat(nns and nn)lccrllcs loltcther. 7 . DISCUSSION POINTS () yoLr Givcverbal difecriorrs lcllowslUdcrrts conlttcrc ro somcl)ro(cdurc. Pcrlbnn activity nrr suchas changiDlt oil in a (nr. Lhc a or. Make slrrcth. fepaifirU ra(jio. becn Onc lidy w()lc rharshchad tbtlowc(l lhc rccipe carctully wasvcry confused bu1 whcn shcknkcd in hcf pol for rhc chickcn aDdcouldroL lind i(l As you prcpare your ralki L Lis!all lhclrcps in thc proccdlrrc. Thc k)rccLhatis n|()rgly lcll bec. by -t. r l r . oncc pfintcdir rccipclhat in(ludcda slcp that saidro rcnrove lolil. L Pcrli)nn cxpclirncnl discLtssc(llhis class. Thc Iorccthat kccps in l)laner\ ortrir. UDli)flunarcly. P l .fc so largc. A goo(lwdy will of is l() concludc lrr cxplainhow this inlornrali()r rljlhl bc Lrscd. \ \ i . t 2 . Makc Knnclhing hand. nrighr want to cltoosc frontthc lbllowingsoilgcslionsl I l'L1y ganrclioln aDother a counlly. 1wo lorccs that lirnclion only inrj(lcirrr Jtonr. iu Thc Iixcc thal a(fact\ bLll(locs nol rcl)cl. nn not in 4.124 Expcrimenting jarcc. T h c lar\'c thnt hol(1s p()rons lollclhcr. Cooka dish lion . l | l l n ( \ c .. r n' \ r t a l l ( .Dothcfcounlry.s becn omillcd.l appcars radioacrivil). .n ncwspatcr from thc Nl. . Your lopic sentencc bc r natcmenlof lhc l)rrrpose yol|| lalk. jA I r . . stcprhat saidto l)l|rLhcchickcnin thc chicken rhc rhc pot had accidcnLally oDri(cd. i r . dcvclq)ing lilnr.r!c. 10. 2.lchstcpis scparatc disrincl an(i nnd lhat nothingh. L Arrangc stetsin chronolo|ical thc ordcr. ( t r . \ j n . Thc l L Thc basic iofccol chcnrisrry. r j .usc pllnrls.l slicks tapcto. rn . r r c n i l u . l ( t r . 5 . r ( f r r l l v . T h c k)rccth.

{luo llpJllJxi ll urdo ^rql 's.1^.IDIS 'NIIIUM SZI SuluJmtrrdxs .lerrdo ol rlqeun are quPt tt()4 reJ uolsslloe tlo i 0 .^l r?xoq illl lsel rv ruludlnbr illl tlqurssg ptll-'stx)lDrlrlslrlrql Moll(! uu) 'luiluerlpr.)snerrq )!rr?ls slllDlrcisc o^.ls tl)|]i Llltitfl Z 'ssi)or(l rql ul sdils tLIl lle ls$ I tql.uv Jql .rcpro l!)dolororqr t)!rt1iul sdolsi)Llltiluul]v I 'qr)^ .rd rlrql Jo quer 4l!x)ll ^iql tpql loqor 0 a^p)rr lllM iiql plol are itql l{)rtlle) nrLIA/! lrrJttdlnbJ aql iiullqurJsse srlolllnrls l LlilllrM il0 puPlslJPLln IoJ o)edsrlrtll . r0rl) :sLmlDi)llP ilLlltlr.lq ^rols L()1])uJruJlJs P ol s o!pat!Q S'I.rl'^orursYrocst rJluM LrP)!r .'u^1o rnoi aql asooql Jo rldot p ro stuloduolssn)slc Jo illo/a^oqe tulqltluos aIPu ro op ol ornp -$ord e liup{olloJ suolprulsLll rql saullaplnB EulMolloc allrM roJ Polsll tuolpatlo gulrltl 'sdi)l1i Ilgssa))uun l1o.4^oll{[ irP suolDrrlp LrJlllrMrlo^ irns Jleru ol 'tslnoJ Jo 'sl liols sllll.roJ s.^!lPDdt(tl LIeqll^ (l.l{) lPlotu iql ill Jlqutssr ol Moq L() suo0Jr.llsulnulsnJllo)Jo r8pd ro qllM siJild )lerpdrs 009 ul loqor rql pul ot .p!nil ilP illrr.{lpql rts ol IJiLI) 9 iue prpnlrul ro ilulll ee piltlruo tolr n^DLI 'sill?p 'srll0uenb )$ljids sc qJlls 'sllBlaplJessJtiu pur?'slrriluorrlsgi)ul IIU)pnl)ul E (rrqlriior dJlsnuo ouqt oturndlouoc) uotlsIFIBJsr)uilltostql dJi)l t '.ull.

havecomca long way sinceancicnttimcs.like plato.when Wc mathcmatics was regarded somc.Thc a€curacy is ol ol predictions depcndson the accuracy lhe measurcmcnLs (omputations of and uscd in experimentation.as myslerious supernatural. 126 f . mathematics the languagc s(icn(c. by or when numbcrslikc seven thirteenwere thoughtto havemagi(alpowersfor or goodor badluck. and when mcmbcrs ofcertain brolhcrhoods werepu1to dcalh for rcvcaling mathematical//sccrets"that arc commoDkrowledge today.chapter 9 Calculating Liquids and Gases INTRODUCTION To a largccxtcnl.

{lr^Prn^ trl(kuls irlr rpr0 sr r.^olu puL' p)q)cnr.--{- --l .{r)^ llr urql o\ sr-IDJqt )srrr))fl J)P(ls )rl) rliiq o]|rl siur(l(lpsrp..!\irr:.)sir sr1)l).||'o rrll lq.d rqr uo 1lJplno:)e!eDPq puEsnoql puor:s rrd rlqlst^ul are irqr reql IIPrusos :le slrrDPq lPql lsnl lou Moul ti slr^Prl lrtBtl rPqr.).JolJurururnrp slql qJnotirqt Dujrns ^uo otrrl pu! rillto Lplr o[I ilrrJ(lrun(l ]no(lc.{lrs(x)l siln)rloLU r.IU.i_ _-..ltr]nlru t!rlt pi^ord '))r"'(ls o)l!l!9 $erjq prlcqxi r)qt ro pl|l^1rql lir] plnor .rjpue :rpq etouerae ur sroolpr Jo rrqunu rqr or srpls Jo IxptEB p Jo rtlpt.ri((r spMtl turlt'\l turlt'i)o!lsqnspuqrlL.p!llo) salnlzlow sv :zrnsszrd \drqsron -el)r lPrncrurllluur ssri(lxJ lflll srro)trrrs Pou or iiirss|r(l iir^^ofl(rr Jq) pet)t 6ury0aduotls 'rrldxr llt^{ uns rno urqM rtun rql ol qupr aqr uo prrer{jder$l stulql 3ul^!l utq.trulPu||H su rlrns'srrorlu^JlJ .{li.rrllIo rruFnsirLll.M rq) tuorJ :uns rql Jo lErq rql ol urSorplq Jo urPrSe ul sruolPJo rJqtunu aqt uorJ Surqt.r(I sdrrorS srrrotulo llurus '..r)Lrlr?luo) i)rll i!ru ot sisPJ i)ols . "^.r- --r-_.{JJlrtu tou srlllu 000'98t Jo prrds P lP sle^Prl 1r rPql lnq rsPJ 'rtdurexiJrol 'sn II.) ol i\()p il.{lr^r rlPInrlPr slstnrrtJs Durluts s!I{rJo put prrpunq lerr^rs teqr oslPlnq rql le polr.tl)^rsr)r3oid irV qtrun rlulfurnr)r r.r)suoltplnrlP) rnO J]urDs ot uorsrrrrd sr^13srleutqr?W IZI 3!lletnrlP:l .4rql.rrPUo^\ noI rou rLlilttu '.1s)iirD 1(xr tuilJl|uiql 'rrlrrirq 'surulLrnow rr ll (llrLlor LrriJi\o.rrrldsorulull \Ploq .!\sLru r)P(lsrrrro orur i(lc.sr1Pr)q lldu.- (- -r--.tt rrep rqr uro.r!.1 -.rlu qtlMr!lllluul tsl)rrr i^{ sDli sl irr llrJ puLlrlxi 'irrs\ird prll!r sr DoJjlrsr rrosrlnrilour luursLro) Il.1 -j .rlP punoir nolqt^r)^! )ql u)s i)qt's)lpoq rno 'quP) )10-srlrolPIo )purus! s11 .rlur srJqrrrl.) L.{llDnpurJ n sl)il )r lr)u 'oll noI irrliiq )rltiiuLILll ."{ J L l l t L n l t s u ! a ( u s l q t ' L I I r r a i c n b s i r d s f u n o d lltllu n t ) J s r l i ^ i P i s l ! r l ! a l l l J o o l rttpurtJ) scrl rlc lrliili^\ irlt'suotttpoor tpuuour:rpun llln_tiM /.!\ .luqt.riq(lsouIu jo srsull 'lln(lIcr()rrprr^uIil rno rrlr . .ro )qt's)spiJ srlnr)loru ul ru.rurLr :r(lror rnp 'lrul ul Lll.

T h c l r .l2a Calculating . I 1.rl lr tfu vtj4h! tl tlt( tt! n)rttt|. l i z c u I l c . t l ! t h ! l n $ L t ' { . ( \ s L I c i n s i d c y o L r rl ) o ( l yc q u n l sr h c t ) f c s s ! r co L | l s i ( l cW h e l r ] 1 ) r Li r o u t ) j l l . l 1 . r ( l h a s l i r l co v c r i r r r ( i r o L r ( i c . j u f r . r r . t c r t ) f c \ .n rr..livtt it thtt! nl|. i n g c r l c c c \ c \ t ) r r \ \ r \ d { . \ l c n g t h . M .. l n r o s p h ( r i r I ] l c s s u r e ) h r \ t h ( w .lr'' .rah is in balrrrc.a n r l ! o l r L u r c . l Y o L r c c l t h i ! t ) f c i i L L r w h c . a L L stc r r r c l c c L r l c \ r c c l o s { j L ( u e l h c ri r r : r l i q U j ( t( h . t i r v c r y l h i n ! o r l |rc\\rrrc is nivcAnl.). ( n tr c n s cL J c ( n u \ r h c ) . i t h l h c \ u r t n r c o t r t r r w . . pressureon cliver = atmospheric pressLtre water prcssure + Ttu !rclsu]t t)l tht \t\tt t it ditt. .. l o r o r n i f p l r r c . a l r c l n L i o n s h i t r l i . . i r g c t \ l h i n C r .1 . t r r .ltd! |a.E r . v o ud i v c L ) c c .. r... l r sp o I p i u f b e c i r L L \ c . s rtrlrr.c o{ ph!sic\ i\ conccfncrl liflclr w r u r l h c n r c i \ u r e n r c n l o l s L r r hp h y s i c i r lq u i n t j l j r \ . ts !fulotlinrl1l nJ. l r ! .s 11. I r r c c t f n r c f i n g " o L r l s i d ( .itprls It lrrrr r//r' ndar /r.r. o l t h e .1ssr/r. t h c | f c s \ u r c o i ( l i v r r i r l h u \ ! q u . fc x l ) r c \ \ c ( ti n r h c p f c r .nrnd\yt nlutttt'iktll pounds 14. r i I r . .lioushi|s !.. l l s o t l h c i f ( o I r . n c l e v .cl. h o l l h c l i ) 1 l o $ .th' prt water prcssure 7 dcplh N r / . n L i l l h c n n ) l c ( u l r sh a v c : r .. t h c f j l i | .7 I square inch I l t ( l i r c t s r ' ?i:t . thc c. r r . l t o L h cw r j q h l .1t)d thr \\'itlltt rl thc dit tll irr scnLcnrcs Lr$in! like ir lrhrir\. t . l U S I N GE N G L I S H O C A L C U L A T E T Mathcnrali(. v o L L c e l ! o r r r c . ' rM a t h e m a l i .. L i n r c . a r c u D i v c r \ .7 t. ( x c n i n g | f c s s u r c r n r t h ( ! v . r r L r n r L ) ch . l l yc o n r i i n r h c v c d . 'j . J i l t . i ' . | ' .. n r n r c r i n ! ' i n s i ( l cy o L r r . L n r r . n I t l . r rc x c c c ( l s h ( . 1 1 s u r { n c e \\ o t h . r l sT h c y n s L r . t h c . . ti)t!ll tn tttt dtpttr Understandifig Mdthe|tidtinl Terns Thc lcicn. ) l \ n l | . h : I i ( ( l ( ) e ( l L r . I 1r " L h c1 1 L r n r bo {r n l o l e c u l c s h .. c h o l h c f . ' l h e | r c s s u f ( f c o l L h cw l r t f r i s ( l i r c d l y p f o t ) o r t i o n i l ( ) l h c ( l c t ) t h . . c t s i n n l l d i r c c l i o n s( ) | .. n i n n { n \ . r t t i l t = pressurcr pressure Tht fr$surc nn d. n y o l l h e r ! q L r i n l i l i c si r c f c l a r c r i .l\:!\l) d o n l w c f c c l r h i s c n o n r r o L rIs c s s u r co n o u r l i o ( l i ( s ?T h ( I c n y ) n i s t h r l i t r u o \ | h c r i f r j t .

ru Joisrr )rll .nl))s i.) tu)^ Jq .)rult ^qlio^ ljrlrt)r^r|.l frN(luor !r tr:rLI()p ).ruore r r J )s t ) f .ro^.)lut qsrliJLrS il(lrrtUno) Ir r.r!.!\ srl)rtruitlurlrpUr . q p i m s r r r s (rntqro frr \e rt)r1s) rolor B Jo (ll.rrs ill!Jrtrijl pisn su orrru)s t ur (.)sn rr! lrql MorlLroiJLprri(lilr. qsrl:irrt.eI€nbquso uE Suunsseruloj 5r!^ep e sl qdllSo|"Uslrs V .)tttos s.tll(ktou pltu J]ll .{rrsrtueqr.{ltrilr)rrrrlrr)l .'1rtrtrtrl..rrrIsnurru E))rn)p\)urI sqrrrrU tr)qur.)lUos.L.)l)rl-ru rllLllliplrt ilur rr^.roj l)rI{)ris sL.)Ir^^.r(lul )^|l sIrslr:)s))rit.)usrrnou iLll l[.I]ld I r). elrluV at!ulapul 'o^\t' \l.'.rtiHi:: ioJ erp s) trulnirL .itpolr^ -Z lq 'str! )).r.r)ct Ur r!lfn_urs i.rPrrbs Arrolr^ rql \iunl ssL\U Io l)npordrqr llDLI.)turl rqt rtll)r^\ s uu LllJu)t tt iJurlltllt |ll iq lrlplnrtrr sr Jqnr u lo ILrnto^)ql rr| ru'n.l_ Jo r)Lriritrun 'pi.)uo |rlplnrlDr! .apor-lrJlr up srl)ll.r! trrlt s!0oN lou ol).rtlunii!ul rqr L.).{rrlt Lriq.ri)1 qrrqn\qiirrorqt .)1.C 'rrr.r 'lqSroq s.? lprll sunoN .)t(tf nrnor r()U) uopnfiod "llo.)[.rlrULlrpul l)uu lsrrJLro.rJ{xlluis nrllJl n^rrrso (hqsuorl!t)r sD l!rnpur)qrpur 6ZI SunPtnrtetr fxl:n .1ls .rrddor ?edorsrlJts lrtqutuno)) Jsrl p.Ippurl rql) sselSp ro (rJlrels(lns ssel8 r^\ rql) (Prrnos r!trr.tu liput iltt !UnoUlp. )s l ) u r ' o [ r u u o r o r . sert^ep sqa".rqr ):)LrDt\lp srurrtr){)r iLlt l)nlord )qt sr :lro/ll\ I 11) 'tlrqsuonDl p Jr 'l)ur r()l DlnLru()l.rns'au.{q JruDlsrp n'Urpr^tp p)l!lurtrr st .I|rrlr/11 r) sil)ltru.rlqprunor rq uu) lJurIr^\rrtrt(r..ru sil|rl rrruuorlurl ln)uriql siteniirpl Lros ul fprll rlcrlnu:t r ^|luijr rp .lo stulrpr. o s t i r o ^ i r o r r i t P r s f s * r : 1 : j o o l t 1 .rc rrrrrrpUl ldr/op rlsrln_o3 il(lptuno)lo . r ) ] .{!ors)l) .)q.)rl.'t:JLI|.z .srlBnbLIuee Bu!.rrurijL ) rolor (trro.)(lrup s uu (!) r(l \tl'nbr rplr Dtcrrbr iql :)rr].)L| su .Iul'd punos p ro (turirrrilur) punos D) 'p.{! sr LIJLI^ul r]er rqt srrrMo.

encrgy.r r etJ u r n .and glirs\cr not nfe 7. th€ earth an era. lspccillc) . Defittite A icles (lrr) rn. x is rlnrught dlat L In comparison.1nd llas. t<lsLelcss . thc Middle Ages l. I Sif A]exaDder leminlg iscovercd F d o L ' . Radioa((ivc sobstanccs cnrit alpharnys. _ 4. .ransplant. hrerlan indefirit€ article (d or/rr) v\'hcncvcr rc({rsmy i n d r e I o l l o w i g s c n t c n c c s N o t e v e r y b l a n k n e e d sa r a | l i c l r . 2. bctarays. The accident awaken€d concern for the salety of nuclear reactorsall over the world. Oxygcnis (oloflcss. The reactor was shut down.in(l 8.So|]rc conr )()D rLscs rhcllclhitc a(iclc irrscicntilic ol English afcl I lo spccily fcfar() sonrelhinll has!llreariy of nrenrioDed (Noricc th!1t Lrccrr lhnL lrc is uscdlhe:iccoud aDdall succccdin! linrcsa DoLLn r)lcnliorc(].y L)c Thcdclinirc nrticlc Lrsc(l plLr. Wc krrolvl(xhy rhar_ t. modefntcly d(tivcnrct. d.) is In 1986there was an accident at a nuclear reactor in Chernobyl in thc Soviet Union.jlhcf.lled so ircnsarc not madeof 6. Elcclric alwiys nradcof !hss. lighl in the lalrofalory. ! . d . (gcncril) The doctor pcrformed the bone marrow t.lLrl( or uncouDtablc siDglc nollrs. drug thar is 2.operation he was famous for.ll0 C d l (u l d r i n g Usitrg Indefi ite Articles.! o l d r "ro u \ L L lr \ .ounr. cxlfn Iluorc$ccnl qlrasar mry bc zinc is _ hearis gilnxy rlrari. wc insl.u I r |cnicilliir. o(lorlcss. iron. causinBthe spread of dangerousradialion. Thcfcwas irrsLrlli(icrrl _ light.l.l rrou nr)(1 wiLh n\ wilh. Lofclcr 1osonrcrhin! rhat is uniqrc a planet. lo rcfcrro somcthing srccific Thc do€tor performed an operation.j cxplodirg.

up lq pr^aolt(I sr tcltt U ou p q ^{ 9 asdnrr tsel aql luaruatr qunot-Irrulu aql ^rnturr qlurrl.\ rsooq) tsllc srspq noi rqt 3ur03uoup u0 srsop llPrusLrrprqrosqprq ot pJru sproM sproM to nsrr Suol urort lpnts ()1ful t.nsc I.rossilordillsltu.{-I^rrEIrr Jo ^rorqt rqr Jsprrtd/i.( rrlro qulnmg [.' prsn.spro.ttlhqqrot S'ITI)IS 5NI(IVAU 'uouorosqe e.(lLro t)up)tdor(l jo srureuqtrM prsn rr^ru sr )po.l{ uo ruiruurdxr zr'z.{rrsscrcLr JrArurLI^{ ro 'rr '0 tllstrl salxluv aIu{to 6ulsn fl/t 'struld LrlEuil )ql Jo sr!Lr.rt0pt'D'rspl sj]qtunlrteurpro qtr.}Jrptsour ..u prutrsrpIlqrnuw - pupprqosqe uorlprp!r nrnorup jo UouonElfpr ]r+Jr lo S 'rJrnotuor )ruorl)i)lJ-lle pue !r{rg -.ql .{ spro^.)^J toN 'sJiUJnlJs rs:lqt ul. JsnB))q pJluroti)d iJ^ru suM tucr!lridxi Lllt?lqo plrlorlossjloid lolr -{ sittl u.1uaturt.)p sr iLll:rroN ullltrturd Jo ^rr^orstp aql uaSixo Jo raqtunu rltuole aqt .9r6t ut . lsel^prq aql sJ.r lo uo surrdrp sSurqt Slll^rlls.rqrolLl I bl ')l)ltrp Lru sp))u lLrDIq fu. op ot prluuM .$:riqur.. 'nnsol palladxo prtll8ls sr)ttrcuo.luPlladns ssJllxr ol t IfI durlElnrlE) .uoo 'rr .urrr ol lLrE^.'u rllr^.utu rqr 'qunoJ'prgr'puor)s 'lsrtJ) lJ)rl .M ( {s4 }tnJr.rprl[rrJ.)ql lJrrroJ Juros { tor| seMt! lnq 1iurcr 'plro^ u! i'rlplrq r()lso)dsl1s sr uflrt|l8 lcir9 rr] citplJgliqunH ls)i1LOI z 'popiitr iq 5lllutuB aU.tu||.rzuour u or up UoJJJ r)'ru 'proM E Jo SurUlJrurqt prur?rt r^pq no.

l12 Calculating lha1reclrr yolr know will ofien. 1 .1 i ( l c (lli g L I c h. whcn yoLl wilh Usc ( . h r \ c r i . l0(X). ' i . . \ . 1 . (lccilircr' decalilcr haviu! 6 nnglcs L singlc colof g . honc and rcvi('w lhem from linle 10 lime. Study lhc lollowing lisl of prcfixcsand lhcn nratLhthc lcflns al the lcftbebw with lhcir nrcanings lhc rigbr. +ol . IL r ( l j r . a chronic illness Carrythc cirrdor papcrwilh you and usc spare monrcDts rcvicwlhc wor(ls. \ .1nrs krlogrirrl milligr. . . Thenwrilc thrcc ro fivc of rhcsewods o1r aD indcx cardor picccoi papcr. Nufiber Pfefixes. r .lilcr .nrcrcr. s . l0litcrs k.r cutr a cif(lc irr hnll' (1. . . r r r r r r L r r c t l ( .rr.and olhcrs1ha1 be usefulin your general vocabulary. stu(ly righL ol lfinnglei b . havin! 4 rj(lcs lirc lh. l ( . i \ . I 2 t 4 5 6 8 iii l0 100or rk 1000 d binary pcnrallo11 a . r ( ' r r h .1 r . lo Makc scntenccs eachword or lhink aboulln)w you woLrkl ir. \ ' t l l r . l .lhoseuscdirr yoLrr Iicld ol sludy.lnr j..niDgllrl lhal showsyoLr il nsv)cialion: chronic-lasting a long tim€. I i v c . al YoLr nol useall lhc nrL'anings will Iistcd.involving 2 di.Write 1hencaning of cachword a[(1 a phrasc how lo Lrsc and will providca me. .

)rlr srqrrDrrr rsr(l ruqt rrMsrrf )qt 10 rrnrl Jllt .l ^ry Ispro.P 'p)^lo.rl|]Lrltu rr.r.rql rrr rilussu(l |ulrorP srrlruq rrPnl)s itor^.rrllt rr^I lrrqurlllDt p Uo rrnler)(hLrlrLlI l ' s r : ) o r t u ) si ) r r q l .z rdll zJl(roulr(r.o pirns! u.r.rrj.pj|l DInqwoA /xrtroJ ut €tI SuIlPIn)lPl .rrl.rlut Lrpqt rrlsM lPs r ltl|lintl )tt)r| IrJl sr uurr. z D r l D r r q l j o i i u l l r D r l ) .roo(l r^pil iiot sn iql Jo ..{ .rrrlt lxrtr.J Lrorls)nr) !r rur(l(l! xrLrop l1\lt sproM rpnl)Ur .ro.t ol.ll/r oU rqt )!!ru)r(lilI)rnb i.{i)t :rrdN rLlrrr(ls sr lpqM .{crLr )qt spro^.1lol uoRr. tu utlutkt lfuDil l)tLln4 rpnlr r tq ur Ll) srnb p'||qt rqt r{)rsl)ro^{ /tr) .]ru^.c 'auo 1)lo^1l 0r4r u Ur iii.)Uloo) q ssrulJlllt.lruol :Prrrtxr o '.t.)qo rrll srrMrr^Lrotsr^ilrl rql .)ijuol plnor p(ru.(l ^lllPnb . U r p J s n i 1 rs l r p r o r \ p .{xo prl|.) Uiijotplq sLrlL..\..ril0M ul firl.€ rqt Z)l(lord .Jo rpqM .t6 rll()it li4.ls z .\ul slrililo r!lt Io i71s iLll uo spLrr(tip Iln(i luuoltutl^ujlt rr.r/rt.\JdIl ptoM l.u PrPrq P t)tcM 'rlnnLls r)P(is rqt lo uorsoFlxi l.\ rLtl1'ou)pl tsju) sUoltsanb tt ol sjr^^\uc rs arll tn( pUu\.iorj rqI 5 .r u ut ll0 Jo.q .u ll Jo slqiilr^.rr. r^Dq srossrtrord .rldttlpxr .li(l spurrod zto()t tg Jo itrsurp D scrlJ.t/lsrrp irll Iunoruu.)r/jrid pul.{lr^priJ lo rrqn) .nrrlr/ Jrll pilrrtor(l q piijri(rqns .r r rtqDlUrs q JtqllDou . 'r)rPM qsr./e.)rd IIr^a sL.nh .L. O I prtPlnrlu|q 'nrur-'l(l ss. 'illll(llsl^.. l o q r c .(l illlunh P 'liil )lqnJ ul pJtnslJ(riq !tu) rr(x).srprllll)rv sr luqM . .P finPurPPq Jo rrDl(irql lilct 'sDrllo iu!ru ul sr u^.\ollor uprs rllt 6utuuuJS rzlli q uoluo(iol(l.r/..q strP.1lr1Lr6.u urrs irl.tror uo)MilN .?i)rlt ' I Jo snl(l (l ssrl u 'xlr slunbilnol Jrrl1l/!r)I itltul.lr()J laluM ' I I .l.

plrshcd HcdctcrnliDcd anyobiccl oul.rr(l in has. lirrccof 100 minlrs62 poLr|rds l8 lofccof a liquid.ll4 Calculating Reading Flo. cxamflc.1volunc of I cubiclirot.dcpc'(lson rhc Thc buoyanr is of dcnsily lhe liquid.A body rrill lloal if iLsdcnsity lesslhan that ol lhe li(lui(l Icc is il in which it is inrrncncd.or horr nuch it pushclupwnrd. in inrnr$scd a liquidis L)noycd that placcd.supl)osc l1)ckwciFhs100 DolndJ.lcr'w. w h i l c o r h e r sw i l l r o 1 ? csLab' This bLroyarrcy concc|l wi:ls objc(lsllonl is callc(l Thc forccLhalnrnkes who alY) l)l.whi. w i U f l o a l .ls(lis_ Archinlcdcs obscrvcd t).so icebergs thnt of u'nlcr' fillcd with aif so lha! lhcir dcnsilyis lessthan many spaces bv rhe by is Density conDuted divi(liDg wciShlol rhcliqLrid irt volur c salr\.||? whal Makes Obiects . or ()1 by disltaccd lhc obicct lhit is Nnowrr up by a forcccqualto thc weiShl tbc flrJid a For as Archincdcs'principlc. A s a c h i l d .h wcighs62 poundsThcrcfbrc.which explains . gravilaliorlal upwJ forrc is 62 polrrrds downwarrl and rhc buoyarrt on rhc rocki! 100DoLrnds lo Dccdlo cxerla lorccof 100Pounds lili thc fo.you woLrkl (of In rhe watcf you would havc ro cxcfl .l'alcf ol frcshwaierhas:r densilv 62 of hasa dcnsiry 64 toun(lsper cubiclirot.ycd ilr lhc Archinrcdcs lishcdby thc llrcat Crcek nrillhcnlaticiaD lhat whcrrhc got inrc his l)athlub w. y o u m a y h a v e p l a y c d w i l h o b j c c r ! i n r h c b n l l r L r r l rn o l i t i n g t h a l r l r c b a r o f s o n p s a n k 1 0 t h e b o l l o m o l L h c l v a l e r w h i l c l h c p l a n i c s o a f d i t h l k ) n r e do n t o p .whilc is sahwatcr lrcalerlhan lhnt ol fora_c ol per pourxls cubiclbol. will sink if ils dcrrsily grcalcr' i! lcs\ (lcn\clhnrl lvith lloil(m lhc surhccof fic occan Sleclthip\ irredcsigrrcd walcr.il disl)laccs thc PLrll I cubicf )r ol watcr.whcn lhal ft)ckis subncrgcd walcr.r1hrub.k oul ofthc walcr. llenct th( buoyanl 'i)r why il is easier n swinnrcr(r floal iir thc otcarr frcshi{ater. W h y i s i t t h a l n a n y o b i c c l s .f a n g i n g f r o n r a p i c c e o f c o r k 1 ( )a l r o c e a n l i n c r .

..{l)^oJstp JlJtlrjat)s rllrur or r)ol(l tsrq )q. r \ l r \ . ".. u"qr .rp slr tL)L{l Morrl )M .J . ..rH i. r r l i \ | i " . ..) J^pq llrM Jr(UrrJql Lru t)uc uos.1. .. . r .. r .1"j stI Surlelnrlpl '|rl"iJ .. . ) r l t l t . . "'n .. . .. slrrqt o. r.(tisrr. . r ' .|{ to ssptiE Lrr reoultrMrqn) lr up .r.rl -JoturllLruqr ' -_!I1. g t . r .ilrp(t ! lV .u ' -sl . .u. Irir r. u ..{rr^prBrUr)rds ssJl spLIuosr)(l tpJ e . rr $ .... i.\{rrrP \)rpoqino lelll Jrrrr:rprsuor...I lr)L roolJ rl ... tlrqs:u . t I \ \ .. .. i s J i t r.L r P r r r l r ? l u r q t c)tiur 5 i u). ' M . . . . sl . 1 s \ r .. u. \ r ' . r \ i n \ r t.r: Ar^urii rrJrri(ls )rtl to rsnDrrq .ir uurllss)l rl .u..r)rsp.nlr^{qs)rt q rJlL'M llus P tur..*.l. I1 J | r .9 u .r r . n \ r \ I . lprl^^)rnrlfLrr. . r 1 .."rr. t r)r luDs lplll rlp. . .ql .rr. r r | J n ..r)ru.' ))lri:llil:lrll'll' ...l)r?.'ll":'i.iur! v I n.i""* IULrI rqr lo sruJlLror JtPijllsr^U1 iql q "q. \ r 1 t t .rlt-r.0 (nI|.\ JIol . .6 Itn('rtsnol )uup.Jr .\ J " . 1 t r \ r r i \ n t .r.r. r r t r r r r . ". .r t rs \\. " .)l)q ur . r r ) t . .'.st lt Jrr(rt lLrll\onq l. 1.rril urql I upql . ..7 y9 y1 .01 rr^rt) f .{tjptrlUrs n .l(xl )r(ln)rrll lllM tl sl)uno(t ueql rroru sq . i . r .r)l!^^ ur sluoLl:l.tlrrs x. rlrr \r torqM'0 r .... .Jlj. .1. r .rrtu^t trur.. r t p ... .ror s . \ri 1 . u n .8 r.rpn".{.. 1 U .r . .\. .rrrrtDoU rLUD.r. ' ..u ' llrls .llrt \rll . s ..\r. . .L . t . y. .1 ijoru .:..)rumrxord{rp )rr)Jds ro .u .. i . t . ) r r' ' f t ' \ r . r u .{lr^prH ).". r l r L . x)n lo Llrorxxl 0r s:{urs rqi rqnr r L ? Ir . ' u r ..r . t r .{trsurpiqr " "i"ll. . . . ' c .r)L{ntq ItrM (trLts E tuou V ]0]-11- ro.^.1::lP: p JLIIor rJlrElsqns to . t 1I. ' i' .lJ.rrtLr^r 1I\u)l) ::-."t]y. ! r . .ruorinlruu3iwirr"17 . l .\llnJrrcrri-pssp(isnor^rr(lJLIrJ.lJursu. .q1 . .ru('Ju'orUrlol .r"r"nn 1nq.{l^DriJ .)qr^!q ts U !ip rlrqrrv . . 1 ' 1 1 : i . t r 1 1 .ts Jo ortpr rLIt sr . . . .)ltrq leou llrMiiiir uv z rilcs\ud rqt ut l)Jturs t{)tl rl (l [{]pq iqt L . .r.i*. j . .q Io r!r)r.).."f '.{sc. .rrn. . 1 . . ']i ."'"1. r r l T ) .J'''|cL .

7. Thc co. Thc noukeyswcrc. airl thcrc wcrc l('irrsil would go highcr. nr. inlllrencc(l lo InLIsl .l/a. obitcl will continuc nn)velrrfilcd rro lorccsuclri! lri'ri(nr L A nn)ving a. cxParrd cxpcrincnls.li. All lhc i/trrlxr?l/dr?s al(rniccxpbsional lliroshirlla.lL bcsl nt'lchcs Lhc ' word as il is us((lill eachol thcic sc lcncc\' o{ mcaning lhc ilalitizcd Jlilrhl lhc:jl)acc l{) wasd &rrdrin thc dccision carrcel 1 Thc wea(hcr tr. ren{cfature !(.136 Calculating LISTENING SKILLS vocabulary in Cofircxt. Absol]i!r pftxJl of li(nrc concep(s undttaifiahk b. rcvcbc a.rlh( lilill ol thc lJ. rcleasc(l in a. ruorcbook yoll lakc nolcs. ar cvcnr (t) a r(ason c.Irr{{iv. nol Possiblc a. as lollg as D ln orllcrtDal loil 4.1'. ol 10. ln brighllight.rs a Il is ahvays goodidca1orcadovcr yolrrnolcsrs s(x'r1 pos\iblc l(x) 1a1l\ ldn thatlhc in\trlrclor ffequc|llyconl)lain lakingInLcs lcclure. nlulliplicd li)ur ol ar)(l d/iLlP. Ncwlou's lilr ccnlllrics civilizali(n scvcral b clirproved a.citclc lhc lc(lcr of lhc arrswerth.( r-Iiial ir. nol desirablc Note-Taking lollo\'virril a .rnlivc in cithcra land or \en drv/.lhc ptrl)ils your cyct idrtllt-r./. b cllccl. t) dividcdt)y toLrr by n.llls lhal 'fc as .flcf b achievcd a. A ln)gor lLrnlc b nrrroulldings a. SlLrdcnts llr lcnvcsl)acc\ ]()ur lrp ll yolr arc havirg troublekeeping wilh lhc inslruclor..rc. denicd is l2.tllc Philosophy scicncc Wcslc r discovcrics 6. Aflcl Lbc leclllrc ad(l () yoLrrllolcs dcl.k1?r' 2.{uc$d cvall(xa(iorr colldc|rsallon.lllnrlivc L)c Irc analysis Ifccisc. b $irink a. cnck)scd (vcn 5. Thc price ol gisolinc \\at qtktdrtt\ltd. A scicntili( 11.ir.?y'red snill c.!le lionl b.lrc nol krr(nln b clfcds a. Succcss dll. Dumcrotrs was I l. causcs is of 9.

'ot)l atnlosqu )rntL.'rdruJt v I '{xrz ol pDtll)il sr t tuql .l')^pLli(l sc3ruo uiis a^.\ suiJ Mul tslLJ .no1.Jo i)jnl!. r l ' r pr r ^ ( ) p r .\p. r t | D II|s tat 3u!lPInrlP:) .orppilo^v ' I 'iirlqtoLr )iullqs ot lll^r 'L sDil uJo ittlnlo^ i(lt') o€lZ. u o q d L l l . { U e' . trssJl(l ' J r r r l r . r Mt .q.siltlJaloru illlJo ^nrrlrr )qt sl rt ) o€zz ru tpllt pi)Kxk)rdur^lr)l pn). unlo^ pllr .ls't 'ro1 sp srpLDlD-L ' i t t o n u o ( l ( l o r r D) ^ p r t n o .{lUo 's 'i. r o l I s D r i l ! .^. u ) l r .siltuLI) 'rrnturJdulil 1lrol l)itllir . r M ' f u r o D r rs t rs s r n n _ n t o l r L r p ) o t r p o u ) r n D . { ! ^ .L I 'llp urrql uirs a^.^ poonsr :) o€lz. {r r q l t u r r t t . \r q t ) .lllSSilrl ot Jql luLl()lt. l q t . ol Il ' z . J u t p o l s u o n s r n b r Irv lsprl rno. l l 'z I 'rroA 0lrq ol srn)rrrno.o )t!tnlo^ ll s1 . r r ) . ( s f u n o s t r .liAUl spilu.lr(ku)l Jo c urunD i)lrlp ol rrrM st\l)tsilldluqr illur)rr lrrlllrlorrsuM]l € I nufll{ r(! r ltu.()(k)l(i il.oJpuno^v^q pil)^o)srp su.tlt)).{rsn r.sciJ Jo r[rnlo^ rq] lou . { s p u o ( x s ! t i L r u o r ) ) r t i)L F L t r p r I l r r o s l r p ) r u l r I a L I M n ) l r n r l \ | r . r r i d ( u rL l l s ) i j r r p r l .t s)ln)il{)!Lt. { U r q s J .] ' I I 'funore r1\or ol rjr. { l t p ) l . { t . ] oo l ^ u l l ) q .loLI)prIiqtrq^{ rtD)tp\tt arnpa.lu tuqt p)^or{tsturutl.. L r p r p r o .Ipsl suile Jo unlo^ JLIIlplll piri^oJslpsJllDqf ' 9 'prleitl urq^\ pUp(lxisisut UtDlri]:). l J q t o t t u r l r o ( i u r rs r t D r l l p r o ^ { r p r l t r u D l u n LrPicrll noI LriLlM lxlv .)s. rrnDJl rqt ol u. ) t o ] t D { q l r s s t s J s u 3 .I t4t qulpuDtstapun ' J s r J l a x rl x r u r q l r t ) l ( l L t r ( ) r t s r l o l r r n o .4.ls()l rroriq o. { r s n o UJqt .r(s arout rl|nbi. u o l r n o i i j l r r q t .s)lltulJ(huil laMol ly O I 'sJln)iloru li)qrt|n(r iluus Jql lult()r s)spllllc Jo s)tunlo^lcnl)J Jo 'srsi)rllo(lAq luln)alorlt rqt sp ol piJlal st .] s. srrP5 I{)ror^Dqr8 rtqlr)Iltur]t )qL.rr(ixr.{ plrlr J(lol lxru rLIl ot 0o si^oru ssplr iql o j ) r l p u P l s r r p u n t .{ L . t l ) U u .rnDrl)ql r rrooDrurolur ol n^Ur}uo)r )slp}ro (J) rlul ({) )rll sr srlr:rlu)rPrs i'rllM('ll({ rLIr. { o l r ) I ] o ) o s t v p l r u r n o .

ll8 Calculating DISCUSSION POINTS a arr nced\to calc(rlale? a\trononlcr? wha! are somethingslhal a biologisl a chenrisl?.rL)lc samcscnlcocemay t)c rryrillc'r . (o runthcnralics Dc Lrcliev((l 5. did vouqet it yet (!( WRITING SKILLS to it whcncvcryolrhavca lin olilenrs.rse (lccimalsyncm bccalrsc L Somepcoplc havc suggene(l as hrd 1hesnrnc trrrberol limlrs an octoltrsor wc Suppose havetcn fingcrs.urcmcnls sLrch hu ridily. siTcand lhings as lo lincar nlea:.Physicist?Scologisl? (Thinkbcvond irl of 2.f is unacccl)t. Thc ancic|1Hindus why was lhat concellso inrln)nanl? by lhc Afabs.) wc th( lhnLwe r. which wns lalcr adoftcd 4. volumc. stNillni\. do \ldb? Whar kird of nulrbcrinr svslenr vou (hink wc nriSht a thrcc-ioed havc? Lhc ol devebl)c{l conccpt rcro. rbal is. I WellA lbert. Why do you (hink n)nrcancienll)coplc n)agical. tcmrcral re. is |rclcraL)lc wrilc thcrl irrfarnllcllornr.?/ilft Thc to pditlt. wcrc (onsi(lercd lhink.tltc senlcnccEll'. What colrldyou mcasure calcuLlLc yonr (lassroonr? wciShl.c(airr nrlnllJcrs Why do yoLr myslerk)us? llrckY trnluckY? ol lhal is. drl ddr. wi!h all thc ilcms in lhc samcli)nnat For cxanlplc.

lrrsJlJ .{) uosrid puo)as1(r.{Fp|rurs .{p^4 llrr.())ir'prrnsp u rq ot spiiu tpLIM Jle)lpul t0L0.\oq rJlloN .{Juolslsuor ILrcs oq plnoqs eJ'ql qder3erpd.sl ro'pil). suolt)rrlpiju!^13 qdBlSDroriatFM r? suolpallo atow Duuyil .8uuru!^is .. ^toq Jo rldrupxo SulMolloJ lo loo.l! sdits llr-'rtns rleW prlldltlnrrr .rqJrprr'lql 6€I SurPInJIPtr .ruroJIrllprpd Sursn.sa^Iosslp l! Ilxun lles eq1 rlls .relpn eqlulllesJo dnt p JIeq e^losslpuaql .eruPp pue ?ru!/t{s.3ullulEd sa{I ua g .rJrltoorus :srurluJs IeuDrropqt upql peal ol ralspJpup sr sJldurExrrs:rll Jo qrer ^.i{ltr ltrxunparrlls spn lles EqI .rllsllollgred.rl ?) uosrad ro tsJli iq) LrlrllrM ol 3uro3 oJeno.s.sltrl terll asn pup 'lsed Jqt rplJao .\oqrrlloN .euo p JIId . M o H I 'uloJ It asn IJlleJpd !l(luilurud ino.l iqt '(!roos prre'ullot'ilqt'tl 'rilr'ay')uoslrd pllrll ro.{ruslntsr ro.J)!oA r 0)9 pue a^lssedpup aqt pJrqlpue'puorts'tsJ!l :stsuetsJXIu lt tsneJeq:jursntLloJ qdoliJ0J0d Irrcsli)Cl sr oql 'qri)^ illl Jo u|loJ r^r]eridufl .ssiJojd uJdrlsqJuJ It lnoqerUlrrdsog 'ilLDa olloJrLIlJo ruo lo.'tuerldrlr uB J o l L l S l i M i \ l i l l l n J l e J ( ) 1.uolJd pup islrJl tlPlrdoJddelsol! sl Jsurl rjntnJ ro 'tuasDJd Jl ur .relpr\ eqt u! lles Jo dnr p JIBqe^lossrpuaql .itlr^^ ol Jo.{r^lii ol rnplo lrJliolol(rq) ur r.pr^lossrp se.{Jr epi)ap utql .SuDuEp pup .{upur .J'tp^r qll^{ reu!€luor upnb"euo p pellg J .Dle^i qll^r raulptuor lJpnb.ro'AJltrlslsLlo) UJLIM til rtrLll sJuroJeqLldgr8grDd irru)l) q)nu .(ro.lulEd ol sJrlll urlJg 'e)uep ol puE /lulr!\s 01 lulPd ol sarlll ueJJg .lnoqSnolql .

How to calculatcthc hcight of a lrcc. 4. 6. How ro calcula(e dillcrenccbetwccnthc amount of time you spcnd the studyingand thc amount of time yolr spcndrir'arching lelcvisionin a week. the percentof your weekly expenscs lhal gocstoward 5.How to calculate recreation. (milcs or kibmctcrs pcr hour) of a flighl frcm lhe l. How to calculare speed Paristo Tokyo. . How lo calculatewhat i! would cost you to drivc lrom Ncw York 1o san Francisco.140 Calcularing 2.

rrP srsurtqrr^ lurrrJirp.::.rslsrldo)cl lltun a!ttq pur.ro/\s.tfl 'tsro :]qt Jo strrr^.) il rl Illprr x)u plp r)rrrlJs uJrpour'rr^i^\oH tuJruLrorl^u:) ll plrp sJ^l)sul)ql 'irolslrl lnollSnorql lnoqe srlri^o)slp Iuurrr )pu(u r^Prl siiulrq uL.)rlr rpql )5!s\frliirr.)lJs'iPpot srur^o)srprrrqr IeIUo:) rlr(ll errp pue s:lulpul.rodot srJlltoSulll^ul'slPurnotur spoqlJrclPlu)nr!JdxJ rliql rrod nsILr.|r^(Dsrp Ll)pg srlnsrr )ql r^oldstp ro {lii^ ot stroullridxi urro.lrlrp ]rJrlurps rpilB Jo srtdlllexr rr(tro :.Lunq NOI.j ot sqt8url 1err3ot rlrrM srslr!)LlrlP tr 'sr8v ilpp!t rL| nt pFo/\^)qr tl()| Irtl)os r )rlt sBurpuU lt prLl'srprroBEqlid srirr.lo ruiLUdol)^rp:)qf E)uIuY puP ooorna Lrlsrsllurtrsrrlllo ^L'eLn puE 'lllu.(xlrr prix )rrtou l)(re : -_i.MouI'slrpt)!rELu)LFPttlJo rr]r)s r'JJAJTD luJlJUP aUOp Ol StrP.\'rollotiLlt Eutpta\ UoLIS 'Suruodr rlunrrp'ror8rllrlur uoclnrurpuJdrp st uolteJrdoor.L)n(IOU-LNI a41 artt lo u161tg 3ullrodeu 91 ratdeqr .rc o:)ulrg'Illog slrrN UIJrsulE u:)qtv Jo lro^{ rqt uo prsEq sE^\ 'rtclu'Pxr roJ 'iSrrur rlurolP Jo nrilurJotr^tp qret uo Bo!pllnqsrrurrersJrqrl^\ uo!rPLuroJulJo rSuEqrxr rqJ )j.to tdlr slql suoJJr uoolr rql llnot rir^4 tpql sltrrurr^.)rP uo uetu E lnd rPql Drlbrd rql pup rrrndulor rqr.Mle Su^\Slrll suipl rlrLll tulls)luntulllo) 1OO puP si)l.rrL{ro ro 3ulrpLts iq 1nq uosrrd ouo Iq poLtslldluoJrp )rp srur^o)srp lsow e ]ou 'r8prt^^out rrJrrurr)s uorsupdxrprdprIlSu!sprrlrt rqr or 3u!peil Jo 'uollp8ltsr^u ! Jo sqtEd^\)u srs)88ns. l.rr^oJs!p slro!tu^risqo lt 3u!uodiJ prl.

Thercfofc.200.sincc thc ol{l(st on formsof lifc wcrc all sealifc. wny. inrclligcrrcc lci(l auiural(and 1)r'ogfcs\cit.142 Reporting Ho$' Lik Begah To discovcr hor'v bcgan. rcprodrlcc(l ilscll.rr ()l nfc u]r of l)o(lics (()rrlt)o\c(l slii (clls.r(lc ol n conrl)inatioli (clls.bloo(1 (clls. Forsils rhc rcnr.br. or.cradudllyorgdnismsbccinrcnroreindrnorcconr|lcx.ol\.zbilll(Dvcars old. tx)ssil)jlirjcs nn(l i|r(rca\cri (l(vflot)ing li)r r)cwirr(l v.The snnpl€sl formsof life appcar 1he]owest oldesr in or rocks. life archacologills sludyfossils. thc wcre nor all nlike.an(lsprcad throLrqhoul oce. llrc ()ldcn thoughscientins can Ihnl thc carth rocksthat showany lraccol lilc arc lcsslhaD. to ils sLrrrolrndings.]ny sci(ntists bclicv(liJcl. \/z V .rrisnr !(\v.td lrornrhal single ccll.'lixlay. f(sporr(lcd sonrcthing lhc b. scnscs sjghl.r long Limc.which m.nls rn(l 1. alx)Lrl 2. cach(el1 to nnd becanrc s|(.rr(nc lhan 2100.rrirnalsy'ravc dcvclopc(1.llypl.(uloLr! nxtccrlc\ happcDcd cor:bincin lhc occan ilr cl. Gra(lLrally.in ccll\. (i.ns.fhisoirc'ccll(d . m. ll)c righl kirr(loJ Wc do rrot krrow(r.Lilatc is 4.lcsarr(i li'rnnlrs. on Thc cafly cellsLcpnxlLrrcd simplyby liivirliDg lrvo.c(ly horv. (al..r1(.alrrs. Alier ._v halc bccD Iikc org.6 billion y(rfs ol(1. Thc Hri]dLral nriitraLion Ijlc l|1)rlr occiln thc lnn(lrvas Lhc ro anolhef nraiofrrrp ol evcntu.cl(rinoft(xlay.bLrtin sonrcmir.rlc.0(X) \t)crics {)l or rypcs.y 1olonDa nrinurc ro of ofgnninrr (rfiginal Al1life hasp()bablye\.nls !rxl dninLrl\(l vi(lc(linlo Lhalnra(lcnranya(lv.1 (l hcariINinrl)()vc(l lhc ol in br.000 .n(csl)ossll)lc.fic(ls1)r( ics To s|c.ins grclv aDddcvcli)t)c(i.cg.n i lhc sr.nrrnlli!ing (hingsarc Ir1. Irinallv. rrg ro lhc rlcvclol)rncrrl hLrnriln ol btirrgs.rins irc ptantsand animals k)ng ago rhar havc bccn t)rcscrvcd Lhe or imprirls of of in Al ea h's crust.t billion yrars had passed 1heearthwhen lifc origir.. Dr.tcd. l-hcn(rngcr c(lls survilcdirl(l lhcir chir aclefislics rrrlc passcd to thc ncxt gencrili()n.rrr(l or).inlizc(l i rtil{crrnl in lirnction. irl singlc cells becanrr altached oncanolhcr. nrLlsclc so cclls.icr ol pl.sorrc wcrc betLcr Prolrably lhosefifsl1i1ly organisnrs nbleLo oblainf(xri or adaptlo coldcr*.

1aa\t .Y qAIgldWOf.roru sl rrclDs rql rsnDJJqpasnsl truqj r^rssDd Jril) ualrrtuzq lxdu t4 at o pAsSvLl 9lltllXpltltq )lt4l .lXtrr a.l6uls tb\ aLdl pe^p^aMDqotd stq |Ju ttv pa.Lad pedole^ep e^Pq :asuai Uts d (trnlnJ iqt olul cnu|uor.to{tr}qJ gr{rr rsvd Nlr^r9 y s{oJ3q q:t#t'ldwol Noulv Nv pe^lo^e seq :asuattrr{)rd tlasau 'rtoldruo)u1 sl Lroltrp (ilur^lo^r osle slql) llns sr.puodsrr 'MrrB 'rtp :)sw tsDd )tLlwts (prlrldllror rrp plrp ote. :2surl Parad tspd p4Dut6uo ur4tt ttyDaaU o passtd elt pttt stral uonttqS Z tnottDt..ssed pe|]. u04t afiw atbpoJ 00a {a lo NOIIf.nor|) pt)irdsputl full p npordat squryunortns al papuads'[^\t16 alD ttuttlito ptlti )t1oi\J s! NOrrfv aaraldwof v '.tar'^:|suatFDdnldluls ( uortrp up Lrpql.(0lrrnb:){ lsotu aql sr tsuJl lsed Jldlursrql suorDelsEd!(xlrr ol prsn rrE $surt turr:tlO IIIOd:IIT {}t SulrodaU OI HSI'I)N:I DNISN .NO NY prssed ara^r :uti)J ir^tssDd'tsunDdaFuS ( uoll)e rqr lo rrlru(lFi( rql uelll llrPuodrul.JII 3t tpqt ' ' ' 'll pulquo .llqpqord pup'Mou lll.rrLIlEr Lolllprlo) e sttodarr)u)llrJs slrll) [u]t [tq]jq d 4nD tP tou tM sutstutJqto lsltl)5041 peerds 'pernpojdrr 'p.Lu 3uo1c rreld or)iL'tr^Erl soortrprsJlll) 'sut.M crpld Sullpt sl 'cLult polDd l?r)^o rrpld LI'IBT teqt uonJsup sl slllt) spq Io 'ptdolzirp aAtLl slttunuv saDads 0aa'002't pup stuDld eaDrds 00.9ul]u.loql.J.dr$lurrrs rrr prsn .

'es . y".id(| n(* di"r'veri<t I l I A B E F O R E G I V E NT I M E A R E P O R T I N G N A C T I O NC O M P L E T E D T ( P A S TP E R F E C T E N S E ) ' rarrhed" rhe bamh lnad elph'dc'l Bv lh€ I m.iiliii..ii.llv. " i. wc srurn'\' rh( ii. ' tttead) ..)dre ab*... i. '!.:. Menelude. ...-"r'*. He/She I I I I f I It""I often arleady \el om .? rr.' ' A OR RECENT CTTON A REPORTING N UNCOMPLETED TENSE) P (PRESENT ERFECT I Bi('loFFr\I l'"" n".."di tProPosco l I h i \ r h e o N o r c \ o r u r r " nn ' d .'***'v t'l".t44 RePortrng SentehcePatterns (SIMPI-E PAS'TTENSE) REPORTINGA COMPLETED ACTION l o u b l i s h e dI Da*'' l.i"'t"a t"unched riht iiJifJ"'""'flliSl'"1'""'""' iRili*iH*f :3i?lJii"ll whil' in the Galapagos' Darwin {was workinS} on his lheorv ' ' ' l f u t r 5 b i l l i u n) e J t sJ ' . A^ei.Mittd NOTESr\her tepotfto ftheub?r th.'.. l nrm' carriagewhcn the idea came ro Darwin {had been riding} in his fotl.'::.xJ. n. r h e u n i v e r s e h a ) b e e ne x p d n o ' n F r\ n c c i r < r n e p r i u n .ad u\u.:r. recentrv slill nor usuallY I I I n..v aJtme andhequen'v6.".d (..:.] llj orren t. no.:::lX:":i":."".. 1.l tu rckftnce Haw'|*'/' 't'ihn!' i'1'cicktitk ac do nat r Jrcq"lntl ot dis"t\std .".fc I.

'ollpsreri Lrorltrru I lnoqL'(rprdd'r) S

L'PIUlsrll rLIt 'Pl1) iPri s

uor rq z irc lPql s)jroroo (pUrt) l'l,Lls la utnle )4J \ltuM)

\ t r \ \ ' r l I { L r .i lq l

i

aryw

ur^{rPc stlrEql I 'uontrL' i.lr.r,1r.l arF tr.lqns

J q l J l J I r J J r . / S ll l : u o l l J c J ! 1 1 J r r J o r . rl d) l q n s J q l . l l J n r , r , s l r l l l r l l l J s v s i s r l l l u J r c d r ul qrJ^ )ql J0 JsLrJl lsed tl(llllls )LIr Jo (lol )^lssP(l ro J^llJc iLll lrqll) llastll 'L()rr)p prrrl(kr o) p s.qrr)sirp sJrlrrllrrs isiq r.lo Lpua 2s zI lsfld a4uls 24! 6ulsn

a r u o j J ^ r t J Pr o i ^ l s s r ? d I I L l l l ! s l q

luqM u apisnsl )srrDl 'tsPd ul rltrll)gptds rqr
r-) rrotiq srn))o tpllt oolt)e uu suodi).llul0 rJlrJlui)s l] lo riqtullu i)ql illlM

)qr r^0ru.roi^lssu(l ul 1lsl q zur.()l sl lpllM u zprsn osrrir
'uo!l)u Jlil(ruo)Lrl Lr?suo(lo]tr-'Llt J)uiturs Lrlo iiqutlrr )qt itli^ z ro iuUot J^lssu(l i^rtrp )L|] ul rl rl q t pisn sr )sul)rreqM rl
L ( ) l t ) c | i l ) l ( l l l r o ) 0 s l r o o i r l u q l r l t l ) l l l i s e Jo riqllIlu .)ql i]!rM

I

'yNc D llr) lo siln))lolu Mr) o rl)1,{,r )liJols su rlrl rlllibq scq-Ipoq llPtunrl p io ',{slpp 'ruu LtP'orrldlo| !-ilutlll tor^rl iJr^a (9) slsolrrtr u l)rllc) ssi)ord ol trr ,{q o^^lLuroJ JlDq iirrlrr^rp DnPor(i.rslli) (/) u uJsllrr rrrlliirlPp Iurrru.Pr 'rtnJrl')u' rql oorlPrLuolrr! sl )qr Nulfurur-uolcuroJul sr vNd leqr pu'r rl'lrJlorL'nLrtrols urrq pPLI pueuoslPM $llrDf ,{q prlPlrtlurol vNc IPL PrPs,{)ql(9) Iruf sr)Lr!.u trro.ql e '{(arl ia (E) pr)PrrJlrnll r|Drlolu vNc )qr lo rrnl)nrrsrql iJlllpiuiJrr sru).{roi (t) (plre rl)lrnL()qu)vNx puE (prrP rqr to rrnrDLr p)lpnrsslstiiototq rql ({) srrrlrnu rrrltrnuoqlixo)p) NnotuP.t]pl DsurDlLIor vNc iprr! rlrt:)nLrJo .lJltral pJlleJ sDldol,{j lorluol rLIl sl l!tl1 sn)pno e qlr,]^',L ,{lqE)returr r)rrillrl P Jo pis{xhuorrru sllrl (z) rrnlrnrls trl .IDIILUIS DrLltsqns prr] ol oPLunLl slPtullrP sluPlo .rLrsll)r Jsftll req) pLIP'sllJr lo.pPLu:)rn'snurJq (uorlsllrsrupSrc iql rrurDsJ()slr4 SuIzPruP Jo .uo srlI (l ) lirt^ P rPqr rldtnrs ]',13 !lHl )
'JSI]I:)XJ

pul' LldPIilDiDd pcrd 'srsrrJ lsDdEut[lltuapl rqt rr0 3or^'\oll(I .lildluor Lr)10 glI Suruodru

r46

Reporting 4. About 165million ycarsago,gianldrnosaurs on thc carlh. 5. About 4.6 biuion yearsago, lhc earrh 6. The first living o?anisms ha1f. 7. Thc fossils ofNeandc(hal]nan
b c l w e e n 1 95 1 a n d 1 9 6 0 . 8 . A b o u t l 8 m i l l i o u y e a . s a g o . v i o l c n l c a h q u a k c sa l o n g C . t i f o r n i a ' s S i (livc)

(tu m).
1 r ( j r ' d u . c ) l \ , l \ i ! l i n Si n

(discover) Irrq in

(rotale) rrorlhwestcm Lhc Mojavc
D€5crL bout 25" clockrlrse. a

The PresentPerfectTense
To describe incompletcor rc(cn!ly (omplctedaction,thc prcscnrpcrlcctlclrsc ar pcrfcct tc,Dse is used,The fornulas for forming Drcscr'rt arc:

= has ot hate + past participle

= hds or have + ,een + past participle

Using the PtesehtPerfe.t IsrJe, Eacho{ihesc scntcnccs dcscrilres irrcornplctc aD or recendycomplclcdaction,Insc( cithcr dtc passivc aclivc form of lhe prcscnt of pcrfecrtenseof thc vcrb or verb phraseiD parcnrhescs. I. Ait l'ol]i:rion ha4 leeo/r/'3 (trccomc)a major probtcm irr

z. vany studies

/taue leelt natle

(makc)ro dcrermine thc

cilccls of smogon the 1ungs. l. Morc thaD a hundred clcmenrs (slillnot find) for dre conrmon cold 5. A salellilcof fic planet Plulo

'U"Inr.)u1l rx,.,rrrl.rrrt\ \ r i r i \ r i , . n l t q t r l o r d ! l no l

stLr)rLrr.dxJ rrLIto (Lru(trrd) srrqp pnPrnrrsedsrno'l.t1l ,trrqt.ruls sSurql stsrlLrilrs iiur^n rrqto ruo{,.(llrocurcr siJLql 8r ^n rPqt (.terlsuo
,llr.p)

llrrlulr.dxr rql

rro ro tr?r(' i)qt ut (pUU)

rel pllqt iql Jo tsuui^or jrded Jql s,93roN rl'l puoDs .rlt Jo D^o:)

Lllolr iLIt uo pup r?l lrido rqt Lrlle.rr rql uo siJ.3r (,{Pl) rr'l\) iql ,{qll)P.rirc)

srlu'(Iu):)p) prlqlrqt plrP'qtol)qlr^\ (ri^o)) pLroJis 'uJdo (o Brl) iql

rLItuitlM rrdP({qll^^ (D^or)

r!l tsrLJ
rH lioirll slLIt ol tlprrrs!p
r p i l l o ) s r ) L t u l cl s l t u : ) l ) sL l p l l ! t l

nll vcl,),)rqlur tfllru (,r)Lrl(l)
l L l r L U u a d x[ r p ( L r u 0 t r J ( i ) J

;)ql 899t ul LDqj ^i^tuH LuPrllr^{ LrolMrN :rop(l stsllllrl:)s teo.lij iql ilulpnl) plr!

,{q LrortDriLriij snoruDtrrodr J0 ircntlt sllll lurlu pi^uJrp lr()4 sDJsurpUL) pnrrl ruo{ llsnorLtctuo(ls(itBtiutii) srlp(rs siJorl ()^rJliq) puu reqt
NOrrvugN39 snogNYINods 'rldurilurudtol^,\ollot DL0 srsaqturred Lll trl sqja.^JLoJo isurl lsed t)rllo) iLF ]lrsul .2srrJ Itbd lra o) a41 6ulsoo4J lasual qulsootlJ

-nr il&)rd ,{uuru

(pliq)

'rusrue o rJLIlo iuP Lrcrll
silurql ilor^q olll (,(ol]s;)p)

snrr.xluErrnH ' 6

tu.^r itrl'lniirr

(rJs)

r rr0:) s,Ir PH 'Lroourql uo {rl orr
s]slllrJrJs',srP),(lLreur toc -/

srrr)rtt (^\orrl)
ollrr (o3 tsnl)

.trqro
: ) ] I I I J I E S P ! T U . L I P TI J q ] O U Y ' 9 J U

/tI

Sutuodru

148 Repo4ing Forming Se tences Thnt Repon. f o r n r i r s e n l c D f cr c | o r t i n { c a f l l o l t h c l t l ( ) ! \ 1 | , r
I

b i r t h o f l h c l i r s t r e n - L u l j eb n l J f . / L D l t ; r i r d I

I978

the fu.ul l"X lul,z I'al'//

2. dcvrbpmenrof trincit)lrs gcorDc(rvr FLrrtid I At(:.ndrir. E{vpL / ot 100 u (l L classjJicationplnnl\ r (l .ninrits I C.rotU\t_tnnnc|\ I S r | c i l ( . r r / oI l7)5
r e ( c i p l o l L h c N o b c l P r j z e l o f ( l i s . o v c r vo l | l u L o n j ) . n i t Maric Curic / ljr.rlr.c r l9l1 5 . invcnlion of frintinlt rvirh rov.blr lf|( I pi-\trcnS / Chin.r / erevcntD culury c 6 c o n l r o l l e d n l | c l e i l rf i \ s i o n o l U r . I i U n r r E I r l c o t ] ( , r i I I l . l f / 1 9 . 1 : 7 . l i r s t I a n d i n l to n t h c r ( n r n / A n ] t f i . a r r I , ( ) i c r t A l ) o o r t 9 6 ( . ) 6 . ( l i s r o v c r yo l ( i r c u l . r i o n o l b l o ( x l / $ / i l l i . | l r t r J n . ( ) , , L n g l . r ( t , 1 6 } j 9 . l l r s ls p r c cJ l i g h t / Y u t i ( l n c i f i r ) I S ( ^ c l U I i o ] l I l 9 6 l 0 . d c v c l o l ) r n c n t l l ) o l i o v . c . i r r c , . J o r r . rS . r l l i , A n r ( r j c n / t r 5 4 o s l . i r ) v c n t i o no J j r l c a n ( 1 c s ( ( r l).tr n r t ) 1 t - h o r , r ! t i l i s o n / r \ n r ! r i c i , 1 8 7 9

",a,i

kaa a thqk4l

,4 /g7S

READING SKILLS VocabularyBuilding l|lCrc.rsing vocaLr docs lrnvrLolrr,t((oIrt)li\hc(t \i|lir)it,]l youl i;ry rror whllr ,r ricsk with fntrcfs, boolis,.1nd tJ)oLrcnn) r .nrl of strrrL n()t(,tr,rl)rl ol l)cnfll\.

l i s t i n gl b u f o r l i v e n c w r \ o r l s , l o r ( a t . k c : r ( t ! d I t . g c o l t i ! c o r L r n n r i [ t | t $ ],(ju havc whilc vy.iting ill i lirrc r h c l ) i r r l ( o r i d r , ) l l i . c , r j ( t i r l N, r t ) L r so r c ! f I , w r i r j n g l o r l c l ( , v i so n . o n l l c r ( j n 1 \ r o r . ( 1 . t r r r q u c l t \ t r o n n L L r t ) . t r ( r i , ) ( lw i t , c \ n m r c l ) ( ) d U c r i v c1 h . 1 Io I c $ , c c k l v s c s s i o | r ! i t t r , r l o r ! t i \ r . 'li) s l l r d yl h c w o r d \ , l i r s t r c . d c n . h ( ) | r r n d i l s | r c . r I i | 1 ! . ( C h f r k w j t h r i l j d i o r r r r f o r a n a r i v c s p c . k c r i f y o . l r L r n c c t u i | . b o u r p r ( ) ! L | r r i . l j o n . ) T h ( . | . r ] r . i l ( cJ t ! c \ c n t r D c c rw i l h t h c w o f ( 1o r i n v c n l i n i r l r . r : t i n . f l , c o r l V c r \ . r L i io n! v t r i r h v o u ! \ 1 ) rl { l n u s c t h e \ , ! o f d .T h i s t c c h n i r l L r lc ' i l li ] r . r c n s cn o r o n l f v o L l | ! o r , r t r L ] n r ] , 1 ) u.r t s or r ) L r l 1 'lucDcybypfovidirgyouNithanopp(ntLrnilyrot)ri(lrc..\trerkjrr!,rvc|whcrr y o u h a v c n o o l r c t o t a l k w i l h . C o n \ i d e rl h c r \ ' , r v u n v t ) c o t ) l r( c \ e n n , r l i Y c l ) c . k e r \ t ) n s l f r e p . r c l h c m s c h , e s i ) r . j o b i n l c r v i c \ \ ,o r , I r n r ! u n r e n l \ \ . i t t ri r c . r h c r o r t r o s \t , ) l h i n k i n g l h f t ) u g h r v h . l t h c y l ) l . n l o \ . y . W h c n t h c l i n r c t ( ) rl h e c o v c r s . r l o n . o i r r c s , t h c y . f c a b l c t ( r c x l ) f e s sl h c n r s e l v e s n ! c r f f r c r i l c t y l ) ( r n L r s c h c t t r . v c i l l r c n ( t ) . n t f o r n r u l a l c dl h r w o r d s i n l h e i f I n i r ( 1 .A s . r ) o n n . t i l c \ l l c , 1 k r r .v o u w i l l l ) c n f i i l j i o | r this habitof"fraclice ralking" imnlcaslrribty. n orhef wordr. r.tk ro t l )r)LLr\cItB r trcsure() do il in Englisht)

rrr'r:rrrt il(nreJ rLlI Z FJr.rlr s.orlrleg Iq Jr.M rql soqrrPrr rsrq IPLlrrr^^snP )ql J0 rillrl )LIl rlrrr:. ixrlro:. r i ( l o r d IUJFI)JliLlll^ Jqlll runn)94 )slrAlL l lt Jo rrluil) Jtll su tlns JtF ol ro ' p : l r n s F .t\olrq IJI Jql lc sturJl rql q]lEur u'ql PUesl(Dr p.f) ! 'r!l{rl q r({ 'nlrJlLru.r J l L I t ) ) L l lo l i J u n u l J l lqiil Io il)luDtl i l u ! l i i u ! r r s u r L u .LIlls r q 1 L r lL r t r s l s r l l l L l a u l i l i s l l o r s l r i l q i^t()ldxi liJrt(t tlitlq 3 (unllrLl.]/-rsrr 1r rq or pr^.{il]iLri) J u t J J l a s i l n p o r d I P L Ft L r l q ) u t u 'J 'q uns eql pre^^ol surnl 1eql lueld = aclollollzll r\l?'reue = rluDuIP re6od t-oulP eurll Jo repro ul luetuegue uns rql :-orrry' e = {$op orqt ewrll t-orroJLp lq8ll Jo uolpe rql Sulsn sernpld 8uplP1 = lqd.lD3ot urrs)LIl iiulrusurllr loJ orl^ip il)qdsotlllP s.8llrotoqd 'pJlsrlsiiultrPrur'ql IIP rsn loLI llr^! no^ 'tqilu rql le siiuruE.) rlIlJJlton)LId LrotoLlo I ..l ol JpPo ilul)q alc trcJg l 'sr:)LrJrtr.'(ll)llJ.ro.dxJs.Z ll.I o 'sJIllJ illl ul lle uPap rnl.rqott"id Trl. u! [Jtltl. l o ll u i L u n r l s o l .rlr trrrpunorrrlsrrrlu) rql roJ .1il.Lu rlJql qll^^ .8 )lrLLlL'utrp / )ptui)o!l)q 9 o(rpuip s )!LI{)rqr't r)tiLuoLrorLl) [ '.srunlLIJr /r. J o.s p)zDrlell rtll lo nol(rlrul t$LIr Jo rlr!.!ti)q rrrM uo'l(nu Jo sruoilll s.rull iiuol c r(I Hulnullr()J l r l H l l^ q P i l i l P o t u s t l l .r ur Prsn sr lr sDPn).^{ trrql'.JoolslrYqnnoqllv t sutPrqoq '!.\^ isrt Nur^\ollol)ql trprr)s -otleq leu^p rouorqr roloqd :stooxptoll lo 6tI Bu!1loda[ .rp.

verify b. lhc lile of Charics Darwin d. lnrcrcsun! b. lh€ ciry was rebuih by rhosewho rrryivc. The subjcct ofaborriolr been. It sraicd to rain when rhe nir wasrdrrldtfl wilh moinor(. L Galilc{. Arislollc's vicw of cvoluli()r c. disputcd pe ll. Ncwr(nr ormcdexpcrimcnts cdr/ir/l? to wha( Galilco had |roposcdrl)oul a.rrhlidr? in compurerlcchnologyha! accelcralcd sircc 1980. lived a. adjuncd 10. Iillcd b.. thc scx lile ofan oyster . habilals 5. a.nd lhercwill has lbr pft)bably ncvcrbc complctc agrccmcDl. dcvckDs 12.150 Reporling 4. b. lailcd b.cfalledthroughoul rwcuticrh rhc ccnlury.rr?l/dr/rj/r/ a lonit rinrc. dominaled 11. discovercd cxa/cr.. a. cs(apes b. Einstcin's lheorics havcf. Tlrc. thc search1o discoverbow hlrman Iifc cvorvc0 b.r aninals are in danlcr of beconrirr!l of extincr. dispx)vc Skimrfiing Skim lhe followirlgpassagc lhrcc miDutcs lcssnnd lhcn arlrwcrlhesc in or L The main lopicof rhh lassagc is a. Numcrousrpecl!. a. The camcl is dddpl. died 7. A butcrlly eyolles lion a careryillar..s rhe moons 9. a./ro dcserllifc and can So wilhout wrlcr tir long b.ofJupircr. 6. Alicr the bombing.

rd rr0 ttl()rJprqrluq sl prlq V sltri}iu(l .)ql PruJurv qlnos Jo lsPo:) pDq )q lelll s nrDrrr Jo sr(l^r .qr ..ulMleo Arl]!{ D .4upro rrollloJ rtli plrl)i(rolu ^4.p)llPrsPIrq sJq)trll io (ro prlDnrs 'sptrPtsr Suuoqq8IJu 'u)ql pFo^4 .. Jo nuruP'LLIrq|p uDlrrlo uriluo rlll Io lrols lerrlqlq rql ) q IElsltr^OllLloros seM .)srP IPLI sruitu!idxr p)tllroJ.(rr"'Lu qsllSrra ur/'!uPo sipeql pJruPtr lsllcrrllPu n)iJPcieleg 01pi)I.{q l).uorql s.lr.\lr JIIt^\orr pr^rl ^lDsrq rlql slu(UlLrlr Jo IuPlU lPql DPJ. :)'frII'uLrrr rllrnoJ rLF r..MoLj v spitq ruired.))npo.'(q)l:)lrlls p rdil p puP'spono{l punq ul^\rDo rrqler^ lprd(xl trrPr^rl1!qlurnSurdJo sEM iupnli)lrr 'urrs rr^rlr lulur!t'r^'ls tcr)^rs PrqiirM laqr srlurlr PrrcllLr0r3'spreztl pr^rJsqo Jq ir.rl 'psri^ a)l^ pllusl!u!uu 1)lL U)rLl suollgu.{rrPtu tq clnoli{ Io srDrilsrurrilJrt) e )LIl Jr| ur .lsilng rql lo IP^I^lns.4'\ srrnrErriilol^ll LrrPl.)nb rrotdxi or LruiJ)q L| srLIprl )il.rr pltu rt0 (rl 'trrtll qlurrlrlrrLr slsrlol(.rrrJo ol pr^rll)q )Folslrv r:)LI(k)so|LId lrrlS lprrii JLIIor^.r! jo sliP(l.l) sprJs tuorl Jluuu )tll l:)ssEd ot alrl 11) iliii sMorii.'torlll srq PrlPlnuroJ urMrPC ^\oq ' ISI SutuodJu SurMolloJ rql Io llP lroqe uonPurroJlll ptrlr IIIM noi ldrJ-Yr Z .rll r.lrlr)qlo lt'orJtrluosin'or rir-l ijul^ll c Jo ilLrrrdsuo str srlqurisir iJurqr uo!ltllo^x 6u!pbau .u lli^llElJr sl lt1i](ro)srlll lo 'LluuJ c slrqr SLllnunL()Jul riLllouu i!ll tlo JIll ijLllArJsir(l 'JIJ.{J rusltreiJjo iuo .rr(lrprr orsJruBIc lsltlrrDs ocll!ll )qr )Lll sno.lrcluods u0llerrlrrH ll relll g99t Irun r(xrsD.'q Jql uorls.rclsllurl plloM ldnlqcio s)le]sJpnl)Lll Jo ol .^Err Jql rql JJo s]xrPtst 3tn1o1 piLlotr^rp|L'rlstptl Lrppuu srolt(lio s)rrrdsrurlrljlp luDtu os ^^oqJo v '^rnlu.lJ^/lou ltlirD(l lr Iq p)]lri.

LIrcstftrr 5rrrvive coldarcn\ in Plants that rcquirc lcaslann)u|l ol rvatcr the survivc rlic (1c\(L Fishth. l n ) v ! i l l j n ( r c n s c l b y 1 b i l l i l n l i n r h e n c x t l w c n t y l i v { : y e a r s . or thc oncsrhntnfc L. sfccics loo(1. will prcvail.llsin..I l r . r h n t i s . "nallrr. Lo y PanicLrla upsettin!wns lhc (onccl)ttltil thc atr(.l1r clninrc(l rlrnl man hascvolvcd Jioma lowcr li)f|r ol lilc and th. a(l(1ili(rn. s. Airimnls with thc \r. thrcugh{r.t rould in r adoptlo lifc on land bccr|ncthr fifsl lnno rnr.dUal (lcvclopnlcnl.\tofsol hLtntan L)cings wrfc rclntcdlo alcs or nlonkcy\rnilliorrs yenfs.i l i s l h c r p i r i o .lufated thc wilh oy\LcL\t Sincc. origiu. For exampl€.lsnr)(1 irc f(lnlc(1 oLhcrt() s ot ltti.r n li]]rct11 Lhc\c nll cggs sun/ivcd..975.or the Lrcst rL)lcto (or)r|cLc with olhcr specics the cnvironnlenl.s 4. nanrLrl changc. H o w e v e r . thc nrlrgglc cxi\tcn. !!.tcd." the "suL!jv. l o n c b a s e do n p a s t s l a t i s l i c s n d ( u f f e r l r r e D d s . oysler For ar can sparln 100milli(n rlgs. nllthc (lillcfrr)t s|crirs oj lilc Lhnt wc know tftlay havccvolvcd.ins nninr. Over million\ 0J yrirr:. n c d u c a l c c o p i n i o n . u t i t r c m a i n s a n o p i n i o n L L n t i il l a b can bc proved. n lhcre is compelitiorr amoirgthe indivicl.Iy jrcol)lc thc ln r wcrc sho(kedal rhe idca lhfl hLrnr. it is a.nnoL ljvr. ln 1(r only lhc llllcn.rnrh.!in fonD l.' or H! argurdlhal thoscspccics thal arc thc nx)n Jit. cxamplc. l)arwirr's ideas wcrevcry corrl|1)vrfsia1. rhcoryoflhc c!olLrlj()rr Da oJ humar lifc.s devclopcd lrcnr a single..e.eanwoulclbc s.(i(. slrrvivcThr t)roccssofDi in will LLfnl\clict. o f m a n y s c i c l l L i n sh a r t h c r v o r l d p o p u l .ity survive. . o.r thaI thc lvorld rcpulililnr iu I987 rv.lLr. Iar \{ and spacc.rl Danvincallcd Lhcoly his sclcction.rnrrh. [.r in lacrnll lit orrLhec.to1ttrc titrcsL.r!to.000.r lict]rcyr!crr in l:onllict will) |. D i s t i n g u i s h i n gF a c tf r o n O p l . . In 18t9 Ddrwinplrblishc(i findings his irlThc oi4ii1 il St. r i o r .rrh h. cr. l l i q v c r y i n r | o n a n t l o f e c o g n i T c l h c r l i l l c ( ' l l c c b c l w c c n f a c t a n d o p i n i o n w h c n r e n d i n gs c i c n r i l i c r r a l c r i a l r l i s l c D i n g o n s c i c n l i l i .l ccll.000.s occurrcd innulncrablc linrcs..152 Reporling As a resultofhis obscrvations.Heknewthalmdnyofganisms pro(hr(r m(ncofllfrin{ rhnn(a1r ir. ' o l lcclurc.rn atilero adnpt. l y b c .rrly (t nlanyreligious vicwsirboLrl origir) rni rkiri(1. nll tltc cvidcn(ewc ltiv( oJ IlUl lodayconlifnrs Darwins hyl)othc\j\.llc.r. and s{rlccrion.

{PpollslxJ lPql srlJJdstruPW € sueSro E 'sr^lJsdiql qrlelJs ro puEuPq e larcl z rtll sP LIJns's/rrrl LIEulnq iuelu r^pq s^aluow ol spueq rrrlll tsn iJrll .ql Jo SLlltlpJul lo .'rpr^ irc^r r rol4 lDqt lueld P sl IEIUurl)o Y t srurr14ll e 'sror.r.o^ S'I1I>IS ONINEISI'I 'Lluijrqiirl i oq ^totll lt^o(r lllM i)M g l }l tl 'sJuntrriJ ^uelll rol i^lo^t ol ilnllllu(r) lll^{ LFll-iiLlostlrllltl] 'srrlslo lr(nDlMi)uld rrlliq u iq plno^ plroMiql 'slurulLl0 sillrltqLI|?tulrH )Il? zl 'lri ol Pooil ilP srclsio I I 'ilupdsJo luP$ iirlPold sr)ls^O 0l 'tulMs Lle)spl0Tllituos 6 'spoPlsln)iledDlg) Jql tlo sJirlerll Iollsr'lun ill0!u crtM tliLII 8 'e)lr uv qrnosrP)o rle spuPlsl sotudPle)rql 1 'iluLLInP sPn rllolslrv 9 e Jo IE.rrrrrt A\4 P u! lJullx: rq III.p lPrrii c dn prlllls Lll.srql Jo Llrei rrlllrq^ rle)!pul tEI Suluodau .qlJq^^ rulturrlJp ()1tul 'rrnsun rre no^ JI '10) uo}rldo rreio (J) l)ej P slursrrdrl srJlrrlurs .ry.rrlroJ.lrnbrE O 'sa)uiluss Js)ql tlJuJ tl! ptsn sl ll se pron^pJzlrllell .r solqPq .Llrctuo{ ^lllo stuor qrl 'Pr^ord rq uDr xitruor rql r.ql siqJlplu lsJq ltql lJMslle i$ Jo rJ1lol JLll JlJll) .tt. tll fJtlnqb.Mlec E "{slr^olluo) 'snluJSe sE^/l urMrP(l t 'u(nlEJJllan snolrPlll(xis olr sl Jrrtll leql p)zllear t^Prl pluoqs rllolsuv ' a l l l J o u o l l l r r J u r 8s n o i l l e l l l o d s o L I s l a r ' q l 'a l '{r1 .{E^/r srrp q srrMo$ P srlslr:rrPrEqJ q 1rc[t|q 'slorled qloq uPurnH J Jo srllsFrlreleqr /lr.

The midwesrernparr of the Unilcd States sonlrtimescn cd rhe .lcmrinc whcrhcr cnch of thc following(aremcDrs truc (I) or falsc(F) accor(lirrg lhc inti)fr)ration lhc jn is to wcrc F t.lintc. 1 .. a.s ntltcltas 20 pcrcent J0 pcrccDl or nt{)rclhatril yoLtrcvicwlhcnr lwicc. . 6 . lcastimponalrt 6. All the fi.. t l M e n d e l ' s u n i q u c .sriyc by a. if you nr.h(1l spa(ing thoscrcvicws will helpyoUlo rcnrcnl)cf ovcf . T h e A u n r i a n m o D k c f c g o r M c r x l e l p c r j i ) r l n c dh i s c x | f f i n r c n l s i r r r n c s e v e n l c c r r l lc e n t l r f y . t . to lhc Uhderstafidingthe Le. The nlorc lrcqlrcnlly yor rcvjcw. t \ ' r .l { . 1o a.lhc highcrrhc pclccnlngc lhc nratrrinl ol you will rclailt.. h c produ(edred Ilowcrs . C " r ' .kcn in class shouklbc revicwc(l lr()rn linrc to linrc. The ocean'stides are characterizcd aliernaringfonvard .1y rccall . mostimporranl b.nDd Usc ol lhctr yotlf no(es completc nextcxcfcirc. a. . .Thc to Scjcllcc Gcnctics. The sbrs ar€ too nrfiercrr to bc collnled.. l 2 .. raprd b.Aly). you rcvicw1hcnoleslhrcc lintcs. Antoine Henri Becqucr€l's discovcryof ridialion was rTgrrtcd. w ' \ r . dis|rovc(l Note-Taking Notcst.brca(l is baskcf'because whcaraDdcorn arr the rcgion. largc b.rand paved rhe way Ibr the work of Marie and pierre Curic. n r .Ii)r l(rtl.nd fcc.ture. .e]ot substantitltedc hypothcsis. abLrndanr 8. is. supported b. I ' r .t-rcnn rccall.rnl whitc flowcrs.t. r . o n l r i b l i o n l v a s r h i t h c s t l r d i c da l l l h c c h a r a c l c r i s t i cn r o n c t i m c .n gcncralion flowcfs ivcfe pink. . I o w f l . . The resullsol the expctin]. h c c x p c c l c d !o pftrLlucc llowers $at wcre pink or mixcrt rcd and whitc. W h c r r M e D d c l s e l f p o l l i n a r c dd r c { t A r g c n c r a l i o j l r c d f l o w c r \ . .csl)ccially t)cli)rc a lcsl. Takeltolcsas yoo lislcD tllc lcclurc. ! W h e n M c n d e i c r o s sp o l l i n i l l c d r c d a D d i v h i r c f l o w c r s . lonu lcriod ol. trackward 7.r rh announced thc world.154 Reporting 5. l y . Usc your nole:i to d(. a important 9. is bcltcrlo rcadthc rr()lcs it rh()Ugh onccn wcck li)r rhrcc wccksthaDllucc tinlesin otrcsilling.s domindnt aops.Fof cxnirl)lc.

red pr]lEq-Irep suouprrurBrrrL'l rrr rtr ur {pur '8 puP uJpprl ruro)i'q sjottrPl r^rssDrr tPqt PJlPnsrrourrp lrpurw 'J^lss:)r.{u^\ pooijV u!)no/isc r(ll suorts)nb J^oqoiLll jo llrut(rsu li).1orlpuP'l{.^orslp lrpuat\l sr E(I Sutuodru .!r rolor )qt puE ILrEU[uop p.l)pu)t\t tDrlt p)^ord slurllru)dx) r)lP'l l I 'pJlurlluiJrEstrPn iJl)ererl) ^{oq rJ^oJsrpot sr-'M sruaulrJdxJs.Ueuprjrq rcu sr rotoJ rreq )snErrqptrrp puotqc r^eq..rJtqrrdrqtuot-9founsp rrr{enbquu.rl04 sl()ltsJnb l:).\1 |}4rn 1rrl 'r{ snortsrnbrqr or sr..t/r1airilqt liii irllt plp.{Lrlrrs Slrr^rl s.{ plnoM islr ruLIA Dirrr(l(lcll /r'rl^1 pre)q nol isoddns rr()l l rpl(li ltorro l)rpuulpuqsiluliquurunq ('()s uo tuL0 srNrodNorssn)src 's).rsr Jt[i.rl} 0 ut )Irrllntrro ue srrrJlDrrnissr rrpc.$suvssulJ ot uodir lu.tru^{or{l r^prt no.rid!.u.^.r. ro 8tq.ro.N iqr ..qr i{ll^rJ I0 rnbruLIr r\r rsrl sr uM rrdedsM.{eLu o.rrv 'qdEiilere(l il{IAo ot Itl !t prrr.M orrll a/!1oul or rlruarno.x rolor ir]l tPrlt pir.a.{olsE IlrM s! ol \prpzoqirc rr)Ltl lDrtlrip!turir !'.dr. Julz!.lJpuaw Io t:lJqo Jrlf ' 0 1 '.Jo 6uluodad S'I'II)S SNIIIIIM 'uorlPrluoJul ^'| r srql.{rql sl|olDplltp rIL'nl) II lEqi riurLUp^^ stslilolo(rsrrS rrp iiuotccr!rotrlel ttnel seJrfuVupS:rrlt .r)qlrltM ruruu)trp ilrqM ro prr rr TJMOLIrJrttrqMru[ur rp ]PLll u s)loDorro )urPsJq-L zr 'su)d urprpHuo nlllo Iro^{ s'rrprs.Jql lpql Dlp (l .Ds qsrEus roj at s)pDrrp ^'\q lxrlr )ql Lrlqtr^ inr:ro ilururc)lo arr^)d c.(q sl rpnpuo)ot.14 ?ra4.ileluDp ur ur ur ('o'tlrLu pup rtdord x's prltr) rlpnb rqr'186r 'r rrqoDo uo 00i$ rr^o pJsn':r 'PrLuojrlD:)'s)linuv\o'lloortsitprs.{ll1o.{1s0lr srorl rr0 -sJnb rsrqrJo rlrrqM ssnrsr(J.{r )nlcl ro s.asuP rfnl:)or srrEJ rsrllj rPruu uu Jo LldPriJprPd ls.ipM lli^ ...(.\iu u pulC lUJur(lol)^ip 'ito4 p\w'AilN'itnq ut4ll'trrl.tur! ro.Jo r)uorrJrLriis ijulululdxi.tl nu.11ol1 ^aoul zun4t1 trtt..a.lilrq i^liJ lruc i(lt u )rlrtu)r)s llri)ir c ijulqlrJsip ilJIur.Msuc iql apuuli lt prf rrr{r{ lll^\ lro(lri l)ooiiv aoiii)rlt prp.r.

lhc airyhne $c invenlion Beginby wridng a lopic scntcrccthat answtrs thc qucstidls wh.or dre Parrama of rclalivity thc dcvelopmcnlof thc atomic thcory or lhc thcory or thc ofthc lclcphone. computcr.156 Reporting Writing a Report You nliSht choosconc ol lhcsc: or wrile a rcpo( ofa scicntificdiscovery evcD1. 6. \'/hal wlkn.d wlrere. 4. x-rays. a]|. thc firsl hlrnan hean lransPlantor tcst'lubc baby thc discovcryofpenicilliD..or racliunl or fie first landirg on lhc moon.The remailder of the paragraphcan cxplain how or whr or both Your of mighl tell lhc sigDi{ican(c thc discovcryor cvcnt concludingsentencc . Mounl Evcrcsr. 3. l 2. thc Solllll Polc Canal lhc lhe construclionof the Pyranrids. 5. Sucz Canal.

^ttruttstp ro sJllstrJlrprEqr rqt IIsl oslp IEru uolldlrlsrp v rdo)sorJlr! Jo JdoJsrlal e qBnorql uaJs sl t€Ll.rJuerprddest!Jo ol rrrsPr lr sJTeur uo!ld!.\{ Jql Jo .toqs 'czllensl^ 'uollJunJpue rrnDruls stl Sulllplep.rrscpe tnq /ruolE uotlrurjrp p ruo{ dselSot tlnrr.{r rur:t.rl.NI aslanwn a4J 6qq.\ s/lslluJl)s p JJnporlul ol sJ^ras uolrdlDsJp V NOIJ)NOOUJ.{{ /sluJlua^oul ro /suoltlpuoJJqrDsJp up leJlsiqd'scBueqJ IeJ!ruaqr'luJurlrodxa Jo stlnsEl ^elu lI plro.nseq 11 rardeqr .rnletJ .! rqt 6utpt ad .JJ!p rxolp upJo lda)uor st Jqt 'rldllrpxr rog rl Bulqtrrsrp lq prutpldxr aq upJ Sulqtrluos Jo ntpu rql 'pornpord sI ro 'slror\ 'sllrlrrs 'salsBl'spunos 'slool tt ^^otl-li)rfqo uE Jo sr.{{Jl.LSI '(zuoltisod 'arzrs 'JFinlErJ roJ)prqlrsrp rrp \rPls pric uns JqlJo s.'idord qtrrq.)p ol rSesspd r Sur^rolloJ pD.

rcc qLrilc t. row oi Lrcach ball\. lhc surfacc hol rcurperaturc aboul 11.w.LrUl is F.lLr('.llv largcor [rrighr conrpnfcd othcf nnfs. OLrr suDis rrolcvcncspcci.t .I1 is a flrming b. oi erc thnL lhcy il wcrc lo bk)w up t(xlay. conccpls.lcsils tcnr|cr. lhcir ljghl ivouldfontjn(rc [)esccnlfo r lhc cnflh li)r.(ldilionrhcrc l)illior)s lraLlxics nrc ol withir)f. Lo. Thc sun dcrivcs cncrgylionr n pfoccss fLrsion whictrhy(l()gcn ils of in at(nrs arc c(nrvcrled inlo hcliurnalonlsuDdercxrrcur(hc. A lighl yc. rhc suDha! a (linlrct(rth.t is approxinraLcly cqualt(r l{)9 ol our ca[hs lincd p ]ikr .cc. fl pruJrcnics Lhcsun and chcmical of . Thc ncarcsL is 4.nh.t exi\rs on thc carLh.Lali((ltlrc Milky Wiy.ing The Suk anrl Other Stars The run ii a slar.000.000 tiIncslhc mass lhc c. of Thc sun is thc ofiginalsourccoJ ucirrlyall ouf cncfgy.000. to fcl. naf nriy be fc(l (thc(or)lcn).rt.ln) conLaiD! ncaflycvcryolher kind ot itonr rh.f is t11( liglrt lravcls (nrcycar. sLrl)slances. Thc fanhcs( nnfi arc L)illions light.nh kr largccDoU{h Iol(l d lroo(l pirl ot oLLf to n)lnf systcnrl cokrfof a stnfirxli(. Thi\ proc(ss crealcs lrcnrcndous a noisc. and cvc|rts.1 1() Irillior ycafrl gilixy (t l0 L)illion Our sun is pnfroi rn (no|'ln{)us slirs.1 lighl-y(a|1 sLnr (lislnn(c fr\nn lhc !.|\ .nh.000.or l)l!c (lhc horrcn).whitc. How cxcitirrl. Thc A ycllow (likc oLrfsLr|).Iqc olour lclcscol)cr (oLLllcss aId t)illiorrs l-hc crrorrllryol sl). Son)c \{) tnf irwni. is l)ryorr(l hLrm.Il is ulosrlymirdcot hy{irogcn. rclion.on ditions.cyond. nrccalrrolhenfil b{cnlrsc bur n)U (l (locsnol lravcllh()u!th cnl y sp.y(.a d a mass thal ii about110. In . abovcpassagr the dcscribcs vnne ollhc trtrysical.livcty cool comparcd lhc inlensc 10 hcal ar the ccnler.ll of cxrrcnlcly liscs.rlh. aldnugh il . nbout(rrrillionnrillion ilrs (6.aledaboul 9l million nlilesJromrhc c.lis 1olivc iu nn ngcwhcrrhLrln.y.000" hol cnough rlrrncvcrysolidto vapor.I58 DescriL.n(l prc\sufc.000 ir) of r rnilc\).ln LorirprchcLrsiorr.Slnf\virry lo in sizclronrsrlrall(r thanthc c.n il bcilr!shivc licg n lo cxIlofc lhil USING ENGLISH TO DESCRIBE Scienlilic writingiDcludcs dcscriflbnsof frocesses. .

S!Iq lVNOIIf. Aetaua Jno lo ertnos :tJubuadul 'I6raua tno IIDtlurtu lo nasputiua .Solp^q ^llsotlJ :uolleotl o lLlrl DqJ '4lJW )Llt U0S)SIXA UtAlD lp41 lo puq nqp fta^a lpvau su ttuai ostDt! 4lihaq\r 'Lt26aqtqlo apbu tttsoLu U s! NOIIdtUf.10 ' ' ' ' \LtDt 24Julor! s21!uuolltlw €6 lnoqt prlpro.lI1s 'lttuzt aqt tD 1oa4rsuatul aqt o1partdutor lan ltr^tlol2l fiq hd'^ p4 J aAa1 lhaIt $ arntDt2dwu ot plps tu4^ruint at 46noua aru!)t1t atlJ II seseSSuttljeu 1oq :uo\$aduortn$tUd lleq:eduqS 'sasr6p4 [t)at2i]xt lo tq iutu.ttoul reqlo lla ^lreeu + u. NNI ssEtu s/quee x 000/0€€ ifrrw leleruPtrp s/quEe x 601 :ralawDlo '4ltDd)tlt J0 stvuttql sawlt000'0tt lnoqv5l lDtltseru b pult .kba |pnturxarddtr sl lDrlt DQululp tt sbq uhs a4 qxJee ruo{ 9allru uorllrut t6 :u0rD)01 uoltttod .tDll D st n NOrdr{:)s:Iq tY)ts.I ralueJ o1 poledluoJ JooJ Jodp^ ot p[os ^Je^J uJnt ol qSnouD toq J 6OOO'tt:atwtt duDt D.qluq \rDeq ^ot tt t4 dk to ptuu t4u'a )t1olo 6aI al l.(Hd 69I SulqlDsaq .SAq1Vf.sulolE u.tWEIHf.W s! uns)tlJ NOIIdIUf.

sutiiccrj!.rr d.d r I i . l:.!t li!.c..".. I o""a I t.t \hlttlc t.r'> l'..'l I a .r I Irhe\ir. ol mullicolored? Adjcclivcs mlrlt bc objedivc.. u d . r ) .*. dcscribc corrrct lanra\Lic loru. | I rr-'r"...l'. Scicnlir...000 milcs?l(X1. llnh'ct\dl\.rol. p : p es". ...r:l::''.iptii ! n $incc tn u!!rll\.rout..Tltt t)st ernntt tt\t utc.. n pI. . r a 5 . Thc word.160 Describing Se tence Pt7ttefi1s D E S C R J B I N CC H A R A C T E R I S T I C S '' 1 8 .enrimcrcr.r..cr.000 Inilcs? Thc rvr)r(l //r/ir1is br. n . f 1-". r . r . b uts! it$. r.| Iii*i. 0 0 ul . J Li. ( 1'lheGlJndcdnyon}h"'"{. i LTh( J J MJunr Lrcr.il''J ".J hi. J i . ( r c r n t .t.. J r c 1 r u u F h ."" Iil.lnsparenl opnqLrc? of silvcN.| .'.j i! a rcllLivc Lcmr.r..r+r* ..J J L:h:. il n nrilc Dccd ts long?50 nliles?1."..R.lrc.{tihitttr.r to be .. . lo havc.hti d.J Lr f'"""n I f.||h}''r{s..rtt it \cLlD. ') l.k...". Liri:..r-l lil.y. ScicnccdeDlnn(ls ()t)iedivilynnri prrrision jn ils r1rscfiptions.trldyr! dcscribcs how you feelnboUr sonrclhing. u r d f:rs''lfn.'. it docsnoLbfirrs t)ul an inage ro nrind.h. 8 4 8I n e l ( r ! I I h i € h .I" Nnn.. Dinrc sions\holrt(tlrc .'"-. II | n . Lil:i: Lf]:ln'''J J L:. I. I rF r .nd bciutilLrl To a as or 1rl1\ vcry lilltc.*.**" l. .'". lrhe\Dn | | .n"n. e r d r |u . i e)..t tnt\..|.:l'i:.rr.:Theptut. whiLe."".J 11J"1.jiui:i ) Using Precise Desciptiors."" J ..j The 1 ' ( r | u r c I u r 1 .ts ro bc sl)crili(. il rs lunrinous dul1? or brighlor dilnt rr.D(lroncrcrc.

{)!ll sp.ro1)o 9l rlqrx)u€I pr3!l zr tu)rudsuurt ll ilriJDrJ 0l LIiJnor'6 rFoorus S ilqrpi € rlquurruPLl z rlqnlos'l 'siq!)sJp rJLll JUorl)sDnulqlru()riluuu 'snlrlrrco{lr puulsrtpun )q.{!^'\P stlltu 000't sr troPtrol '9 '0000't rql < Jq) I sr Lrns lo .q!)sip r?rLrsP pirPld rq siP^{le plnoqs s.IoJ Burru.ro.)sLripSl rlIulo^ /l ssi)l.ri^ n(rllillll ! rilll[ itt()) ro (lu]t0 nrrl/.{q prLU.I() lcql Jsrlsl).l .rrr1.rtllpol^J .4'\ sl rrlJlpolll 'l)roM u _rJqtoo9 s)IJIP0LU rrqlr)si)P .pw) pa.c .\rlr.ro'rsu.ro /r turpprl.' i.^lt)ilp!iJLtt.!\ r$rrurrrs rll si^lNrlpE IUPW aul.r MolloluorLrliirq v IlrMisdrl)i.rqLi sa^ltta{pv tttlAr tiulqlrtsad v srilllporu.'Jii!rril pllor)s r.iVrrn IptirrLr lrl ro'sjl/.r.L )rtrtrriljsLll prsrliru st.ro) ssrl sr lrrls t 'rilooJ Jre !rnsiql Jo srriPl rJlno aql € 'rrit 00E'<sr uonuE) pocr) Dq.4tuqt Moqso-[ suorldu)sJl) 'llrV]' tlorl lcli'ur.o 9 lr.[ z 'I n Slrol P Lrp8iq quPr uo {r'I I 'JlJIlurrrs rrolu lr r)Ptu IlnoM lPq^{rlPls J^odursrP iirrrMollot rlllJo qrei LIrr^tuorM srreqa rLrlturrl)c l)uus)u urlDls I9t Butqlrrs.]i10/ su tl)rls q.ir.rPlos I 'Lrrlllnoru lsrqliq rlll sl ls)rr^a trrno!\l 1 '.()M.M:rrll ol rlqtsso(isr? 'fro.rJ u 0) s rorrr.Moll(I ro..'suqslirrs to sllrJpnls ol nlrlsnjuo:l SJLLIIIJLTrcSJJP SJ^N]iIPE )S)LII LrDl )rP sqri^ or .iDluidru)l JruJrns 'r^ln).Io rsn iql )^lo^Lrl rrrlJo suol(llr)sic 'l)ol).qilh sanuxa{pv rlqeilpru 9 :)rtsnD)tz rlqllsnq(u{))02 .4JlPoru pisn irLisi^Jrrrlpv ol ur\ou)LIrrl))r)r!lriLIllr si^|)ilpu qslliluSsLrnolr 'iJlpo(r.() pro.

. J . \ i . \\l1i(lt rrc lonncd lionr thc vc$ ro dlfut. ' r( l | .ll nLrclcus b.llccl is 6. . 2. or adjectivL. Circlc rhc lcllcr ol lhc inswcr lhat Lrcrr is. rr . r r t insLrlrnrenr a. A J . h .? arr{idilulrd.l . calibr. disinlcgf.llc(l s .: to dllute: xo weaken or thin with water or another liquid dlluxing agentr agent or substance thal dilules or thlns a liquid diluted solution: solution or liquid that has been diluted or wcakcned Usikg Adjectivcswith -ed and -ing. . l c \ i .j .. r r r r .rprcssinll . i r h . . er ' r r ri d i r . co.?irlr.q -cdadjeclives.disrilling wntcf a. A . . Walcf rhal hasbcc pLrrilicd is . dislillcd walcr olbreakingapan is a L A DuclclLs is iD thc proccss th.rc a (onltncL((i aclioD: dehydrated plant: plant that has dried up magnetized rocl(: rock that has been made into a magnet diffus€d light: light that is spread out cauterized woundr wound that has b€en deadened by burning or searing Look at lhis cxaurplc lhc ol Many vcrbscan lonn cilhcr -i?. disin!cgra!fd 4 . . A gaslhal hasbcenrcdu(cdin vohrmcby prcsslrfc n gns gas . oxidizcd tr. rr. Lr. I|r iullrrmclll a. A substaDcc conrbiDcs dral nrclals rvilh oxyScn agcnr oxidizjng agcnt b.L . . . . . .ting rlLrrlcLrs il. ' r . r .s . conrplclcs cachof thcscrcrltcl)ccs. . r j | . calibr.162 Dcscribing Adjcclivcs rhal arc ibfincdwith lrj ircqLrcnlly i]rdicalc cc(airradior)rhnris ir fcflbrrncd by lhc noun or occlrrsro the noun: grinding machine: machinc that crushes substances into small bits recording mechanism: device rhar records sound refining process: process that purifies mctals revolvinB platform: a stand or surface that turns Adiccrivcs arc la ncd ivilh fd 1i(quently lhnl indi(. calibraring inslrumcnr b. calibraring inslrumcnt b. | | r I r r r . conprcsscd b. t r .n l.

{r e sl fr? JrJ s /aldurpxa JoC so^I)olpe se rtp sprol4rJqlo JqJ.r Jrorq l[pnsn sl unou lspl oql unou punoduJoJ ul uuo!\lPuotJlv ro a ! qt ztbdsse q)ns'sul:.ou e eroru ro oM) Io uoneurquo) e sl unou punoduroJv SulluM JUIIUJIJS ls)!u lo -q)rl ul ^llrr)nberJfua^ posnrrp sunou punoduroJ sufloNpunodwoJ qultuod runlrl9) pazluol'q tunl)lPr Sulzluol P cr suololur FrJUJ^uo) uJeqsPqtPqtunlJlPf 0l Jr!i{ palElnsu! P uP s!.M rossJ)ord '8 Jo sp4q Jo uoller8lur .{l!suap ( IenJroJ drxnd ' rlPJo uo_rssuduo.{5{ Jo ad.F"' uolletp€r uollrrlrp eql roj arr^3p .rgsaurorsdpMpo^!pe[pp \aea aBuitl) loot tu!|ltou pasn Aes eql 'unou r9qlougPUP a^lJrfpp uE ^q pagpoursl unou p uaqMl€ql a4loN s8nrp Dtppeue ' 0 1 Jo . e olul sosaqd asoqlJo qJeae8lJeq) Dtuat 6unl salJJo:Eqcqunl rarutr'aldwexe eqrlo roJ ruroJlplnSulsrleql u! ptsn or9 sunou ll9 'sunou punodrrroJu! lgql rloN 'ernssard p ams€arrl ol prsr aBf.IrrroJ punoduo) e o1sproM sdnorS asrqlJo Jo b ar'd'aldutBxr roC $.s Irgrs^od q lPq1 Jo snoprss! pue qulq lp srnrJolpql D{rp t q81q leql poolqJo ernssord€ sI a^lssoJxr lgqt rle aql Jo uollnllod z sl !ftel siteqt llo Jo raulEtuo| t .6 lPql PIJPSUIeIUOJ UIPJ sPro.roDnpuoJuouP ql!^.L pooJJo o^llg^$sard '9 ' se8e Jo . luBuodur.t paJaloJsl lPql aJI^{v 6 luaSPpazllelnau q lua8PSulzlleJlnru P P sl IPrneu pr)P uP sr{Pu rPql asPqv 8 por prpauuo|q por SultrruuoJ P / : p sl rJqloue ol Jurq)pul e Jo ued Su our Juo sJqJPllP tPrp JPqv .( 'z rolPn^ luaruJJPldslp Jo qg)!ueq)Jo uoprear. I 'unou punoduro.eBe sl a0nv0 nssary' '.

lcw wor(ls. wcighcd.t. It is fourrdin linrrstonc.at tinrcsyou rvill rrccd!o conslrlt dictionary chcck thc a to nlcaniDg an impoflaDl ol word. The bronlosaufus a largcdinosaur. lle lh"zl bceaj p/aaaJ.i ol is mnfbl(.lg Altlrcughi! is not a good idea () inrcrrlrpl rcadiDg lcclurclo look up . 2. rhancD(irc -Ihc pan oi LhcLrrailr. (irlransirivc vcrb). blo(xl(locsr)o1 is.'Ihcgascs lfnppc(lin thc alnx)sphcrc. ccfcbfunl lhc ]argcsl is ll Lhc conlrols musclcs.rlrv. When wriling dcscripliont. Lrsc Englidrlo EnglishdictioDary.Ir is r a(lcol sc!cril kin(1.L a/4d aj le. Synonyms antonyms.r. is orbilcdby mrny lhiu rings.ln dcflnilions.ry tcrnrs. QLrasars sl. I Uranus the lhird largrn planel. 5. Thc grccnhousc cllcctis thc w. nlso ll 6.rrcllircs. lound ir thc sheUs marincanimnls. vcrl).lnt look rhroughthc (lcllniliorrs to 'ir 1ofiDdthe oDcrhal is approfriatc you. ladiecrivc).(Tcsr by lookingLrf . Cal(iunr n rilvcty |ncl. your locabulary largccnoughso thal yoLL un(lerstand rrosl As K)or].1 or Lrnlhmiljar words. corlllols scnscs.or vcrt) $a1can carryan objccl). suchas r. Rooror dcrivatiurof rhc word (Lhat whcrcdid iLconrcftonr?). a of . ]rro{css Thc i\ graduil.rL is lr leastl5 s. livcrl lt in shallowlvalcr lr arc planls. l! may includc aDd l 2. ol 4.ll hn\. aD Choosconc lhfl iri conrplctc cnolrgh covcrrhc wordsyou will nccd. arc Thcy cnril radiali(nl. is.LrolrL was ir thirty Lons.r.flil(r objc(Ls. irc READING SKILLS vocabulary Buildi. a4nnedlE/ 'alaaq lki.rr(l lhc corrcct mcaDiDg uscol thc word. and u. is import. and or conlaining worlj. anLl thc Scnlcnccs phraser (lt A lisl ofthe word'smcanings. (lisc:r\(.Il is l. eachseries olsclrlcnccs. rnliL mofc rirlinlio]l QLrasiN galaxies. Hcnn)l)hili. Pa( ofspccch.a!oi(l short..n igncou\rock.fnrilrf ol Lhccarthl)y gascs. chop|tr scnIn irl()flnalion nchic!c lcnccs. is i|lhcrilc(1. 7. chcck .x 4lr4s.1s is c.nd (h.rlk. (Lr.l. L 4.) to ir A gooddictionary con!ains ld ol inli)rmalioD will hclp you L() a that !rndcrst.ryt Sincc your book bcforc goingro ir diclionary. crnniLc is.s rechnical and manlrals conrain gloss. 5. colrrbinc ol rclnlc(l bits lo a smooficrllow. Ir lhc ii. thc (lor l)11)1x y.IL is har(lnn(l \hirry.rsjrivc !. UM%2.) manylexrbool.i /5 taklltle.164 Describirg Writing SmoothSentenes.!:1.adj. (noun).

rlrl qxtea i-' ale/l^ Jal relPrr ul 8ul^rort ro 8ul^\ = tlpt1bt :-btlIJD .IEls Jo ^pnls = Iwouorlso tels roJlso leeq ^q PernPord = Jlu26orM arg i-ortd puel Jo a5aldro PerP= /fuot!.1 4enbP :slooYp)oA 59I SurqrDsJC .Mprzpllell tql Jo ilulLretur Jo 'lxdtuot u! trrtftqboA aqt srqJlelu lsnq lBL0rtMsuP .{lsnol'urou.i nol lq8lr rqr lP slguruerlu rrrql qrl^^Molrq url rql lp stuli)l oqr qrlPrc orql puP .1^ .qr sixrJ)rd Jo rsn SurMolloJ .Lll .{qdorlss 9 ulxotol^d g Itltluol^o t l9!ISa! ellxr'€ ulPrel prllBnr 'z uoslod E Sulrnpord alqedeJ Jo uollnlossnotnDB I --l- eql slrefqo lellsrle) raqxo Pue s.1 u! a^ll leqt sleulue pue slueldroj lull 'I srlpoq lellstltJ .{!l luPld ! IIeJutP|c LIJJIN J]UO JJ'M IEqI sz. DrP^1dlrp e r. JrA{ lrnprnbe 8 I Iet!urouorlse s)ls.rE Lrluoltppli) tu.ql Jo lrlltl .plnno ') riirel . eqt IIErsrl lou III.{ralEMl puelq8no.{pn)S :orlsP '-ot{d /-4i.Mll In qLM (o lo nt P 'uorlnlh)d /o l/o4rp-JIBscJrppJl!lPlllsnplll Ltlslt^ll |^u I 'si)lroluos r$rqr LIJerul posns! l! se plo.prls{ s3uluPaLu .r roJ r)lsM tul^n^L0J rrntJruls ' p quPDql .prl) Jq€..I Jo uo$nllNuoJ rlll Jo lphls LIUBA iplsu! ' q Aqt sarnleradrllJl rjlnIPnbP 6 qiilrl 8ulnsPrur tJl^cp 3 roJ plnbll.rPM qrosqP q 'pJxIJs! Joor rql lllun z trrl ol tnuluor lll.lrujnsur ol Jnp Dunxt turoJiq iBuI sluEqdrlJLlelsv € .

166 Describing 4. Cosnrcrays are dangerous to human beings. a. space b. eanh 5, The sun's rays arer/fered through the atmosphere that we don't receive so their full stength. b. scrccncd 6, In warm climates, water is sometimes heatedby Jolarcncrgy. a. sun b. electric

grcwdarkon thc 7. Theea(h'sshadow eclryslthe sun'slight,so ir suddenly moon. a. blocked b. absorbed 8, ln a desert. temoenture fte altemates between extreme heatand extreme
cold. a. varies D, nscs

9, 'lhe fogdiJfuted lightsfrom the street tharvisibility the waspoor. so a. spread b, concentratcd 10. Some rdr mounbinsand craters be se€n l can from the earth, a. moon b, sun 1 1 .The plan€tMercury hasno ralelr?r. a. moon 0, atmospnerc 12, Thespace flightwaspostponed to ddvsBe due weather conditions. a. favorable b, unfavorable

skbtmbg
A goodtechnique textbook for reading to readthetitlesandsubtitles turn is and each into a question. example, For fromthe title ofthe passage below,you would "ls formulate question, th€ moona nic€place visil?"and thenreadto find the to your the adswer, method helpyou to focus themainpoints, This will on maintain concenFation, readmorcrapidly. and il Skimfie followin8 ro passage Iind its mainideaand thc kind of informallon contains thenanswer and these two questions. to do it all in thrccminutcs. Try L what is the main point of the passage? a. Themoonis a niceplace visit,but you wouldnl want Q livethere. to b. Themool!is not a dce place visit,and you wouldnl want to live to lhere, c. PoeE don't know anything aboutthe moon. don,tknow anything d. Scientists aboutthe moon. 2. \,vhich of theseiopics is coveredin the afticle? '. a. rhefirsr ]andhg rhemoon on phases rhemoon b. Lhe of c. dre climateon the moon d. how the moonaffects eafth's the tides

l!.

:o
lou srop uooll|itlt ,Lll.tui illl. ltooru)Lll rqt uo LtMup trliJlllM) sl ,rJrll to olt ItrrlLlLr.r.l l,l r").rr,.)a,4lL.rtM r iri Jurr\r.\.)n 'I\'tu,1rl ,.^n,r{Jt{ tl-Lit DcIun1lluril ,uL.,lx,,Icut,rlrrqt,,r"nf.,,rticrl, ol sl)or irnu) uur JlJuuqJ u)fpns strll i.tno(l iuo ut I oO0Z LLJn(u )q,(uru sl? su ).flrtu.rJdlLrit !I riJuuq) iql.A,\opnLJs s,rluL)i arlt Luojt soil,rituJ iq1 se ilalprpcru Lrns -uI|.s)st.r urqt puo ilprdl,rtrr^ sdrpu(x)!urLIl (rorrrrlurrd[rrliql s.')!un qrni ly 'lq,'ill.s,uns , rql tno iJurtloIq ilrrur(xl!!r)t oorlr L lt pLru rs ,Lll uir,1l)q ,{lt))Ip srsse(i r{uui r(lt urLl^\,isd|)i rplos! iluprrpiiulluts,4l.Ipln)nretj r.,p;rrrie.,r,l!r,rr sioiJuns rqt LtJLI^,t uJl!^ l{) siluJjtx) )s)q_L.uMop .IlL) ur tr)uuJqot u)Lll pue nululrlssl tl uaq^,{ slLrrs,unsJqt .IitlLJ il.)qdy)rlltB oLrs! Jr)qt ;rsnBjJq ot s.Il'l))o slLJl 'I ,JurrJlxJrtrnb Jllr uoout c€t l ot ).01 I u)rJ ijrrriJoL''l Jqt LmsJlntetadurJl .spnol)ou ,uturou ,pur^{ _rrtltDr^{ o olt suuJtu osllr)l)Lldsorutp oN )rJqdsl)Lu)L'uE.{q prrrllrtun.r! tellt s,{Er rltusortsuleiuuotl)ilord osletnq ,{lilurpro]:)v .rroqdsollrle .'rlD^'lpuc Lr)31xo,{luo rrrnbrr rrooluJqt ol sDIr^D.rt tou uD l|relJ.r nrrrrunsursr itr^Er8rr rsnEtrrq ol Lrooru iql uo rrp ou sr )Irqf 'q) nlrno,{ Buuq,03 no,{Jl oS .rrortelr3r^ olr r)sll'srrraqt ,r)te^{oLrsl JlrLIlaJurs,asruoJ .rtru)tstxr LtJJq Lrr sEqI lprll lo slP)i uorllr.l 9 t rqt rr^o .rEds otLrrlno )prl ol puq r^pq ,t",u uoo.., ,qt.,rt",{uDprsnprseq llntl ll'rronDtr^Eril Suorts !.Jo ItrPIrqt (.p)rIIVsE.3rpl sp lnoqE sr DDjrnsstr lillErus qrnrr sr rroou|rql) .qupr )ttl uo upql ssrlqrrlru sr uoour .)rlt oo il^pr8 Io rrro, rql )snErrq ralu^,r pro^rp ,(trrrldruor sr LrooluIJt Jo )noDUor p rot Dprl p se srrod pup srJtu^{,juos p)qursrp Lr.rq seli uoour Jtll ,{q

rurluL,orr^Lr.) rlosoq.{rr^ D.{rrenDe sruoolu *.,,,,,,'.,,,";1,#"X'ilou"j:j rq,
allsl^ ot aJDIdaxlN v :uoow a\t 6utpt)rN

r9r

Surqursra

168 Describing s h i r c b y i ( s o w n l i q h l ; i l r c l l c c l sl b c l i g h l o f r h c s u n . u n l i k e l h r ( n n h , L o r v c v c r , r h e r € i s n o a L n o s p h c r ct o d i l l i r s c l h c l i g h t a s d n y b c c o n l c sn i g h t a r d n i g h Ll L r . r s i n t o d a y . C h a n g c sf r o m l i s h t l o d a r k . r n d d a r k l o l i g h l o c c r r rl l r d c l e n l y . The llrnar sky is black. (BIuc sky on lhc eadh is t)(xlLrcc(l by rhc staltering ol b l u e l i g h t i n t h € s p c c l r u mb y f a r t i . l c s o f a i r . ) o u r l r c x n j t r l i t a n n r c v i s i b l ci n l h c d a y l i m c , b n l y o u w o u l d h a v c t o s h i c l d y o u r c y c s f r o l n t h c u n f i l l c r c ( l s L r n l i l h rr o ( S T h e r ei s n o s o u n d o n t h c n x x r n . S o u n d L f a v c l s r r w i v c s o i i r i r n n ) l e c L r l c t . i n c c t h e r € i s n o a i r , l h c r c i s l r o t h i n g l o L r . r l s l n i ls o t n d . L c a v c y o u r l r . n s i s l o r h o n l t . A l s o , t h e m o o n i s r r c l a n r a l n c l l t r c w n y l h c c a r l b i j . Y o L rc a n l c a v c y o u r r o m | n s s T h c m o o n i s a s a t e l l i t co f t h c e a r t h , r c v o l v i n g a ( ) L r r x l L h c c a n h o n c c c v e r y l r v c r l t y { r i n c a n d a h a l l d i r y s .T h c n r o o n i l s c l l f a l c s , b u 1 i l d o e s s o v c r y s l o w l f . T h c r c l b r c L h c r . m c s i d c o l t h c m o o n i s a l w a y s v i s i l r l e1 0 L r s .l - ( )g c l l { ) l h c r r n ) o | r , y o l | w o u l d h a v e t o l r a v e l 2 4 0 , 0 0 0m i l e s ,a d i s l a n c e h a l i s n b o u l l h c s n r r l c s c i f c l i n g J l t h c c a r l h a 1t h e e q u a ( n t c n l i n l c s . I t i s c l c a r t h n l i i y o L rw c r c n r a k i n g a t r i p k ) t h c m o o n , y o u w o u l ( l n c c ( i l o | d r k s f i r c r c L h a na l m l h b n r s h a n d a c h a n g co f u n d c r w c a r . l l s a ( l v c r s (( o n ( l i L i o r r v 1 ' o t l l ( l makc it vcry dillicLrll bf a visilor lronr the cirlh.

is Ir(li(.lc whL'thcr cachol lhc lollowings(a(cnrcDlssl.11c(l Makitlg In.ferenccs. (1), (,s), in slillc(l in lhc l).ssagc imIlic(ll)y olhcrinii)rrrratiou lhc passagc or lrcithcf (N). (Do,rcrin(licalc whclherlhe sl.lcr cul is lruc or hlse.) nor jr)rplicd

S

1 L T h c f o f c e o l g f . v i l y o n l h c n n x ) I i s l c s s t h a n 1 h . 1o u t h c c l f l l l .

by 2, Thc lidcsorl (he eaflh arc cnuscri lhc Inoor], lhnu orl 3. A pc$oDwould wcilth lcssoi) thc rrnx)n bccaLrs(' il 4, Thc moon hasro walcr or atnn)ifhcre (.rxxgn8rnvlry. 5. I1rvouldbe difljclrh havcan aryur('rltwith nnneoncon Lhc lo 6. Thc m(xrnorbilslbc canh aboutoncca nronth. 7 w( dlsn). \'. rh{\Jr f .rJ( | l, t"',... old. 8. Thc canh is 4.6 billim yearu 9. Thc rcmpcrarur€ thc nroongocsul) 1o200"c. on 1 0 . H L r m n D e i n g sc o u l d n o 1 l i v c o n t h c n 1 d J n . b
Plants coLrld no! grow on rhc moon.

lhan lhc c.dh h.s. oi 12. The moon hasmofe exlrcmes Lcmpcralurc

'Jslrrixi lxJLr Jro JDIdLUoJ ol s.rlou ruo,{ Jsn uoqt pur?,,ruJlsis rplos Jql,, rllllrJl iqt ()1 LtJlsll no{ sp salou JIBI 'IIi^^ SCSJIOLI JIpl ol JlnS 'q ln€ lr 'sn slqt plru noI p p pitlmurc{ sr s).rnt)rl 3Lrtd4 JI suPlu IIP Aq ',lnJ.sn rnbrlrqr

.sr,.u M,illi,]i"]iliT,i,ili'il.lTl,l,ii \rx* irLl, srdp, rur,{prdru iq,rle o, rL'
1l:r^rtprDdLuor pprtsul rqlJo sr(iptJo srnoLI iueLuqllM prll(xjuor.q I M no^,lsrl E roJ )ruo sr lr LIJL{M'uonlppe SuturuJloi lltelJodruros Jlp lul0 s,Mal^rltrolls ul 'tuJnbr4 rLItilpLu loLrupJ noi'satotl lnoqll^'t tpqt s! riJctue^pesrp lrqlo uV .rpcl:) Jq torr ^t'ru tpllt stulod LrosuollsJnbButlsc ruo{ no,{ nur^ d pue ,tun srlsDMllqpq srql ,, rclul Ualsll LrpJ 'Mou Ltrtslr t^r?ql,UopL, ,8u!)ul{ ,irnFJI 'tlt Supnp ot I ,,drJI9,,ro ]oprPM pulu lltoi lil ol paldrurl iq ,{elu no,{ ,Jrnt)rl e adel noi JI .BulIel -i](xr Jl)loar iofi op si(,et alllDrl )lutipeJp,] ll0 ,to oJlrnlJs u! ,IJAJA ,Jrrrll t? oH l$U oql ptssllu stn leql (lolDts P ^9ldit ut-'rl1o,{rsnPJaqSulUrpJI JitpniiuBllol Flrsn ir;)^ )q |,J sidL'l srl l iiul)iel ol srlnlJrl iiLrdn Jqild slurpllls nlllos

6u!4e,L-aroN
r-ii)((reslp q 'ir)uplirlr )rl1 ur r/'lt/r,1pou
lua(l D '!

.1qt iM Jl(\ ,rIL.t.)rrr.l(Lru p.1^l)sqo

.6

turJuloi,uruP l!luPd q 'riMot uollr?Arrsqo (uorl lcrrrc) ;)ql ,1r ,/rl,1rrlrrdr! pclolirr oM g rqt ! Jo
'I Sltll n)p iql uo PlJal)te\ tltlwtu luul irD iritll Jo
tJo(Idns q

,4ucruq

/ 9

'uoltplndod)ijlpl olll ulrlrl7rlou pJltoJjrteM Jo lunourp IJErLrsII

stsniol.q sliju c 'rltlpi oqt uo {il srolr, prroldxrun M.l rql Jo rLlo sr o)0Jreluv g slrllrllrrrotu q sicllu^ .e 'plroM tlll u!rro rrlo,1 r^lDe tsi)iirelaqtJo Jtro sl llu.ueHul eo.I punew '
q J)eJJIISLITOOtrlS r)c!ns q8n(u p ' t Dt pl;litu iq p)zlj;tlrBrell) sp^ prrp rLIt rsne).q dut rql € llnrllrp sp.M

IrFr?llllrls p ',{lr ^lun aqt ot ,{trrrJxo.ld stl Jo Jsno)Jqtrr uupdp rqt )soq) ,rl .Z (zi) rpnb q 1e.ro Lrns .Lll pUnorprJlud/rJ.r.I4l,Lrput stJ^er1 Llupr rql .l . 's)rlrrllris isrr{t.to LI)er ur prsn sr sp ploM prz!)!lg1lrql tr Jo 3u!ueJtu rrlr siqrrerll rsr.l lpqt D^,{suprqr Jo rrltil iql nlJrl:) /xr,lro) u! t-ntplqDxoA

sl'Ilts
69I Sulqlrrsrq

SNINaISI.I

No planel has morc thaD lwo salcllitcs.lima!e. scicntisls J . I L Thc tail of a coDret . Thc farrhcslplanet{rom lhc su is Uranus.is mLrsirinrr. 9 . Thc rings ol Sa n revolvc arolrnd lhc plancl likc salellilcs. poin6 dircclly loward lhc slrr. hdicatc whclhcr cach oflhc li)llowill8 slalcnrcnts rrue (7) or falsc (l) basedon thc iDformaliol in thc lcclore. Thc suD'sgravity kccps!hc planetsin orbit. 7 . Bririslr Thc a. 4. Vcnus is the cbscst plame!to the carth and thereforcdrc onc can seelhc bcsl. "nxl nf arr'r Bfout. 1 0 . 2 .leroi.170 Describing is U dersta dihg the Lectale. Thcrc is morc likely 10 bc lifc oD vcnlrs than on any olhcr l)larlcl dLleto its modcralcclimate. in. like lhc carlh.. Marshaschanges 5 . Recenlevidcnccshows therc may bc lilt on Mars. Jupilcr may be a ball of gaslhal h shrinking. T 1 .

{ MoLl{l.tuDlde .Uos.oulqJeur.{ ruo slql lr8 no.t Jo sdoliqt tuori sa^etlslpe'Jrllel 3lq e rou 1J!.rFlqtsrup pllnr 9 sp pcsn ':iultooj^ddeq e sr)npord .€l raqtsnolll aleu ol (rnJlns .{q {ulql tunlsseto(l unlpos qllM leJlo llo Sullloq.l)elq g rrntqtdLucl urooJlD plnbll sl teql Jpl u D / .s roJwlF{I €r (aprtprq uaq.8nrp p .{Jlturpl sluopnrs /l1oll rno. zl Jo xalpl aql tuo{ sJltroJ 'lpp ^jo^c tl rsn nol .rrnDus ot snotupJ'l)rfqo ue seq)ns lDllsrli)'eruEtsqns.qlprller.lrueldp .{ p!( ieH ieH) rplxo snolllu .9 lelulug pa8iirl-lnoJe uro{ sruroJ lernteu p slullp ploJ pue rrJJor LrlpunoJ.'bdrursl aslrlrun Jqr Jo rsow 'vr 'queJ Jql u{' ' rrp trqt guJlJLU sJtDnJtJW ar PUPI 'lno urnq tPql srPts sroJlrw ' z I Jre ltI SurqrDsre .( uollur^ullo .I 'r! .( s uprlrJvue .!!lurpl SJNIOd NOISSnIST(I SJJJI 'aJeds .tuelnurlls.luBld.llli)ruap Jllleltuuorrp .l :suo!lsanb ^olloJ Bu ar{lJo erxosr:Msue {llensn lll.s!3 ssrllolor p .letulus rlP rqt salnllod reqt'rullosoSlo Sulurnq aDlduroru! r(qprJnpord.srJll rllspl.cplxolp..(q rpput .a)ustsqns qllM prlPoq ro) przllreJln^ .lptulup Sulqleuos iialqlDsrpslunl i)iel urq|suolldlDsrp Jalrqasaqlluo{ Lualr qreo .{poqll1o.uop no^ JI pup.!.ropo lrrn s .lrqu .0t pue rlrrlll Jo IInJsl .uleqJJs Jruos.ql snouoslod { e JJITU lcql prlq lPuJnl)ou z Slet E sdlqJlelnduoJ rlslu 01pJsn.4^ Drlqo ro )ruelsqnse Jo uortdrDsop runualrs V 6u!q!.ado)so.{ .bsao S'NDIS CNIIIUM (alr.{c^pqpuBSsslrrno.se8 .uoqle)JouuoJp.mu.llur.iulllets&J.suosers sderrelod spqlr .^ lt ot surddpq lpqM zJtsPI zlBus alrJJ zlool 1r s:op MoH) zs)lsrrJlrprpqr lerrslqd sl! erp lprlM .rJlut tnoqlrM ilqlsnu! tsrltureq e .6 are rtuos .llq .1 .tJnpordploqrsnoll B I I ro lalldnl pue quPr rllt uD^4liq pol9)ol.aJI Jo u oJ luppunqe lsoru aql Ilrurd rno^ l0lool 'tr.

alllminuol. Mcrcury is usc(l by Slales. ofa wrilea dcscripti(nr rlalllral . zinc. mercury sullidc (ci labar).r'ithoxygen. whdl Jrc rtschcnricdllr. slraw.172 Drs(ribinP ) rvc ( 2.6timesas dcnse waler. or lio) thc rcsulling alloy is unilcd Mercury comcsIrom spain. and lhc southweslcrn callcdan amalgam.rr. such subslancc asrubbcr.Ilaly. diamond.lt may bc oblaiDed hoalinll for lhermomclcrs.loolh fillings. and boilsat 3t7'C. Mercury is a luslrous. and pholographicplatc$ wi ng a Descriptlotl ait. or carboll dk)xidc Your lofic scll(cllcenliglll bc is a dcfiniti(nr(d lolrg dcscril)tior) a tyPcofcxlclldcd dclil)ilkjn) hl your PafagraPh. one wdy to concludc 10 is how lhc subslallce oscd describe wood. saltwalcr.bul it does react wilh nitric acid lo fonn mcrcury nitralc and with srlfuric acid 1()form mcrcury s lfale. Mcrcury is one of a fcw elcmcntsthat was knowD in a|cicnl chin.frcczcs does rot combine readily \. is answcras many of the abovcqucsliolsas yoll can..r(l(n\l(s (whit is il Innri('rll H"w LL\'\il Lr(h slrch as walcr ol il comes in con(acl wilil otbcr subsran{es or react whcn oxyger?) 3. Mercury at as is 13. India an{l Il Egypl. whcre is il found in nature?How abundanl is it? nrcrcuryand (ic_ thc Rcad thc following paragraphwhich dcscribcs substancc lcrmine \ir'hichof lhe abovc qucstionsil aiswcrs. Whcn mcrcory combineswith ccrlain metals (such as silvcr.silverymclal lhal is a liquid al (x)m tempcrallrrc. sard. -39" C.

.r luJr.\ pue /salpnbqUpa /sruP)lllnq se qJns slatspsrplPlnleu Jo uolDlprrd aql Iq pr^ps aq plno lpql so^!lJo lrqtunu oql .{luo upr srrqlo .ld ot sl uollpSllsa^ul rulluelrs n€ Jo leoS rqt NOIJ)N(IOUJNI raqpahl aqJ 6q1rlpard 71 raldeqr .rcd 001 sl rrnlpu Jo tot^pqeq ernlnJ aql Jo uorlrrpald ou 're^a^ oH ^^orrourolulEl Jo eJUeqJ lusriad gz p JJunouup .roplsuo) 'lsu!p3€ soiltslno lJJtotd u9) rA1lJlpald ue) a.puo)rs p Jo uolpp.aldu.{poq uPurnqaql uo-peq puspooS qloq -str{Jr s]! lrlprd ()1 alqeoq lsnur Snrpn^ou e sdole^ep oq^{ lstruoqr rql .rJp ot pelPlDPr 3q upr asdtrrr up l{lrlErDJE atlnb p4rtprrd aq uer sluJ^r ruros .l )!ue)lo.aseaslppJlull { eJpru38 reqlous ro Ellqdoureq Sulllrequl pllqr rplDlupd €Jo pooqllqll rqt DIp d tsnu lsl8ololq rqt pup lruro) PJOllqio tql plpJld ot spJJu Druouollsp rqJ .{pul lseJJloj aqt 1^llllqeqordJo surrrt ul prtrlpJrd :q .a)ua!rs Jo plalJ iJr^a Jo Upd p sl uoltrlprrd 'suoltdnl.rpxJ roJ.qt tr!p..€Ll 'suope^rJsqo ^€u uo paspqsuollJlpaldJuger pue NnfpEol lpeal Jq sde^{plsnur lsllurps Jqf ulPtr.tl)!qJ^ Jql uo rJqlga^{ Jsr) pE Jo sl){Jr rql lrlpard ol slqp aq lsnu ta}Jot e suSlsepoq.\{ lgqA\ lpqt uolldunsse rqt uo prsPq sl puE /rrnlnj .^ rorulSuc eql .

This ycarly rcvolnlkD..They saw shipsdesccnd ovcr rhe horizon and oblervcd lhe curvedshadowofthe canh on rhe moon during a Iunar eclipsc. At any given lime. Allhongh the eanh is spinnirg at a spccdof over one lhousandmilcs an hour. lfyou travclcdaround the canh on thcsctwo dalcs. Thcn.Ye1. rhe side ol thc cardt facingfic s!D will have daylight.Thenthe Nonh Polctills awayfromlhesun and I he seasonsre rcvcrscd. The Wo .l Tums The eanh is round.orce everytwcnly-four hours. plus lhe tiltiDg of fic earth or its axis. on il was reportedthat a vcrlical post cast a shado\'r'. . rir'hen sun was at its highcs!. For example.aDd the sidc turDcd arr. The eanh also revolvcsarouDdthe sun oncc cvcry year. the earth had becn llal. the sameday in Alcxandria./ay fron thc sun will havc nighl. great amounts of the sun's radialion arc absorbcdand thc wcalher is hot. causcsthc scasoDs.Egypl. is The cffectis similarlo riding in aDairplaui.174 Predicting Short Reading Readthe folbwing passagc and find threc prcdictions. North Polc lihs loward lhc sun rhc and lhc northcrnhenlisphcrccxpcrienccs summerwhilc thc southerD hcmisphcrc haswintcr. moving at thc samespced.ils rays shonero rhc botlom of a veflical wcll irl thc Syene. at The eallh spins. a On March 23 and Septcmbcr2I. iDclllding tbc atmosphere.and sixreenlh-ccnlutyexplorcrsIikc Columbus and Magcllan provcd it. WhcD thc snn's rays arc nearly overhead(ro1 whcn lhc earth is closcslrc lhe slln) aDd lhc days arc long. thc GreekastroromerEraloslhenes noted thal at noon on thc first day ol summcr. lf you light a malch on aD airplanc. the North Polc is not lcaning $ward or away ftom thc sun. wc do nol feel thc movcmcnt or thc wind bccausceverythingaround us.yoll woliki find Lhedaysand nights equal cvcry placeyou went.five hundredmilcs !o lhc norrh. Thc air moveswjth you. But therc wcrc ancientGrcekswho had known rhis rwo thousandyearsearlicr. in 200 Lc.from April through Septembcr.or rotatcson its axis.no wind will blow lt oul. fiflccnlh.callsing!rs to havc day and night. the If post could not have casl a shadoyr' roon.

rl] suolllpLlol 'lui.lll i(lo) plnoM ollJll]tlo iql'JltH) 'Ltoaup ^ollt.ql uaq taaql punolltFp^ul nofJI NOII3Iq.) ^lsnol^qo-ilqlssod[l sl trol]!puor NOIIf.id Y NOITtrICAUd V I)I(IAUd gtI 3ul|rrpr.olrrrql ruu(nr s! rluD.{epaql puu plno4{ noi salep o.^ sLro0lpllo) tql J! i|.^rr4 tlh\ ut$ a4J6u11]t{ 4trn )4t lo /p!s .IUd IVJIISH.&l eseql uo plro/L{ eql Punore pele^erl no ( anll trl()) tql-s^rlp isilll llo pl()M s! lt lolr iorlr ro il)rLr lD)tll)qrfillq uo!lJlpoid iql il)llFln ir! suolllpuo) iql purlor0li^r-illol ilrlllun tru no.rrr))o()1 slql) uolllpooJ tl!0lltJJl tnll iulo) oslpll!A/t J)UlS't118 latu.Mnot aJuld ptlba sl46!Lt {JaAr Itub stttpa\t pull pltlo/Ano/i'stltp oN tt:.Lls t )s111)rq )ou plnar tsadt4l IDLIuarq Pp4 tlub) a4]Ji ( pillulnJrq lollllu) tlonJlpird )ql )tll iLIr 'o.rd OI HSI'IDNE 9NISN .1uoll)lpJ slqll 'aup4tlDuD uo ')hatl $on rylDut)t ttt6! a(! lM pu!410u NOtrfI(!lud g'IsYsoud Y 't\$!Lt1^tJ4 uns 111/"1 )qt ttto4trtft paulit )p!s )4t pua Uiu[ap .IqlIUd lISISSOdWINY Ienba s1q3!uPUP s.7 ^ropeqs e lsPJ e^Pq lou plnor lsod aql leu uerq peq qlee eql 'ri^)^ oH I U iri.{-.4t )utLtLtl^lliluD tv :urddeqlttM 3ulrttruosleqt tu!elJDsi uollr!p.IOdAH Y tno 1l^rolq III^i puln ou eueldrleup uo q)leu e IqBII noi (lrLLItJc suollrploJ rtlPllJ)Jl)nrl Jtuor II!.

/. 3. many tlv. Lmishr J p. we {will gd wel.} pdssiv.} HYPOTHETICALPREDICTION a.siua ir hadbeen rr hidden. With iI clauset.rcnptnber thcIo awin L Thtrtturc tet$e with will is ustld Wcdktiont thdt arc tikll. phoros . $ milhr a u\.t t.. Lmishl J Notes:Whcn witiflg ptedictiotls. the Iwoulal ...'s woutd have becn sayed. At1! predietia rht:ttit bdtedou d pon eonditia. . PROBABLE PREDICTION acrir."..". Thc Jor nolak would.d Jar hytotndiiil.xr fu.llcoutd I pass. lhe pholos {will b€ ruined." . If De war had ended a year €arlicr. relatio ship lxprissedh th? settarcc is true..tca dt bcltltfi e.).. . phoros rrre {['i"#J . the prcdictit e :.4 It i1 rains.".r.1lcen.l.:lf rhe eclipsc is hidden..the subinlctiv.irrvcr rheeclipse rf werehiaaen.Iom werc n uted instntl olwas (Jot eran41lc.n/.y iral.I jcould I have passcd. could. Snlce wat did ot nd ld kt.. the Neverthelets.he {ff]ilt} n""" . Lmishl J IMPOSSIBLE REDICTION P fwourdl dclin:IfI hadsludied.""r.176 Predicting Sentence Patterns PREDICTION 4clryer Th€re lwiu be) an eclipse tomorrow /djsiv4 The eclipse{will be hidden} by thc ctouds.lil/e| lfrs(udled. l f I w e r er i c h . 2.t)t contetruc.t (Jbt ... Imishr J p. ) .

rr^.toc o l .p drur pEqouprto^iql fr rl rrrrq )^!q ftno^\ rFhrd nulur l|z 'i^tossrp --dllr^\lr rrtP^\ol p.lj ut ).iEp lo juoll DrlxJ LrDo^eq plno^\ )M lnoq ruo {rpq slrolr rln l)i^our .)iJ.)^PqplnoMtr ']r.Urrolrp.oiJpt'roMI.rr.suo!1rlp2.lio.siqr jo rlrpJ rilupq) s ourva. l i u u q r p l n o M ^ i l l r u .o))l.! lll^ iulSu) )qt lrnt r!lt lt 'lroq .€ llrM lr 'P)^csrq 'ulutilu)lroJ p not sr !)rnr r-i .( llrM uousnqlo)'tursird rrD u.f .\ .s ruiJr .uorl)rprr(l P il(llss(x1rur ol suorr ut rrp)id lprnr$od.lo l)p \rrr r.)lr uu Lrr^liJ uo)u sr I|M lr Jl I 'piiollrrp .{xo 'dn prLunq .s.'( 'Apn)s IllM i JM.9 rq plno^^Pp)lrcqlnluripllrqt 'p)zurr)lsurl r. Ffwn arx .st rpqr.rpr )!lt p)telrurd p!q rortrur )ql lt .srqr lo LIrc:)jJLII:)qM)tD:tll\ttt .rpr rLIlJt t .9 ')iD)s .ln:))o torr ptp rlql uortrpuor rroprspqsr t€qtilro..l)l)! sr rpSns I n .r(1.rre)rl] Jl 8 01 'IUJJrlrJl.JI I 'sisnul).Jn)r u lt 'IrltPl .{l.t:}Llt .]sop )(l iilipl rrt prluq rsr .z lrlur 01fJsn rq rru).(d) (1) rt(lrs\o(tlur .z llr^'ls)^rl. l D n u r t ( x l.rd.(ur.{oLll jl Jlu 'isdll)r rLIl iis lllM i.l)alultlsUl s)lt^.r .\ Illtu iql l] 'DPl(lrlut pup.rVrr7r'r p r 1a* b ff l s 'pr ssPQ Ino^ i)M P r/!1JI I .t . i i l '^.td tltuapl $u /ZI SurD!prrd .{rl ol u suolr)11)ir(i ilquqor(l )srrlt Jorl)u) iiiuuLl:r 'suoutrya.rrdor(l iti^4 J8puq rLIlJl t 'ijuluroru I1ur tqjrl.iiienrSrrpl iures rql rlo({s i^ JI t 'a P"/t"d --f 'f.rrq(lnrLUrL's.41 ol isn iJ(ILT UiI rn))O tOLr ^ollrJOiUrUluql iUO 'Sttuql 'ooltJlpiid l!)ll)rll(xl.t llr^r! o15t ol pituiq sl ^.^'l JI 'ri)lliq rrllnr qiu) purrlslrprnl plno^{ )^.lrnj nJl .lp.td lotlrLltodlH 6ulytlrlut.(H) IL'rltrqt(xliLI ro Jlqlqor(l sr slrolrrpJ.q aqlssodwl qulpft ttoJ '^ oLrs Luntlll^ ulsJirll') o0 ^\oliq sdorpalllulJd[rrt.r!rlr u sr tl lt .'F/$ afl lf 'ssr.M 't!litu.'rs(1ullo) lolr plrlo^\ 1l 'pruiJrsrp.r )llJLIl rllt urort llrJ rl(tde )qt JI 8 '^^olil 'riirpll) )tl).q.tJrt pDLI.LIl.lt ..{q .ru lt wvd w117/"a/4 'P".

If we could conlrol lhc weadrcr. preilicli(xrs l{)gical im. If thc oxy8crl wcrc coolcdsufficicnrly. 5 . bcars thc If thc iroDbar wcrc cxposcd air. A satcllite go in1oorbit whcn it will pcr of 18. Many lives would havc bccr savcdif scicrllisls (predicl) thc rcrnado.I. Complelclhe lollowing prcdidi(nlsby filling in lhc propcr form of the verb in parcn(heses. The calciumwould mclt if yorl (rcach)a speed (hcal)it lo 845"C. ctcthc&tbwing ir any or Oeating C0nr verbform.178 Predicting 5 .000 milcs hour. Predicti. 8. Cot pletifig Sentences.ns. If I could go anywhcrc in lhe world. If lhc nandardswere lowcr. a2p (bc) dcfi(icnt in 3 . If lhere wer. yr'ill not grow il they L PlaDis niuogel. (nrst).'Do irrcgularvcrbs. 6. he would be hcallhicr. (lunl)lhc (liqucly).r'inter coDlcs. way. If thccompound bccnan acid. baby lhc would be a girl. 7 . If compurers could makc brcaklbst. (hibcrnalc). ir k) 7 .rrchromosomc. usingthc corrccl aginativc it t Thercwould bc fewcr tra!fic accidar:irs fea'pk dila I /)44'l a?tA &.ir would conlinuc iI irs orbil.tw Peoplcwould be hcahhier if The air would bc clcancr il Schoolwould bc casierif If human beiigs could lly. 8. 2. WheD \. lf he ate a balarceddic!. morc studcnBwould pass. If the eggceil werc fcnilizcd by spermcarryingan . had it bluelitmusrcd. If ftc sarcllilcwere nol inrerruprcd. \_ .

Lll 'z ')rllilus Iq ?"/Wrttt2r\ lillleoM .:stoou ptoll 'turqt )zlJorutt! puP sPro^l Jql iJll)r-'rdot Jlt irpds rno. rltql {)aq:.{ JsetrJlrloJ qsll8ug}o uolDnpold pup uolsurqrrdrlrorrLIl ol ltsse alqenlP^ulue sl{rBlnqero^ )ftel V fualMd :aulqllrrg /fuqnqoto\ s'I.{-tclnqeJol rno.'Al!r!rDrlr Jo pobil e s! r! isrpr)q nod roj p.^tt 'siJu lras3u!^{olloJ II ru!slxo/l^3u!$r!!uaql nlrldruo) ol uoql tsn lltqt puP ritmr pIoM Jo lsll rql ^pnrs raqrisd aofprer /-oaa '-lrnp.sn sI ttlnululnlv < '.ql Jo ^Pnls aqt = tlooqao \7&a |-oa6 ot ^e{e a)i.a LmIDPrplll)sn(rl v sc poqlJJsaps! strolloruo. I s! L|olleluloJlll puFu eql Jo atu.{rpssJ)rurrtr]M 'rnlBJds.r. lleu ro fueu()llJlpe qllM s8u!ueetu 'sProMpDleJ ro slrpd plo.fuJ ol Jo 'ur{o rnlrr leql rsoqr illPlJJdsa'sproM ^^t o1 uolluallP lPd 9 g t € z I :.{ll^nru ! sl pullu rlll Iq pJslll.'xlut.IIrS CNT(IVAU 64I Suprlprrd . JJo.Mse q)ns stnl) Jsn 'qder8ejsdro cJriJluasaqt txJlrrcJtql uo{ s3ulucJluJltql ssenS .et = ttfipap peal ol .+tnpgo e^lt = $ua /puos :rlr.t$ = n66pt4ttsd pulut t-a4risd poolq pue u€aq eql Sul^lo^ul = tolrttst^olprDt slasse^ ueeq t.lo plllLLlrqr iq t s! uo tqiSnorq leql ssiull!uv € Jnou u! ri^o pilrodsuprl surl ril9M 'sJttlll lLlilJLtl.Ie] 'sjcdPdalou Jo rlaql atlr^1puDsproM ro spreJLrcs3ulugcur InJosn lueuodrul lsoru tql pJlas '.{ asu puP nol q}lM srtdgdtlotl lo spreJJsoql fu.lJt .olpttt quea ..

dcscripti{nts 6. a. The fieory thal thc canh is rhc ccnlcr of rhe Luivcrscis rbc cenrflc ulcory. @ srinularcd b. I l. arc a. rcquircd 2. The cxperhnerrt was fionitored'ktreftorr. lhc law of gravity whcr) thcylly awaylronr the eanh'ssurlacc. a. 10. enllnicd of 8. regularperiods b. rTheseasons lhc ycar recur in cyclej. a. perfect b. A melal rhal can be slrelchcdin() wire is dcscribcd as lle .a. in L Madamc Curic irrplrad maDylwcDlicth-ccntrlrywoutcDto collduct ticicnlillc rcscarch. fhe ragwas satuntedwith oil. fuu of b. urctr 9. rcsist L The forecast was f(x dark cloudslhal wolrld bri'lg prccipitdtion.lch ol thcscsertcllccs. Wcalher/r/dc4sts molc accurate$day lhat) cvcr bcforc. irrcgular pcriuls . 7. obscrvcd 5. parlial 7. a. of . to 8. C]rcle thc lctrcr ol thc aDswcrlhal bcsr nratchcsthe mcaningof lhe italicizcdwod as il is Llsccl c.180 Predicring 6. dcsilncd b. a. prcdictions b. Vocdbuldry in Corltext. Thc branchof maficmatics thar dcalswith ntcasllrillgat)(l survcyingthc earrhh mclrv . ln rhe springthc high school applicalions colleges. Birds and airplancssccnrlo /q6. hcal 4. A devicedral mcasures heart movcmcnlsis a graph. Thereis no ikfaLlibkcure for canccr. A condirion in which thc hcart slopsbcadng is called ac anesl. obey b.

{c^4lp uuLLrnq suq. p .qdsollne .\ IIDiiL lpnls. l x r o r I D r ) u r $ l ' I I i)slaDur 1l Ltoosnuqxi u ' L U r l q o r (^ r r l r l l i r . q lUolPtnLUnDe P ')lqlss(xkur 4 l t ) r r L ' n b !) ) P u r u r s p p .^{{ txru rqr t ne rronrrp (l e sr{Ru pue slep ^lij tscd Jqt ri^o Llrr|!(l lJqtDr^\ rlll rLIt lprauriJ sro[ulJlap lsriJol(xoJ]Ju .uortsiub qrui]rot spro^{ lil i(x)rl3) .rsrnorJo nru 'iiunsDri)r()r rrqlur^.^rlr ApLu poE.ti)rltL)i^{ Io stolu)ll)l ol4t r_tu lurlM .rrrlltiq^^ rurLur)l -)p or \1)|]ol] prqrlpM s.rrlu.p ot tlri)lllpr. o r r .rt illt tlJq rloru tJljlotgnbJrl0.7' trrrs ruo.D ! 'rJtsesrp prlrr. L l L a l itqlJiJlrDqr q )lqern_oelpun p '.rd .rnlpr.\ .rotL|lnUtlool p LtJrl^.r(lsLrl sH(rliq pue piniJu]L s.xiput .trlUoruq sroPluqM z u Jtll a.u uortPuu(ll !J(rlrrlllpt so^to^ur x.pJtclnrlmrJpst luql .rllrssir(l .rts sr tDllM € (Jinsc:)(u.Lrclr9rldr)ird pup.plro^.l (.llt]olr^ pu!^a.^rrd .rirrpew1!^ nl uo su^.iitruUurs rrollurrr.rl(lrlluJur llrtsst .{rl Jo (ln iplru itu s.q t r r t r r ) ^ .sLtllots suorprrlppor^.rr.srrorlsilll) .\ rrrpird ot spnolr )qt Jo ujrp )ql l)(rc^Is ijllltficrlrrqt pilpntss. c i q r u r s .neLL|Jp 1qlsDDtll p)snc) urrots rLIt a) I8I SutD!pi.riqtu.{iqt rl)ILIM ullrpro iql Lrls.L .rut srurllLriJ l0J rlqel)lp)nlun:)Lll lrrprrd ol ijl pUD rinlurr ^l.\ uonultuoJLrl . \ l e s r s J r r n o s .rrl(lulJr .I !uiddp.\Lruots ilrDS zt s i ) s s o t.)$uprre l)uq )rl) tc xipt rqt Ul sfroM iclus iqt r(l loo.r.uoltcrru(lul JUlJJds rlu)ol oI looq i)UalJJJr Ul 0 ('n .\rprM IIv (l r.rJllrp sritlreqr.r !te.tdrrcr ijr^ sr liioloro i(lr lt pue Jo i)urr:rsrqt'^ppo.drurt rrns!iru rulll slu unrlsur uro.r)s s)l orru DIqt Jlu_L )Llt ot l)urtpup JlJussud rip.rtll sjt^ suL) ol :iutMolloJ ur.l.{g rotrUoru ol rtqrssod r)pru srrlndtt()rrrrrolJrlr plrp lr s rll)tEs.reauLueJrqtJosu Daql . rl l l o J o u o t ) r l d .ssiur 'pnolr'iorqslllls rru lo irriJJp.qupiilltol ..)iooqrqt Jo Iu)rtiqpLl({lu p.rs.LIt iql punorD uotleruojl rJLlll:J^.r(i sroll||!. { 6u!pbau rqt atrrll(isotu.re r.Intul:)d!u ur Iq tDoqe tllilnorq sJn-upll) .ro Ur sptoM.4n_r silerpcr suriqter^{ rno puPsr^rlrnoslortuojunsrLI_L rr I iLIlJo slrL11 nr).I(xklo ol pipr^or(l)^pLIlooq srqt LrrsrsDr)xrlo jrqtunlr V 6u!uubxs ' pisnctr pilu. siiurutD^.rq) ll0 slsllq}q^{ llooq rqt lo tuorJiL0 LrlslltrtuorJo ilqet itll Lrs)s ptrcspn)MliI Jlqtss(xl t)Jlrs .\ Inl)st]st tDql IllIs n^urpprr st SuruuD)s J:)ll)u. r .

h nnrie aD(illor a scicnlisl '1 fcpresenls lncl (i_) or idcnlifyirg Iacls. Thepoinl at which thc air carrnol the ou n wa n dny.ir ncar lhc cquirt(n than do lhoseDcarLhcNonh aDd SouLh lhc As nlovinglowad lhe polcs. and 10 lhe thc thal hasmovcdtorvnrLl cqrrator rel)ln(c dsingwanD air on thc surlace vlindt Ean lvcn rrorlh.rkl an(i couldbc vcry (langc|(rus ifrcvcrsiblc chrrrgcs ol or'tll)|cr.l lionl csca|iDg lrilht wjlhoLlt insulal(n Drcvcnt 1() as rnysand aclilrlt aD on lcrrrpcratllrcs lllc carlh rotrl(ifcachlhc ('x_ ol thc prolcction the almosphcrc.ll wc corltinue bLr l lassil lrcnres lhcy do orrthc iDcrea:ic lllc poirll whcrc il will bl.rLx)n nnxm. Wcalbcrhasalways lhe 2. ol coursc./onc ullravi(tcl (hcnla gI()uP llrall'nlnde ol havctlclcrllline(l lhnL rnlc.onlinuc nnd il n).' Twarn fir bLrthc ktrcw lhe im[)da['e ol a was.llcdthc salLrrali(. or clouds.Rcccntly. Mariner!uscdl(r fore. corrlajns laycr 8as havcbccnd|1)p|ing ovcrAnlalcti(a con(cn0 atiorrs rnys.r hold nrr) rnorcwaicr 1ea.Cn x)n dioxi(lejrr lhc is A sccord proLrlcnr lhc to. Distikguishing Fdclfro. The Anrcricarr as Lhem rrruch yorL as "Gct yourfacls n. irr thc wrilcr Mark Twnin orlcc saiLl.callcdgfccnholrsc illlrnrc(l glass a Srccnhousc.llr '(_!l\ h\r'1. aboul 18.ncj lcnrl)criLtlrc lDinl. thc gra(lu.licrccllingcx(cssivc olll in firn(liorrs lhe likc . il cools il siIks.old air. lhis wanning trc|d will .llescarchcN at an alarnljrril the lhc ca h and (lcslI1)yirrg oTor)c arcfisinfl iion icals callcd chlo|1)llLrorocarLx)ns cllecl. () lircls lhc lcvelol c.rnrl)sphcrc al hc.li{)n 0warcof (hc IbcL that olrr lcchrrical/irrdLrslfial Lreconrc wcalhcrnnd lhal lhcsc nllcr lhe tlral i|l changcs lhc carth's.JLr'( il r'. irllothef as by Armospheri.nd soLrth healnlgofthc carrhcauscs a1r.c \Lrllar dissolvc fiorc watef thar . nrffi(icrr! poirn. of havc sciclllisls ycarsa8o. howcver.lnrosphefc lhc Thc strak)sl)hcfc. llcccntly. o.i{ l}rc nir is salurillfdrvilh nloistLrrc.rr(l to dioxidcin thc air nray .rcplnting cool expands rises.Indicntewhclher ea(h (rt drcse:. mcasurc(l .vcrl (lrsnncr will bc alrlcl(Jdo somclhing whelhcrscierllisls ncxr ccntury. Opiriolr.Ikcl lhc en h .rppcaring walcr is squeczcd ol Lhcirir' we sccLhis oul rhe drot)s. fog. an opi'rbn F l () bcenof inlcrcsr melrand wonrcrr.rr wcatirer.r.y t)ccirusing civiliz. baronrelcr. €xccss ou( wllcr is sqLrcc/cd wc havc rain or.cnlcnces (0). Thc inrounl oflvatc. ilrslas hoLlca js c. and lhcn yolrcin dislon flcasr. !\. is deflcli(nr' ouc problcnr ozorrc (t oTotrc that frolccls(hc eallh l|'()nl stln'sharl ltll lhc a earth. dl lf as dew.1lrllost)hcrc cor.rrn I't J .snow bel v fic frccTir)g lenpcralurcs chcnricnl Todry lbere exislsa lhrc. vapofin lhc air is nrxjlhcrpredi(L()r' (lisvtves thnn icc(l nnr. Wann air (.anlhc wcalhcrby nLrdyilrg \k) .This uDcqLral by winds nrc caosed lhc ()latioool lhc ta'lh is indi(iLorof thc prcssure. It rcmainslo bc scenwheLhcr nboutil in li'Ic l1). nloislLrrc.r 1(r1heenrlh'sclir ale fro|n nrarr'nladt lhrough tilrLhl]asscs havcknown for a Iorrillinc Lhallhc Mcleorobgisls wasrcs.000 lasl i(c agcoccurred n1.182 Predicting PolesThc warrrr.lly\ranllin!lsirrcc Thc eanh hirsbccn cyclcs warnlingau{l cooling.

r^rDnpordun q o^lDnpord P 'alurrJ puq rql asnPraq s! ra^u rlrN Jtll Suolec^lr rldoad. ^luo ueJ slslnolorD Jo l 'sDrraluasasaql q)er ut pasnsl se proM psztrlplt 1! or0 Jo 6uluerur Jo cqr srqrl€ur $aq lpql raMsue aql Jo relrgl oql clrllS lartroJ u! A|tlhqorot . 'rrqtean^ar{t lolerlpul up sl rtnssrtd Jltcqdsorulv ' 8 Jo 'spulM sasneJ Lrollelols.JrrJIJs. rql.^ou llu stsllurlJs ' 0 1 'salrir BullooJpue BulrulEAqiSnorqlsissedque.lJuolM AlJellsn E ^alll rsn?Jcqou. ".L 'sa^rllno slo.)q rJ^ru 'II lll/LlsduloquptunH rrqlelM eql loluo) 01 alqp rq l.lllJo JlspMp alp stseJoroJ rJqlltM ' . 'iiunDur)seJ lSoloroelJur .quE oql .{uPW Z 'quer rr.tllroJ uns JqI '9 '.lqlllulur rq lr^alr lllM tiultser oJr llprM .?"30 ST'II>IS 9NINAJSI'I 'postc^araq louupJ lr /soSugqJ clpullp s.roJpa a)uo aql 'zr 'uo!rnllod luozo Jteurtlllr) ol rlqp .qJ ' a sl Jo 'ulBrp ocueqoou ql!$ Iepol l{lum puEJE€lc €8t SurDrpeld .il JgEaql rprulu. E .

r'.ld lcxlbookchaplcrwhcDcvcr thc le(turc. Lo sllcccss. sh. Thc r.nccbecause can bc Lrse(l a grcnl nLrnberof a. liqucller a. hardcncd 11. many-sidcd 5. s()w a. bc{brca ten. cuoughlo rcad. Add. symbols. shorlcned and Uscabbr€viali()ls. possilrlc. wcaringaway a. abundart b. write clcaflysLr you havc your nolcsas soonas possible aflcf class. fo|m bLr!nrakcsurewhal yol wrilc is co|nplctc cvidcncc. pcr{ccl grantrrar. your rolcs./to renrovcthc dricd painl. ro1fe.espccially rcvi$. hardcn€r of 6. nexl €xercise. !o errcrSy kecpthcm 0.trry. in anylbing Fill 7.ling wilh lhc iulo dridfor cerllrrics havcbccrlconvcfLcd g. dry in i1 4. Lands rhat hrcrc useof irrigarion. Prcrc. nlacl]inc$rcquirc a 9./ whcrc lhc accideDl . 5. capabiiiry all fioli<rn nrachiDc. lhc Take noresas you Iislen Io lhe leclurc "Thc wondcr of walcr. ou Duringfie fornlsolwo|tls lo savclime.184 Predi. Wc uscd .the more you will rcmcmber.orrec! anylhing thal is not l:lcar. rccopy you can rcadwhar you wro(c. The more yoll 8. . b.rdcrrs 3." PracLicc Thcn use your nores10 complclc lhc skills you havc dcvelopedin this course.rn thc nrcunlainsidr was duc to lbc hcavy winds and rain. b. building up victiIn ha(i brrnpc{l his 7. nn)isl a.roJl. corrccl ollllinc or Don't woffy aboLrl usingflrll scntences. dclact a. lron is a very ve alitu sLrb\l. No onc has cver inve]nle(l perpclual goin8. 2. arrd many sul)porling dchils (s ch ns examflcs. b.Dor11 6. b.I|crryoLrr skills esscrtial acadcrnic arc cood rrotc-lakinll followingl rcmcnrber lhe l. pcrmancnl Hints:Reriew Note-Taking To skills. brokeninto pieces h. R€vicw your noles pefiodically. I 4. Thc windshieldwas trrilcfe.1s artd the as !o explanalions) pL'ssiblc hch you Lrndcrsland rcntcnrbcr nlaiD poi1llr. Reread left olrl and . r. aonccnlralc wriling dowD thc nlain poinls.The computcr has a word processing]4l.

{ isn 'arntiaj a 6u!p utt tstzpu n 4t (8I SurDrpJd .)rodrlU .{{oq .l I ./ resM II!/d usruoM puE uaur leqM .f !t6' rq uopernpa ue Bulllo3.Moq ssnJslc r8elup^pEslp aq p1no. arnrnj ..ruoleUodsuplMoq .. ?M ' I 'Jnlq ro LlnJ$ s! Iue.qt ur punql sl ri)l€^^ ' z 'pJlprurlsJrr^o . lu aJJrp llt^.q plnor rrlnJ.ral9M lpllt s! lluDcl srqlJoerpr (rlput nql 'ol9ulllr rql..M s.€l .ils! lrte^ tu!^rl ruo{ claer Illpu!:juo tlps s.M slrqeqBuqpes.zl .l suol)lparct a{pur uorrpuFpul 'sn o.< lUar4JIpJq llll|1uorlBJrunrrlrooJ ^^oq .ueiJo 'tJI Ltrstslxi 4ll s.qup.ued. [] Jo lsow 't 'arsJns t.Moq.uoq rno ^loq . ".uos .!ro$l.M Jql Jo JOIOJ lDlnleLr .r.I J 'Jrntrrl rllt-irr uolteurroJulJql ol Surpro))e (J) rsleJro (J) Jtul sr stuarurlEls8ru^rolloJ )qt Io qJpJ lrqDq.9 .{llEnsn sl jtlp.rrpnn 1()ulnq rlldsorule.louJ el o) JJIe^^ JL J() Lrprro .LreDo luqt.l9trpotll ot +)u rate^ splnblr loqlo ueql lr/uols sld)J pLrD stprq raleM 'saztcjJ ucqM spupdxr tl l! teql ul splnbll rrqlo Jo lprld.M rurlurrlrp ()1srlou rno.. E .I'^t#1f$:ftt#.ql iqlJo aSprlMoulp lulql I .^rllnq stslluclJS rqt 'sruslup8to Ilr?ol llr)sal(j s! ll tsuuJnqtur^los lpsli^l(rn iLIl prllpJ sl .1uar4Jlp llr^ rq lue-reJJrp IIr.u5^ors!p rgl)uclrs p .l1 u .aldoed.suutql Bunll 'sroP r)epns pusl iql se lsn!s tllEI plrpsrrlptunolll J)ullnsLrpa)o sprl JrU 9 'sluriurLLl silllupnb snouj.ql .rluql /.8 .ql 3ul.M lo r)Ll|-.Hueq) nr..01 'plnbll&Dulprous s!.ijlH. SJNIOd NOISSn)SI(I .qI ' t 'punotS.quer rqt ]o squ$-rnql lnoqp srr^o) LrpDo.z apprr cq llt^.{ s.j.otojMJ)uo orJJ!) joteto uBrlox.€ cq pal o^ur aq nr^^1eql8urq1ruos .{Lu Jod.1 rno.

( ' d i c l i o l r . n ( l.T h c s c w i l l t ) r r r a d i o e du p l h c r r c i r $ t r c l .and lic!. .. . 4 . cxamplc.dfkr n while. l s . l s i g n . lhc nain idca ol could sum r.186 Predicting WRITING SKILLS Predlcting O n c g o a l o l s c i c n c ei s l o p r c d i c l r / h a t l h c w o d r r i g h l b c l i k ( i r l h c l u l L r r c . l o r y h r a s c . 11c10]" witi g a Plediction or Poi on Wrile a paragraph one of lhc Discussion s. Orhcr rransitiorr lon!. ' 1 / ! w v c .any concrctccvidenceyou can providc will make yolrr parrgrtlh rorc cffeciivc or nlikc il rhal mer and womenwill dress morebelievable. y s a r c l l i t c . A f l h r l r C C l . w h c n y o ! w i s h L o s c n d a n u r g c n l m c s s n g r . r k c . l ) u r c v c n l l r a l l yl c t l c r s s h o u l d n c v c r l a k c r n o r t L h a D d n y b c l w ( c r r i r n y l w o p o i r t s { ) D L h c E . i]1llt! littttrt.I h c r l l o ( l n lr 1 ' d / / / . o l c o L r s c .t h c d o o r ' t o ' ( l o o r d c l i v e r y r v o u l d c x t c n d l h i s l i r c l o n ' v c r . r v l t i c h n r i j t h l l ) c a o $lvc(l l)y ()bot hirnrllirrg t nll sLagcs l thc ofcrnlion.f e w y c a r s l r c r n n o w ./r' p ( N c w Y o r k i I I . cansuppofl by sureyoLr dcvcloflhe paragrafh suit!.I n . l i l c ( i r o d e s c r i p l i o n f h o w l h c s y s t c n lw i l l w o r k a u d l h c ( l i s c r r s s i ooll a l ) o l c n l j i r ll i 1 1 ) L ) l r n r u s t o J l h c l u l r r r c l c D s cw i t h L t/ 1 / . Ldter. l i l r v i l l n ) r r l c ( l . / r h a l N i g b t a f i s c . cvcr) lhc ol(1s t y l c b L r l n a np o s l m c n h a v c b c ( n k r r o w r r l o 1 1 i ( l l h c r r r . Thcn orake alrcady wcar pants. and one ddy. T h c f c n r c . h e l r a r r m i s s i o r ri ( s c l l w o r r l d l n k c i r f r a c t i o Do l a s c c o n d .N o t c a l s o L h e i n d i c a l c st h c h y p o t h r l i c n l n a t l r c o 1 l h c p | . r i r r r j \ L r s ( t lt { r c x p r e s s possibilily.lIitr i. l n h o u f s . r l h . A 1 t h e l o c a l o f f i c e t h e f o r m w i l l b e f c d i n t o d D r a c h i n cw h i c h \ c a n s l h e n r a f k s o n t h c t a p c t a n d ( o n v c n s l h c n r i r r l o c l c . i l .) o u v l i l l p u f c h a s c a s r a n d a r dl c ( c r l o f n o n w h i c h y o u w i l l w l e o r t y p c w h a l c v c t y o L r h a v c r o \ r y .inrilr d/ l/rf P. l a 1 t l i l $o l t h t l L t t I R : Att lt1. l j o r r( ) L r r ( l l h c E a ( h . t c d i r e . yL r cp o s s i b l c 0 s c n d (iiryot lcss: :l letleranywhcrc on carlh in onc .lriTc givingdcrails exanplcs. L f i c .tu tltc !. t ) r / 6 R o \ v . foinl Ho\'!evcr. 1 t h c l o l l o r v i n gp a r a g r a p ht h c w f i l c r I f e d i c t s t h .f r o b l e n r s o l p r i v n ( y .\'vl. you predict For Lltal rr you yourclaimbypointingout $'ome by lhe lwen!y-lirsl century. lmaginntivc crcarrvc writing docs not demand suppoling nralcrial lo "provc" .rw. 1 9 5 a N o r j c c h o w t h c p r c d i c l i o ni : i n r a d c i D t c f c s t i n g r l ( l c o n v i n ( j r r g[ ) y l ) o l h t h c d c l . Howcvcf.1 9 r ) : ) . or Your conclusiorl exprcss waming or hope fLrrthc Iu!ure. o u l c d i n t h e a p p r o f f i . . r / r/ i D n rvords for predicring jnclLr(lctvcnt nllr. p T h c c x a m f l c f a r a ! r a p h b e g i D sw i l h L h t i r r l r ( X l L r . a u d p i c k r d u p a t l b c d c s r i n n t i o nw h c f c t h c y a r e r r l x x l L r ( c ( i ( ) 1 rr L ) l i n k w T f o r n l i d c r r t i c a l i t h r h c o n c y o u i n s c r i l r c d . lltattttlll. a .