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Capitalization

Capitalize this :
1 - The first word of every sentence.
2 - The first-person singular pronoun, I.
3 - The first, last, and important words in a title. (The concept "important words" usually
does not include articles, short prepositions (which means you might want to capitalize
"towards" or "between," say), the "to" of an infinitive, and coordinating conjunctions. This is
not true in APA Reference lists (where we capitalize only the first word), nor is it necessarily
true for titles in other languages. Also, on book jackets, aesthetic considerations will
sometimes override the rules.)
4 - Proper nouns.
5 - Specific persons and things: George W. Bush, the White House, General Motors
Corporation.
6 - Specific geographical locations: Hartford, Connecticut, Africa, Forest Park Zoo, Lake
Erie, the Northeast, the Southend. However, we do not capitalize compass directions or
locations that aren't being used as names: the north side of the city:
we're leaving the Northwest and heading south this winter.
When we combine proper nouns, we capitalize attributive words when they precede place-
names, as in Lakes Erie and Ontario, but the opposite happens when the order is reversed: the
Appalachian and Adirondack mountains. When a term is used descriptively, as opposed to
being an actual part of a proper noun, do not capitalize it, as in
"The California deserts do not get as hot as the Sahara Desert."
7 - Names of celestial bodies: Mars, Saturn, the Milky Way. Do not, howver, capitalize
earth, moon, sun, except when those names appear in a context in which other (capitalized)
celestial bodies are mentioned.
"I like it here on earth, but It is further from Earth to Mars than it is from
Mercury to the Sun".
8 - Names of newspapers and journals. Do not, however, capitalize the word the, even when
it is part of the newspaper's title: the Hartford Courant.
9 - Days of the week, months, holidays. Do not, however, capitalize the names of seasons
(spring, summer, fall, autumn, winter). "Next winter, we're traveling south; by
spring, we'll be back up north."
10 - Historical events: World War I, the Renaissance, the Crusades.
11 - Races, nationalities, languages: Swedes, Swedish, African American, Jewish, French,
Native American. (Most writers do not capitalize whites, blacks.)
12 - Names of religions and religious terms: God, Christ, Allah, Buddha, Christianity,
Christians, Judaism, Jews, Islam, Muslims.
13 - Names of courses: Economics, Biology 101. (However, we would write: "I'm taking
courses in biology and earth science this summer.")
14 - Brand names: Tide, Maytag, Chevrolet.
15 - Names of relationships only when they are a part of or a substitute for a person's name.
(Often this means that when there is a modifier, such as a possessive pronoun, in front of such
a word, we do not capitalize it.)

Let's go visit Grandmother today. Let's go visit my grandmother today.


I remember Uncle Arthur. I remember my Uncle Arthur. My uncle is
unforgettable.

* - This also means that we don't normally capitalize the name of a "vocative" or term of
endearment:
Can you get the paper for me, hon?
Drop the gun, sweetie. I didn't mean it.

Capitalizing People's Titles


and the Names of Political Entities

One of the most frequently asked questions about capitalization is whether or not to
capitalize people's job titles or the names of political or quasi-political entities. Most writing
manuals nowadays seem to align themselves with the tendency in journalistic circles: less is
better. When a title appears as part of a person's name, usually before the name, it is
capitalized: Professor Farbman (or Professor of Physics Herschel Farbman), Mayor Perez,
U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell. On the other hand, when the title appears after the
name, it is not capitalized: Herschel Farbman, professor of history; Eddie Perez, mayor of the
city of Hartford; Juan Carlos, king of Spain. Although we don't capitalize "professor of
history" after the individual's name, we would capitalize department and program names
when they are used in full*: "He worked in the Department of Behavioral Sciences
before he started to teach physics." (We do not capitalize majors or academic
disciplines unless they refer to a language, ethnic group, or geographical entity: Roundbottom
is an economics major, but he loves his courses in French and East European studies.)

The capitalization of words that refer to institutions or governmental agencies, etc. can well
depend on who is doing the writing and where or from what perspective. For instance, if I
were writing for the city of Hartford, doing work on its charter or preparing an in-house
document on appropriate office decor, I could capitalize the word City in order to distinguish
between this city and other cities. "The City has a long tradition of individual freedom
in selecting wallpapers." If I were writing for the College of Wooster's public relations
staff, I could write about the College's new policy on course withdrawal. On the other hand, if
I were writing for a newspaper outside these institutions, I would not capitalize those words.
"The city has revamped its entire system of government." "The college has
changed its policy many times."

We don't capitalize words such as city, state, federal, national, etc. when those words are used
as modifiers "There are federal regulations about the relationship of city and
state governments". Even as nouns, these words do not need to be capitalized: "The city
of New York is in the state of New York" (but it's New York City). Commonly
accepted designations for geographical areas can be capitalized: the Near East, the American
South, the North End (of Hartford), Boston's Back Bay, the Wild West. Directions are not
capitalized unless they become part of the more or less official title of a geographical entity:
"He moved from south Texas to South Africa."

Capitalization in E-Mail

For some reason, some writers feel that e-mail should duplicate the look and feel of ancient
telegraph messages, and their capitals go the way of the windmill or they go to the opposite
extreme and capitalize EVERYTHING. That's nonsense. Proper and restrained capitalization
simply makes things easier to read (unless something is capitalized in error, and then it slows
things down). Without the little tails and leaders we get in a nice mixture of upper- and lower-
case text, words lose their familiar touch and feel. Text written in ALL CAPS is extremely
difficult to read and some people regard it as unseemly and rude, like SHOUTING at
someone close at hand. Restrain your use of ALL CAPS in e-mail to solitary words that need
further emphasis (or, better yet, use italics or underlining for that purpose, if your e-mail
client provides for that treatment).

Words Associated with the Internet

There is considerable debate, still, about how to capitalize words associated with the Internet.
Most dictionaries are capitalizing Internet, Web, and associated words such as World Wide
Web (usually shortened to Web), Web page, Web site, etc., but the publications of some
corporations, such as Microsoft, seem to be leaning away from such capitalization. The Yale
Style Manual recommends capitalization. The words e-mail and online are not capitalized.
The Guide to Grammar and Writing is a monument to inconsistency on this issue.

The most important guiding principle in all such matters is consistency within a document
and consistency within an office or institution. Probably the most thorough and most often
relied upon guide to capitalization is the Chicago Manual of Style, but the Gregg Reference
Manual is also highly recommended.

*We acknowledge a debt to "A Guide to Wesleyan Style," a publication of the Office of
Publications of Wesleyan University.

- THE END -
Adverbs

Definition
Adverbs are words that modify
a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)
an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she
move?)

As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something
happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly ; however, many words and phrases not
ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an
adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:
That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a
sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:
When this class is over, we're going to the movies.
When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an
adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place
and time, modifying the verb):
He went to the movies.
She works on holidays.
They lived in Canada during the war.
And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):
She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
The senator ran to catch the bus.
But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:
He calls his mother as often as possible.

Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we
would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students
showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He ran
real fast."
Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.


The student who reads fastest will finish first.
We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:
With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.
She worked less confidently after her accident.
That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.
The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness
or equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister."
A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain
cases, the two forms have different meanings:
He arrived late.
Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.
In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual
situations:
She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.
He did wrong by her.
He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.

Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to


something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify,
or downtone. Here are some examples:

Emphasizes:
I really don't believe him.
He literally wrecked his mother's car.
She simply ignored me.
They're going to be late, for sure.

Amplifiers:
The teacher completely rejected her proposal.
I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.
They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.
I so wanted to go with them.
We know this city well.

Down toners:
I kind of like this college.
Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
His mother mildly disapproved his actions.
We can improve on this to some extent.
The boss almost quit after that.
The school was all but ruined by the storm.

Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by premodifiers
She runs very fast.
We're going to run out of material all the faster

This issue is addressed in the section on degrees in adjectives.


For this section on intensifiers, we are indebted to A Grammar of Contemporary English by
Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. Longman Group:
London. 1978. pages 438 to 457. Examples our own.
Using Adverbs in a Numbered List
Within the normal flow of text, it's nearly always a bad idea to number items beyond three or
four, at the most. Anything beyond that, you're better off with a vertical list that uses
numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.). Also, in such a list, don't use adverbs (with an -ly ending); use instead
the uninflected ordinal number (first, second, third, fourth, fifth, etc.). First (not firstly), it's
unclear what the adverb is modifying. Second (not secondly), it's unnecessary. Third (not
thirdly), after you get beyond "secondly," it starts to sound silly. Adverbs that number in this
manner are treated as disjuncts (see below.)

Adverbs We Can Do Without


Review the section on Being Concise for some advice on adverbs that we can eliminate to the
benefit of our prose: intensifiers such as very, extremely, and really that don't intensify
anything and expletive constructions ("There are several books that address this issue.")

Kinds of Adverbs
Adverbs of Manner
She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

Adverbs of Place
She has lived on the island all her life.
She still lives there now.

Adverbs of Frequency
She takes the boat to the mainland every day.
She often goes by herself.

Adverbs of Time
She tries to get back before dark.
It's starting to get dark now.
She finished her tea first.
She left early.

Adverbs of Purpose
She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
She shops in several stores to get the best buys.

Positions of Adverbs
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of
manner are particularly flexible in this regard.
Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation.
The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.
The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.


Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my
brother without a good reason.
Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

Indefinite adverbs of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the
main verb:

He finally showed up for batting practice.


She has recently retired.

Order of Adverbs
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is
similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.

THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS


Verb Manner Place Frequency Time Purpose
Beth
enthusiastically in the pool every morning before dawn to keep in shape.
swims
before
Dad walks impatiently into town every afternoon to get a newspaper.
supper
Tashonda in her before
every morning
naps room lunch.
In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers
beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two
of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before
supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the
introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.

More Notes on Adverb Order


As a general principle, shorter adverbial phrases precede longer adverbial phrases,
regardless of content. In the following sentence, an adverb of time precedes an adverb of
frequency because it is shorter (and simpler):
Dad takes a brisk walk before breakfast every day of his life.

A second principle: among similar adverbial phrases of kind (manner, place, frequency, etc.),
the more specific adverbial phrase comes first:
My grandmother was born in a sod house on the plains of northern
Nebraska.
She promised to meet him for lunch next Tuesday.

Bringing an adverbial modifier to the beginning of the sentence can place special emphasis on
that modifier. This is particularly useful with adverbs of manner:

Slowly, ever so carefully, Jesse filled the coffee cup up to the brim, even above
the brim.
Occasionally, but only occasionally, one of these lemons will get by the
inspectors.

Inappropriate Adverb Order


Review the section on Misplaced Modifiers for some additional ideas on placement.
Modifiers can sometimes attach themselves to and thus modify words that they ought not to
modify.
They reported that Giuseppe Balle, a European rock star, had died on the six
o'clock news.
Clearly, it would be better to move the underlined modifier to a position
immediately after "they reported" or even to the beginning of the sentence —
so the poor man doesn't die on television.
Misplacement can also occur with very simple modifiers, such as only and barely:
She only grew to be four feet tall.
It would be better if "She grew to be only four feet tall."

Adjuncts, Disjuncts, and Conjuncts


Regardless of its position, an adverb is often neatly integrated into the flow of a sentence.
When this is true, as it almost always is, the adverb is called an adjunct. (Notice the
underlined adjuncts or adjunctive adverbs in the first two sentences of this paragraph.) When
the adverb does not fit into the flow of the clause, it is called a disjunct or a conjunct and is
often set off by a comma or set of commas. A disjunct frequently acts as a kind of evaluation
of the rest of the sentence. Although it usually modifies the verb, we could say that it modifies
the entire clause, too. Notice how "too" is a disjunct in the sentence immediately before this
one; that same word can also serve as an adjunct adverbial modifier: It's too hot to play
outside. Here are two more disjunctive adverbs:
Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.
Fortunately, no one was hurt.

Conjuncts, on the other hand, serve a connector function within the flow of the text,
signaling a transition between ideas.
If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
At the extreme edge of this category, we have the purely conjunctive device known as the
conjunctive adverb (often called the adverbial conjunction):
Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most
nervous person here.
I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.

Authority for this section: A University Grammar of English by Randolph Quirk and
Sidney Greenbaum. Longman Group: Essex, England. 1993. 126. Used with permission.
Examples our own.

Some Special Cases


The adverbs enough and not enough usually take a post modifier position:
Is that music loud enough?
These shoes are not big enough.
In a roomful of elderly people, you must remember to speak loudly enough.

(Notice, though, that when enough functions as an adjective, it can come before the noun:
Did she give us enough time?

The adverb enough is often followed by an infinitive:


She didn't run fast enough to win.

The adverb too comes before adjectives and other adverbs:


She ran too fast.
She works too quickly.

If too comes after the adverb it is probably a disjunct (meaning also) and is usually set off
with a comma:
Yasmin works hard. She works quickly, too.

The adverb too is often followed by an infinitive:


She runs too slowly to enter this race.

Another common construction with the adverb too is too followed by a prepositional phrase
— for + the object of the preposition — followed by an infinitive:
This milk is too hot for a baby to drink.

Relative Adverbs
Adjectival clauses are sometimes introduced by what are called the relative adverbs:
where, when, and why. Although the entire clause is adjectival and will modify a noun, the
relative word itself fulfills an adverbial function (modifying a verb within its own clause).
The relative adverb where will begin a clause that modifies a noun of place:

My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used
to be minister.
The relative pronoun "where" modifies the verb "used to be" (which makes it adverbial), but
the entire clause ("where my great grandfather used to be minister") modifies the word
"church."
A when clause will modify nouns of time:

My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and


Presidents' Day.

And a why clause will modify the noun reason:

Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?

We sometimes leave out the relative adverb in such clauses, and many writers prefer "that" to
"why" in a clause referring to "reason":
Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today?
I always look forward to the day when we begin our summer vacation.
I know the reason that men like motorcycles.

Authority for this section: Understanding English Grammar by Martha Kolln. 4rth Edition.
MacMillan Publishing Company: New York. 1994.

Viewpoint, Focus, and Negative Adverbs


A viewpoint adverb generally comes after a noun and is related to an adjective that precedes
that noun:
A successful athletic team is often a good team scholastically.
Investing all our money in snowmobiles was probably not a sound idea financially.

You will sometimes hear a phrase like "scholastically speaking" or "financially


speaking" in these circumstances, but the word "speaking" is seldom necessary.
A focus adverb indicates that what is being communicated is limited to the part that is
focused; a focus adverb will tend either to limit the sense of the sentence ("He got an A just
for attending the class.") or to act as an additive ("He got an A in addition to being published."

Although negative constructions like the words "not" and "never" are usually found
embedded within a verb string — "He has never been much help to his mother." — they are
technically not part of the verb; they are, indeed, adverbs. However, a so-called negative
adverb creates a negative meaning in a sentence without the use of the usual
no/not/neither/nor/never constructions:
He seldom visits.
She hardly eats anything since the accident.
After her long and tedious lectures, rarely was anyone awake.

- THE END -
{{ Using Gerunds and Infinitives }}
Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a
sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a
gerund or infinitive is needed.
1. Following a verb (gerund or infinitive)
Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether
you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence.
Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs.

I expect to have the report done by Friday. [INFINITIVE]

I anticipate having the report done by Friday. [GERUND]

Some common verbs followed by a gerund :

(note that phrasal verbs, marked here with *, always fall into
this category):

acknowledge She acknowledged receiving assistance.


* accuse of He was accused of smuggling contraband goods.
admit They admitted falsifying the data.
advise The author advises undertaking further study.
anticipate He anticipates having trouble with his supervisor.
appreciate I appreciated having a chance to read your draft.
avoid He avoided answering my question.
complete I finally completed writing my thesis.
consider They will consider granting you money.
defer She deferred writing her report.
delay We delayed reporting the results until we were sure.
deny They denied copying the information.
discuss They discussed running the experiments again.
entail This review procedure entails repeating the test.
* look after He will look after mailing the tickets.
* insist on He insisted on proofreading the article again.
involve This procedure involves testing each sample twice.
justify My results justify taking drastic action.
mention The author mentions seeing this event.
* plan on They had planned on attending the conference.
postpone The committee has postponed writing the report.
recall I cannot recall getting those results before.
resent He resented spending so much time on the project.
recommend She recommends reading Marx.
resist The writer resists giving any easy answers.
risk She risks losing her viewing time.
sanction They will not sanction copying without permission.
suggest I suggest repeating the experiment.
* take care of He will take care of sending it to you.
tolerate She can’t tolerate waiting for results.

Some common verbs followed by an infinitive:

afford We cannot afford to hesitate


agree The professors agreed to disagree.
appear The results appear to support your theory.
arrange They had arranged to meet at noon.
beg I beg to differ with you.
care Would you care to respond?
claim She claims to have new data.
consent Will you consent to run for office?
decide When did he decide to withdraw?
demand I demand to see the results of the survey.
deserve She deserves to have a fair hearing.
expect The committee expects to decide by tomorrow.
fail The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis.
hesitate I hesitate to try the experiment again.
hope What do you hope to accomplish?
learn We have learned to proceed with caution.
manage How did she manage to find the solution?
neglect The author neglected to provide an index.
need Do we need to find new subjects?
offer We could offer to change the time of the meeting.
plan They had planned to attend the conference.
prepare He was not prepared to give a lecture.
pretend I do not pretend to know the answer.
promise They promise to demonstrate the new equipment.
refuse She refused to cooperate any longer.
seem Something seems to be wrong with your design.
struggle We struggled to understand her point of view.
swear He swears to tell the truth.
threaten The team threatened to stop their research.
volunteer Will you volunteer to lead the group?
wait We could not wait to hear the outcome.
want She did not want to go first.
wish Do you wish to participate?
2. Following a preposition (gerund only)

Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot.

Can you touch your toes without bending your knees? He was fined for
driving over the speed limit.

She got the money by selling the car. A corkscrew is a tool for taking
corks out of bottles.

Note: Take care not to confuse the preposition “to” with an infinitive form, or
with an auxiliary form such as have to, used to, going to.

He went back to writing his paper. [PREPOSITION + GERUND]

I used to live in Mexico. [AUXILIARY + VERB]

I want to go home. [VERB + INFINITIVE]

3. Following an indirect object (infinitive only)

Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an
infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this position.

Some common verbs followed by an indirect object plus an


infinitive:

ask I must ask you to reconsider your statement.


beg They begged her to stay for another term.
cause His findings caused him to investigate further.
challenge Wilkins challenged Watson to continue the research.
convince Can we convince them to fund our study?
encourage She encouraged him to look beyond the obvious.
expect They did not expect us to win an award.
forbid The author forbade me to change his wording.
force They cannot force her to reveal her sources.
hire Did the department hire him to teach the new course?
instruct I will instruct her to prepare a handout.
invite We invite you to attend the ceremony.
need They need her to show the slides.
order He ordered the group to leave the building.
persuade Can we persuade you to contribute again?
remind Please remind him to check the references.
require They will require you to submit an outline.
teach We should teach them to follow standard procedures.
tell Did she tell him to make three copies?
urge I urge you to read the instructions before you begin.
want I do not want you to have an accident.
warn Why didn’t they warn me to turn down the heat?

- The End –

‫اسئلة‬writing ‫*حلوة ومهمة شوفوها‬

Kinds of sentences:
1. Simple sentence:
It has one main or independent clause- one subject-verb relationship.
- The car stopped.
- We were happy to see him.

a- A simple sentence can have a compound subject- Two or more subjects joined by a
coordinator.
- Sami and Chris were late.
- Sami, Chris and I were late.
b- A simple sentence can have a compound verb- two or more verbs joined by a coordinator.

• Huda ate pancake and drank coffee.


• I played computer games and watched TV.

c- A simple sentence can have a compound subject and a compound verb.


- Huda and Sami ate pancake and drank coffee.
- Chris and I played computer games and watched TV.
2. Compound Sentence
It is two or more independent clauses joined together. Each clause is of equal importance and
could stand alone.

There are three ways to join independent clauses to form a compound sentence:
1. With coordinator. FAN BOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Independent clause ,+ Coordinator + Independent clause


• Ahmed likes watching TV, and Jamila likes watching TV too.
• He was poor, but he lived happily.
• It was cold outside, so Huda put on a heavy coat.
• You can attend the lesson, or I will ask someone to attend on your behalf.

2. With a conjunctive adverb such as therefore, however, furthermore, besides,


Independent clause; Conjunctive Adverb, Independent clause
• He was very ill; therefore, he decided to take the day off.
• He was poor; however, he lived happily.
3. With a semicolon.
Independent clause; Independent clause
This is used when the two independent clauses are closely related.
• My father is a headmaster; my mother is a schoolteacher.
1. Complex sentence:
It is a sentence that contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. One
clause is more important than the other one.
1. We had to go inside when it started raining.
2. As long as it's not raining, it does not matter if it rains.
3. We won because the team worked together.
a- After she had learned to drive, Alice felt more independent.
b- If the paperwork arrives on time, your cheque will be mailed on Tuesday.
c- Gerald had to rewrite his homework when his computer crashed.

1. Identify the sentence structure of each of the following sentences:


1. Ottawa is the capital of Canada, but Toronto is the capital of Ontario.
2. I do not own a Porsche.
3. Call your father as soon as you arrive in Cairo.
4. I ate lunch and left the restaurant.
5. Unless my friend postpones her visit from Ramallah, I will not have time to study for
my exam.
6. The football game was cancelled because it was raining.
7. The football game was cancelled because of the rain.
8. When she arrives, she will start her work immediately.

2. Complete the following sentences making a compound sentence:

1. It's warm out today, ___________ let's go to the park this afternoon.
2. Jogging is a popular form of exercise, ________ doctors don't recommend it.
3. The waves were high and rough, yet __________________
4. This is the last day of the semester, so ________________
5. 5. T really enjoyed reading the novel, and ______________

2. Complete the following sentences making complex sentences:

1. While John was baking cookies, __________________________


2. Whenever Mona feels depressed, __________________________
3. When Hani left me, ______________________
4. When the sun began to rise, ___________________
5. I won't do any more work until ______________________

3. Complete the following sentences making complex sentences:

1. The apartment __________ I lived in last semester was noisy ________ it was next to
the bus station.
2. This new shirt _____ you wore to school looked so comfortable, ____ please tell me
________ you bought them.
3. ________ Sami's family were very close, they were all independent, ______ they
enjoyed doing things on their own.
4. _____ you were making the homemade ice cream, I was cutting the pie, ______ the pie
won't be ready to serve ____ it cools.
Fragments: A fragment is an incomplete piece -- a fragment -- of a sentence. To test for a
fragment, see if it can stand alone and still mean something. If it cannot, it is a fragment.
1. Because some students have part-time jobs in addition to going to school.
Problem: This is a subordinate clause.
To correct: Attach it to an independent clause.
Complete Sentence: Because some students have part-time jobs in addition to full-time
classwork, they have very little free time.
2. For example, the increase in the cost of renting an apartment.
Problem: No main verb.
To correct: Rewrite the sentence so that it has a subject and a verb.
Complete Sentence: For example, the cost of renting an apartment has increased.
3. Having no money and being lonely in the big city.
Problem: This is a participial phrase. It has no subject or verb.
To correct: (a) Rewrite the phrase to include a subject and a verb.
(b) Attach the phrase to an independent clause.
Complete Sentences: (a) She had no money and was lonely in the big city.
(b) Having no money and being lonely in the big city, the woman committed suicide.

Look at the following examples:

1- I like ice cream. Especially chocolate.


2- We all ran inside. Because it was bitterly cold.
3- Some people are amazingly inconsiderate. My roommate, for example.

Fixing fragments:
• attach the fragment with a comma, dash or colon, if appropriate
• attach the fragment to the sentence it belongs to
• turn the fragment into a new sentence by creating a subject and verb

4. I like ice cream, especially chocolate.


5. We all ran inside because it was bitterly cold.
6. Some people are amazingly inconsiderate. My roommate is one of them.
Act as an editor and mark either a C if the sentence is complete or F if the sentence is a
fragment and correct it.

____ 1. I attended Nasser High School. Which was a bad experience.


____ 2. The view was filled with beauty. Such as the sun sending its brilliant rays to the earth.

____ 3. He talked for fifty minutes without taking his eyes off his notes. Like other teachers
in that department.
____ 4. In each group, a wide range of things to choose from. It was difficult to distinguish
between them.
____ 5. The magazine has a reputation for sophisticated readers. Although this just an opinion
and not a true premise.
____ 6. In the seventh grade every young boy goes out for football. To prove to himself and
his parents that he is a man.
____7. As the summer holiday grows near, I find myself looking back into my childhood days
at fun-filled times of snowball fights. To think about this makes me happy.
____8. Making up his mind quickly. Jim ordered two large-size pizzas.
____9. They were all having a good time. Until one of Jim's oldest and best friends had a
stomachache.
____10. Although it only attained a speed of about twelve kilometers an hour. My old
rowboat with its three-horsepower motor seemed like a high-speed job to me.
2- Identify the fragments in this paragraph and fix them.

Driving through the landscape of southern Utah at dusk was a little frightening. It was
very dark. No cars on the road. Just a long white line ahead of me, under my lights. I had
wanted to drive down the dirt road that led to the Valley of the Gods, where I heard there
were some beautiful rock formations, but suddenly I didn’t dare. Someone had told me that
this was the part of the desert where the shape shifters lived. Shape shifters are said to be
native Americans who have the power to change their shape. Not always for good purposes.
So, I kept going. Even though I was tempted to stop. Now I am sorry. Because I will probably
never get another chance to go back there.

1- Join each pair of the following simple sentences into complex ones:

1. The coat is very big. I connot wear it.


___________________________________________________________

2. The book is very interesting. Dennis bought it last week.


___________________________________________________________

3. I heard the door bill. I went to see who it was.


___________________________________________________________

4. The police went to the place. They might see the scene of the crime.
___________________________________________________________

5. Alice hurt herself. She was trying to repair the broken window.
___________________________________________________________

6. Janet is very smart. Everyone knows this.


___________________________________________________________

7. My brother went to Germany. He met his cousin there.


___________________________________________________________

8. Some believe the Institute should be held accountable for the suicides of its students.
Others disagree.
___________________________________________________________

2- Complete the following making compound sentences:

1- George wants to be healthy, ________________________________________


2- I wanted to attend an excellent university, ____________________________

3- Open your arms to change, but _____________________________________

4- His voice was weak, ____________________________________________

5- Laila went to the hospital, _______________________________________

6- Many accidents have occurred while drivers were speaking on cell phones, __
_____________________________________________________________________
3- Join the following short sentences

1- Lana is good at singing. She has a beautiful voice. She was born in Cairo. She is my
favorite star. She likes to sing since she was a child.

2- Wayne Rooney is my favorite football star. He was born in England. He is Man United
member. He is one of the most powerful strikers in the world. He is good at striking on goal.
He is my hero.
Use a comma
1. After introductory words
During the summer of 1999, we visited Spain. Unfortunately, we did not speak Spanish.

2. Before conjunctions
• Clinton was reckless, but he was popular with the general public.
• Cuba is facing a new crisis, for its supply of Venezuelan oil has been cut

3. After dependent clauses


• Although I was sick, I went to my classes.
• Because it was raining, the game was called off.

4. To set off extra information


Jeb Bush, who is the president’s brother, is the governor of Florida. Jeb does not have
presidential ambitions, apparently. In any case, that is what people are saying, although this
may change.

The following paragraphs have no capital letters or periods to mark the ends of sentences.
Add capitals, periods, and any commas that may be needed to make the word groups into
complete sentences.

1)-
although many people enjoy coffee they find that it can make them nervous and irritable
if they drink too much of it caffeine which is the primary active ingredient in coffee can
become addictive many people find that when they try to quit drinking coffee they often
develop headaches and other symptoms of withdrawal. furthermore it has been found that
caffeine may contribute to breast disease in women under forty one must admit however that
there is nothing like a good cup of coffee first thing in the morning personally I cannot
imagine life without it.
2)-
my brother was always my best friend when I was a child especially as we two were
almost alone in the world we lived with our old grandmother in a little house, almost a shack,
in the country whenever I think of him now I see a solemn, responsible boy a boy too old for
his years who looked our for me no matter what once there was a bully John Anson who
looked enormous to me though he was probably an average twelve-year-old John had it in for
me because he liked Lucy Graham who liked me he decided to beat me up right before her
eyes I was lucky my brother came by he didn't interfere he just stood there somehow, though,
his presence gave me confidence if my brother hadn't been there I don't think I could have
been beaten up.

A sample of some tranlated texts

Globalization

Translation is uniquely revealing of the asymmetries that have structured international affairs
for centuries. In many "developing" countries ( a term that will be used here to indicate a
subordinate position in the global capitalist economy), it has been compulsory , imposed first
by the introduction of colonial languages among regional vernaculars and later, after
decolonization , by the need to traffic in the hegemonic lingua francas to preserve political
autonomy and promote economic growth. Here translation is a cultural practice that is deeply
implicated in relations of domination and dependence, equally capable of maintaining or
disrupting them. The colonization of Americas, Asia, and Africa could not have occurred
without interpreters , both native and colonial, nor without the translation of effective texts,
religious, legal , educational (see Rafael 1988; Chyfitz1991; Niranjana 1992). And the recent
neocolonial projects of transnational corporations , their exploitation of overseas workforces
and markets, can't advance without a vast array of translations, ranging from commercial
contracts, instruction manuals and advertising copy to popular novels, children's books, and
film soundtracks.

‫العولمة‬
‫تكشف التجة بشكل ل مثيل له عن الختللت الت هيكلت الطر الساسية‬
‫ ففي كثي من البلدان "النامية")مصطلح‬.‫للشؤون الدولية لعدة قرون‬
‫ إذ‬،(‫سيستخدم هنا لبيان وضع التبعية ف القتصاد الرأسال العالي‬
‫كان لزاما الفاظ على الكم الذاتي السياسي وتعزيز النمو القتصادي‬
‫الذي فرض ف بادئ المر بإدخال اللغات الستعمارية ف اللهجات اللية‬
‫ هنا‬.‫الدارجة وفيما بعد الاجة للتداول *باللغات الشتكة الهيمنة‬
‫تكون التجة مارسة ثقافية موغلة ف علقات اليمنة والتبعية قادرة‬
‫ و ما كان ليتم‬.‫على تعزيز هذه العلقات أو تزيقها على حد سواء‬
‫استعمار المريكيتي وآسيا و أفريقيا لول التجي سواء من الرض‬
1991 ‫ و شيفيتز‬1988 ‫الستعمرة أو من الستعمر ذاته ) راجع رافائيل‬
‫ وما كانت لتتقدم مشاريع الستعمار الديث‬.( 1992 ‫و نيانا نانا‬
‫الخية با فيها من استغلل للقوى العاملة والسواق الواقعة ما وراء‬
‫البحار دون ذاك الكم الائل من التجات البتدئة بالعقود التجارية‬
‫وكتيبات الرشادات ونســخ العلنات عن الروايات الشعبية وكتب‬
.‫الطفال والنتهية بالوسيقى التصورية للفلم‬
The functionality of translation has worked just as well in initiatives mounted from
subordinate positions, some directed against empire, others in complicity with globalized
capital. Translations of foreign texts contributed to the militant nationalism of anticolonial
movements. Between 1955 and 1980 the most frequently translated author in the world was
Lenin , according to UNESCO statistics. In the developing countries, translations have played
a crucial role in enriching indigenous languages and literatures while supporting reading and
publishing. For oral cultures, translations are among the first books on the scene. For literate
cultures with advanced or fledgling communication media, translations have accompanied
lucrative deals with transnational publishers and film and television companies, sustaining
industrial development by building native-language audiences for the cultural products of the
hegemonic countries.

‫كما كان لوظيفة التجة أيضا الثر الام ف إطلق مبادرات انبثقت من‬
‫ والبعض الخر تواطؤ‬،‫ فبعضها توجه ضد المباطورية‬، ‫الوظائف الدنيا‬
‫فقد ساهت ترجة النصوص الجنبية ف إيقاظ النزعة‬.‫مع رأس الال العول‬
‫ كان‬1980 ‫ و‬1955 ‫ فبي‬.‫القومية التطرفة للحركات الناهضة للستعمار‬
‫ليني أكثر الؤلفي الذين ترجت أعمالم ف العال وفقا لحصاءات‬
‫ قامت التجات بدور حاسم ف إثراء‬،‫ففي البلدان النامية‬.‫اليونسكو‬
‫ بالنسبة‬.‫لغات وآداب السكان الصليي أثناء حلت دعم القراءة والنشر‬
‫ كانت التجة من بي أوائل الكتب الت ظهرت على‬، ‫للثقافات المية‬
‫ أما بالنسبة للثقافات اللمة بالقراءة والكتابة والتقدمة‬.‫الساحة‬
‫ فقد رافقت التجات الصفقات الربة‬,‫أو الناشئة ف مال وسائل العلم‬
‫ة على تنمية صناعية‬
ً‫مع الناشرين وشركات السينما والتلفزيون مافظ‬
‫عن طريق بناء جاهي أصحاب اللغة لتقبل النتجات الثقافية للبلدان‬
.‫السيطرة‬

Since translating is always addressed to specific audiences, however vaguely or optimistically


defined, its possible motives and effects are local and contingent, differing according to major
or minor positions in the global economy. This is perhaps most clear with the power of
translation to form cultural identities, to create a representation of a foreign culture that
simultaneously constructs a domestic subjectivity, one informed with the domestic codes and
ideologies that make the representation intelligible and culturally functional.

‫وبا أن التجة توجه دائما إل جهور مدد مهما بلغت درجة تفاؤلنا أو‬
‫ فإن دوافعها وآثارها التملة تبقى‬، ‫درجة غموض تديد ملمح التجة‬
‫ذات طابع ملي وعرضي وتتباين وفقا للوضاع الرئيسية أو الثانوية‬
‫ وربا يتجلى هذا المر ف قدرة التجة على تشكيل‬.‫للقتصاد العالي‬
ً‫ة مطلع‬
‫ة‬ ً‫ة ملي‬
ً‫هويات ثقافية تثل ثقافة أجنبية تبن بشكل آني ذاتي‬
‫على القواني واليديولوجيات اللية الت بدورها تعل هذا التمثيل‬
.‫مفهوم الصيغة وثقاف الوظيفة‬

Within the hegemonic countries, translation fashions images of their subordinate others that
can vary between the poles of narcissism and self-criticism, confirming or interrogating
dominant domestic values, reinforcing or revising the ethnic stereotypes , literary canons ,
trade patterns and foreign policies to which another culture may be subject. Within
developing countries, translation fashions images their hegemonic others and themselves that
can variously solicit submission , collaboration, or resistance , that may assimilate dominant
foreign values with approval or acquiescence ( free enterprise , Christian piety ) or critically
revise them to create domestic self images that are more oppositional (nationalism ,
fundamentalism )
‫ترسم التجة صورا للخاضعي داخل البلدان الهيمنة تتفاوت بي أقطاب‬
‫ة للقيم اللية السائدة‬
ً‫ة أو داحض‬
ً‫الفتتان بالنفس والنقد الذاتيمؤكد‬
‫ة للقوالب النمطية العرقية والعايي الدبية و أناط‬
ً‫ة أو منقح‬ً‫و معزز‬
.‫التجارة والسياسات الارجية الت يكن أن تكون خاضعة لثقافة أخرى‬
‫ا للمهمي هي نفسها الت تنشد‬
ُ‫وف الدول النامية ترسم التجة صور‬
‫النوع والتعاون معها أو القاومة الت تستوعب القيم الارجية‬
‫ الورع السيحي (أو تنتقدها‬، ‫الهيمنة بوافقة ضمنية) الشاريع الرة‬
‫ة تتسم بعارضة أقوى ) القومية و الصولية‬
ً‫)لتخلق صورا ذاتي‬.

Translation can produce this range of possible effects in subordinate cultures because cultural
domination does not necessarily entail a homogenizing process of identity formation. Of
course the globalization of culture can't occur without "the use of a variety of instruments of
homogenization," such as "advertising techniques" and " language hegemonies" ; but " at least
as rapidly as forces from various metropolises are brought into new societies they tend to
become indigenized in one way or another.", " absorbed into local political and cultural
economies" (Appadurai 1996:42,32). In multilingual cultures of Africa, Asia, and the
Caribbean, translation forms identities marked by disjunction , hybrid formations that mix
indigenous traditions with metropolitan trends. Although capable of diverse and contradictory
effects , the cultural hybridity released by translation has been put to strategic uses in
domestic literary styles and movements (switching between English and African languages in
the West African novel); in commercial ventures (transnational advertising campaign); and in
government policies (the legislation of official languages that often do not include regional
vernaculars.

‫يكن للتجة أن تنتج هذا الدى من التأثيات ف الثقافات التابعة لن‬


.‫اليمنة الثقافية ل تستلزم بالضرورة تانس عملية تشكيل الوية‬
‫وبالطبع إن عولة الثقافة ل تتم دون "استخدام مموعة متنوعة من‬
‫" مثل " العلن عن التقنيات" و " هيمنة اللغة " ولكن‬،‫أدوات الانسة‬
‫على القل بسرعة القوات الت يتم إدخالا من عدة عواصم ضمن متمعات‬
‫" و "يتم استيعابا ف‬.‫جديدة ترغب أن تتأصل بطريقة أو بأخرى‬
.(32،42 :1996 ‫القتصاديات الثقافية والسياسية واللية)أباد يوري‬
‫ففي الثقافات التعددة اللغات كإفريقيا و آسيا ومنطقة البحر‬
‫الكاريب تشكل التجة هويات تتسم بعدم التواصل والتشكيلت الجينة‬
‫وبالرغم من قدرتا على‬.‫الت تزج التقاليد الصيلة بالنزعات الضرية‬
‫ وضعت اليجينية الثقافية الناجة عن‬،‫التأثيات التنوعة والتناقضة‬
‫التجة قيد الستخدامات الستاتيجية ف الساليب والركات الدبية‬
‫اللية)التنقل بي اللغات النليزية والفريقية ف الرواية الفريقية‬
‫الغربية(؛والازفات التجارية)حلت إعلنية عالية( ؛ وف السياسات‬
‫الكومية )تشريع اللغات الرسية والت غالبا ل تضم اللهجات‬
.(‫القليمية‬

The status of translation in the global economy is particularly embarrassing to the major
English –speaking countries, the United States and the United kingdom. It calls attention to
the questionable conditions of their hegemony , their dependence on the domination of
English , on unequal cultural exchange that involves the exploitation of foreign print and
electronic media and the exclusion and stereotyping of foreign cultures at home. At the same
time , the globalization of English , the emergence of a world market for English language
cultural products ensures that translations don't merely communicate British and American
values, but rather submit them to a local differentiation, an assimilation to the heterogeneity
of a minor position. Developing countries have been the sites of translation strategies and
cultural identities that assimilate those prevailing in Anglo-American cultures and yet deviate
‫‪from them in remarkable ways , some with greater social impact than others. In what follows I‬‬
‫‪want to consider, first, the asymmetries that have long characterized translation relations in‬‬
‫‪the global cultural economy, and then the forms of resistance and innovation that translation‬‬
‫‪has taken under colonialism and in our own postcolonial era, where the imperialist project has‬‬
‫‪not so much vanished as assumed the guise of transnational corporatism (Miyoshi 1993).‬‬

‫إن منزلة التجة ف القتصاد العالي بات أمرا مرجا جدا للدول‬
‫الرئيسية الناطقة باللغة النليزية لسيما الوليات التحدة المريكية‬
‫والملكة التحدة‪ .‬وهذا يلفت النتباه للوضاع الريبة ليمنتهم‬
‫واعتمادهم على هيمنة اللغة النليزية وعلى التبادل الثقاف التفاوت‬
‫الذي يتطلب استغلل الطبعة الجنبية وأجهزة العلم اللكتونية‬
‫والستبعاد والقولبة النمطية للثقافات الجنبية‪ .‬وف الوقت ذاته إن‬
‫عولة اللغة النليزية وظهور سوق عالية للمنتجات الثقافية للغة‬
‫النليزية يضمن أن التجات ليست مرد وسيلة إيصال للقيم المريكية‬
‫والبيطانية‪ ،‬بل بالحرى تقدمها ف أطار ملي متميز و هذا استيعاب‬
‫لعدم التجانس من موقف قاصر‪ .‬والبلدان النامية مواقع استاتيجية‬
‫للتجة والويات الثقافيةالت من شأنا استيعاب تلك الويات السائدة ف‬
‫الثقافات النلو أمريكية مع أنا تتلف عنها بشكل ملحوظ إذ أن بعضها‬
‫ل الختللت الت‬‫لا تأثي اجتماعي أقوى من غيها‪ .‬فيما سيد سأدرس أوً‬
‫ميزت علقات التجة لفتة طويلة ف القتصاد الثقاف العالي‪ ،‬وبعد ذلك‬
‫أشكال القاومة والبداعات الت انتهجتها التجة تت ظل السياسة‬
‫الستعمارية وف عصرنا عصر ما بعد الستعمار حيث الشروع المبيال ل‬
‫‪).‬يتلشى كليا ليتنكر بزي الشركات العالية ) ميوشي ‪1993‬‬

‫ترجمة‪ :‬مسلم قمباز‬