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World War One
1. Background Causes:
a. Nationalism: Examples
i. French bitterness over Franco Prussian War
ii. Italian Unification
b. Imperialism: Examples
i. African countries, European countries had been
trying to out-compete each other. This causes
bitterness between them.
c. Militarism: preparation for war
i. Military leaders were having an arms race
1. Conscription: a draft. All began this except for
2. Mobilization: how quickly countries could get
their men on the field and ready to fight.
d. The Balkans was the Powder Keg of Europe because
they had a lot of tension in them.
i. The ottoman empire was declining
1. Russia and Austria wanted to take over Austria.
a. Strategic reasons for Russia- they
believed they were the protectors of the
Slavs. Slavs were the largest ethnic
group in Russia
b. Serbia=mostly Slavs and they were allies
with Russia. Slavs wanted to create
Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Southern Slavs)
c. Austria Hungary doesn’t want this
because it means they would lose that
e. Alliances:
i. 3 Emperors League: Russia, Germany, and Austria
Hungary. They all hate France
ii. Triple Alliance: Italy, Austria Hungary, and Germany.
Italy joins because it hates France
iii. Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia (USA later
f. Immediate Causes:
i. Balkan Wars
ii. (October 1913) Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia.
This makes Serbia mad.
iii. Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand.
Assassination by Gavrillo Princip.
1. Where: Sarajevo
a. Princip was a member of the Black Hand
terrorist group
2. Why: b/c Serbia wants Bosnia to be a part of
their future empire
3. Results: Arch Duke and his wife are killed. This
makes Austria mad and in a way brings on
WW1. Austria doesn’t declare war on Serbia
from fear of Russia Germany (Austria’s Allie)
gives Austria a “blank check” saying that they
will help them if they go into war.
g. July 28, 1914—Austria Hungary declares war on Serbia
2. Chronology of War Declarations:
a. Austria Hungary war on Serbia and gets Russia involved
i. Germany declares war on Russia France is Russia’s
Allie so Germany (randomly) declares war on France
ii. Britain declares war on Germany b/c Germany
invaded Belgium to get to France. (Belgium was
3. WW1 July 28, 1914-November 11, 1918
a. Scope
i. 34 Countries involved
ii. Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria,
and Ottomans
iii. Allies: Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, Belgium,
Italy, Japan, China, and USA
b. War Lasts four years
c. Advantages:
Central Powers Allied Powers
-Closer together, better -Surrounded their enemy
-Completely isolated Russia -Have more manpower
-Germany has best defense -Great Britain has best Navy
(at the time)
-Have control of the Straits -USA joins
d. Technology and New weapons:
i. British used tank for first time
ii. Mustard and chlorine gas
iii. Machine guns, submarines, and planes
e. Results
i. End of European Supremacy—America rises as new
world leader/super power
ii. The original problems (ethnic backgrounds not
iii. End to autocratic dynasties (Hapsburgs, Romanovs,
iv. Communism begins to look good (there is a
communist revolution in Russia)
4. Events of World War One
a. Western front: between France and Germany from North
Sea Switzerland
i. Fighting begins August 4, 114 when Germany attacks
against Belgium.
1. Schlieffen Plan: Germany’s plan for fighting a 2
front war. They wanted to go through Belgium
and defeat France quickly.
2. 1st battle of Marne was a battle between France
and Germany near the Marne River, it is
significant because it stopped the German’s
attack on Paris, and it proved to the European
people that this was going to be a long war.
ii. By November there’s a stalemate on the Western
iii. Trench Warfare- type of warfare where the soldiers
live in trenches lined with barbed wire. The land in
between the two trenches is No Mans Land
iv. Battle of Verdun was a ten month long battle
between French and German Forces. It was a
German offensive of the French fort of Verdun. The
significance of this battle was that the Germans were
stopped and the Fort of Verdun remained in French
v. War in the Air: planes were used by 1915. Zeppelins
were big blimp-like airplanes
1. At first planes were only used for spying
2. The Red Baronkilled over 73 pilots
b. Eastern Front:
i. Between Germany and Russia, more mobile but just
as costly.
ii. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a treaty between
Germany and Russia. It is significant because Russia
was forced to sign this treaty saying that they
surrendered and were no longer in the war.
c. The War Expands
i. Italy joins allies (1916)
1. The Italian front is a total failure.
ii. Front in the Balkans
1. Battle of Gallipolis was a battle over the straits
between Allies and the Ottoman Empire.
Winston Churchill led the Allied powers. It is
significant because the Allied powers did not
gain the straits and the overall battle was a
complete failure.
iii. Middle East:
1. Lawrence of Arabia was a British man that
went to the Middle East to urge the Arabs to
revolt against the Ottomans.
2. Sykes Picot Agreement was a secret treaty
between Britain and France on how to divide
up the Middle East, this treaty was written
before the Middle East was actually captured.
3. Balfour Declaration was a British document
that said Britain favored a Jewish homeland.
d. War at sea:
i. British blockade: British had the best navy and they
attacked Germans. Germans then started
unrestricted submarine warfare.
1. May 7, 1915 a British torpedo sank the
Lusitania. This made both British and American
forces angry. This helped bring USA into the
ii. Battle of Jutland was the only traditional Naval battle
in WW1. It was between Germany and Britain. The
significance of it is that at the end of the battle
Germany’s naval was severely damaged and it put
them at a weakened state for the rest of the war.
1. After the battle Germans resume unrestricted
submarine warfare.
e. Impact of total war
i. All countries began drafting (Britain hadn’t at first)
ii. Wartime government expands powers. Ex)
temporarily disband free market economies
(rationing), censorship (newspapers, etc.)
1. DORA- defense of the realm act. British act that
said you could punish war protestors like they
were traitors.
2. War propaganda
3. Roles of women changes, when the men are
away they take men’s jobs as their own.
4. Daylight savings time.
5. Turning Point: 1917
a. USA entry- April 7, 1917
i. This provides new men, new materials and a
psychological boost for the men of Europe.
ii. Reasons for joining the Allies:
1. Allied propaganda—we were tied with the
British, didn’t approve of German unrestricted
Sub. Warfare.
2. Zimmerman Note was a telegram from
Germany to Mexico that was intercepted by
USA; it proposes a Germany/Mexico treaty
against USA. It is significant because it angered
the USA and helped pull them into WW1.
iii. US forces turn the tide
iv. John J. Pershing
1. Led American expeditionary forces (AEF)
2. He was very influential, a good organizer.
6. Central Powers fall apart
a. 2nd Battle of Marne was the first battle in which American
forces participated. It was French and USA vs. Germany. It
is significant because it showed that USA was really a part
of the war, Germany is successfully pushed back from
b. Governments begin falling apart trend:
i. Internal unrestabdication (ruler gives up
throne)new republic
ii. Ex) Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and the
Weimar Republic is established.
7. Armistice- Cease fire
a. Germany signs Nov. 11, 1918 at 11:00 a.m.
b. France is completely destroyed, they want revenge
8. The Paris Peace Conference
a. The Big Four
i. USA- Woodrow Wilson
ii. Britain- Lloyd George
iii. France- Clemenceau
iv. Italy- Orlando
1. USA wants peace without victory
2. France wants revenge
v. Wilson’s 14 Points: Wilson’s plan for peace
throughout the world, he believed that if everyone
followed this there would be no war.
vi. Treaty of Versailles
1. Main points
a. Germany had to pay 33 billion $$$ in
b. Article 231- blames Germany for war,
makes Germans bitter
c. Germany had to reduce their military,
and they couldn’t make weapons.
d. De-militarize Rhineland
e. Lost Alsace-Lorraine to France.
f. Austria-Hungary splits into: Austria,
Hungary, and Yugoslavia
vii. The new countries that are created still have
problems because of different ethnicities, religions,
viii. No Anschluss means Germany can become united
with Austria.
1. The Polish Corridor: strip of land on the Baltic
separating Prussia and Germany.

Russian Revolution
1. Nicholas II: the last czar in Russia
2. Rasputin: self proclaimed holy man, very uneducated, claims to
cure hemophilia
3. Revolutions begin to form:
a. Many people follow Marxist beliefs
b. Lenin=Leader of revolution
c. Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks
d. Bolsheviks: led by Lenin
4. Bloody Sunday: group of workers and families march to palace
with a petition for better work conditions, Russian guards begin
shooting protestors
a. Duma: the protestors of Bloody Sunday wanted to est. this
legislative body, but Czar Nicholas dissolves this party
5. Lenin is exiled
6. When Lenin decides to return, the November revolution takes
place, which is bloodless, but leads to a civil war
a. It is the whites vs. the reds (Bolsheviks)
b. The Reds are led by Trotsky, who is a great leader
c. Red terror: when anyone that’s a threat to the revolution is
killed (secret police)
d. Bolsheviks win
Post World War
1. Challenges to peace:
a. Attempt at Peace:
i. League of Nations: Wilson came up with this, it was a
complete failure
b. Germany has economic problems after the war, inflation,
c. Dawes Plan
i. Reduces reparations in Germany
ii. Involves USA in Europe
d. Treaties:
i. Treaty of Locarno: treaty that says Germany will
respect France and Belgium’s boundaries
ii. Kellogg Briand Pact: signed by 63 nations, it
renounces war as an act of foreign policy, basically
makes it illegal
e. Democracies struggle after WW1, because of devastation
new political parties arise
2. Non-Western Nationalistic movements
a. Turks: Ottoman empire declines, its called the “sick old
i. Armenian massacre (1915), Armenians are killed
because they begin supporting Allied powers in
hopes of gaining independence
b. Attaturk Kemel: Nationalistic hero for Turkey, he drives out
the Greeks from the Anatolian peninsula. He becomes
president and est. a republic.
3. Arab Nationalism:
a. After WW1 the Arabs had been promised independence
from Britain, but this was not given (Sykes Picot
b. The borders were not well drawn, this leads to a lot of
unrest and instability
c. Ibn Saud: unites Arabs and creates Saudi Arabia
d. Palestine:
i. Zionism: favors a Jewish homeland (+Balfour
ii. After war many Jews came from Europe (the Hitler
scare) and they headed to the middle east, leads to
conflict and violence
4. Iran:
a. Reza Khan: leads military mutiny and becomes leader. He
begins reforms and modernization, he resigns and his son
succeeds him
b. Muhammad Reza Shah Palavi: becomes ally with USA
c. Ayatollah Khomeini: Palavi’s son, leads religious revolution,
establishes a republic
5. African Nationalism:
a. Africans wanted independence after WW1; instead they
become mandates for mainly Britain and France. While
doing this they become more educated.
i. WEB Dubois: African American, pushes to make
Africans aware of cultural heritage
ii. Marcus Garvey: in favor of pan-africanism
6. India:
a. Indian National Congress and Muslim League are formed.
INC is more Hindu, Muslim league is more Islamic.
b. Mohandas Gandhi: nonviolent protest leader and is
credited for much of achieving India’s independence. Also
led the salt march
c. Nehru: leader of INC
7. Japan:
a. Zaibatsu: large financial industrial corporation (EX:
b. Japan goes through a food shortage and rough times, and
then people want to return to traditional values (instead of
western). They want to expand into china.
c. Japanese invade Manchuria, the government hadn’t
supported this but the people support it. Japan is
condemned from the League of Nations as a response.
8. China
a. Sun Yat-Sen is president
b. 1920s warlords ruled
c. Comitern: org. of communist parties created by Lenin.
Goal: spread communism
d. There are two groups in China: Nationalists and
Communists. They unite to rid china of warlords. Sun Yat-
Sen leads army against warlords
e. Chiang Kaishek takes Yat-Sen’s place after he dies.
f. After warlords leave Mao Zedong=Communist leader,
Chiang Kaishek=Nationalist
g. Long March: Mao leads army on a 6000 mile long march to
shelter in N. China, 90,000 leave, 9,000 make it to shelter.
h. New Life Movement: merges modern and western ideas
with Confucian values.
9. Latin America Nationalism
a. With USA’s Great Depression, Latin America was affected
b. USA was accused of being slightly imperialistic
i. Good Neighbor Policy: rejects using military force in
c. Argentina:
i. Juan Peron gains support
d. Brazil
i. Getulio Vargas: becomes dictator, has fascist
e. Mexico:
i. Sort of democracy, Lazaro Cardenas=President, he
promotes nationalism.

Rise of Dictators and WW2

1. Rise of Totalitarian Dictatorship
a. France and Great Britain have democracies
b. Totalitarianism: of government in which the national
government takes control of all aspects of both public and
private life. It is usually led by one leader
i. Russia is totalitarian
c. Russia:
i. Peasants revolt after Russian Civil War,
ii. NEP (New Economic Policy): modified capitalism,
individuals own small business (very popular among
iii. Around this time Stalin starts gathering support. He
has a power struggle with Trotsky, but people like
Stalin better. He becomes leader of Russia.
1. Stalin is brutal. He purges many people.
Enforces atheism, religious persecution (esp.
2. Cheka: the police state, they emerge into KGB
iv. 5 Year Plans:
1. 1st plan: collection of capital goods, goal:
industrialize Russia, overall is a failure b/c
exploitation of workers
2. 2nd plan: allows peasants to have own farms
v. Kulaks: peasant capitalists (mainly in Ukraine). They
resist collectivization so Stalin targets them
2. Right Wing dictators:
a. Fascists, authoritarian, aggressive nationalism, anti-
communist, militaristic,
b. Italy: Benito Mussolini: he creates a fascist party, overall
not successful.
i. Black Shirts: Mussolini’s followers
ii. OVRA: Mussolini’s Secret Police
iii. Mussolini has brief economic success, Lateran
Accords: says roman Catholicism is official language
of Italy, and creates Vatican City
c. Germany: Adolf Hitler: part of Nazi party, gains control of it
i. Brown Shirts: Nazi Militia, their private army
ii. Beer hall Putsch: unsuccessful attempt to overthrow
iii. Hitler is put in jail, while there he writes Mein Kampf:
a book about the superiority of the Aryan Race,
Lebensraum (living space) and expansion of
Germany’s power.
iv. Hitler creates third Reich, Gestapo: secret police, S.S.
Guard: Hitler's elite military guard, Heinrich Himmler
leads S.S. Guard.
v. Nuremberg Laws: laws limiting Jewish participation in
social, political, and other aspects of life
vi. Kristalnacht: night of broken glass
d. Spain:
i. Francisco Franco wins in a civil war,
1. Picasso’s Painting Guernica
3. Attempts at Peace: LON, treaties, disarment, Maginot line:
French border along Germany, series of fortifications in case of
4. Security falls apart:
a. After WW1 the western response had been appeasement
b. Events
i. Japan invades Manchuria
ii. Japan and china are at war, (Rape of Nanjing, very
iii. Hitler rearms Germany
iv. Hitler annex’s Austria (creates Anchluss)
1. Austrian Chancellor resigns and gives a Nazi
supporting Austrian power, he is known as the
“fifth column”
v. Hitler takes Czechoslovakia.
vi. Munich Conference: rep. From Germany, Italy,
France, and Britain all meet for the rights of
Czechoslovakia. The result is basically appeasement
for Hitler.
vii. Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Act: between USSR and
Nazi Germany, says that Poland=partitioned by
Germany and USSR, and USSR gets Baltic’s
5. WW2 1939-1945
a. Germans use blitzkrieg tactics (lightning war)
b. Allies: Britain, France
c. Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
d. Hitler conquers much of Western Europe
e. Battle of Dunkirk: British troops are trapped at a port called
Dunkirk, British cant evacuate and Germans are
advancing, citizens donate ships to transport troops, it’s
called the miracle of Dunkirk.
f. Hitler invades France, sets up a puppet city in Southern
France, southern government is let by Petain
g. Charles De Gaulle: sets up “free France” in Britain, which is
a French government in London that is against South
h. Lin Lease Act: says USA will help Britain against Germany
i. Battle of Britain: air raid against Britain, Germans
eventually give up
j. Hitler attacks Russia and violates the non-aggression act.
k. Russia defeats Germany,
l. African Front:
i. Italy strikes Britain in Egypt, Germans have to come
save Italy
1. Erwin Rommel: good leader in Africa for the
ii. British defeat Axis powers at El Alimaine,
m. December 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack
n. Battle of Midway: Turing point of the pacific front, USA
defeats Japanese air force. Japan is now on the defensive
o. Tehran Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin meet.
Stalin says that as soon as USSR can invade France they
will, but they never actually do.
p. D-day: operation overlord. Led by gen. Eisenhower, and
Charles De Gaulle of the Vichy government helped,
germens were unprepared, the attack was a success
q. Strategic Bombing in Germany: British bomb Germany a
lot, a city that was hit hard is Dresden.
r. Atomic Bomb: First bomb: Hiroshima, Second Bomb:
s. War Conferences:
i. Tehran Conference: said that the allies would liberate
France ASAP
ii. Yalta Conference: FDR, Churchill, and Stalin met
1. Charter for UN was made to replace the LON
2. Agreed Germany would be divided into 4
zones, (France gets 1)
iii. Potsdam Conference: demanded immediate
surrender of Japan

The Cold War

1. Causes:
a. Tensions not completely resolved from WW2
b. Overall the two major superpowers had different ideologies
2. Results of war: Churchill coined the term “iron curtain” because
Europe was divided
a. 3rd world: refers to undeveloped unaligned countries,
usually poor
b. Containment: US’s plan to stop the spread of communism
c. Marshal Plan: lends billions of dollars to Europe, this gets
USA involved even more in European affairs
d. Truman Doctrine: said USA would help any country
resisting communism
e. United Nations: international peace keeping organization
3. Berlin Blockade: Berlin is divided because Russia doesn’t want
USA, France, and Britain to united their German zones; western
response: air lift
4. NATO: military alliance between USA and countries of Europe
they want to keep anit-communist.
5. Korean Conflict:
a. Divided by the 38th Parallel
b. North Korea invades South Korea, Seoul falls in 3 days.
c. UN sends help; General Douglas Macarthur commands UN
i. Inchon Invasion
d. Macarthur wanted to use nuclear weapons, but Truman
says no, Macarthur is fired
e. A ceasefire is reached
6. “The Red Scare”: Senator McCarthy leads anti communist
program in US; he starts the red scare, meaning fear of the
spread of communism.
7. Sputnik: the first space satellite, scared Americans because no
one knew what it could do, this initiates the Space race
8. Warsaw Pact: formed in response to NATO, it is an alliance with
Soviet Union and its satellite states
9. Revolt in Hungary:
a. Nagy (new leader of Hungary) abolishes the one party rule,
and allows free elections, and withdraws from the Warsaw
pact. Soviet Union comes in and violently crushes the
10. War in Indochina:
a. The Vietminh league: supported by china and soviet union,
led by Ho chi min
b. Dien Bien Phu: battle that caused French to leave
c. Vietnam is divided at 17th Parallel
d. N. Vietnam: communist led by ho chi min, S. Vietnam: led
by Diem and western based
11. Khrushchev: new leader of the soviet union, he did de
12. JFK starts Peace Corps: volunteer organization, it is a non-
violent way of stopping communism.
13. Space race continues: Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space
14. Batista overthrows Fidel Castro’s reign, he becomes a
a. Bay of Pigs: failed attempt to overthrow Castro’s regime,
CIA helps Cuban exiles, but at the last minute of the
operation Kennedy withdraws his support, causes mission
to fail
b. Cuban Missile Crisis: soviet nuclear weapons are
discovered in Cuba, we get angry and put a trade embargo
on Cuba, Soviet union agrees to withdraw weapons if we
remove ours from Turkey
15. Vietnam War:
a. Vietcong: supported by N. Vietnam
b. Gulf of Tonkin: President Johnson says that two US ships
have been hit by N. Vietnam,
i. Tonkin Resolution: gave president permission to send
troops to Vietnam without actually declaring war
c. Operation Rolling thunder: bombing raid on N. Vietnam in
order to pressure them to stop aiding Vietcong
d. TET invasion: supposed to be a ceasefire (b/c it’s a Vietnam
i. Vietcong launch surprise attack on S. Vietnam, it
makes US realize that they have had little impact on
the situation in Vietnam
16. Prague Spring: Dubcek (leader of Czechoslovakia) attempts
to free Czechs from the Soviet rule, soviets arrest Dubcek and
restore old order
17. Détente: period of relaxation and improved relations
between the two superpowers in the 1970’s
18. USSR invades Afghanistan and ends détente period.
19. In the 1980’s Lech Wolesa forms Solidarity (a labor union),
they aim for elections in Poland
20. Mikel Gorbachev: new leader of USSR, he enacts reforms a
little too late.
a. Glasnost: allows freedom of speech
b. Perestroika: economic restructure, allows some free
enterprise, democratic qualities introduced, encourages
reforms in satellite states
21. Springtime of Nations:
a. Wolesa leads revolution in Poland and becomes president
b. Romania: Ceausecu is dictator, he’s overthrown and
22. Berlin Wall Falls Nov 9 1989
23. There is a coup, Gorbachev is kidnapped and he is forced
to resign, Forest Yelton takes his place.

New Nations/Africa &

middle east
1. Characteristics: all previously 3rd world
2. Ghana was the 1st independent country since 1945
3. Pan-africanism: unity of African countries
4. AIDS was common in many countries
5. South Africa
a. Demonstrates apartheid: legal separation of the races,
giving whites superiority
b. Homeland Policy: black population had to live in certain
c. Townships: areas outside of town designated for blacks
(usually bad)
d. Resistance to Apartheid:
i. African National Congress: (ANC) starts with passive
resistance, but after Sharpsville massacre it changes
to more active resistance
ii. Nelson Mandela is the leader of the ANC
e. Arch Bishop Desmond Tu tu: is against apartheid
f. President F. W. De Klerk: repeals apartheid laws and frees
g. Mandela is elected President in the first free elections
6. Rwanda:
a. Hutu vs. Tutsi conflict
i. April 6, 1994 Hutu extremists unleash genocide with
clubs and machetes
ii. UN Belgium peacekeepers are assassinated, all
foreign support withdraws from fear.
7. Uganda:
a. Idi Amin: rules by terror in 1979
8. Conflict in Middle East:
a. Israeli Palestinian Conflict: Israel claims they have a claim
to the land for religious reasons, Palestinians claim they
are the original inhabitants
b. Zionism: favors establishment of a Jewish homeland
c. Balfour Declaration: stated that Britain was in favor of est.
a Jewish homeland
d. UN resolution: partition Israel, Palestinians and Jews would
get half and half, Jerusalem would be an open city since it
was holy to a number of religions
e. Nasser: leader of Egypt, promotes Pan-Arabism
f. Yassir Arafat: leader of the PLO
g. Suez Crisis:
i. Nasser seizes Suez canal from Britain, Britain,
France, and Israel attack in response
ii. Technically Israel wins, but they withdraw because of
pressure from other states.
h. 6 Day war:
i. Nasser Challenged Israelis to a fight daily, Israel
attacks Egypt and destroys much of their air force
ii. Israel gains Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights
iii. Jews build settlements in new territory
i. Sadat: becomes new president of Egypt, much like Nasser
j. Yom Kippur War
i. Surprise attack against Israel on a religious holiday
ii. Israel P.M. launches counter attack on Arab forces, a
ceasefire was reached, but everyone still refuses to
recognize Israel
k. Israel also successfully drives PLO out of surrounding area,
they go to Tunisia
l. Attempts at Peace:
i. Camp David: Sadat says he’s willing to negotiate,
Carter invites Sadat and Begin (Prime minister of
Israel) to his summerhouse; Outcome: Egypt
recognizes Israel in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula.
ii. Oslo Peace Accords: Clinton meets with Rabin (new
Israeli prime minister) and the PLO (a.k.a. Arafat);
outcome: PLO now recognizes Israel in exchange fore
self rule in west bank (like a state in USA)
iii. 2000 Peace Attempts: Complete failure
m. Intifada: uprising
n. When Yassir Arafat dies Muhammad Abbas succeeds him.
o. Hizballah: militant Lebanese group supported by Syria.
They were the dominate political party in Lebanon (by
p. Revolution in Iran:
i. Shah Reza Palavi: takes throne when his father
(Muhammad Reza Palavi) steps down from the
throne; some people didn’t like him because he was
too western
ii. Palavi and supporters flee, Ayatollah Ruholla
Khomeni sets up a republic
iii. Palavi comes to USA for medical help, leads to
hostage crisis where US embassy members are
hostage in Iran
q. Iran-Iraq War
i. Saddam Hussein: dictator of Iraq
ii. He offends Ayatollah with western influence and
persecution of Shiites
iii. Causes of war: dispute over waterways, control of oil
iv. 1980- Iraq invades Iran, USA helps Saddam b/c we
view (at the time) Khomeni as a bigger threat
v. Kurds: ethnic minority in Iraq, they rebel against
Saddam, they want independence, but rebellion is
harshly crushed.
vi. UN negotiates a ceasefire, but no resolution is

Asia and the Pacific since

1. India and Pakistan:
a. Muslims call for independence they want to for northwest
India (Pakistan) very violent partitioning takes place; you
then have east and West Pakistan, which later becomes
b. Dispute over Kashmir: leader of Kashmir is Hindu so he
wants to make Kashmir part of India even though more of
the population is Muslim and should go to Pakistan. It ends
up going to India but there are still border clashes
c. Now: both countries have nuclear weapons and there are
constant border clashes
d. Punjab: has the largest population of Sikhs
2. Afghanistan
a. Mujahedin: holy warrior, Islamic rebel groups
b. Taliban: Islamic rebel group, very strict interpretation of
Islam, they fight for control of Afghanistan against the
northern alliance; they have very harsh punishments
c. Burka: women’s clothing, covers from head to foot only
exposing the eyes
d. When the Taliban refuse to hand over Osama Bin Ladin we
drive the Taliban out of Afghanistan, Northern Alliance
takes over
e. The Taliban are now hiding and attacking when they can
3. China
a. Mao is now the leader, he transforms China into a socialist
b. 5 year plan: focuses on building industry, industrial
production increases
c. Great Leap Forward: all about collectivization, goal: create
a classless society, it is a complete failure
d. Great Cultural Revolution
i. Goal to create a society where peasants and
workers are equal
ii. Little Red Book: collection of Mao’s thoughts and
teachings. Only important source of knowledge
according to Mao
iii. Red Guard: revolutionary group of teenagers,
against anything western
e. Mao dies, his successor is Deng Xiaoping
i. He creates 4 modernizations: industry, agriculture,
technology, and national defense
f. Tianammens Square Massacre: group of students gather in
Tianammens Square to protest for better living conditions
and end to government corruption, tanks and troops crush
the rebellion, thousands are killed
4. Taiwan
a. Chiang Kaishek rules there, its Nationalist China
b. Generally prosperous, major issue: unification with china
5. Japan:
a. Devastated after WW2
b. General Macarthur stays there, he destroys Japan’s ability
to make weapons, puts war officials on trial, and lays
foundation for new Japan
c. Japanese Miracle: went from being a devastated country to
an industrial power in 50 years, political, economic, and
social patterns helped
6. Cambodia:
a. Polpot=leader of communist party,
i. Khmer Rouge: Polpot’s guerilla fighters
b. Polpot becomes leader of Cambodia, he kills 23% of
population during rule, he wants to create a agricultural
society but fails miserably
Struggles for Democracy
1. Ethnic cleansing: killing or forcibly removing someone from their
2. Autonomous: self governing
3. Slobodan Milosevic: leader of Yugoslavia, rejected ideas of some
republics wanting independence
4. Thatcherism: economic policy by Margaret Thatcher, limited
social welfare, restricted union power, and controlled inflation
5. Richard Nixon: US president (Watergate Scandal)
6. Pierre Trudeau: prime minister of Canada, passed the Language
officials act, this gave French speaking people rights
7. Magic Realism: form of literature that is popular in Latin America
and it brings together realistic events and dreamlike or fantastic
8. Organization of American States: (OAS) called for an end to
military action by one state in affairs of any other state
9. Manuel Noriega: military leader in Panama that was arrested by
US troops for drug trafficking
10. Shining Path: radical communist group in Peru, goal: create
a classless society
11. Deforestation: clearing of the forests
12. Greenhouse effect: global warming caused by the buildup
of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
13. Falkland Islands: place where Argentina invaded in order to
distract their people from their economic problems
14. Pinochet: Pinochet’s rule in Argentina became known as
one of the harshest rules in Argentinean history

Terms and Concepts to

1. Shanghai Massacre: when the Nationalists killed many
Communists in the city of Shanghai, it was during the civil war in
2. Sitzkreig: phony war, the time when 6 months passes during
WW2 and there is no fighting
3. Battle of Stalingrad: most brutal front, Germans take the city of
Stalingrad, but during the winter Russians cut off electricity and
water, they are forced to evacuate