GOVERNANCE

AND STEVE HUGHES

WITH A FOREWORD BY CRAIB N.1fUIIPHY

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Contents

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F.(}tNI'ONf: ·WJJva1r oiJ.r/~'nJiw~ w gloimf jft.>!Il"I'jltllJ.:e' hi' O'(Jig N, MfwWn·

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'U Lessens f[llOOl 'G~flllam C'mTImlllJn .~ce ~Il'J!!I!: altem<lti~ ~.ppr.I,K9~ht;'$ ~iI ;l:lfi!i;lli! K~~!TI~~~

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Inustr.ations

figures

2.1 Inl,l!ma!ii!l"11Jl !inunciiil ar.t::~i~-eluIT 6.1 Global ~Hrnlth gO'\l'em~llre mapped

TaMes

1'.1 Glob<il economic g()ve.ntll1l¢¢. 199'1' lZI 7.2 Fcrmal distributlon O'f ... O'til1l!! :pa~r in the I.Mf. 2000122

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:U. W{M~'iI1:soim[)iIl~;h~ World Bank's 11l",ui;o; 43

33 ]"heprop'J\s~d! I't>",erty Red:!JiCtio:n Stral.egy F'~~ (PRScr') 46

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Contrlburers

!Paull Cammack h Professor ~1!I1.1\~.~ :Depi~rtmcliU: I,}f(;;(J¥et1i1im~rn su Um Univershy of Ma:l1Chesl£.rcl!r[~m'ly ~lldlOO as [)ir~oil" ,of (l,mdlla,~~ Stu.dlioe;s ill tlli.': Gl'adlJ<l!te SanO(l] fir S()~~a] S(.';i~. He is engaged .ilMi 11 M.~rJ.:lsli:n]e.r-· jJ'f~tali{lni of the p;)Jj~ks of tim oOnll£mpol<lryglobal e«I:Lliorny. of which the Cilmpl.e:r j:')u:hl:isl:red here iiS a par: .. His most recent lmClik is Ctlpir.aHsm .amI D~m'(lcr<!',(.~JI irJ' tJr~ T1lir't! Wal'"lOl'l (C!l:Sfie~~ll.eices:teil" ll.h:d.vers,itYPlrfss. ~ 9'97).

iRi~~rd D(ld~M is il research Qlflict:r ~n Wiidl;:,nitlg pa!tJcip!!~iO!l ,~!I;I!il,iv¢tsitics for~he: North [East of IEliIglilmd. J1'I this,pm;t he has r~:~~]}' completed the lint stage af a oomp;;l:r.ative project that. examufles. the wi.detl~r1g I~00C;S5, polieiescn a l!~ob~J scale, Prior ~o ~~kiIl.i~Jlhi~ ~l,Jne~U p05t. he I:=i.vedlhis doetoeatefor 111e UtlJu\<e:.rJsit~ of Ne~vcas~le:, arid rerellrc3fied arndpi!lb~~!ltiJrlli! In. Hu:." fi:r'~lIs or ~iUt~~9n~saL;on. illl.e.r..Mlh~tl,an polul.i.caleaofiomy, !1incl.:ru~ i!l]oblil.~ ]XI1iJ~j.cs (l'f~~~nthfpzy~mla;ti{ll1 ccntrol,

Lo",~ine Elliott is !Fellow 1111 the Departmsnt zyf [nt~n1I~ti(l!Lt~l RGlali,OlUl5 :!IT!d Gmvenor of the De:pal'ltnilerlifs Pos:~gr.lldlUa~e Pmgrnmme, at the ./\ lls~rnlhlll. Nt!ltiom!~ lA!l;y~rhlty .. SlID;: h~~ · ...... vi~~t;[! ~~~~~~~iY¥ly gl:1j gl"'b~l ~~l1\'lnMIII1I~~t~.l go~marlJreall,d et'l''''i:L'{mmel1lt~lsecmity .. A ~tlicl edition o:f her I1I1iOiS~ reeent boa(k., Tb« Gl,obaJ P(lliti~',~ of !:lr~ Ejlvi,"~m~lr.r (Macmillan, .~ ~g} is. in pw~:mmtio'n1 • .s~ hfl!~ b~~n~.Vis!~ung F~IlQW ~n the Aii~ R~~~~rd! C~JJ~!["f;' lit n~e Londen Sc;noon OIf ECUllfl)ftl.[CS and ill V!sitin;g Researdl Fe~!ow ;)[~ IbIIL[l~ Colley!:, O;o;.f~lrd,

RaooaD D. G~mai!l tcad.het irJ!~t;Tt]j~,tio«mlpo!itic91 ~~onQmy !!It the Urlivetsu~y o:rW1l1er., Aberys,twy;th. li.e is too lIutl:tm ,rnf J1r~ INlf!J'rJarir»JCll OI'gm'Ii:::a. litm oj"Credh': sllm:! and gl'Ob.aljin.(Illc>e 'I~ ,rhe 1ll<lrJd,tlCO,IIomy (C[lllllbridge UrliveTSi~:.' P.!1I,':~::;, ~9~7), ~Jld dile cdiliofOr (tla&a#'g~~i()url1Jdhr Criti.t.'!f.: p!N'sp'l!t.tr~lf!s fMm po/Niw} t£'OJ;fOJPI.l' (Macmman r.msS(.. WOO). Hen~s 31150 p!lbii5:hcd. in jOIl,J1<ib !Ouch asthe Em'ftpEf1Jj' J(Jul'1ra/ (if .1rJ'J~'fIMllir;!!l'{J.l .Rd,~(ffi.1f~, New P()filu:at Economy" R(],·~'e~' ,i)/ hU,(jm~{frm(!f S/!Idl'es, Imdl RerlJ'e1l' It/.Tm(!'I"ful.,io/l{!1 .PtJ!j"I't:,d Et.\(}n(ymy,

Nig~i Uawonth i~ Professor of [llli:rnaHc)Ii<!l :Bu.csiness i!LL tile Url~'I'e['sit)' 'of Al,Jl1,ikJ"rno., N~ Zeal.~ndL flk is cu:rnmHr WQfki!l~ 'UI!Jj ,a j:1I:rl'1!dJ~r (iJ" 2i:rc,ii$,

Omlr;'bflIQI"~ ix io.t:I,u;diing Il:giorn~li3Mi,omJ and. its impacl 031 labour and ,~~Jbq\!!r m~itels (e~peci.llily in, A.PIEC). the fusion of 1'['Ilti~~tioilaIPo,Htica.l Ewno:my with labou," 1l:Jcla.tions Ihoory. SME deve:lollm~lIG; inthe Asia-Paciflc RegiolTh • .alld 81.!5taimlblc MI!lI[l!'i ('vmme:i'cial dewelojlll1lellt. His II1Iaillte,,~hlDg interC'_~tf; are, iii tile politreai eeo:mcomy of tlh.;; A~~ilJ1I .-er;l.t'bI'l, aJild the nature and impRCI~ of economic 'iiJlli.e:i'Dl<l.tjoll<llisal:~on. He works d{l<!;e11l'Il;'ilh local amI natlonal gO'l'lilmm.ent ill New Zctllaatl around ecoaomle developmem issues and :repreSf:ilts New Zealand in a number of ioi¢rniiti(iilal forums..

Sit!!le ]-]u~~~ is Senior Lecturer in ~,n~emiiJjo:lU~ Uusall,~S!; il:UiJd ])jrectol' of Ori.Khl<liW Sq1;!.dl~ 'tin the Seheolef Mana,gement at tnt: Ulli~rsii:y ojjf New· casH-e, He \ ... -as Se,nior Lectnrer ip Ine Sd:u}{,U of Business ami Econ(lmks 1I1,lhe U!lim,sit\' of Auct!al'ld. New Zealand, Fellow ()d'llte New Zeal::md APEe Stt!dy C';'m~, ~t1;d V~~iling FeiJow :1:111 the Depa,rl:m'Cl:lI Qf Gk,l'it-e:rl'lment at the Ulli¥ersity of Ml1i1JdhcstCT, Il.e h~;s pubHs'nedi work on uade 3mi labour SllImlavd:s:, the intersectioll between illdu,SI;riild relations and lriier,mltioll.lll :re.l11~IOns., <Uild Ih~ ,p~lili('ill =:o:m~' ,oj AJ'~EC IntegJrl!l:tO!l_ H'Ll h",~, ,ycl,OOl as .m. ~;D'iliser OI1i uuum:na:tiIJJ:li!li~Su~f: ie a 1l.1Jmbe~ o.fllliJ;iJLlF and, noa-govemmemsl ~)rgatiISa~i01Ls.

m..uC'j)' J 'Ulles was awarded h<L'TPhn in. [ilie:ma:tiolJlal Studies :I1rOJtl the U:lii .. re'Ts.lty OD m~mi~:!!hl'llli1 ill 199;6. From 1997 to 2(1)1 she was Lecturer iDii ]ntCrIll.itU(lnnl Rell<lttcms ill the ,(A.IilfI:r,e roOr ]l1l"iITI;jItli~iliifi~ PoButil:S. Department 01 Governmenr, l!li!i'o't:r.>i'ly (Jf Manchester. Her research i!r¢aS we,re !l'J:~er. libe' tiew security a.gemlll. Ilfi1d International RelatiotlS theory, She; is OO"i'!!!.!Itnor (wi~h Terry T.eniff. Patrick MOJga.'1l and StLiart Croft) 'of S~t·r.rrlt_v .s.rudi~s ':n.J~J' ~'('a.mbrid~:i'olity,. 199'9). $~ has since ~!han~, eueeerand iii cu:rrentlry studYblflg for a, Diploma in Couilrelling.:md. I'llycnother-ap), at No'!tililgl'tilttl Trent Ul1iyersily.

:St,eJill~JI]ie l~",',soD is 1P[()fe~so.f (lf [iltema~i{iilUll RG:JILIJOI1lS 11.[1('1 Director of EurOpeail. and [ntem.uiun.aJ Studi;:;~ ill I,lite School oflt.oo]1omic and S(K,iul SU!!dies. llnivc:rsilJ' of East :\Jlglia. Sbe wa.:s pr~\'i(!l(lsl~' Fellow iODhe R~. search School of Pacific and h~iill:t\ Smdi.es at tn-c AU~IT,Qlinri Natioftal 1IJIiliv.er~i'ty., Her' IIlN5e.lfIl. J'(;5e~:rch nlil'l~n::~'lS focus 011 iS5~fe.s cOililccming_ culture, !:1:bJnicil,)'. nal:i.o[)i1lism, and, d.cntocr~~")'. B:od c.urflbioe comparalive' and normative ~ppir()fjcih~s; to, the study of world pditics, She is tbe author (.J:r'maii~r boot: chapters "m'lII.lidJ:s dealing with tlle.se issues in the Asia·Pacifrl:: region, He:r becks include 1'rr;uJl'tf,rNl Vl"J'nw .l:1tlliOol\i'(l(I' (PI the S.(J<Jj/Ji Pacific tC!lml),L'~(U&t lini;rer,sily Press. 1996) and The New Agl'lJ~lll ill /l.rl'el'f1all'l!lml ReIMh:ms (P'o~ity Press, 200 I )_

Ke4ley L~ ,is Senior :LecI1J:rer in Global H~~Uth Policy. aildCo·DirecWr of HIe Centr'~ on. GIQ'b.!i!is.aHon. En\!'~rollmlZ:I1:t:;11 Ch:;m~ and Health ai, (n!;; London S~l.oo1 of Hygiene and Tropical M~dkine. She .is Ch!i!i. nf the World Hl;3hh Orga,nisati.oll (WHO) Sciii!,nufic Resource Grou,p 011 010b31- isalio.l'I. Trade and Ht.'IIlth. and on the SteerilJg Committee of lite UK

x Cm11 ... i&r.rli~r.:!'

:PaH.I:!iC:r5h!i,p fQ\r Globli!i Health, Her r~mudl in~,"r'e5<t~ fbcllS Qlllh,," imp~~ o.f~ooo~iis3.tiol1l(jil OO:rilimlinkal:i~e!li!.d 11I0~"",Clmilllli!~c3ble diseases. R'ecetit p!llMlCOltiarns; il1ldiIlde l100hh PtJJky .in t.I mflhali~i1Jg W(J.r.ld,co~itW with K. Bll5e tliliid S, Fu;s!,\~ki~iII, {C8mlYrid)ge U11u'!'llnlnl), Press, 2002}. GirAKlUwl.i&i~ iilitd'l:le,(j,la,,' Ali j'i1.1r&tlrKlifNi {Pa~vt', r-:~i'tltc(lrning) anti GJafNti>f~Jitm <l!l'Jd Heofllth: Case srudJ'e5 (P!lIlgnl'i'c. f{lln:hoomillg).

(raig N. Murph" is Professor !luLd ClNlir of PoJhical Sci!i!l!Ice~,t Wellesley Co:l]eg,e~:ndl R.eseamh :P:l\Oife~ol' :It ElWWfi Ulll.",ersily·,s. WalSonln!!itu!~I1t.e· (Jf h!lJ(;rl!laGiOIi1I!~ Stlldk~. :t]i~ wwS; fQCl;IS::::; '~Dl jj[IJ~¢rml1!tiQJi!!!luDl5!tiI~.iQ.m il;ndthe ·polil.ica~ eCOIlO:Jlf];:," ofineoqJurdity a.e.mss,lun'eS O!r,enass, gende~, region, e(~nicil'Y. ,~nd: moe" He is ,all!ltnnlr a!f1II~1!rIMI,riru;rCll Oi'grIfl1>f/I:fir.m lInd l'mJm~ lr'l~l Clr(J/'!g~,- Gtohal G(I~>er1ff11fce S,~14'Ce 1850 (P'omhy., 1994) ;';111'<:1 'Gl(lba~ Governalilce: Poorl)' Done and r.ooriy UndeM(I(Io(I', IIW.1tntU,lmwJ Afjairs. 7&: 4 POOO). He j~ iI f[}!ll!ldhi:!ledi~[jr !(If Gl~J (i(j1j~.nJ.(lIWe, whiiehr,{;od;ved the 19'96 award (lif~he Arm~rici:ll1 Ass.ocUaliQ[I of P'llb~islaern for Ure best !!i.ew senola:riy jicbllnlllll!il.busJllf~S, !,he humanines, .:ilii~ '!he ~(jtli:!J:~ scie:li!:ie~~ lk is ~mTt1t,'d!,ii,t~ pa~'t"Wfc5a(,k~t {If '~~'[n~~m:;l:~{lir:H~l S.ttd'~t::S Assooi<ll,tioll {ISA) and Ch.ail' of the Academic Council mil the Ul'l!uued Nation'S System (ACUNS).

i(:a.ro.'rlIUl 'fmmlls h Pro!F(':!iSCoT ~l G~r~intl Politics a~ th~, Ul'lireT!;ity of Southilimp~oll. Sh.~ ~5, inl~r' .. ~W<I ji[l the in~crf~ce b,"~weoll dl>ve.lopment nudies. a'nd ~~i)!bal'polih'cs :ol:iHI has p'i!J.b}~~hi!d wideny on human ~.!ltlilrri!.y concerns, m~ll1;"~rnHy.: 'Wh!;:!'e i~, fh.t~ ThJ~rd Worlld Now?" Re'l';i;,<!IL'~f hl"lN'lJatw.1r<l1 St.flIij,~s. Volml~ 25 Sp~i.al Issue, n~nbeu 19'99~ Glot!(~{ 6'oH?nJaJ'lI.!?, D~'~~/tJp¥l1e,.rfand llrmwn S!!TIl,reJ'ty WI.UJioPre~. 200®}, anld (<<!uit:d wi~h A~!lk 1'I!yDor'~ 'Gloh~l li<ud'li rmd atob~l Sm:iar lssees (R{lI~~tkd!!c, J 999'). She is cuuently 'MJ.ri:ing on human f.eCu:rulya.nfl I:he gloool politics of hea~!.h.

~i~ktl~ We_ iii R.t:!)tllf[;h Fdilow at ~h~ 'U:n!tl'C fQ'J; t~c Study gf Gl{1001i5~tioll and RegiO:Ll~jJs~~iol!l" Uni~r.sityof W.,;m.t'Ck. H\::[ in~er'es,ts <Ire bro.a.;ily in SnClbaI pahtlt1ili.l: 'lIC(io~IO~ri~_ .Fle~tllli'MD.i. focu:& i~ Oil ilil croo~~i~ ~ob.<!~ (k",dC!pment ~Tc.hi~iOCt,urc andits cmbood~ddilleii'!lill f:ra:Iill~\'vork8 of g:l{lb.,,~ gOve'rIl~I]re,

Rcrr~ Wl~l~il'lwn teaches illl.ei!'n:ll~ioml~ re]i:ltuon~ andintemanonal pOlitic.lli ~c(ln.om~' it! tbe Geli1J.rr,~ for·lli1Ji.erli1J~tio~ml Polil~~, D~p.;!rlmcnil of GQ'~E:rI:!ment, UliliVoC.r~ty of Ma:ncitesi;er, He is Cfj!l1"SnOT of (1Jt.e II!I.E'f!!latioJJ~I~ Pa~iltlaal EcaM'0i11Y Gr.(lul' (I.I~EG) 0;[ !he n~.~.jsbCI~iFI •. erna~lotl,;j~ iSl!!ldies. A5000da~!ol1i (IUS/I.); !'Ind aUI:hor oJ .M!jllirmr:;ra/c'fsl!I (mri rk~ H':orM 'lhl,de Org<1niMtioll {Rm.!ltle,;lge. 2(00), He isprnrn.:lri~y int~~es,loo Irl UiiI:die, g!loh:al g_..;we.rnat'lC'.e" I:aDQlJt[llil(jpIT,ldlJo!l~a!_Hi.!; ~rk has b¢~i'I pubHs..Ih.ed~i'l, aml)tlig others, the Jr;"~-'nUJi(}f WrJ-r./'d 'lh:!de, New P:alUir:.fll Ec"m~my, Glemal Gtn\~r~to I1!1CC, B,rUlSl.! iorltl'il(il (Jj'P(}llti'(,s' ,(Jm! fnwrli.fid(JnulReMllo)'H·, En~I't(mm'!!:nt{jl PtMi~I'l::.~, and lm'erl~li1JJml Slwti~!i P~l'!jP'I!:l;·I.ii'i!'1'_

llN G~ooi~ CQjj"'~l!t!Q!1 .~.c;! ~!t!~~, f,;f!ib'\l;'·~;r!ll~ng f,'.!"Qvicl .. Q. to !h~ UN 8scin:'1a:rri~t a.Lwme: SSCN!:rhy Council by its {tWIl o:ffi.csrs hl Ml(l; (meld., ArI;1Jlyse~ oflhe etiology of the ge .. iIloode Il!arne nm. on]l'~he Secretariat, the S~clirity c.t,lrl,l:jj~~il ~[jl~ jt~p~.-m~Ij~~~ m.~b~.~, b!!~ alsQ~llc mIll)(; in~li;m'>lklDlHlI~~kl COarnntl!Jjlt)'" :plt!!olic and 'p,ui\1)lIl'e. which fox l\lre.llty yearn HlllrMJ:tIi1od. a deeply a~d..cllepetbdenl .r,e.g.ime tl~"li:ncreas;i:ng!!, inculeorl. ethnic l1I"tHxi! i4n.d~lQk,n~I;:_ ~ The 'C~IiJj~~~_~~~ Qf die f~~!~w 19 ;,p,.~n thoc gmooJ~ 11111~rnol!rlt~cl f:r~:mli )'l\~[ to yeal.'.ille -rutsi mtHt~zy gove.rt:1!me:r.1!t 1}1;III: sei:re.d! jl(>Wef to :lotop~lle SI;llIi;!ll1ror ~rnt ,i)ri to trigger .~.c~8C .... dle of c~jjtirnrui:ng W,U"'R across C!:;[iltnd Afric~,

P~rJliI1J.B p.Q>Ci~ and I.h~ IIIvQjoobol~c~~dl~gvioieJJ.Ce of r-egiollilli war. filt'ldi,rI(g ways te efftcl-et'iHY j)ID'o'ide essennal ]f[t.eti'i.:llucmal g;aads[ljilt m~tl!:eH wti~~ never provrd\l:::. :!!Ii!d dllallk:ll:.&ii!Jg~J(lh::dISl!~iQn·5 5udld~1Il reversal of .he 1w~ntVt.~h·.;~ntm;l~ 4t.:mocPiI:!lc gll.in~, ~:I{~ OOLm of!3l1ll most oompeiling reasons to try W llt'1d.e.t',sta!l:'l£l '[!:'i.e .~elimlolls s.y~i.eJj.'l:'i.or€Jobal ~OVCrrllli:'i.ce. This Iboo.k makes a m1!jQJ oo.~]~r~but~orl!Q the 5ch.o1mmip tlIiiJ. 1:tI1~ ~ttemp'tOO!!o !lYro...ude thlltljJnderslllndj~!g. r.~e'l'IQiII1fsly., ~hat literatere, li.Ke ,gilobill i\!love..rn" ;).rlDe it~Jlthii~ ilot~~~~~ thai. u'dl dbelapetH ..

J""m~5, ~o5~n~~lh~81w.1~. usunderstand t~ IOI~ ,of 'p(rUVllle tl<lrl5[J.:lit~omd auooiMLoOns" A ~'ilofkl Irl \1!'hich wl:r1Sform<l!hons.ln. teleaornl!l~llJn:i,;:;at[o[ls h;(l\;oe la·wtte.il the ~!'!'; gfp()lit~1 etI.~atian ~:i:i.cl! cre;i!k>ti. o'?portl;Jl!bili~ ... fofJ;r mqre lind more subgwup03 liO work with. Qn~ iI~odiL~r is <'I, wIDrld of nll~SJil]gly skl~ful. citirerlsafble to aet both abeve anti! be;low the le-",e~s ·of U'L(iil.tOna.i iJ]~li~t11l] jXili:tk:;.,& .B!ll W:~f'wC mi:ghL ;lISk.., has 50 mueh O'f • .ru~5 cr~,tivt;t ri'JQ¥e,' ment in WO'f~d poilhics, JUS! added ~I:I I!D' the: su.p.r'e.lIlla,;::y of llle J:l.Wl~be.nll agend,alboUl wHI:iln, alii":! aeross :sl .. il'~~?

S-oci(l~ogi:sts of the g,tarum<il U nive:rsity-c~"I:flei;l 'worM polity' schoo~ a:liliSWI.l([' that gbobal govemance is lin eKpressi,o~ of IilleraU !norms, a {lo·evo!v~rlg social ronsHuct[[')~bi:!sed. onthose ~Oirms.? Xi.iliow-ei Lila l'tas;e\'f'f.l.a:r~ued th~:li'f one looks at dil~ ~v.olU!ljaii or~~hJ1.o1ogy"'f~~ organisations, W\: can see a tfJIlSf01'.mati.o!ll. of the g'UOibal libeeal eulture away fmm. a free·, iJ]lJ~r:k~Jt fl.inOOl!m~!l~~H~rn characteristic IJ't thl;: l'I.il]C'l~~ru.hO''::lJJu.i:ry and 1i.OW00Ild "soc:L!l1 d.evelop=lt'.style l~im~li£m sumil~T to tha!li.mdeliifung dl.e UNDI"s bruad ci!I.I'llS .for the i:m'pfOI!;Iedlpmvi!!li0l3 of globall plib~k; ~Dods}

O~IiIi;r sc>c~~1 ~lJ:tl<5tn.lcli ... ists, fg;r ~~~!ttiirle. ]XI'li,.i~~J ~~iepil~S~'~· Mal!1,~2.

Fimlemore and J,onn RU!l!~. m~t disagree, Ii Significantly. on~ r~~~~st re.hfil!ru-IJ~& ~r~Lled t5lillt ,e\l1!ifi. some 01[ 1.1\e 1ir.l000l<u'idely to!ll~,&Ire,~dln.es fOIF!l:n.ed :;!mOl~~ di!.(; :mo:;;L-priviilll:'W;:';! m,uiqm - NO!i!h Am~Tiot'4l!l Fn;!!: Trade AgrQeanent (NAf'l'A) ami the Emo~n M(iiJ:l~t1il.ry Syshml1 (EMS) - all1l.{I'U:Iili~.;:d~{I o;)~J~ffi".~ imiJlQS'~~.lOi:i!~ upon Canada's .lLi.oor,fln£ :and on soutbem En.ri.roP(:;)1l i!!OV~TtlImerits (If 11ii.e CG~.t~ :m.d th~left.'G l'bj\: dean of ~IUM il'l,tlOmi!:Ii~Il:"l Jl'Olirical eCOl~.om)' Uri ~he Ulliited :5i.aIll'S, Princeton's Robert Gilpin, is !J.J[II:Ji~er, ~'lll;Jlillg ~h~tir th~.-e,~s .:.nyl.rnurlg ln~t ~Mb lik~I!Lberill gloiJilI.l gUfVllrMncilu~. is lin expression ef the po"",,e.r and pmeren~5, 'orth~ UIl:i~,.d Sit1:lt,.50,"

Yet, it is {\f!itilhl1y ilOUIlI,r.!' til~t" Susan Stra:tllge deoo~.eci much. of trt-e em:!: af her ~Dr~to de..m~'UlstniHng th:a!. !lhe U5mnd ·iii;\e.sre.rlrl Ecu:ropeill:t1 gtJ ... ernments

~m[t;clt~ :r~POIliS~bl~i,)' fo!: .sjvungll!!p ~t~;~e p~~ ~Q tn~glooo~ I11car.k~~ t~rO'lll~h a s~rtes of'nti£1fil3!'. s.al£!r~·tei'm relf·.illl:e~este(j d)l1lC;l~ion~ withcensequ.etl!t~.~ fi.">t(lgnl$Cd Ii,> d.is~!!i~oQ~. by :!It l\e~!!i' !;iQIDC poliliclll leadees 0111 both ~cl.~s of tne A~~ant~,t! Moreoveu, the ~ia~ fOIItes th~.t have condllueo:l to iback tile jj.60LU~e~~l ~endlJj ~re, t~iJJ~y!.tatl!inBtiojj;;:i1. wi:'l!ilCin lm.pli~ ~h~:!. ~o> ~:mdClli~iLml ,conilil::rn!Jouu:YFlilohafi go>vcm:1i);J.CG ","'C :0000 to cl(l~~op a class atlill~y.sis tha:~. tr~:nCSCImds natienal oou!l1td~r.i:e.s, ~omeJI.hing thai. ~he flot"lo!an iP'd~~edI b',' R(Hr'detI Wilkirn!iOJi i!1i the !irs!. ¢hi~p.\ler Qfthi[s b(lok hi!li~ atilicmpl.Gcl, Y~t, ] cloubl.[MI3IUyof~1S w'O'uld <lrgue dnat we !m.weg.:rnen it qJuite dglll. If true~e~s all. ·emef@ellt global. n!)Mst .. re speo~ft.c capilaHsD elass, ill~ !If:l1tai.t1·b' ~vol"ili!g. :!IlQnS V,I'.l~!h American j::<I'\'l'Cf I:I!!'HJ I:nc ~iIlS~itlutiQiIls or gilob.a~ governaooe, Global gove.ma·noe is net sdmp~~ :1.1. ~upeifStroc~me responding to lh~ Int'~ref>ts of an alread!y differunti;a,t·ed! gJollal til.liing class, h is more a :sl!te, OIlJ.~ ofma:ruy ~te5" im. whic'h st[ug.gb 'OWl ~Itn.pow'~[, !iI:~howileclg~ are ta!kin,gplare.

It milY bemore accl!!ra~c; to a.:l'gl:l.l;~ih!l~ CQill~].PO!<lry g!1(1hll~ go'/V,maJlI;!:;; femllins al;li~edicl3llae iThstitntiollllll response Ito. to the illt'e.~ests of a [lilly!Formed. 0hl:~s~ brilt W "':I.e (I'o'era!!Uwg:le o,r irl(j~w$!.t.lia~ ca:p~!.illis.tO". ·Ecorl~mk:. ;g~oba:L~1'!tioIl' .l;!im:l~rmoOOl as in<iu5Jtriiai 'C1lp'itii!.~ism·3pr,.tlSL~r'~I(I\1l'a:r~~~[g;;:r andl larger m.llrfu.et areas, n.ecess!lri.ly me!ll!ls that ai some points. the' real eccncmics will escapethe ool!jmlidaru~~ of stares, a~ ~he gLobllH ecoIliCImily h:ll!i. today, CCHu!m]pornry oIOOeUVW:S O'Ir;;: bo~nd to se~ sueh momentsas re:preseIiiln;!l '!.r.ulillmp!h:s of tne mojjJ:'ke~' "}"'~F i.he S:i!l.!e-, but, no doubt, ~t tn~ same timll there ..... ill be :oiJlimlt~(lileQU.:!i p.w:s~.~:re W ·~~~~lili:sh l1cw~n~·tit~liQIiI~ of' i!.lowm~ll~ a:1 ~ '·.ruig]lo:r" more inchm:i¥~ Je'O'el •. ~:t lells~, 0'11 the levroJ ;]I~ WaU~C~l. newm~rk·ei8 have develo·pedl. Hi8lorialls of int'ergo\<eft1!me.lltal!)rlli[ltl.isatioi~ a[!;~ i!lw!l!la~iQU1i~l ~n~~!!fal~{Ito: fl:oll.~ tiljll ]Q.r~hc l:!!5lt two> C('fllt1lIi~ at least, the ~deol(!gy mesr-otten used M jU8~~fy new, :pawerfWlI, and 3!1I ton Ol!l:l!01!lS. intern,,··· ~iMalms!tih]!tiO!Ji5ha·5b~l:'~ .~. kind of'S'Ci~llta5m" 'he !!rs~rn'::r!~ ~lIJU ~her~ I!r¢ :;o;c:i311~.!bs:lJjrli.d3i, ~~Ijmic~llllsks~hllil: :slilould betil!ut(j)1)j over 10 "il.:qJem/ to be done fOr IB_

This hrr~lI!Pi us FIght. back to ~I!.~lion5 of demoeranc d)~ory; MU50t :!!liobalnsation !!1lwitail51y be aJoomnpa:rIItedi by I:h:e~mi"dem{lcratilcgiOvemm.e11D of 'eCli.ptrtise:' ~tlDy then()I!i-.W" ... ernment ofrniu:'~C!J~atiQI;i <l!leve~more inclusivc: I~'i'cls? Is it ~sibJ~ to ma:rsh~:~ dl~ .~g:t!lit!lrl!l1U fQr~ thai ROst1];:tn,l. !lO!rI'>aNly sees asb.:l;i!i:'Ig e.rnpoweredlD'y (lie tec.l'Hliologtes. o:f g!lob:l!i~t~on to create ,~ d)emocralie s%telIl[')rglo~~J ~~m:a!lOC tha:l W{ll!l~ OOI!hprt\<CIU ~~tltiono{ the I:r.agooie5 of the post-Cold Wl'IJ decade aud jJ'l'GvJ.de ~5SC'Jl.' ti~~ g.OQt!~ 'lha!. glalDa]. m!l!flJ.;:Ms. will M~ pXQvkk?

Si~rucc ~n~ md IJf~b.c C©M Wa:r. OLW ubiqJlJ!itol!5, imp~dililJ.Cinl.fuI~~lxlcilil Us. :fb:rejgl!l polky, The US llias.gI¥en rhe~Clriciii]' 51iI,pp0I1W II ",~,rie~y ·or iIllI'l.OVi.'Il·· liOl'l$ ·~~gklb~). !l.om!!i!.·ii'I,'iX from .elq)~ncl.¢d. hi!l!m~TI~~ri;l!!,! (j~J:'iI~i[)~$., t~ the \'asta\l!end~ of the Beij~ng women's eentereace, to the cT.e:llt~on (lf~he:

Inl.:er.l'I~tio!li<'l1 Crin~~Il;;jJ1 ,Colli:'LYeJl US .~0tion.ha:sllOt rna~dileduls WOil'iI~,. pit.e'!llMl'lirng Se.cmily C~!l1n.dl a~H{)~iltl R wanda,rd'l1i~in~ ta. ad!h~r-e ttl ~.e

fq,€~~f)rii xv Oand m~nes.' ban. and Criill'lltl<lJ W11i'~ ~~!fJ1I!!:!'!t~$:iI~ i~ ti!lJ 9fi~m~lly ~h~WI" rioo.¢d, a~dfilili!!g, ~r a;ft~r:l'(;l!u. top!1;yits UN dues, Jonn W~.s~burn (oll~e the 8iei.L1im' US citizen. .hli the intem1l:.j:illli~l d'i!~~ llervii;-e), cal'd1:l!H~y ex~bi"~""'l'iy US rQliH~! ~~]~\:i~ :l!:fi~ ~i!1~~i~l!!!.tiQgj~ !!I~~I!!![¢~'~!t the ~WIJi~J.:i' w.iJll lrHIlilIill ~Il ~IIC9J.1;s.uum~ leader and, ult~mlltely, am. ohsUuctkMil to tbtl s~:rel:1~tHl· erning lind diemocratislIition. of glolrml. govel'1lJa!llDe, Washll'l:ltlfl\ :IId.1fiClL~ ir.!tI ign()re!ihc! US, t~.ll(;~~:hce UN 11!lr;a~~OO~ wi!;lQ .~d~o~~:~G· lis ~!tfl>Il!!~:nmi:l:Ig .~mrl dl'lm.ocratislIJ.:i.'O!I to. 'leek a:fterlheJllseHves', I ~

Arguab.Uy, !he Irn,temahorlt!l Crimli'laJl COl.l!rt Treatysnd tfu;~ Oltaw~ COUl"!j"1,m~iQIi1 I;m l~I:IJ1;~m!l1I~r> ~f~~u~G~~:;.f:1!!!1 d~!liIQi!l$tr.t_tion~ of (tJJ~~ ~!tra~~gy, B<Cl~h i.ue SigLlifi~1lt exrensieus ar in.te~jHllkm:;\J hllJjf.i:.1Jilita~i~ti. Oaw p~oill!llJotedsy the po3lti[)a.l' le<l!del'£i'!ip of dose US .~lJl~ !I1md ~n'M!-glJ"oIemmc:maJ mOv¢lIl¢'ms whh ~ d~ jmi~dc ~h~ US, but a~ilik~ o,,,.,..r the ·oppositioll of the us gover.tlIment..There ls alsc 1:e3W:t'1 to believe that.beth l[lfi!Ci'ila~)lI:t'ls carl h;ll.ve !li!1}$1 o.nheir di:'S~m~il:ff~c~5· ~Vl;JJ witt{l!~l US ~dh(',w:nct, Ih~5tra~:e:gilI;;~ used to~~il~ ve hmh tl'ellti,!lS sliIgg.estU:l.lu h i~ poosib~e, ~i1 some iields:, to numl'y the impJ;ct of the US'~ S:e~I'iiLL(i,I! of :PD'MeM ii!id .niilS[Dr)' ()f i:illl<ili(Jrn that :[livc8the liS k:SJu51~~.(Iir5 t~~ rower a.1Jd dt:~i[t; to block cl,"mo~TIuil;; 1l' ...... :G:n.cgiOIli5 of .~oiJ.a1 gOowmalloe,

Ufifll:fmmJateiy • .r~.w {If I.M oCDIfIW:t1t~O!fi!; l1i.eet!~d to etlflb!iS:h .~.mDn.:l power-· {ul !l!miroorc dA.:::!1IOCra~k [(llnlll IJ'f gJomtl !JOW~J;rIi~TtOl!: CI.ti1 be dc~j!!ncdtln!l cle~iiy, as ~f1ch of the ~~iolJ:l:l ofth~s Il'OQk makes clear, Whe~e ~ignUka[l~ cQr.r[)ra:~.~ interests !lr¢ likely to 1;Ji;: i;n:ipli~"!I!i!Jc>d. ""'~m: rca] ~~~ClmIpl:5 arc ~dng iIifl.u(k to c(m~J<[)~ IUCflU;Uvr; :GJQ:lJqll markets, wh~t some >iLllaly~l!s. ha ve called the 'i~dI~s(pens~bdnhy and ,trudel~msibility' erus p-oti,c),. Is Ii.lkety ~,Q remain_I"

Many anlll]ysts. i.'i,\rnilJ leave it 8J. Ihlli'l_ If Uile !Stlt:n~tl:l,eniu~~ 0nti. JI~Itr:iO('l";ltiS3it~(mof ~o~lllQvCm>l!!!oc ~~ro not in US intl;:N:~t!i, ~b.clJJlhel"C i~ no p-RUl:clW' Oa~ plltm.ill plIrs'Illns sueh g!)"O!llllllt~1 the US'~reJahve~; slaarp~~'·doc.1it.1.e,s, ]f tht:: mest ~rrlil~ CCOn1Jmllllc in~~rc~lt~. oppose ~Iudi ~d(lpmclrnt~, h b d~fik~~t .'0 imagine how [hey can be Imrsuedl sUOCllSsfllilly, III oCmUr~s., social !l~ll1ls~t~~i ... ists n:cognise 'h~t UIflLe:toe;si.!; arc never given~ they are ~lis.totlca~ly Gmbtl:dd~(L GiI1:1!icl!Xl social structures, $ubJ!:!cl. to ;:ethililking .and cn_aC!:lillg di:fT:ereiltly, Not ,u:rp~is;ill,gny, m.llchou John Ru,ggie's work as i\:nis~.lIntUN :S¢~iteti!l:r:!, Cl¢r.Let,ijO :!;i!l!PPoTted Ki).~ At'l:r12:1'I.'~ dYat! to o;]QtI .... inoe Ameri'C;)t1 and i!l1(llmJ~ C!JifpOn!.~ ka,.;.bs. to (;hlll]~ \;!;!.na:t tliN:y !.mdC'['s.l:!i!1d as their (!i'i.\!~'UI!l'C'J"-· ests' reJ]aUc~~ to too U~'8 :JigendJ;l.Y

M<I;I"!Y of ~ruc aurhors ill l:hiS "Ohlll1li;: would n::i .... ~ 1l$loQk cV.en (!,utner, nor O[l.l;}, to ~he w:lI!Y;S in wbkh. inwu'esl's areconstrueted. bUI ,dso at the wa,)'~ ~1iI wlnkh Hlllpo~iti.cs of grobi!i.l' govemanre ~ea.d:s .~~ll part~dpant5 lo think. ill ~erm~ {Ir .lPO'i.\!~r ~:5 th~ .~.bm~.y Ii[) contrel OIthc:r:;; - (l"th~TI; "",I.b. o(!ompetil!l~ eCOIliCJIIlliiiC interests, o)Ither:s wulh d.ifferelilt cli!l~'.unJ l,utdJt:ntauding3,.'Gove:rlill" anoe' migITIt .~)~(ll.mpUy a cu:nce~t of po\1,'er~h;]t emphasise.s c:Jllabmt~. power as the iltiJilityw 0:10 thillillS. rollroeoti'Vl.iJy mid in.QT'i'mdUl~IIy.. !JOlt thn:n:lgW onesided. 'expertioo', :but democI'3J:icaily .. Undeil'S~oOO. in those ~:e:r.ms. ~he iJ'D'litica] s::p:fI()~ ereated by the re,ll need !O I'e=re:g!!ll:.te " l<lifgl\r. more i:n.cl!!lsili'e global

.. ~p~~!i!iot ~~N!Qan)', m~y pr,oviQ~ Q?porl!!!i!iti~~ for ¢WlUin.g ~~ 1~~1 seme !lls~itutiOI1iS fm co,n~c,tuve, gilo.lJ;,a1 solidarity t~l~t would. Ch::l]]f!llge th.e erolliOi~. oi,J1fdellilocracy., Dhl': economie :uMqu!i.li!y, and theinsecurity Ul:il,tlila'i!l::~arlk,:cl th~ wwm remit Qi gliobal ~o~oJ:.i1~iI1O<,

N~l'es

I R,o:1.mt ViI,. CO);;, 'StrueL~rnn Issues of Glo!l:mL G()~nNl:t1ee; Issue for :Eurupe'. ur:J Itooetl, W, CoY'>:. whirl TIifIj()~hy S,ilL(;~iT, Appr=,rhe!s to W(}Ild (),:!kl' {Cl!lmbrid~c:

Ci'im:br['IlIg_e UllliVl:rsi~:y I'llt::!~" 19%}.

2 See ~pL"Ci.aH~ .. part Ui off'n'I\'idH~I.'d. Dem.acra~y,t:md ifJe GJ&M! Onlel':frrm~ jhe' NIl'!IkrN lUaU ,,~ oo.WlJ~P&i1'{l1J fO~ml~N~ (Cn:lnillriid~, ~~Iil.y P~ss,.I!99~).

;1l 1m@" K.!lm.l, l5all:m~l'I1 (ill;Lmb!;!r!l ;IUd! M~JC A. s~~fJi {~s} Oi1)I1(J'l :ArMit Go1)(is; m~w'li!ifl!t;Mtgf to(!l'&ml)'()~ Nt ~f.j~:2 h, Or.ilU;!"J'· {New Y(!(rk~ CI.:dtrd Ujji~~i[~ :f'r.ess, ~ 999), AlliltQlP(m~i'iit e1I:rlieif n~dy 111 Ih~ h.a{Jil,jc.:tl t\i;;'Lil Rubel] P. Metldli:;.:, l~ltl!r·· rM~'li!:mYIl J'lflrli< .Fimm .... {New York; Q",furd Uni'vcr,5"i:ly ~ 1992,), Allw ~. W·iJ'lrg~n:g H.I"tI::lTlk:~!t,. G1{Thal FuMM: .Pr!/icy: g .. m~fJlil.lM lii'i1fJtlNt g- .. ~ ... rml.le/'r'? {W~·· iD:!1JtiJn. DC TIila Bmolt~~ 111l~!illlltio,Tl, 1998~.

<IIOD~ of the 111IMl dA!~~~.~ti:l1Is, 8~~Uu~ti(ln~, rtf Ih~ impaci of ~l(!ib~!iiso!lti,Q!'l and ~!!!e' 1l11!01:r1l:'et·~fl)motv8& J)f.!lcti.oeS, of tile 1Mf ~Jld.W,orld ilwiJat. ou tbe poor was. l!1ladert~ke~ b:i'tbe Dep::lrtiflle:m~ of S~i<:il Ml.\cdiciilte al. ~ll~6J.a:rvard, M;ed;iQ'l1 SchooL Sedum Y (l;roll K:iIli'L, J,~ V, M~II.eo< Aiec [[>I;'.in anu J.6hil. Gresham (eds.} IJJ'ir{g flYT GWIo1'r.Ii: g.llJ'fmJ i~,I8fil/'(l.lilJ' (,Ina ,hi! !re(,lfrJI. {1f t~'e PfJfN' {MaJ!lHl~,. NiE: Common CmJJ:1!I~ I'ri!~"~. ~IJOO),

5 PeterUvin, Aid.ir!JI· Vil:'EI!\\I'IT: Jftufe~ttJjJ1JWl~ fIller-pdf{! lfl RmarJrill (W~ Ha:nlJ:[]y;,t, CT: K.~!'!ii~rilJ:fj J'.rGSlI, 199[1): lmltl:l1Witoo:ilall'lInell .e.f Eljai~e.M r~s(lualut~s I~ .liI· !!~"'i:i8<i:l~' ~h~, i.99<! (:ie.ooo;ide lttlRW<l:IlId:a ~:tild, ibe S~;m)iJllding E"e:mU" R~~\(lml:.l: f!rI~ pr~I~'mr,jl/l.~ p~wtMJf Mddls Ab~t<.l; OAU.lM.l; M:ic.b~~I. D~nl<:tl, EY<!'!'i,r· mws ~lJ' Ge-lr!ocM.r: IfJ~ Unfr,ex/ N~lri:Cm!i fJrla R~ .... md<7 (hh~.Cil,. NY: Corrl:l~11 U~hoerM~Y Press, 2()()2}.

(, Sc~ ~~~iIIUy, James N .. l't.o~rul.U, TIJi! VilJteil N(11~m "I .tl 'TIll'lmlem iil'1lJ'ld {B';llJ~g\;r, ,CO: iLym~!3 f!.~Il.n",r, 1992}~R.Q~IJj~~, ·Cig~~!!ll:m .... i~~ t~ TI'J~I~~.y .. fj~~~ O~mui!'Y', ,Gi(i{J(JI~)~'.fFi.!!l\\!U 1: I U'995). IlP, ~3-44;: aud Roo.etllllf.!, ..:Iforigrflf [J(}m~.t~lf FOf"eigii Fum,irrr; 'r!'~:p'/vti~go~,mjurJt'1.' l~ {f mrfmll!:ii1 ~!'~)!"M{Ci1mbtl.a~; C,lmtmclge UJiil\i{:r~ily T'l=. 19~T',

"1 JIlI1!I:I. &Ii. ~rUJ Goor,~, Nt lIh~IJiI~~. Ci.>II'I1J'lI<:'~ing· W;wld ('"NfrNr<'!: inl'1!fII<T,'Mmrl NtJ1JgrJ'llemfl1l!1ltat Org!mizr.lll'tJ",;!, .!li.nf:e Ut75 (S~811J1'o:rd:: StRrlfimd. Um:iv·ers;il.y Press, 1~~9l

:I: Xia(Wo!g! !..U(I, 'Tbe Rise ,of t!1~ S"Oc.i~~ De'ilelo<pme.~~ Mod~!:lmiii'l!iioml!~ C(IJ~·, sU-n,lctiotl of: Im"rnat~ollial. 'fCt;~m.J()g)' Of¥,aniztul(>HS, l·R:5G-l99.J.', li'l~{ftitlf.riolNrMl :S,rr"li~~ Qr!ll_mrly 44: 1 {2000), "po. 147-1,5.,

~" Mart~2i. r-dm:rn:mo~,. Nm.irm~r lnr'f!:rf!.sl!5 Hl fM~mr;rli=J s.acie~y ~ithm'lZa. 1'1''1': ,C'ry.mc:i!1 Urnh'Crrily f're:lS., 1\)%); Joho.lJtmld Fi:.mgg5t::., Gw.rstn«:til.!f.rlu!' WarM I'di1y: <'!BR)W <>1.1' i~I'i<i"llr.ljifmal in.5rilrJlj'tJ~afl.w,tl [London; RD<uH~~g.!:', 1.99il!).

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L1 S~fi glif;]~. The ~ln'(~r (Jf ,lui :!!Moi~~e (,C'Wl'ibrilllge: Carnlbnd~ Unri",mi!y l're~s, 1¥J6} ..

1.1, JO'lin IL WI!:lil!~llJm, 'Ul1lvt~ N~ti'O!l.'!'i Il:JI!!wti()lI~ w:i~ll tllB U!1Ji,t~d! Stl!l~~~ ']iJlB UN Must :L!loO~ .An~r: l't~If', {'ilova! G~~'I~",ce :2~ ! (199-(j), pp. S!~%.

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]OSeO hlt~m~lw~:,!I.l OEglIni5:lllion of :So~!Iriitic~ Comml~ion~

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lhruited N:iiluml~ Research ]"r1!~HHH.e ftlr SOCU£!.1 De.vel.oprneni:

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World [E.c(ln,o:mio FOi)llm

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W,orlcl Trade Ou~ni5'iltuon

WorM. Wid.e Prlm.d fol' Nat!JJ~e

I Global :governance

A preliminary i®terrogation1

Rarden Wilkinson

:lnll1~ Qf.."ioknu d~:s.~ bet ..... een dliUlm~beating protesrors alL>CI~olmC1)!p-~1yle 'JJ'!Y1ice .kn Seatt~e; w.1!I,ter-caJ.U:liOJ:1,.nfe-c:rlld:::e:rs and te3!f gas in ce"tr~~ Pt.:lgue~ and ~h~ ,Q!'illmplb:lsodyor.~ .de,rnOJ:!!~lriUOit ~ho~ dlr:,ad by po!k;;"! in G~<J'J~, h:a:vc combined ",ivid~y a:odlr<agiClllly to br1llgirtmli'ie thetensiens ~.mdeNiiflill;g glob· a~isi!tti(lt1J ~:r.td .IIS sy.stem o(govetl!anae. Though altempt~ Ila V¢ been m~l(le to d~~tti~!lle de.rn;OIil~lr~tiDE'i5·0lJlo;f h:!!!iid~iIld. de:plet~hcPllnidNnl:5 :-Is. liio~ning more 11,1l!l1 <I 'gJ:O!bal r,e:nli·ll.;mob" the case for OOlld!!l,ct~llg arig;Qrous interroga~jtm Oifaoilte:nlJp0f;ll.'ry g!()b~l: gOve.ttl'~I'l(le hlii~ nut been we:;dZL'1:1cd, (}lobilJ ~n~q~liht:~ ~ntI1liI;lO'nI1i~ ~!ld w~nJ~h, lm!:;Jrf!:L!jj~~OIl pr·ovl:s~on. '!Xl!W'C~tiOIl. and nrc e:t]JErien~ cominue to g~G""'~ I:!I'I...nronmentllll[)egra:dOl:tio!l continues Waccele:r· ale .~irld IolppcilI:S uirllikely 1()· ·lJ.ern~!. wuth ~.p?ropria,~ p[}Uu~i~""'1 ooh!IJ~,i.tm~; ~riId th~re remains a l1iI!!r.lted d!e.rk~~ iii! til;:; dllC$C:'I, d!:mocm~j~ acooU:U1IllIbmty find kveLs of .rr.a.tl'SfJa~·ency across the broad lIfrny of WOJ:lit:l nistitutions,

Yet, ~U!ihQ'lJ8h ~h~ ~~~ot!~ fOt~[jn{l!~~~ii\g ~. ""~ril:c':#I,¢' ifi~r=ff(lgu!:ibT.1. :Ill' g»r)b~~ ;tSOVSr.[I~ill~ am oo:rnpe~ling. i. is poorly Ulld!!lTS~.o;:;d inthe Jitsruwrs. With the excepnen of~. srfl~.l.I., bUll. :!;~g,I!Ilf.iCi!lnt" group of Wholafs.l tile d:bsdpline~ (If ~l]t~!11~t~~!'I~l !l!1~~jQ\li_" a~dI i!'lte~~ho~~d p~IUi~i~al {lu[,)lfIOmy have %:rg~Jy 1iI:vQiidiOOl oerlgll:gitllg with a phenomel!i£iuIhlll: ap\PE!an to .ch1lJlo11'!lg!l' dwf{mncda. HOifl~ of eK~sHl'IIg WlW[]lfO_ G!o:ool fl,U'\!f:rm:mce .b.:i'!!arlo!llsly ueated as a f~d" lin ""'Y'!Jww!'l"IJr h ill d:is!iDi5~ O~t 01' !Ift!,!Q, n.:; di~JJpl,~n~'~ ~"Ii~t Qr!b.~dI(Jxy remalus wedde(!, to a:r.i u:t1d~ergt~:ndl~lfIg of wO!rldpoli!:~ ti'IIU pe[t'ed"'~SStl!it05. <li; the mOSt !;igtli:I'tcalii'laotol'S. and a~,trilbWes liule tolhe role on~rer,~,u~o'ruJi w.pni5~nwm. or I'JQJ1';S~~W i!<1;:~)IJi~~~ Thr·ough 'tli!~~~ '~ll1Js~~,SI!llhld ~Qlll'!1:I1!YirlE"¢ carl be mulersWoc! O!l!Y asa hjl1lctlcm {If (Ill'll nlIit~mali(lI:1J~~ dif>triib'U:~~{i[l of pot)'weI. ur 3:~ 01 r:L:~ul~ of tiJl:~~.."i()iIll"~1 pr~ctlces, nor.ms, rules mnd, declsfion .. milking proc~(h.l[fiiS th~:~: h~,~(1 d~~;;IQiP'>G o~r time_ Ew.'.TI tn[)~~Uib~ru:~ institlit&oDla~l\sl'!l 111:.1<1 IlJil'le sOllghi toquaUify ~eaHs~ a;ssIUll:r.lpti[fJls~:l' EUgge;sli:n:g ~ha' i!iL'.c:m~ti();n!!1 i~:stg~I,!'l~O!l:j ~!!, 8!!pa:nklilbr' j1ill]ctures,.h~ .. e a :si!;lrlmcant impilct QII~r .. :!::ma.tgollJ,a1 in~:e:r.~l;:tioli!, lI;rl;; W~~ of~!lI~st~onf> thar a ~y!>~!!T.1 of i\lUollaU ~(jvei'~a:1:'ire has el:'t'ie~geda1.1d is taking fmlill.

]:[1 those f:cw ~J]s!llinci;:r; w~~n globOlU gove:rlruilln£eis Mbil :serlortlsUy. It is commolliy deemed :SYI1.1YJ1)'.DlOl!S w.~~Ib .• Jiw d~~dQpm;:;lu ;,If in:tt;;ma'!Qm!~ QIg'l.m:· ~S;oI.H(m: (l],iUrro;:;e~ uf iilstinltLuriaHsatioi! which. sino~~t 14l:..'Ist .:he IIIii!:I~dI!e of

2: Rf)l'(len WjJki.!1~l'{.\lr

tn~ IJIIJ.GiIWiJl1h QiLi!t!!ry. b_i!;li sc!l!gbJ~Q r;~'t~lb~i~hmQlIDientli Q(r.~lItholilty d,.~igl1~d toce-ordinare activulies aercss sl;lIt'eilo!l.m.il.ar.i.es. Here, theeme~!:leilce of a series of ins:tltun:uon~ tl:il.tull(l '-he II!un~~eiJl:L1!i Cr,mJ~U!ry is :;:!Iiclw. h!l;lIC Il'n:noij,j,kd th~pl~:~forJII :fOir~lbe. .. ~tiI!blimnl!;);m Q([ t ..... o world ar,ganiS;altions: tile League 0:fNati.fitlc!: and 'Ihe, ]ilrer.f1atuo.nan Labmn ()~~ildS;:]Jti!l):tl {H.o}.. Foo.m, thi~ POUiU o!!!w~:~d~·. ~ibd. wi~h~lbcoJdim~~M;l'tiOD:;Il funerlll" th>e ]Jf'OCe50S of imugrn<i'lt~~Jil:~~ orgarl~satiot'l is understeed to i:tll'l'e ewVved thmllgh time ina. la:r,ge3y Hlle.ar fiis;hJ~O!lf?ro'hK;i.ii,@: .fi!i:i itiltw-efl:~inf'; !i:iu:mb~ ... Of w(itltl a:~d :re_gij{lI1J~d bodi~!;., The refiult has been the emergence of II oonne:l1,]I;i)(HI oJ bodies, Illany of'whichare inyusibiie f~·om pub1k view. b~.t 'A(h~d'l <Ire lIerer~h.el~s drem,ed] to Ib~ l<lil'g~Vy ~riphtr!!ll ~o~he ri~!lu:r~J ,m:ythri1i$ Qf worid po.'.l~lti~5.

Though thilr\'J ismuch tliilli. om be ~~<lml. abous ,giI(lbl.l~ gove.rnaLlreby i:1I:.ph:nilll!;l de~llaO'p:i:I1.'ercls iii ~r.l.erJia.!~o:na~ oxganis<l!Jon, ~!b" SiyllO'J:Iymi:ty w:i.11:I which I'hes~ t ..... o :pn~norllciI:J~ are trcatOO does !lot e:ru~lilol1;lhe qUlllil:~ti!ll;1: d~me.J:ls~()Iu af cO'lltem;por~:ry gloll>l.~ govern;l)Jnce (() lie rl1l!Uy capt!!ll'1i:(t GliOb~.I :!!)~~r~~Tl~'" i~. dititi!!!c~ :iII :;Il ] .. a~t n .. '() ..... ay!i.. The fksl is a ~"'Qg!i!hkm ~h~!v~ comprises 3111. arIa\), of ru;~ZYl'\'!, not on.ly~ih~ visibie aspects of world PQ~UI:i.caU" ecoifilom!ic ,nltl1iQrull' rud~as the Ulli~e(! NlIl:imu (llN), '~I1i1': World Tude Orgllnls;;!tion {VrIl'O), ~il~ fuu:m.at~oi!la~ M(tn¢~~[)' Fund (I.MB and th~ World :E!!ank. butalso qn~si-fonmll h~!eir~p'\!emment1l3 gatlilerings ~uch M the Urou:1l' uf f ~G1} and !beWnrild. Eoonomi£ For~i!l!m (WEF); OOrlilbinali~JIiIs. of ~Iflk' aad nen-stareaetors s!IfI;.h as the UN'5 al,{lbtdCOIlii~cl; and dw 1[,0; pui~l!i: ass.ocia~]o:os S!lJI:;~ .u the It'l~ern;;]Ji:h:ma3 Chamiber (If Commerce {I'OC)!: liJle:ru~i-l~ry !!lrl)Up.li such !I~ S~n~liil~ Inlil!:maliml!l!In ~.'DII:Vlho;!~iJ,lti1ll.' O~WQ;nK~; n.{jlili!lo~ce:rnrnellt~J. o[:!!a:nisa:Ii.<JM (N{HJs) like til.~ WorJd Wide Filmd for Na~u:r~ (WWFl t~jt, Wo!tl!cll Develll)]Jment Mover.nei:t!. (W.[}M) and O:tf8rn: transiIll:!tUo!lal r.c:llgiQ:u.:g 'bo;;li~5;in~m~,jo:!:!!~~ lI,!:rrorit5l; IJ'[BJlni[;,!!,tl~m, (hOWI;:VCT 3000ely a~ociated}; trnnsl:illtiol1l1L1 !P'OUtkaV movements: fitlJancillil markets; globaJ aooolllrlt~.tlq .!i!i:id 3;1"'" :Hr~s;; ~ttdl tt;l!ils;nll,tio!i~1 bl!.!~ine~,

The S!';C!)JUII d~stiliig~fushin!l featl!reis~ibe w3lY [[I wihien V3rueties ohcwrli are ~l1I.(u"Olis..ingiy 0OO11ilbiuirng 1.0 rtba1l2lJgt< - and in mall.}' cases; micro~mill.'n};)g~ - a :ljf)(}wJiIlll ran!% of poMical. ~r;Q\!lQJ!!ii:t: "mJ ~i;11 affairs, Iii! thi5, way, ~Lob~l gG'O'eI'l1;anre ean belhoughl ef as tl1;e varieus patt(lms .~I'I wllic!! global. r~giom'lil. national and uOCilln aeters oombh'le to. ®[)'\re.rn particular areas, >Global g.ove:ri'lance, ~he:m., .~~ liI.oL. dcliillL("'I';l. simply ~y the- C!i:!~irll.r;!!C~ ofuw\1oi'~ctors or llIoik-:s ,of lmtllor.ity: .. mea.d! il COill~jl!le,S II. ,growing cornIlJeX~!Y ~Il. [h~ way un \lI~lioh its :ll!C';(n~ 'irllli;rat'l ,~iJld interrd:;il.e, Mos:t. c-erUliiJl~y. ~OiJl~ of' the astntfi ·[,)f g~DhaL gOWf.wuiI.ce ~re newly e:ruw:ugGd; others, ha~~r,tlre: much .. ~c\rlgG[ established, 'Ne\!erthe~ess,kJOy wi!imlerst2lJi'ldirflg ooiil.emrpOraiji g_aolb.ilJlgocftlrn;;]JI\ICle is Hloe C8.pad~.y to identify ·~I:tc mngoe of actors inoh'ed in the act (I'fmaJl:~~c:rnl;]!jl, as welles 10 lCLNlOOve:rihe ·~arie.,}' of ways ~II wilklii they are ootlJne-c~Eld to Q(OO .ilirl(J!tl1e,r.

That said, h is IJ.ren1J~tll~ to 5pelll: of~hc !l::;;US~1iIite Q(f;a oo:mpkl£ <lllid fully ooh1:e.~eilt ~y~!l.iem of i!l~oba:V go .... ernance, Global go.\\erlil2:mce is betrer under~!A.-md a~ etlte:r_giIl1!; .. 'Fn~ in.'lmlsifll2.i!timl Dr gl!obfl~ poliliea~, eU(lrH)iI1J:lic, ,~!i:i.d. S6<.iiaU

Pr.r!l;m'iIlQI'J' iiJ/en'ogcl.um :5, (020) - lJ,!i!$ generated. a pO'~f,ntia]I}' [l.ew and rlldk;1l~I~!mt:tllOiJ]~Q~b.!;. w;lJY in. which nna:litCi<'l1 decisioas arc made, The !;i~lJl';I1ier;,!l ,and ~~jj:icalism. (in ~bis action lies in Ihe ex:netll>tOIl. Iorthe firs.: time, of the mtt;:ffl:iiti,cmal f1na.ncial aecasiOI!i-ffiiikin;g slruclUr,e beyond the :i:ndil]strial 'core ,or Ihe 131 ~ncnd~y, aadthe 'Us IIDJ're IJI'Irt~(iI:narl)'.

GeJilil1El:iimi ",rg-Dies that this .. fefor.m process has been further ~rlhance{l by the ruatioill. of tbI; Jl1i'f;:rnlllirll1i11 Mon.e,i1lr}, ami Finallcial CoomtiUfe (1MFC),_ This new bod)'.In~ co:menas,.lhou.p untlbk to SlOP 'he [MF from ell.gagi:t)g 'U!li pocr UJ<I<litey odooi:siong, enables :an members to raise iSS~C5 rdahng l{1 the f~m.d:'s ri),te ill the ~Iobal filila'liICiiii~ ~)':!item wiitliol!l.t bel~l;g; hampered 'by qhe Degend~ry asymmetries in the Orgallisa:tion'.5, '1'm~il,g ~ys~,em_ Germalll.'s ,e',XIUM· imuioIl of these dcvdopmanls enable him wolTer an image {lr ~n emerging consensus-based IDl"Ul!'!!tiornal :iitHll1IciilJ decision-making structure,

In spite of •. hese more' inciusi'l"c moves, the pierure Gcrmajjl paints is of a system of gevernance IbMr,emaitlll firmly centred areundthe flnancia] dr;ci~on·irl<lking po~ve.r o:f states. Iii t'lw main, it is r·epresentahves of mrtioll:pJ! oonks ~md ministnies of linaLlre that PfJpWlIlW the- !Jm:9m~tl. of the fimmcial d.ecision-I1'1:l1~dng a:rcl!i~!:Cture: arndi lit is olllyo,!, e::ncfllding IlL .. hl'l'it!JIliQI'I w their' counterparts hn emergilllg markets I.m,ii.t ~ny ,e:tpanskm. Ill. tile r-ep~~~~jl\'c' credentials of the international financial architeetere !has corne about. hi 'fllal1ty, 'lllel1. it rciliJ];fli!!~ a :system of r}:r,re'm.tlliol!l'.aJ iffimmdil S-0ve:rniUl£e2, oee will;rt:irl the sanc!jty of: ~1aliO' ;so~mgDly if; mabi'lwined. C'ertiLulily. ~~f'l: is; a complex syst~!1il of I"elii!Jtimiships between bl.!IIlikingwIi1l5tul.l;itiuli! and. Il.aliontll rninislri!ll:S thai ellSI!H!5 private sector vltr\!l':S filter .luo~!lh t{l tile corridors of power. h is, :Ilo\'i'e\'ef, the lIb5~IlCC of" Q(UrespondLn,g counter ~Qprh!;!ltl! I!.T.Ld stale ~fl:B.~l~l!1« dun ~l'!I-5.u["¢S the iJ~temal:iQmd fil'm~]iC~u! <l.rd'liledll!re remalns unbalanced, albe.h that i.s decision-making inevitahly h:l!s global consequences, That said, gi,'en tile history ofill~a-D~tiQrn:!L1 .i'knallcial, a.msi'OlI·m~l::ing, tile de>'elopment5 GCiIlIUIii!l dei,aihl are lleve~.hde:;:s S"i.g_liIi~(tat'it,

PaLII Cm:I'ltl!'IIlICG.: 8\Vitd~ d~ fC'Cu,s 8.1.'r.!'1,1 fooTtll ille ~.MF <lIml the j1J]i1\eI'lll9Jtimiill fmaneial ;;milii,~.cclun:: 10 explore' thoe Woiw Biiiik's rote lJI gj,QI:lllJ li'io~!Il~!lce_ PJ:rnllel~ng Germain, Cam_I[!.;lck e:l:f'loJ~ recent dTurlli IYy (he Wo.rld B3nk to pr(lrnoif!e. ·ow.rlershitp' :ll'llQlIg it!! 'm~mbershitp, parliC'u~a:rly from develop~l'Ig ooUItlilrie!;., Ho.wt\'c.-, unlike ne.r:main's at'Co!.li1!~. u'f.j~lc;lus;Loo. d.1;['O'!.Ii!!D '1;)('.iT]N.~hjp" Camma.ck SUJ,gges.:sim~(lllill!:!.1he Bank's efforl:s beliea ifiOiOO au.;horit~:rnalll a'pproach t,o t1e"e~o~nl. III further t'on.tra'i1icli(lluto G;:;nn;lirl, Cam.mack argues dun in5titut'l{m$ such as the Fmllllm:!~l S'l~blUl.y Fomm (FSF} and (he G]oi:lBj CO(fpOrale G'{I".~mal1l:l1;:: FUrlLlIl:t ~GCGf) are essential l.oolslb:uOll8)hJ which till:' disciplinary d!.Il:l.eiJlskms,of this ~Y8lfm are C~j;trl_

Cammack's focus 15, on (he World Bllnk'~CompreheJlSDye :J)e.Y'elopmt;'Il'1 Framework {{::;DF~ ,a!l1ld its QI;JoITCSpondiug :sysl= of ~Ovemilf.lce, He argll~5, that 'Iihl.e WarId~nkrllilgiM~~ilm,too tnt: problems ofd,.". ... lgpmcl1l [0 !'fie faHIUI.re of developing countries 00 embody the socUlI and. structmal dijliJlJ:[l~h.mi> of I!;C9V!b[;':.-a:R~~m. The Ba:l:Iik's f!!:s,portse lias '~IQ ~urirl'e lh:iU deve!lOlpil'lg ccuntries accelersje the li~ali~tkm precess by pJ'om!(ltins a sense Dr

6 lWN1'en Wili!\:ffl;_~OJr

QWJli,.talhip, iniillio;l~lI1. clil1'i'~iQpm"lltll.ll!!Q'i\e:un~;~w, MQ]\~~h1In th~,t. whill>s,t~tGs. a:ppea:r ~o 00 have brell. 'invuled" ro acS~llftle oWiflersl'iip, Qlf the 'CDF, th~ :I.re in ~dlily ""lI!lfui~,d ta ~SS;ilmr: '~""'!Jen;;lui:PQf ,~~ the deiTII~!!~~ (If (hl,l: .d!i::vdoip-' nmMfram!l:w~,rk.

C!ttl'iimflcii: ar~L!I.-e~ tllal tne: m.e~n!; 'by which!iI:le WodJ :El~l'!k &:in eli!~ilre srates ~~~ml~ ownns.lilIip oftM CDf is throagh a m.lliuh, - a oo·OI.:Iinll~('icl a:ppwach invoHvung t~le im.ern:a~~oilal. d.eveUopment rornml!l!rlil}',gov.eml:r.ll.mts, eivil ~ci~Ji;y 1lI,tlid! tilt: ptiv;i:1,t sector, ,],h~ P~.l")JQ!Se of th~ matrix, (:~mm~cl;, SiUgges~, Ii!: to e:llIl1h.re tibc' W'oirl'd Ballk ~omov'e away from the micromanag_ement OiL (J<peraD~otIl;)l ;;)S~S of .ae\'e~opr.neMprugrarli'lli'l'ile~ t.O <1[1, :;!!s5~mp~o:Jl of~ponsiMi.iY fO'.I" o,~rat~ 5,trn~~jk control; S~cliJ a mO!l=(:'J]J~ requires tn~t tree :po.lkies of all recipjllllil ~aues beeome Jno~e tr:m~par,e.ll. and a.ccou.rul:allle- to tne WorJd. .B.an.I! ... [n ma~ing hi", dalm:s, Cgmmadk IL~:ke.s isslJ{" w'till Ht~ W,ol1d Ba:aill 's assertlon tih.3iI~b.e l]lI)trh,U5 not a. d.alildesl~[].e: IIlUcmp~ W domill:,Ue the inte.mal:l'O[l0J de""e~opment arelfl,;)_ Moreover. and ,aJg0:111i'1 oom.~r::LfY k:I h5 ,[)wrg ~Qli~il~, the Wqdld Ibm" i~~c~kilil!1l to 'bri!i!g abo~,t ~l:mltl::!J;i~ co-crdinatiou iZliCJ'ClSS the j.lillIe'!J:11!1tiollal d:evelo\J1IILeJH ,commlll1i~}'.

C'firnlTi[a{l~'s vis,iot'l Or gUClbal ~"'~ntilrnlle is, Hte:Ui!, m",fike,J]y djf~erel1[ front G~rJIL:aalil's, Rlldm th;:uII ~b.e ~ml!,r~IiIC(;: ef a IDO<tlliJ1itl'l!1 p;r~s of refornl1. Ciotrmnack sees '~r1 the CDF the cOl~sClUnda:~i(lJI of a nlle:]y tlmed,ltl!!1Iltifa.oe~ed !i.ys:t~rrrn of go\!~rn<l!nQ~ that extends ('mm !ll1e tl[~md[)rr~(Jf lh~ Wotl!tl\d Bank downto the Iil.OOi.lS, and <cral'lnies of local Juk, In~hi.ssiysre:m rm.tioHlill gO'wn1· m,ents act as lmr[)r~~,nt !lon.dlilun.s,and a has!. of other .:ramus. ass:u,flte ~i:ril:te€;ic il'l]]XI'n~l]ce" 'They :;!!T~, !ilQTLe;ltIi~nr;!iS, ~l,lhoJdllll!!.e W the wishes a~d d~Ui~!:i {If the WorM BlInk - oo:metl1!~tlig thatleads Carnmaoek to suggest tHuH the Worud. 1lii:i~k 2L~pire.s to .~ th~ "Mother of AU GQ>'trnlIl.ettt$·,. QJ,mmaclk'~ ''!Ii$i.l:)rr1 of (hi!\!Ie.~(lpm(i1li1tal :!lol!j'e:FmU];~. then, i50 of a sY5tem. co-ordinated 'by th~ Worud :iJlarnk thai is :imjm<1~e in .ills :i1L]rllsiOl~. and .~£nte~y lti:era:l'(:,ht~] ill. its. strusture,

'Gio/xd elllJliNJl'm~"$!!l, ~lriUNl (mrlfmltth gOIJlI1JW!'IIa'

The ~'tiOIl OIl '~nvj.·ontru:'lilta.l. t.;~~tU[i!1 ail1d h's'O!lih gOYe,rr!aII),,'C mtJ'-'C5 oII!way from t~le' ~efrnin ofg;loblll econemie gover.muloCe, ,11 is :001,. hQ'i\!eVer" a whole· $;1!k r.!tj[l'4rt!lI'e., Economic gO¥e.murIDeus ilry f~:r (nentlos~, a:dvilll,eea il!m.::! eom[JJrehe:mive JimensiQl1~ of ,emergli~g gJI.obai i!1l0ve.m~l1ce, ,~[],duipli:::rr,,~d~5 mild ltl.deed. d.llifili!lal.es .Mhel' dlln.en8nOns. 1I:!l we see III ll'~e llffill three ,e'haprer,s ::I~ wd! ,::!is il:1 ~h~~[Fi~i.T:ldJt:;r or ~tiJl':: voh.lrne.

Lerraiee .Ellionbegills Hncs section with a c:ril:iCll~. el;~mIDaltlolil ofg~obal ernvironm,efilii!1 ,~~man!l~_ hi d(l~l'lg so,sh.eQ.f,eJLl.e,~ that afl a.pp:lrentiy wejJ :p(lpl!la~l\:d ilii:)lij,tutiona~t!;rrailil. masks iii JOl;d; ,or sub5tam;;c inglob~~~nv,iir" o:rumenla!. gevemauee, S1te begi!llSoy examining Ih~ 1fe:ma:nd rm global ~.virm1!'I:Let!Ja~ W)~atJ.(~ '~i!·pJQti.nS ~e~j.!1:fl:of ~her;:rteDf e!!'!/uronmel~ltel de.!!mda~i(m Il.S""'e.~~ 1Ii~ tlju~ tensions b!:~,we,," s.!Jo¥~reigmll,y allTi.d. the eIlviw.mr· :r.net'l!~, qp!te~tion~ ,or j11I~l~oe,an.d:llteplaee, oJlll.<: ']0C.lI1' ill !ill.efa.ce of ,g110Wung gI~/I:i;I;1 irnJ,:~,J.llli~j~ty .. The d~li!am.d! for gn6b.!1!1 Ct.i.'l'il"Qtl!me:nhll ¥\(l"'~li1'lalfi;l:l~ is. '!ll1.e<li.

he:limiJJca'l'}, imerNJjfiJNcm 7 OOITtru~i.OO. wi~h hS.5Upply. Here BUi.CHIt aJfKI!leS t~~t whik.lII.gk)!~~ iilJ5titli!!~iI)JlL<L~ :Ir41lliicwo:rk e:liis!ts.~~. h: fat fr'Ottl gi(lh!;!!] in ,opera~39I1i. IDt>e~e is 1irl allre<nre of silbstatlihve eo-operarion !l!l!Id d~mocrn~isMion~ a tMl'F'()'W <l!l1dUIiIi!I.dleqllil~~ J}(~i.i{llr'l of wlllli: oomti1mtes. tH1fe glo~l; !I!1Id ~ ~~k of ImpJOV"mliJ;u. ill ~:h~ sl.::lil~ ofllte gUobal eflllU~Ol!lm~!]t_

EllklH S.1l:g~~ that the reel loeus (If p.o.wer III gloll\!l.~el1v:lr()nml;:rnt:;!l!!P"'ernancc lies i!1l. (b.e Glolba~ Em.riioo-tlfi1btlt F~ci!i~y (Gl3f) - tI f~mty ~~t~:bliiS~ tmdJer·~hejo1r.H .~lHihO!r.U!y ,[if tnl!:UN Dc~J.iop:me.l"Il: Pmgr.a:t'tl!J:"il.e (lINDP), UN EIl1,!".irro~l1JlO:T1t Progf!limDi!(; (UN'Ep). a:rue! tile World l31i:n~ .. ]lrm, ~5!t: argU¢.'i, it is tn~ World Bank which hCl"!:1ses ~n~d rn~n~~~ t!T!~ ClEF, ~~h~~!lb<lt tn~ UNDP anti UNIEP have ilililpl~(;I1C1Ji~a~j.o:rn tasks, lEIUio-U lI[iSO d:.eJncm,sleilit-e.~H1;1it "t1i!.c\V-o.ricil [!a:Dik's,ullbv{ll~eme!u in gloMl1 envj:ro!lrilielQtil~ g(Yio\e!T!!l:ljl)c,e ilillo, li.mh,;::dw the ClEf .. Rail'ner, it ha~ hecome i!!] .. ~iH!I~~[)~1iny ~~nm!~ ro ~tt~ pm.sll!Iit of SiIJ81<liIl0.b1t: de\l"(';loO<p1TIt.'I;!t. ~I:> wd~ llis,m~tc~i!ll]}' CEiIlliJUaL to eontinued "'iJl'o'ioonm!'mu~1 decline illl.lh.ose countriesjn wbidi. it flllmh projt:0t~i!rnd programmes .. A!iIP~~~ OfOlmlltl!!¢.k!·~ -!I~njQJ'!tli~!Lhc WQr~cl.IJ4.lIlk seeksso 'be the pl'im~ipal S(Iol!ltcc MgIQb.~IIlO""\(:T resonate 1cmclly bere,

m~ioHa~~, expjO"re8 Ml.e rele QfHle'lNl"O Ifl glilbaJ CJ:t\iUr·mllin{:t1lt9~€P'>(~IiICI: -~tl Of;!l~i:l!l .. s~:tloJ:l. whos~ ~igojfw;l!!!~~ i!S~dd!L)mpoop'nJi:i'l!licl"[!SI~ ~mj whim g~ ¢:l<plol'(.'cl iii! part inthe .cop;m:ing p~ge~ of Wilki:nsolfs comrjJyu~i(jl11. (Chap.err II}. Here .E~iioH argues that whHe tileWTO professes 101'lilI.ve a tru:lIll()<rm1y (111 tr9d1~!l:n4 ejji~in.mnnl:.r:l:t~li~S!,lI!:!i, i~ h~ bml,lg·t!!tth(I~~.Q 'he d,"b~~ 1\11(1 OO:L]~;rubl!1:OO 5llb.stlllllti'f-;e.I.y ~L~ less W Ihe plight <)f Ih.e mlJ'iI~N.mnent..~1l lelllit]'. tlleWl"O U:l.l1iY l~",""e a.ttlia~ly made matrers worse bym!ing. In. certain ij]~li:Irm~!i-., tl1lu~ pill"tiullbr!"m~;~l<T:I.iI!lm~!l.Si!JJrr.=~.,Jt=sij~ntil! !ill rro!J\,'C! ~nr,; ~1:1J\'~W!1!!" mentare diSll;:l'illlin~:lmy and. as .. a rlaSiuM. oontrnvem: .UIS :rnl;e;s ..

S;~epl'l!:)Ilje Laws.on ezpands tlClC renJ!in fUHh.er!Jy expiQirrut'lgth.e tensions Ilhm ~xi~~ ~Jt"'i;l~~ ~~JTI,,~o!!l;md~f:;;t~!Ii1~ngs pf dlld~~re ;ind !h¢ ~~F!'~:pornfY hLlimlill. riglilils reghne. LawOO:I:l sho·wsnow concepts Itm:~et~ndsd to Qbjeelify o1.!il:ture in siL!i.(jh. a way '!Ilal dilI!':"rttril.ces. between ClIU.ll:re.'l are e:.ta.I~J~er.ue(L She :,trgl;l>;=5 t~~tthi~ has ~"'i~JQopo;l~. U!1!! s~ ~. w~.y t~~lt ¢"ill!~~r~~ ~i~~IDt~::; are Qfu~ t~ke:n as silwlf~]];lIllid f-or .[ls,sumil1ig tillt"iU ,cl!l~:~r¢s are- distillclj¥C' Imd. ultillrumtdy, lJ:lOOrtlllilflH::iI!:i<llIJl!ble.. Our !.rea~mf!:rrI' tlf culitll.re as dil'Stin.c;~. 't1'l~ngs' has, site S~MoCl!l:g. I .. d to d.klLmk ""5;;r;n~.QJlS of 'Hl~ W~~t' and '[!)~ R¢s(" Bill l·~'!'i~Q~ aHso ;ii:r.~ues tha:~ u~de~i'lll1!it"1lg tl1i~"s d.l\::lHJ~Om.is.3JtiO'.IJJ lire soms '~~"Srtly political dymm1i[l;:!; whk-h I"IUlogc fI[')iJ! iP!Us;~c~li(ln~!l.! a:l~erHmu of so .... ereig~] power thr-Oll.gil to,j~sl~fit'llj·Qn5. JC!r ~cClnomk d~\'~a~pm~n:L The ~tux of ~!l:""'1i¢'~'~ argJ!lmeflt is that th.e 'probleu1' of cuhuu - that is, t~~ W<Jiy ~<I. wbkh il: MS Ibecnpc[~~'i'ccl - ~I~~' i!i~S"!i!~fkanlil pmble-ms j::Gu the es~ablishm.ell:t oJ .~ cOl1l'lm.Citlig!iClbai inllJ:nan righlts, I:Ggimw~ !J!. resul1t~ ~!n~I. l'l' ~mm(Jrn l[} th.':,!: ~k,;n! ~hal:i:~ .~ a rub-'.hS1 dimenssonefa widg.r 5.YSI~.m ofgl{lb.~1 go\l'ilU.na:nee.

La'WWfI dces :I:];COI:, n(!l'We'i'':r, deny nLe~mporlt~l].ce of cultura~ JifliemlGe!l. ]11$~!:I, she su:~ u 'S, Cl'll~l.nf~ is m~r'G ·~·WI(!Ip!i~,~jy~mli;t$iL!U(ld. ~~. a vr[')[le.~:;.; a \itlHiidl': [(It rnarjgc th!l.l i~ c:uutirlge.I:lt on l:he moment in"",hkilr~ sxisu: as wdl :l!5 .. its soeial, p(l~ill~1 and m.Q~OI.l dlfl1illrnls:m. Und.ers~o<oo inUriiS way.

;8 RI)f:Jel'l Wflki.l,!~,~

LaW5-Qll1iLfgt:l"'S"Cllh;m'~ SOO!ll.bd! Um IN <!i'probl~mroir !lJ1.lJlWJn fight~ !l:~ global ~owr~aflre. but rather HI~.t wlil~c.h en.llll!.e~ il!lren.ct~ol1 ;1[ruIi t~~~lfiUiStoeiitdliil~ .wdiffsirl:'!iL~e'n~5azy t'olillle fl!l!1!.h~r dll;'II1'il~pmrnt of l!oi!llm".D1:;!tioDI :tllllma:fill :riglli,tsregame', ln s~;1Iti[l(g such, Lawson is keen to reirlente (bolt sh>e: is not ~l#e.~t~fi.~ thi;:at d.ifl:e~el!l.(ies, wIte!iil.et ,m.i!tlirul 0([ u.therwire,.~ lieitn~1t ltli:por:t:ji!!!l !lIOI k!l~!.im~'l~. RaMli,OI., she ~iI,lgge;sIS, i! humen nghnuegiilJ[lt;;: based OIl, e~ggeu:ated .rJi(jlti,i(jlDlS of cLLU!:u:r;a1 cl~ffer,eil(\e mllls,tc.e trea:.:ed! wlth, 'an acute critical ~Mrrt:n~~~' or tltdIr5i~¢ity,. MO~(l1,IH. an i!lilc:Irrla!joJll~il h1.ml!!ln !ri;!!iuJts regim.e that eschev,i\l: SiU0h simp!lisDjc <IplJlroacines ClIIl work to protect ('lli3tllitililly dfll,~ m;~[)nlti~3.

It is this, las~ point I,natus ~rhaps the mool, ~eUU~ng ~orcontll:r1llporafY global gGveir.n~llre, By idelltifying tile 'pro~lf~m'of mlll1!lJre, and itl; pa~tic1!lU~r cur t'endcrn:~"y to lr,c!!l~ cI!IUll!lr,.:~, aw;l! :sUlI!I,;s sYJID~ymol!l~ly, L~.W:SQ!I g~c5 :;:rn;ni:o Cl)illS~der1ilble way ~owa:~ds ~plffining ~he problems (IIf :p:~orectillli!! the righ~s of minority groups. There iii, tnl\n, a ~lrQn$ normative IlI'S!lm!l:lIit here fo!: 0. ;[!1;'~rJ;icW:1I11~ m.~Ji(ma,ti(lllan hUJl1<:ln ri~h~5 [egrime.'FIiJJat 5;lid, ill1£l echo:iUlg somathing of EUUiaM's aJOCtYI!IJtl!i. of the '~e.rlisioiribet.\Meeil. !MIV~nmrt'lf,@t and .sove@iWU~Y. 1A't see lmJplici! i~ lal:'i'Mlfl'S di:SOI!l55JZYJ]J II ~!li1iticm (b.!llt tli~ OOJllI:l.TIllporary ihJ11m<!in~ig!l:its,r~gim.e ~~m1il~IliS iiirlILlj' internatienal, NotM!hs.t~l:lrljlDi!!tl1le ·'proD· lelll" of cliltlli'il. it is t~e jl1XI'~lem of !';[)Vexei&l~y !han: i~l. l..:itse part i~lll:ih~~~ thg cl~\!oC.~opmGimt of ~.~[l!Iiy g10itflll human [i&ht~ oogimG. Ll~~Emon,lheIl, Lawson's :i:mplic~tioll Is thO'll [he, oom.emporary sysle:Jl1of .I~lobil~ g,Ql\Ieman<:e is s.i.i'flui9.tiy waiitliliJt:.

Richard Doclgmlil~J]d K.e~~ey Leemove th~ fecuson furrher intheir e%ploratiolll oIthe {!evelopmeflt ·oH~lernaljcma~ i1e-alHl gO'l'ern<llfl(le antll calls £01: ~ ml;l!.f,e; tIl(lb!l~ a:p[l~d'!- 'fh~y ~gi!1l bypbill~g dll~ (kvilo.r~~!!~of jm~[.INl,thmll.l health !!io'~m[l:~ fmm i.s b~giJ:Hllillgs in the:DIlidcll~ of tliw: nineteenth oenlury .. [U dai.11g m,lhery d~naotttstr,flt~ Ol!~l atl!U~trifl!lJ.c pant of intematlonal .iul'lIlth !W'ilcm~JJce h~s been th~ ,i!!mwlh of 1!:D1 OF!llilJ.llC g{l~rl!lal1loc frnmewor.k ~ink.hlig illitergCl'!<efnmen.:a! ,c~.n(:e.~e.nQe..s :m.d. ibod,i~ with reg~(maL health ,~~~i:Ji:!iil,ti()ifl~, NUO~ and private ,1I!i1~()t:iatnl;l:IL~_ HrJ'l'i'I;:\'ecr-., th~y ~,¥I!li: '~!hllt <l!espi~~ the il~l!ll.sio:n of 1l.(>[I·sl:al>e bodies, this sys~~m is :n~veT~~:leJ.e5S 'lxIsed upon (EHl i!l.c~srLlmp!im] 1[lIar Hte req>fil1~dh<jHty for natlo'fl:ai :J:re;]~~h lies with t!b,~ sU.iIiC - a sl~u:!:I!tio!! ]XlTPI;;~u:!:I!~ by l~r; World l!jl;ilhh Org~Jl.is~tigl]'~ (WHO) ;ailmof!~. ,e:~.ol.us_uve dealings with . .n~.tion,lll gQf\i\emmeilts,

We "I~ see [n D~l)n .[I~tdLee:·~i!ocO!Ll:n:t (m;e :si@ti!~f~fll:l.Cf' 01' ether illnil~u~j(lIJ.s to wbii:ctil w~~.1,1~ n:f~mid i;l1U~l'cT, In lX'!1!cl,llar, they jJQimuJo ·~h.e' role {if ttite Wodcl8;;'1:r.ik 1l!ildlhe WTO,but alsothe Org:llllliS!lttoil for !E~orm.mc' CO-Qpef!atio!'il and! ]}e!.;e:lop:rn~~l (OECD), thus furtner' ilnd~r!i!'!il1lg ~ib~ sigru[fi;;;aiJ]~ (lJt~.est: organisatiens in tlii e eurrent 'colifi!!l!n!liO:II of :!!lloba~ wo¥e!'1llaDloe,.

Doclg5011~11(l L~c I:IrgUil!, !:t{l>'i'l.. ... er, '~iImt iG!t~m~liJ(!im!!lhr;~Hh Jil,'O"'~rn.i!!n~ ti)asOOll:clled a poinrrbe)1om:l Wil~cll f!llutner development itSlllinUukJe.Uy.Q[J.es~im]s ,9~ b!;i!lS t~l~~ as to (!be: ¢JYfit1aq c.f :;l: ~s,tein (If !1eail:h gQ'vefl'l;;lnre oe.ru[r,e(li ,8[O'lWlld trn.ep:riliici~e (lrso'",e.r'eigDJ~.y. ~Il a VilorlJd clIa:r,~c,w.ri5Gd. Ihy ..... cdenill!ll

Pl',t1HminnI'Y fW\!!P'\I"O~#aw 9'

iiieqfi.l~li~ie!; ilO~ 'D~!yili ~~[Ld: w,,~J:th o;I~tuiblltion blln in the b:~~;n health I;:;:ltjJl:rie!!oc., 'fMil' ~:tsk. th~t'I, is to explQr.e tIMe jl<ttentlfil lind pos&'INn~ties for a gLGliJal ~yS1tem !If lD,eaitih govt:fiI:l<J!PDe :... one wherein the e/l;j:!lti~[Ig~y.~1.etI! gf 1!'1~~tiQt!~1 h~~!~!i g.1l)'i'~:rn~;~ is. :not ab~ll,dlo:n~ QiU IlWid~ r·~dlll1ldl!ln, fIy,u,tradm r~im, allim.porl:anl !Jl';'I:rl, of a wide~' sy~tetljb In d0iilg 00" [iodgscm and Lee ide.nlfify~he esserillill f~Jil.Ue~ of gl(lo1l1 1:i.:<!lth £.QVr::man~ ,fI!!i geellli""2!.phic, ~~le anti 11,fi'IIli~~,",,-~ ~ wl;!I II:; .~ giI,Q:bal IILht,jiS~I; 111i,llmd,.rs~mll!il11l the ,unle:rrela:~edl'less (iiD issues suc~ as he~.lth and tmdie:, lie.;:ilth lIn,(!, sciiei1lltilic trnd.ea~"'Ol!1r' ,;utd tile H.k:e"

Humtln s~('Nr;JJI a!l'd gI'o.ba:I g:o~~t"e

rh~liIlove Ml C;;!Io~in~ Th9Jl1J1!50'~Qntrib1.ltion - Chap~ .. r 7 - begilJiS~,Q ti~ 'uo'$etb.er a llumbe.r oJ taemes teared,(i'ul iii the p:re.t.edifi¥: 0ll;jJpt,e~~, H_,e,r ~J,~ Ii> whh!!l!n(;krstanding the m~,wht!li.C'mbir between 1:b;cm~tcll1i<!1 od,~mellSlaJ:l.s <:If hlJ]m<lins .. cmlty and !!Iobli~ gOVli:irlUlIlCe, in whkh.sh(i rQ!;~,"~ QIIli expkJr.ln.g (bile perf(!rml!l:1:OC:e (il' "'Biu(m~ ii'l~tu!.1Itl0jjS; ljl.rru\lklil~~ [0'J: the :maler!ilti sul'llk~~,;i' ,or the world's pO!J)1,lli!/liol:l.

TIl,Ol:OOS uses asaer ~1art~ng P'C'j:lJi~ a oo.nre:I't of hllm~:11 :>'!:l:nr~l,y ~,hm,t has bo~h m,.,~erial alllt:ltiJm'Hm~teftal d,ime:i'i!!luDn~ In PUUi'I!JfI;(l. to Ute rnaIM.i.a1 .cIumell~QllS of IllIJman :Sil'Cl.!ri~y lhomas i~ rd!;TIu~.g to the :;Ibility to safe.Sllilird agal'l'ls1 l:ru:t.1;g.er, pove,rly. tlli[S~., tQ:r~lJJe.~lld. the iik,e; whereas the 'nQI1l.m:;i:~cj[['~d di!il1~l1isiQIIl~. of lirllimn::l.ii ~.fi!.y e4loto:ilipa!:!S, am(mg otll.e:ftl,[a~r' and. dell1loCI<!ilt~c [elPiJ).50cII~IlI:UOII. clJ!Jnil:y !l!lId hnman WWIh.. F(1, Tho:mOls., the rn~t!lriill~nd nOfi"fij;il,~eriall dl:rr:tet.l.lsions of hlJil:U!ln, security ~l,Qw.ki, ~ treated ~saJluilldi\i'j~!bl~, coherent ~!!f;.¢i!>iibl.e; t!iQ1u;iln liet(j(jIiiC~~ilI !iiI thi~ ch~jl~er is ~vith ileHe.r llllde:rn!lll.dilil.g the raaterial diRi!~!!~Q:~ of !hilln:l:;111 ~1:l.tUlY <l!nd (1i11i::ilr~d:i!lt~(ln$~ip w.U!h gUobal i!:Q1\re.r.nam::e.

MOire s,pecirnc1L~Gy" Th9IJil;lIi~~~.pJZYr'~~ th.~ id~JOogiCiin. OOili~.01JJr~ of global g.o¥ern,;)j].Cil :JJ~~hey are 1IIl'1ticula:ted inglobal d£>ld(llpm~rllpo!icy -Uri thi:;" hi;:[chap~'J h<!l:;mflil..:;:,h ilil.~[)flntrUln with Qmmacl;;'s, 1Ilb~il thll~ I.~ fQr;~~ b somewhat d~ffe.l'~nl. S.h~ rnlTlils .iil:tk ~vj.denJ .. ~ of a (\ot\re~i~,d efTimt to t1Illi(l.~es~ tUie material diflilens;i.om oJ .humat'l s.ec~['ity -a ]~ck of evidence th:U C;)U~ inte qUI;:;5~~()!lLhc: thl:l(I,Ili~ Q!rjn$~jllll,tiolilss\lc:h as tine IM.F and WOJl~ B~![k. TIlmnas arguesfhat Ihe~SlJ'OiDse of'these gMtilijUOt'i~. al the ,core of,contm1l'ljl(!r~ty gloib,,1 @ClV!lttllLlliCf: to wldeilllli!l gloilml iJleQu:t!lity 1:il!!1i been to embark on it p:mC~5!) of rcform. H¢!w~ve:r, In. ~arge pa:rl: thi~ proCG50S is ~i!~~ng !ll sl£lbst~l:lre. and .is ins;url'li.cient in its [QCI1;Is.l!et rnMlusi:OIl, iheJJJ, is th:lil glolJfa~ gt~Vl,..'1;mJl!llCX~ I1;m;lin~ ..... anLUl!lg in. ,i.e'S l:re:litlilNlIlI~ of '~h_e ma!.e!:lill dimeii~lo:nlg ·of human s«;W'il;Y. loo.ma.~' imphcallOIil l:!llliw tlioU II $ami!~rplnllID'l is ~kli;:l!~ ill deaU!r1!l with~Ile nen-materlal rl~mcUl~iQIliis; 01' ttll!rtmI security.,

Heloise Webe.f ~.~ke'$ Thomas' focus on :hum1l£L &~~fity fin-.th~t ;by 1;x:pI1o.r:i:ng the imlffiicl o:f m:ic.voc.r,~dil ,~~~ micrQlTin~l1.re j)'I'Cl,ga'aIlilmeS ]U a'.ld:r~~~JnJ!, 1l1<:lte:riaI il!ls;ufl]ciien.cy.. We~r al:j'j~5,lb<llmi~ruCiredj:t llnd .fIllicru:ffi1J.3I1Ce programmes ha~~'~ devel~. rhelranic3lily at h::"'~t,.,.~ ~ meam:S Q.f~erly

12: .lWrdflJf Wilki1:lslm

ilii wiuich rr.h!:fiQm. b .. ,~ the WTO tIiiIJd ~~ ... il ~oci,.ty tm.,.... d~~l<Jpe<:I <J'!'el: ~tle O~~.tl!~siiitkil:l.·8 first~'hree rnitlisre:r.i[l~. meethlf!::S"

Wi~~O!1'~ CQJ]~lbuholl ·~tiJo~~ mueh clJJ:nainl>d iii! j)N'!!io'Us cM!J)ters, HE: sees <I mlllr-J.;;"d :imtmJance whereill~i:Le needs ,m<:li desires of ua:tlisnati.(ln~l !bt!s;ittes~ a~e se~ed thoo11l€;h ajj.lm"~O~jj¥. ~~ o:l'libe,tOilisattui'l, hut w~ete a oone51pCl:Ul'dini!l~c'k!ll(l\1i't~.gem<lIl.l of civil se.l!Iisituvitie~ is l<lr~e.ly IIb5'eT:lL ]n !boLh. eases the state ll'ill!Ylla:t.'I~mpOttarllrole ifil gn[)ba~ _govern<l!nae. ]t is.., i!Ll one and Ule: c5i!metime, the m .. di~mtb[\o~gh "",hid:! .~ub~Jali:satil)iI1 is OO.IiIi" dueted, aad theperceived g:neteeper of civ.i~~tl!I:e!.re!lI:L It .rernaul!Iis ttle ease, i:J~.¥er, (nat ,civ:il j:nl!~~~~ :tI~ iljiJ;rJe~l.l!l~J;y rr:::~~wii ~lbo[)tb; ~~f!'tl; ,,[jig. ;g~o~1l1 k.lels.

L!ili~Y James t<lk.e~ further cains IOfg~e;)t·er represeM:<lit6on hl@lDb.;)~. gO"\fe~J1J. alit~ hlJ&!e f:i.T:1J~] cl}utrib!ll:km 1;o~lhis 'lQI!~mc. hi! doill,g 00, ~hl;:~Sll¥s~h!!~ W~ caa lea:mmuch about. Ute eoneeeus of peCbple geile:~a~~y., and YlO111eJt inpartim.llar by ~t!!lJdy.i.t'1!g some of the or~ltdsaitiorila~ farms fc$!<lblish.ed in diireul ~pon5e' tothe perceived irnJtliLlS~(m of gJolool foo.~oes. To S1JJpport her aml~j'sls, Jl~m.esexplD:res rome o:fthe dwictmi :f(!f represent;:ltlo[l 'lh2te:mcrgecl in. ~ ~[) {J1:\e !)lIIchunLIug~~i1!; that of dw WO!li!~L'l-QJ;l]ype~ camp at (ir·~nh~m Comm.o.[I,eSlt~.b~~slii,.d~1J]rl llilaun':a~llleCilull the mid-I9'8®s. Sh~ (fff~rrs :m~llisl!lh,;ful, nll<llilced and ~sobetjjjS ilJCtlOlJrlt af the CiM\¥d!uii.~'.O<Ll~ orruJb~ktrerr.e~entil:~ia(J]. a~ dl~ glQ~1 level,

Hqwe'i'er.,. Jllmeso' anaUysios Is IlQ~. confined ~o :!Ill! tdlentutication Qf <In alle.r.tli"'

:ili.i! ~ fonitL .uf S'il""elTil.:rilD~. Si'l~ f!lflihcf :!;!IJJ.~es,t~ 'ltmt by ~"Q.TItllJJciiti.1! a s=,d~r-

;3I are aEI!~];Y5~S we ilre better <'lIb~e toi:delltUi}, existing pau~rn:s of dominanoo

ilI!n!1 ·suliaroutl![Ition. and. are empowered to IllO'te fOfW1i!rll with a h~t.ter!!liooers~and!u[IJ...softbe various, Qb Iliddb~, ..... ,~y~ i[IJ whkh i1JCJji1lwhica] ,da!ior!5hips canbe~e!llic!Hecl., We a~e also better ab~eW think aiJlmt W3.J'll ill wlxi:e.h :\:DV{\Tn~:ttre s;ys:!em~ mil he crrr::at!lcH. thi!L!. eschew ant::lit!pih<lsJI!i Cit! p(rlw~r EL~ !.o.e ;f!bility to C<l:nlJil'ol, and embrace aproeass of ·~m~wcTmc~l as the &6JlllIi,-g rl'Inc.[ple.

MQJFI;: tllil!ri1 (hlb, James sU!~c:s!l'; Gn;:I;:!!il~m ~hcds ~lShl (1:1'1 tlile lI~iillu'J of OOIJ.l.sem1l.!lS decif>k!!n';Im~k:lL1\g, skill-sharing !'I:1l1i,jI~on~nier;ncily as kcy OTgani5o'l'tlarm<l!'! princillle~-Ilt~nei.~l!e.!: w.1\!lid:1, sh-e :IrgUl'!c~. roll. han ness !lra8Sil'O{)i~S; ~ ::lind energy and,~!l {join>!! so, {~~!roll;; the a:p~.thy :!l!:;.s~~{I.~l;ld WU!Jl m~~ thaI ['s I"Oli~~caD. Bum. L'I also ,offers an ins.i;ghit into haw .exislirrg soda] hler:II!~~¢'~ ef r~ and dla~~ Coil!! ifflJld!.h,em~elvt$ re.r~ica!.ecl inan err~il:arumeilt III:!icmjJ(lkl:B, to I110ve: " ..... ay born. 5Ju~h m-d!~rin!;" James d~nol.lruo'i'ill;"'c[, <lJfgue that a Greenham~JI[Lre ilYl'iretl'tl a!!lgh:~. to be repJ:iCllted! .or fbrgecl.ina]iL<e m~!]!l¢l;; merely ~hiU by rdk[]~~ng l;i!p~ri1 thut e.;;;:re,r:iff!~ .... ~ll!J.e can 'be clil':rived wh:lch. ~!IJ, tum, Ciln enrich d!~b~.t~5 about. and ~~tim.il~cly sysl!!;lIII:S Olf. g~(!bal, gl(li\i\~m~ril:le"

U is this Cl!n for a mOTe considcm:l p:mcc~s zyf rclkotiolil tli!~n perht!ps most :ap;propri.llleily drnws '~~llS; volume to a close and prol!i'id.es a ~a~iFo.rmrOT furtnoer wQfk. l'.l'urQlls!lOfljt Hti;vml;lffif;; ~t~'~Q\ti '~~. d~wril to t~e as}'mm~~ttiiro'~ .and .iirwfffeclIllal manlll.e:r iu vincdl .coM~mpo[~l}'gl(l~~l :!!:Ol\1eJin~ is conr.tiwtOO.

i'rdfmiRQI')I' ,rf.!WfrogafiOJI ,~3 ]'1~ feSmmC!lin.g{lOllchlS,iom" 1.0 :p.il~ph~~~ MII!Jphy. is I'i:J:M .BJ1Q'!n:i ,~;~Y.'ml1!lll;l~ is pgW~Y dOi'l!i:,~l1d eq~",liy pooiJ},(:I!L'ldJmtood.'

~ ] am SJ~,gl'~l W!.m,rafirn; EUiott for .his 'L~ritl.

2; S!le, fill' h.lswID:l!l'. JiMll!lsN, R.ose.rn~u. Alw..!g ,rhi! fkNfJi.!51i'c-I'CiTeigll F.r(tlJ1iw: E\plurirlg (k,[ffirII'tlitM ~ .:r Trirbl~IMf ~(}.r/tI' (C~mbrld~ (:;u[J]b:r;jd~ UD~",~~uty .. ress, ~ 9(7)1; Criij~;N, Ml.!irplly • .fm<'7n1~rifflr.:rl Cl'rgmrl'mlJ'orJ Ilmi Imlmrr.ralCIlllr.l&£!': (imb.;rt Gavcrn· ':1JI.ce ,:l'i.t'1.f~ 18:51) {CbmibrLuge-: P~it~ .. ~ \l!l!l):: Robert W _ CIlX {rd_) The Nf!:w~(Jli~1.1'l:

J>erspeeth~j OfJ ,MuUi'muwrlism <1lilIIT Ww1!rl Or.:/eJ' {lLoru;k'll: MII:I:!Il:illiLlii. i 991}; S,ewllteill Gi.ll (~d,) Crilll)all2adrul, lliJj1,(.le'liI~'~<lI;opj {!lId M:l<im;:l[erul'ml (La..11Io.om::

M~CtniJlIr!l, 199'i')~ JlIItu~,P, ~\ll'i111, (~,) MltJJfWlmtlr,'Im lit MJih/mrtil',mm F'er,'/fJeerlw:

Vr.'1I1cpOi!r.rs jfQmDf{fiNY:{r,r l..::rrr!l'W~S lura L~fr:rofllms (lm:l.dlon: M,~C.liIl~!~1I!1L. :2.(00):

M~Iii~e~ G, Se:hecbi1;et (~c!,} FuJ;it~ ,W~{liJ{11'f!mll'~!n: TM P~rlilit(jl ami S.Odfi{ Fo:iHl:lI!H~ (1l.IJffiIdlOlli: (\o:bnniIJall,. 1999);. Mlr.WiJ.dG. ~khedllt~r (eoj.) lr,11l~Yllll'rW!r [ir M.tJlriJau5WliJilfJ {Lono.otl; M:a(:rnirn~I'I,. 1999), y o5.rnlkao:~ Sab"l.JllQ1.o {r:d.) (if'o/).!il Trallsj'(lntJ{J'li!)fJ: (;:J~/ll!jfge~ to I}l~ S'~fl~!' SJl~r,!;.n ([Gk),o: U:niIL-edi N2I11Cll1is lIn~~"tr-si~y P"ess~ ~99<l,}; am:1 M?lrli~, H~n und Timo!llY J_ Sililcl~~r {eds) AppnHN.'n.e5 to Gl~! G,r'ioTili'WIJ'1Cri' TliWo"J' 'Albl!J~y. NY: S~an~ U~i~'I!r:s.iI.y orNe\\' YcrkPress, 1999).

3 C~<li{; 1\~. M1.!a~I)i. 'Gll)b~1 GQ"(!:m:u]GG~ Il()Qr]y ,,;rop~ and pDarl:!, understocd'. lrJtemmi<Jjw,1 A/fail's. 76: 4 (2J!}!1I(I), :D. 7.&9,

4 MlJ!rpruy. 'G.lcioo~ G"mml:lliJ~~ p.!)()J'I~' d,()~.e ~m:! pooo~ ~1)de~o.:X!·,

- ......... =- .. _

Part I

'Global fiaancla! and de'velop,mental governance

'Rortie" WiB\:iMti'fi i:ffid'Steve Hughes !i.,;'i'Li.!i' p.rl:ltrmJerl 'Ju~ 1)9$1 c,oUeclilm afessays ret .~·r!~ilOl'bl(} on me lmp,(J'!!~IJt hut fwtoriQ(lsty siippr:ry,. ,c.r;mcopr of global gtJ!Vd'J'ffl.!lI'JCO', Ihr:ir aim W1iS fill ;ut~[f;ag1itr: the' co'mempfmiry practice of g/o1J81 [Jill vr:rI1.r.rnce fram aVlIrir:ty,af tire(uetical iiind institutional perspectives arra iii tliat tliet,lii:fve unf/r.iestiMlably succeeded, .

Prfiiessor fony Payne, fJ'epB.rlment oIPo/iticS,. Univilrsily of Stteffield

'A remlifflable 81la thought/iir set (jf r:SS!I:Vs .a.bom !lloD'" gOV,f!'ffl"JIICe, Thrs book iiruminates the eX.!'e115ive f<mge ,of fJ.ha'fl.fJnges, actoTS,

.md pra'cesses On the w,of/d stil'g!'l at filii' dawn ofrlle twe1Uy4frst cem!!ry', TJrlJMufJ'j ,uN.1 tIiQ·ugh,·pf()I,fGMfjg re;J'.riifJ'g for fill stm:Jems (/,' crmu:mporary imtlmaricmalroJlJrhms, .'

Thomas G, Weiss, Editor, Global Governance Bnd Prosidfmtial Professor and Director. Ralph Bunde Institute forlntf!lmarion81 Studi8S. 1118 CUNY Gfilduare Center

'Tir~ iJoOfJli is <lI V!l'fy w!i'/(:i!lm~ stiwlll(f$ .to thinking 8bai!Jt a 1I'd:l:!'f. ~·mp.'(lrltl'l'1't 'Subject. '

Robert w_ COil. Professor Emerirus of Political Science, t"urk University, Toronto

Demonstrations during the meetings of mtiJ Illlematiofral Monetary Fund (JMf), World Bank and World Trade Organfsali(J(] (WTO) continue to grow in intensiry; rile guff between rich aM poor within Ilnd across !lations is Oil the inUtiJ8Stl; Ifmllironment;}f deBra rilltiO!l Cr;lntirmes unabat~d; hu'man stJcuntyis In decline, These issues and ffl1i'IlV mare point to f8ifjrrgs in globaJ govemance. VVhat iJre these failings'! In what ways Ilave the activities oliruemational

Co ver pf'JoW{jraph © Associated press lAP

orgtmisalions (;(mfribut;ea to the' p{J'rp~ru8tiafl af global inequalities? HowmfgM they be addres'Sed? These are some of tilt) QuesliotlS this book seeks to answer,

Global GUV8nt""Cf}; ethiC'1l1 perspectives offers a critical examination otthe rore of international cuganis.atlons in the management of global affairs .. It cvntm'ns essays by leading sellolars

in th~ field, r11ich explQring one aspecf of global f/OllemanCif1_ 111 dairrg so, the boo" exp'r;f9s recent rrends and de LffJfop'mfmts inglobl1( governance am, eKsmifrE!s failings in thfil work of intematiofJal orga'nisatioIl5.

Areas covered include: file role ofintem.atiM8! organisations In g(obaJ govem.imce; prorests; df/veJopment lrad9 and finance; labolJr and €!nvironment; c[1/wr;e and h!Jm.m rights; human secun,ty; lind gend~r and dvll s(}ciety,

BOlden Wilk.iusoll'is Senior Lf)CruHH in Inrema,tion81 H81ations and Imerflationai PofiticaJ ECDnom~ at the University of Manr:htlmf, He is fire author ofMulitililteriilism and the Wrnrid

Tra de 0 r~a n lsatl Il n moutierifjt:,,2()()IJ1,

Steve Hughes is Senior ieeune« .and Director of Graduate Studies at Me Sdwof af Management, UniversiW of Newcastle_ He has wrirren extensively on JaboiJr and tile [Jiobal po{itlcal economy and acted as an adviser on jnIBmatlDnal iSSMitS tel a variety of organisations,

Imernational Reiations/

IntBntational Political ECDJJomy

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