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How One Man
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150 DECEMBER 2009 \

June 2007 Vol. 66, No. 6
Deckard Does
page 142

We Know Training ™
The Rep Range rotation of P/RR/S training, as applied to
the original X-Rep program. Plus, size-surge supplements.


Jerry Brainum reveals things you may not know about this
power-packed power supplement—and the best way to
take it.


Ron Harris explains why all great athletes are not great role
models. (No, we’re not talking about you, Mr. Tyson.)


From Mark Subsinsky steps into
Dante’s DoggCrapp workout style.



Cory Crow goes head-to-head with 15 TO PRO
How One Man
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Sebastian Siegel and

180 MICHAEL LOCKETT Karen McDougal appear
The story of a boxing champ who on this month’s cover.
decided to lift weights and in only 15 Hair and makeup Yvonne
months won the Team Universe and Ouellette. Photo by
Michael Neveux
got his pro card—workout included.


The X-men discuss stretch overload, the ultimate
exercises, abbreviated workouts, rep speed, heavy/light
training and big guns. (Whew!)


John Little on metabolic momentum, motivation and the
psychology behind high-intensity workouts.
page 244 Big prizes for beastly bodies—and lots of big pics to give
you even bigger inspiration. Prepare for shock and awe.

Abby Wolf will have you growling and howling your
approval when you see her Texas physique.


Bill Starr’s recipe for getting strong to the core—as in hip
and lower-back strength. (Good morning, lumbars!)

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Back to free weights, older men and andropause, odd
lifts and a new study on high reps vs. low reps.

Charles Poliquin discusses pains, gains and deadlift
range. His take on low-carb diets is here too.

The nutrition/hormone link. Plus, meal frequency and
how it affects bodyfat.
page 268
Steve Holman talks bodybuilding bashes and volume/in­
tensity clashes.


Lockett, John Hansen outlines a program for best chest and a
page 180 classic back-to-basics two-way-split routine.


Jerry Brainum looks at the research to determine if yo­
himbe is a faster fat blaster.


Eric Broser’s found more cool Web sites, including one
from the gym where Ronnie Coleman trains. Oh, and
let’s not forget hot babe Monica Guerra and Broser’s Net
Results Q&A section.

Muscle “In” 238 NEWS & VIEWS

Sites, Lonnie Teper, live from the Arnold Classic. Okay, he’s not
page 232 quite live, but he was a lively emcee—and he’s got some
interesting observations on the weekend from that killer
vantage point.


Ruth Silverman was all over Columbus like paparazzi on
Paris Hilton. In other words, she’s got great pics of hot
News & Views, Pump & Circumstance, chicks, gang. (Thank you, Ironwoman!)
page 238 page 262
Randall Strossen, Ph.D., explains how to pick your per­
sonality, and Dave Draper presents another Bomber Blast.


Delightful Di Nino, as in Nancy; Mentis the Man, as in
Jimmy; and packing on mass, as in 3D muscle building.

In the next IRON MAN

Next month we’ve got an interview with an over-40
pro bodybuilder who recently made a comeback.
How did he do it? Was it worth it? Will he forge
ahead or re-retire? David Young has the answers in
his chat with David Fisher. Then Jerry Brainum has
new research on a fruit that provides potent muscle-
building power. You’ll want to add this to your diet
immediately, even if you’re low-carbing it. We’ll also
WEB ALERT! have lots of hot pics from the Figure, Fitness and
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John Balik’s
Publisher’s Letter
Peary & Mabel Rader
Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik

Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer

Design Director: Michael Neveux

Designer Genes Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman

Art Director: T. S. Bratcher

Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman

Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper

Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown

There’s no question that your genetic Assistant Art Director: Aldrich Bonifacio

makeup governs your bodybuilding results. Designer: Emerson Miranda


I didn’t say “success” because no matter

Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba,
what your genetics, once you start weight R. Anthony Toscano
training consistently, you’ll gain some Contributing Authors:
muscle size and strength and improve your Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman,
Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis,
health. That’s success in my book. In com­ Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum,
petitive bodybuilding, however, genetic Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler,
Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch
factors rule the winner’s circle. Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene
Michael Lockett, the ’06 NPC Team Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim
Universe champion, is a prime example. Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan,
Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D.,
Fifteen months before that competition he Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D.,
hadn’t performed a single weight-training and David Young
rep. He was a boxer, and, thanks to his genetics, he’d added muscle Contributing Artists:
Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn,

to his frame merely from sparring, bag work and calisthenics. He

Jake Jones

could tell, as could others, that he had a propensity for building Contributing Photographers:
muscle—and in all the right places to be competitive onstage. With Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Reg Bradford, Jimmy

encouragement from his family and friends, Lockett decided to give Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry Fredrick, Irvin Gelb,

Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman, J.M. Manion, Gene

it a shot, and after less than a year and a half of serious bodybuilding Mozée, Mitsuru Okabe, Rob Sims, Leo Stern

training, he’s the proud owner of an IFBB pro card. Director of Marketing:
Lockett’s story is amazing, as you’ll see when you read David Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1

Young’s interview with this incredible drug-free athlete, which begins Accounting: Dolores Waterman

Subscriptions Manager:

on page 180. You’ll learn a lot about the mind-set of a champion, as

Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2

well as his training ideas and program—but be careful. One of the E-mail:

big mistakes up-and-coming bodybuilders make is copying the pro­ Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer

grams of the genetic elite. 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1

(518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697

Even I’ve made that mistake, and not just as a beginner. I remem­
Advertising Coordinator:
ber training with Arnold in his competitive days at the original Gold’s Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320
Gym. When he began a serious contest-training phase, his physique Newsstand Consultant:
changed almost from workout to workout. I figured that he must Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848
know the secret, so I went along for the ride, every exercise and every We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our

set. I thought I’d get bigger, but all I got were lots of aches, pains and discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art

or other submissions must be accompanied by a self-

a serious case of overtraining after only a few weeks. Yes, Arnold had addressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to

discovered the secret—for his body and elite genetics. IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033.

We are not responsible for unsolicited material.

We’re all individuals, and discovering what works for you is part Writers and photographers should send for our

of the bodybuilding challenge, part of the journey. It’s the reason we Guidelines outlining specifications for submissions.

IRON MAN is an open forum. We also reserve the

present different training ideas and programs in every issue of IRON right to edit any letter or manuscript as we see

fit, and photos submitted have an implied waiver

MAN. Experimentation in the gym is imperative if you want to im­ of copyright. Please consult a physician before

prove your bodybuilding results. You can be successful just by being beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the

information published in IRON MAN at your own

persistent in your workouts—you’ll tone up and get healthier. If you risk.

want to take your muscular development to the brink of your genetic

potential, however, you’ll have to train harder and smarter, discover­ IRON MAN Internet Addresses:
Web Site:

ing your individual requirements for adding size and strength. It’s John Balik, Publisher:

not easy, but it’s highly rewarding. And like a diligent, motivating Steve Holman, Editor in Chief:

Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor:

training partner, IRON MAN is here to help you every step of the way. T.S. Bratcher, Art Director:

IM Helen Yu, Director of Marketing:

Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator:

Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions:

30 JUNE 2007 \

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Free Weights First A lack of barbell and dumbbell

moves can hold back your back

One of the benefits of training at a large commer­ of the men in our gym. Then it somehow withered and
cial gym is the plentiful assortment of equipment you looked soft and untrained. When I saw what she’d
have to choose from. For many bodybuilders, though, been doing on back day, I understood why. Without
what seems to be a blessing can in fact be a curse. me there to nudge her toward the free weights, Janet
That’s especially true when it comes to back training. was doing mainly cable pulldowns and seated cable
Evan Centopani, the ’06 Junior National champion rows, with the occasional Hammer Strength–machine
and superheavyweight runner-up at the ’06 Nationals, row thrown in for good measure. I had her switch
learned that the hard way. back to dumbbell and barbell rows after chinups, and
“I trained at home for a couple of years with just the within two weeks her back was regaining its usual
most basic equipment,” he recalls. “Then, toward the impressiveness.
end of high school, I joined a big gym and was blown The lesson here is that cables and machines are
away by all the fancy high-tech equipment.” nice and can really complement the basic free-weight
His back suffered the most from the new environ­ exercises for back, but they should by no means
ment, as chins and rows done with barbells and replace them. —Ron Harris
dumbbells were supplanted by all manner of machine
simulations. Soon he
noticed something
was amiss: “My back
didn’t have that thick,
full look to it, and it
was because I was
using too many ca­
bles and machines.”
Once Evan re­
sumed performing
rows and deadlifts
with good old iron,
his back took on that
rugged look of power
once more, and he
started to grow anew.
I saw a very similar
thing happen to my
wife, Janet, recently.
We hadn’t been train­
ing together for a
few months due to
Neveux \ Model: Nathan Detracy

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Normally, her back is
her most impressive
bodypart, more thickly Free-weight
developed than the rows should be
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Train Hard
We’ve all become so fixated on who
has the lowest bodyfat and the most
striated glutes on contest day that we
mistakenly believe victory goes to the
guy who diets longest and hardest.
Certainly, preparation is critical for any
contest, because without that extremely
shredded condition, all your hard work
can’t be seen. Dorian Yates, however,
knew a secret; so did Ronnie Coleman,
and so does Jay Cutler. Contests aren’t
won the day they’re held or even in the
final weeks beforehand. They’re won in
the off-season, through workouts that
test the boundaries of human perfor
mance and pain tolerance and in meals
that feed the muscles all year long.
Dorian’s training intensity was the stuff
Lee Priest.

of legend. His workouts were fairly brief,
but he poured 100 percent into them.
MENTAL MIGHT No set was over until he couldn’t budge
the weight another centimeter. We’ve

Basic Instinct Using the mind/muscle

connection for better workouts
all witnessed Ronnie’s work ethic in the
gym and at the dinner table in his vari­
ous DVDs. Coleman pushed and pulled
weights no other bodybuilder could—or
Very little has changed about the way IFBB and PDI pro Lee Priest has dared to. The result
trained since he first picked up a weight more than two decades ago. His was a physique so Cutler.
huge and freaky that
winning program is based on heavy free weights and high volume—20 to
for nearly a decade
30 sets per bodypart. But as Priest has grown older, wiser and larger, he’s nobody could beat
learned to follow his own path when it comes to his training schedule. him. But his archrival
“When I was younger, I did what everyone else does, which was train on Cutler understood
the value of the off­
something like a three-or-four-on/one-off routine,” he says. “I’d do chest
season even better
one day; back the next; then shoulders, arms, legs and then take a day off.” than Ronnie toward

Eventually, though, he began to heed his own body rather than the calen­ the end. While Ron­
dar. nie routinely took
a full three months
“If I feel great, sometimes I’ll train for 10 or 20 days straight before I take away from training following his Olympia
a day off. If I feel tired or just not motivated, I might take off a few days in a victories, Jay was back in the gym the
row or as long as a couple weeks—whatever my body needs.” very next day, hungry to fulfill his destiny
Another rule Lee routinely breaks is that he doesn’t always follow a set and claim the Sandow trophy as his own.
Jay’s discipline and drive also applied
sequence for the bodyparts he trains. “Maybe it’s supposed to be chest to his diet. He remained in very hard
day, but I feel like training back instead,” he explains. “Should I just go condition throughout ’06, so getting into
ahead and work chest like I’m supposed to and have an average workout, peak shape was no struggle. Ronnie, on
or should I train back, something I’m enthused about working, and have an the other hand, came into the show too
heavy, and it cost him his throne.
awesome workout?” That could be a problem if he were like a lot of novices If you have a competition in mind and
and heavily favored certain muscle groups while neglecting others, but Lee it’s still six or 12 months or a year away,
is a professional and makes sure each muscle group gets adequate atten­ don’t slack off now and think you can get
serious on down the line. Every workout
you do and every meal you eat have an
How can we use that information for our own benefit? Simple: It’s okay to impact on the physique you’ll display on
bend the rules. You don’t have to conform to a set training schedule. Train contest day. The question is, How badly
when you have the energy and the motivation, and rest when you feel you do you want to win that contest? If your
answer isn’t very passionate, you can bet
need it. We’re all individuals. Some of you may get the best results training
that someone out there is putting more
just twice a week; others may thrive on hitting the gym for seven to 10 days effort into his training now than you are,
in a row before taking a breather for a day or two. Listen to your body, and and you will probably have to watch as
pay close attention to how you feel. It could make a big difference over the his hand is held up in victory, not yours.
That contest won’t be won on that day.
long haul when it comes to maximizing your muscular potential. It’s being won or lost right now.
—Ron Harris —Ron Harris

34 JUNE 2007 \

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What Is Andropause? How do you know if you’re going

through it, and what can you do about it?
All men who live into middle to the limbic system’s fight-or-flight mechanism. Once the axis
age go through it, yet many has been altered, you usually cannot sleep normally or stay awake
never feel overt symptoms. during the day, although you feel on edge. Some have burned out
Others, however, feel symp­ their adrenal glands, which contributes to poor cellular integrity
toms to such an extent that and therefore poor hormonal communication.
they’re often misdiagnosed On the opposite end of the hormonal spectrum are bodybuild­
with a syndrome or disease. ers, powerlifters, strength athletes, football players, baseball play­
It’s known as andropause, and ers, Olympic athletes and others who have used large amounts
it’s the male physiological and of anabolic steroids and growth hormone. They may feel the
hormonal equivalent to meno­ effects of andropause earlier in their lives. When you take synthetic
pause. Andropause is not as testosterone, the body shuts down its own production of the
drastic a change, nor does it hormone. Because of that, one-third to one-half of all the athletes
have as many overt symptoms who have used steroids and/or GH chronically for many years will
as menopause; but it can affect some men very negatively and have some signs of andropause early and perhaps for the rest
make their muscle-building goals impossible. of their lives. Some will be diagnosed as having chronic fatigue
If you’re 40 to 75 and have never taken growth hormone or ste­ syndrome, chronic fatigue immune deficiency syndrome, lupus
roids, the following symptoms could indeed indicate andropause: and many other chronic diseases because their entire hormonal
communication systems are dysfunctional. The “cure,” however, is
• Chronic fatigue—not due to diabetes or bacteria or virus the same for a man who is 65 and going through andropause.
• Loss or decreased libido I used the word cure, but there really isn’t one—only ways to
• Erectile dysfunction help the body better cope. Ideally, the pituitary gland—working
• Frequent loss of erections in conjunction with the hypothalamus—should be sending the
• Infertility proper messages to all of the organs involved in the androgenic
• Sleeping disorders pathways.
• Elevated PSA and/or benign prostate enlargement If you feel you’re going through andropause, your first step is
• Low to no sperm count to find an endocrinologist. Sometimes you can get a referral from
• A general feeling of malaise your general practitioner; however, often you have to look for one
• Difficulty or intolerance to participating in exercise who has a more holistic mind-set—one who doesn’t believe each
• Loss of muscle mass symptom is the result of just one isolated area but rather a group
• Increased bodyfat, especially around the waist and of organs that aren’t communicating with each other, with cells
lower back and/or with the hypothalamus. Here are the tests advanced-think­
• Hot flashes ing endocrinologists perform if andropause is suspected: free
• Night sweats testosterone (blood), total testosterone (blood), growth hormone
• Muscle weakness (blood), DHEA (saliva), estrodiol (saliva or blood), FSH (saliva or
• Thinning of bones blood), LH (saliva or blood). As for the tests that rule out thyroid
• Depression problems: TSH (blood); T-4, T-3, T-3R (blood); thyroid antibodies
The key to the severity of andropause in any man is based on The main thing to remember is that if any of the levels are low,
three important factors: you should only take testosterone that is considered biologically
1) Men who never need medical intervention for andropause correct for your age. An underperforming thyroid should be taken
usually have lifted weights and lived a fitness lifestyle—that care of no matter your age.
includes eating healthfully, drinking little to no alcohol and keep­ Usually, an endocrinologist will give you a low dose of testoster­
ing the intake of sugars and refined foods to a minimum. (Doing one via a patch, gel or injection—after you’ve been diagnosed with
aerobics is not enough for two major reasons: It does not increase andropause or hypogonadism. It is easiest to diagnose testicular
the output of growth hormone and testosterone the way that train­ atrophy because of an obvious loss in size, but that doesn’t nec­
ing with weights does; and the muscle growth created by weight essarily mean that you need synthetic testosterone. Blood tests
training naturally increases the metabolic rate, which makes the are the only definitive way of knowing. In other words, you could
hormonal feedback loops to the hypothalamus more efficient and indeed have hypogonadism yet have a normal testosterone level.
effective.) —Paul Burke
2) Some men have a genetic predisposition for producing high
levels of testosterone, estradiol, growth hormone and the all-im­ Editor’s note: You can contact Paul Burke via e-mail at
portant cyclic AMP, which helps hormones go from one organ to Burke has a master’s degree in integrated stud­
another (directed by the hypothalamus). ies from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s
3) Some men have altered the pituitary-hypothalamus-adre­ been a champion bodybuilder and arm wrestler, and he’s con­
nal axis. That particular problem is, I believe, the cause of many sidered the leader in the field of over-40 fitness training. You can
chronic illnesses, and the alteration usually happens in advanced- purchase his book Burke’s Law—a New Fitness
technology-oriented parts of the world—living in a highly stressed, Paradigm for the Mature Male, from Home Gym
highly aggressive society like the United States. How you react to Warehouse. Call (800) 447-0008, or visit www.
stress plays into the axis dysfunction. Cell-to-cell communication His “Burke’s Law” training DVD
and insulin penetration may also have been compromised by eat­ is available at For
ing too many refined foods and not exercising. That’s compound­ more information or for information on the pri­
ed by too much cortisol in the bloodstream, which is the first sign vate-training facility he’s building outside Tampa,
that this axis is losing integrity. Cortisol is the chemical response Florida, see his Web site.

36 JUNE 2007 \

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Odd Lifts for Back-Blasting Variety
The back is my favorite with elbows flared wide—a high
bodypart to train. I have dozens row. That hits the upper back and
of reasons, but what comes to rear delts hard and is a staple of
mind first is that it’s one heck of powerlifters.
a strong group of muscles, and Cable pullovers. Not the
nothing is cooler than a thick, oddest of the odd but some­
wide back. The variety of move­ thing you don’t see every day,
ments you can use means you these are also known as stiff-arm
never get bored. pulldowns. Stand in front of an
With so many exercises to overhead cable stack and use
choose from, it seems a shame either a rope or straight bar. To
to stick with only a few. Go into do the lift correctly, stand back far
any gym, however, and you’ll enough to get a prestretch in your
see the same old same old: lats; slowly bring the bar down
pulldowns, cable rows, barbell to your upper thighs with only a
rows, maybe chins and deadlifts slight bend at your elbows. Hold
if the trainees are putting some for a contraction and release back
effort into the session. to the top. Feel the stretch and
Now, there’s nothing wrong move to rep number two. I prefer
with those movements. In fact, pullovers done on a Nautilus ma­
if you’re trying to add size, chine, but many gyms don’t have

Neveux \ Model: Jonathan Lawson

sticking with the basics is the one, so cable pullovers make a
best way to gain. But if you’re good alternative.
an intermediate to advanced 45 degree hyperextension
lifter, don’t be afraid to spice bench barbell rows. The boys
things up now and then. Even at Westside Barbell in Columbus,
if you’re new to lifting, remem­ Ohio, taught me this one. It’s as
ber that the chinup has many odd as they come but can re­
variations (wide grip; ultrawide ally work
scapula stretch; triangle bar; the back
narrow, reverse, parallel, one- effectively
arm and mixed grips), so don’t once you
get too bogged down with only get the
one style. Mix it up. hang of
Here are some of the lesser- it. Warn­
known yet effective back blast­ ing: Start
ers: light at
Cable cobras. Stand in the first. It hits
center of a cable crossover sta­ the ham­
tion. Grab the upper D handles strings,
with opposite hands, palms glutes,
facing each other. Pull the cable lower
down to your sides. Pause at back, lats,
the peak contraction and feel grip, bi­
the muscles cramp along the ceps and
spine and midback. With slight midback
adjustments to your stance you hard. Lock
can hit either more midback your torso
or lats. Try stepping out from in place
the machine a bit and/or lean­ parallel
ing over slightly to see how it to the
affects the line of pull. Go for ground on
higher reps. Keep this as a a hyper­
finishing movement. extension bench, and then perform normal barbell rows. This
Incline-bench rope pulldowns. This is one I picked up variation can give your upper-back muscles a massive blast
from Monica Brant. Put an incline bench in front of an over­ and really add some meat once you get up in weight, but, like I
head cable and lie facedown on it. The bench angle should be said, take your time.
fairly steep. Grab a rope attachment and pull it down to around There you go—some odd lifts to give the gym rats a reason
eye level. Pause and squeeze the lats, then return. Again, use to scratch their heads and point. I bet you’ll get some con­
these as a finisher for a high-rep burn and pump. fused glances, but give it time. You’ll also see others giving the
Face pulls. Stand facing an overhead cable. Attach a lifts a try to emulate your new back mass and detail.
rope handle and step back. Pull the rope toward your forehead —William Litz

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How to Avoid Injury Part 4

Over the past three columns I’ve given you 30 techniques muscle. Not wearing a belt
for avoiding injuries. That’s important information because you helps your body strengthen
can’t make bodybuilding progress if you keep getting injured. its core musculature. A
Here’s the final batch of recommendations: lifting belt is a crutch—train
31) Don’t hold your breath. The common tendency, without it.
especially when training hard, is to clench your teeth and hold 35) Don’t be foolish. Many injuries occur because a
your breath during the hardest part of a rep. That increases bodybuilder has given in to bravado. Don’t try something you
blood pressure and may cause blackouts and dizziness. Even know you’re not ready for, and don’t try another rep when
if it’s for just a split second, a loss of consciousness during you know you can’t hold correct technique. Never go heavy in
training could be disastrous. Although you may not suffer an exercise you’re not familiar with or haven’t done for a few
blackouts or dizziness, headaches weeks. Ignore people who encourage you
are a common, immediate result of to try something you know is risky. They
breath holding during training. Over won’t have to live with the consequences of
the long term, breath holding during a moment of foolishness, but you will.
training encourages varicose veins and For exercises where the weight could
hemorrhoids because of the damage pin you, especially the squat and the bench
to vein walls and valves caused by the press, always use safety bars, such as
elevated blood pressure. those of a power rack, and, ideally, a spot­
A general rule is to inhale during the ter as well. Squat, bench press and incline-
brief pause between reps or during press stations should incorporate safety
the negative phase of the movement, bars that the barbell can rest on if you fail
and exhale during the positive phase on a rep.

Neveux \ Model: John Hansen

(especially the sticking point). For 36) Keep your wits about you.
exercises where there may be a pause Don’t just be concerned about what you’re
for a couple of seconds between reps, doing in the gym. Be aware of what’s
inhale and exhale, then inhale immedi­ happening around you, and stay clear of
ately before the start of the next rep. danger.
Here’s an alternative way to breathe 37) Wear appropriate footwear.
while training: Never hold your breath. Shoes with thick, spongy soles and heels
Focus on the exercise and muscles may be fine for some activities but not for
being trained, not on your breathing. As long as you’re not strength training. A spongy base won’t keep your feet solidly
holding your breath, you’ll automatically breathe sufficiently. in position. That doesn’t mean you should train barefoot. Your
After some practice you’ll find the points during your reps feet need support, but they need the right support.
where it’s easier to breathe in or out. If you take more than Function comes first in the gym. Get yourself a sturdy pair
about four seconds for each positive or negative phase of a of shoes with good grip on the soles, arch support and, pref­
rep, you need to breathe more than once during each phase erably, no height difference between the sole and heel. That’s
of a rep. especially important when squatting, deadlifting and leg press­
Not holding your breath also applies out of the gym. When­ ing because heel elevation increases stress on the knees in
ever you put forth effort, exhale to avoid elevated blood pres­ those exercises.
sure. During demanding exercise you won’t be able to get Worn shoes can lead to deviations in exercise technique.
enough air through your nose alone. Breathe through your Discard shoes that have unevenly or excessively worn soles
mouth. That means you shouldn’t close your mouth. Keep it or heels. Ideally, have a pair of shoes you wear solely for gym
open—just slightly—and your teeth apart. work. Furthermore, when you train, keep your laces tied tightly.
32) Avoid using knee or any other joint wraps. Even a small change in the height of the heel or the rela­
Tight bandages around joints can mask injuries that are ag­ tive difference between the heel and sole thicknesses of your
gravated by training. shoes can mar your training. That applies especially to the
33) Avoid painkillers. Don’t use painkillers before, squat and the deadlift, although a change in balance can have
during or after training, as they usually mask problems. Solve a negative effect on some other exercises, too.
problems; don’t cover them up and incubate serious injury. 38) Concentrate! Be 100 percent focused while you
34) Don’t wear a lifting belt. Many bodybuilders wear train. Never be casual. Never turn your head or talk during a
lifting belts—especially while deadlifting and squatting—under set or pay attention to what anyone’s saying other than your
the misconception that it will protect them from back injuries. spotter, who is giving you technique reminders or encourage­
Some wear a loose lifting belt throughout their workouts as if ment. Even a slight loss of focus leads to a loss of correct
it’s an item of general clothing. A loose belt doesn’t provide technique and an increased risk of injury.
any support. On the other hand, a tight belt is uncomfortable, —Stuart McRobert
can restrict exercise technique, can lead to increased blood
pressure and can be tolerated only for short-duration sets.
Powerlifters use lifting belts for singles and low-rep work. Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first
Wearing a lifting belt can create a false sense of security byline in IRON MAN appeared in 1981.
that encourages the use of incorrect exercise technique. He’s the author of the new 638-page
It may let a lifter use more weight than he could otherwise bodybuilding opus Build Muscle, Lose Fat,
handle, which will cause greater injury if exercise technique Look Great, available from Home Gym
isn’t correct. Warehouse (800) 447-0008 or www
Build your own natural belt by developing a strong corset of
40 JUNE 2007 \
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to your muscles at that critical supercompensation is jacked
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refill spent fuel stores so you’re
because that’s when your muscles —Jonathan Lawson fully loaded for your next workout
are extremely receptive—like (bigger, more powerful muscles;
wrung-out sponges waiting to soak up anabolic nutri- you can feel it working). You train hard; you deserve
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High Reps vs. Low Reps Hormones during training: young and old
One reason muscle mass declines with age is that the onds between
various anabolic hormones, such as testosterone and growth sets. They also
hormone, decline, while the catabolic hormones—mainly participated
cortisol—rise. You have two options for dealing with signifi­ in a control
cant body changes like that. You can supplement the miss­ session, in
ing hormones, or you can exercise. Weight training can help which they
maintain much of your anabolic hormone output. didn’t exercise
It becomes increasingly difficult, however, to train the same but sat quietly
way at 40 as you did at 20. Trust me: It’s the voice of experi­ while blood
ence talking. If I were to attempt to lift the kind of weight now was drawn at
that I did when I was in my 20s, I’d probably injure myself. the same inter­
Certain exercises I just don’t do anymore because they’re too vals as during
risky. exercise.
Years ago I interviewed Al Beckles, who was still compet­ Measure­
ing successfully at the pro level in bodybuilding, defeating ments included
men half his age. At the time, Beckles claimed to be nearly hormone and
50 years old. I asked him how he dealt with injuries, and he blood lactate
replied that he didn’t have any. He explained that he’d devel­ levels before,
oped his considerable muscle mass through years of heavy immediately
training; indeed, he’d started out as an Olympic lifter in Great after and 15
Britain. When he reached 40, though, he changed his training minutes fol­
style. Instead of constant heavy training, he used moderately lowing the Albert Beckles changed his heavy

heavy weights and higher reps. According to Beckles, that workout. The training style when he hit 40.
relieved the strain on his joints and enabled him to continue lactate in­
to train hard. creased in both groups, with the highest levels in the younger
A recent study confirms many of Beckle’s empirical obser­ men. Testosterone and cortisol were higher in both groups
vations. Two groups of men, one young (average age 23) and right after and 15 minutes after the workout compared to the
one older (average age 69), both with training experience, inactive control measurements, showing that the exercise
used a “strength endurance” program, lifting weights equal to had a definite effect on hormone release. Growth hormone
60 percent of one-rep maximum for 15 reps a set. They did increased in both the young and old, with the younger men
six exercises for both upper and lower body, resting 90 sec­ showing greater amounts.
The study shows that you
METABOLIC MOMENTUM can get much of the benefit of
lifting heavy weights with lighter

Dead-On Mass weights. That’s particularly good

news to anyone over 40. The
younger men had more growth
Is the deadlift the king of back ex­ hormone because they also had
more exercise lactate, which
ercises? Mike Mentzer used to think
is a stimulus to GH secretion
so. Charles Poliquin has named the during exercise. The older men
deadlift the most underrated body­ produced less lactate because
building exercise. Eight-time Mr. they had less muscle than their
Neveux \ Model: Robert Hatch

Olympia Ronnie Coleman pulls more younger counterparts.

than 800 pounds. You put two and One message of the study is
two together. that you may want to consider
Beckles’ advice as you reach
The sheer intensity of the dead middle age. Consider using
smokes your whole back, from top moderate weights and perhaps
to bottom. The lats keep the bar higher reps. You will still get a
from getting away—through a com­ and lower back—well, that’s obvi­ definite anabolic hormone effect,
plex anatomical rig with the unpro­ ous. which will help to maintain the
nounceable name of lumbodorsal To get the most out of the deadlift muscle you’ve developed over
the years. If you’re lucky, you
fascia. They aid your erectors in in the meat-building department, may even be able to add some
keeping your spine straight. start with five sets of five three times new muscle.
The muscles between your shoul­ every two weeks; for instance, Mon­ —Jerry Brainum
der blades keep your upper back day, Friday and Wednesday. Start
in its proper alignment. The neck light, with a weight you can pull at Smilois, I., et al. (2006).
doesn’t get to relax either. Few pow­ least 10 times, and add a couple of Hormonal responses after a
erlifters do any direct neck work and strength endurance resistance
pounds at every workout.
exercise protocol in young and
even fewer can fit their bull necks —Pavel elderly males. Int J Sports Med.
into store-bought shirts. The traps Beyond Bodybuilding In press.

42 JUNE 2007 \

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Charles Poliquin’s
Smart Training
If that doesn’t bring relief, you may want to look into

Too Much a liver cleanse. In Chinese medicine, elbow tendinitis is

linked to liver health. I’ve worked with lifters who have
gotten rid of chronic elbow tendinitis by doing a good liver
cleanse, alternating two Japanese herbal formulas for four

Pain to Gain to eight weeks. If you believe you need to do that, call (401)
294-2066 and order my liver cleanse.
If you still have pain after a liver cleanse, consider a food
allergy panel. In many individuals a food allergy mani­
Q: I’ve had periodic elbow soreness over the years fests as tendinitis. I had elbow pain like yours for years, no
from training. A couple of sportsmedicine doctors matter what I did. Even the lightest weight would make
said that it’s inflammation caused by years of heavy me cringe. Once I figured out I was allergic to wheat and
training. Can you suggest anything other than glu­ stopped eating all gluten-containing products, my elbow
cosamine and chondroitin, fish oil and vitamin C pain disappeared five days later and never came back.
that I should be taking to help alleviate it? Q: Coach, there’s very little written on the best
way to warm up for strength training. Any ideas on
A: While nutrition may help, you have to look also at
where I could get information on that topic?
soft-tissue alignment and/or training technique. Many
times nutrition won’t relieve elbow pain. That’s when you A: You’re right. There’s not much devoted to that topic. A
should try a qualified soft-tissue practitioner, familiar with few weeks ago my colleague John Paul Cantarazzo released
weight training, to treat the problem. a DVD called “Warm Up for Strength Training.” It shows
Nutritionwise, I recommend fish oils and C3-curcumin a plethora of warmup tools ranging from Swiss balls to
for inflammation of the elbows. Take anywhere from 15 to foam rollers to, of course, free weights. It addresses various
45 grams a day of fish oil, in divided doses, depending how methods of warming up, from the correct forms of stretch­
lean you are, and nine to 15 capsules a day of curcumin, ing to dynamic movements using the pendulum approach.
depending on the degree of inflammation. That should The DVD can be used by the neophyte lifter or the expe­
lower the inflammation. I recommend glucosamine and rienced strength coach, as it shows many techniques that
chondroitin products only if the bones are affected, not for I’m sure many of my colleagues are not aware of. To pur­
tendinitis. Long-term use of glucosamine and chondroitin chase John’s DVD, go to
use can interfere with insulin sensitivity. Performing the techniques illustrated on the DVD will
boost your chances of remaining
injury free and enable you to use
greater loads in training.
Q: Why do you advocate so
many long-range deadlifts?
A: I have always been a be­
liever in long-range movements
for maximum benefits in the
training room. I was first exposed
to that concept by Terry Hadlow,
who in the ’80s was the only
non–Communist bloc weight-
lifter ranked in the top eight
in the world, which back then
would have been the equivalent
of Guatemala having a football
team in the Super Bowl.
The man was brutally strong,
particularly in his lower back. He
gave credit to the coach he had in
his teenage years, who had him
do deadlifts using only 25-pound
metal plates to force a greater
range than the standard 45s.
Of course, a simpler solution
is to use a platform, one basically
the same size as a case of soda.
Neveux \ Model: Jeff Hammond

Elbow pain may be the

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Gustavo Badell credits a

lot of his back size and
detail to full-range regular
deadlifts. He frequently
does them on a platform
to increase his range of

A: There are so many advan­

tages to low-carb nutrition that I
tend to use it for about 75 percent
of my clients. Still, it’s not for ev­
erybody. Some genotypes do very
poorly on it, and the extent of how
badly they do on it is a function of
how long they are on it. Before you
look at the advantages and disad­
vantages, as Jonny Bowden would
say, “You need to approach your
fat-loss system the way you should
approach relationships: with daily
attention, nurturing, support,
crisis management, intervention,
focus, consciousness and mindful­
ness. It requires good negotiation
skills. All the things we tend not to
have when it comes to food.”
Here are some advantages of

following a low-carb diet:

1) It promotes muscle gains

while reducing fat stores. I’m
not a believer in the bulk-up/get­
lean approach in hypertrophy
training. I strongly believe that if
75 percent of the population wants
to gain lean body mass while los­

ing fat, the low-carb approach will

do it better than anything, espe­
cially with supplements that en­
That way you can still use 45-pound plates, and you don’t hance insulin sensitivity. Because insulin sensitivity tends
need as many plates. to improve on a low-carb diet, fat loss is more sustained.
One of the biggest proponents of full-range movements 2) It’s a very valuable in treating dyslipidemia.
in the bodybuilding world is Gustavo Badell. He credits his Low-carb diets are particularly effective at reducing triglyc­
tremendous back, glute and hamstring development to erides and very low-density lipoprotein, or VLDL, the very
doing deadlifts on a platform. He doesn’t care that the load bad kind of cholesterol. They also have a significant effect
he uses is 150 to 200 pounds lighter than what he’d use for on reducing LDL. Their effect on raising high-density lipo­
regular deadlifts, as he feels that the added range has con­ protein, the good form of cholesterol, is not as dramatic.
tributed to his enormous posterior-chain development. In Overall, though, a low-carb diet improves the HDL to LDL
fact, newer lab research suggests that exercises that over­ ratio in a manner that significantly reduces cardiovascular
load the stretch position contribute to hyperplasia, a split­ risk.
ting of muscle fiber. 3) It reduces inflammation. Many patients report
Another simple way to increase range is to widen your reduced joint pain while following a low-carb diet. High
grip. Many Olympic throwers, sprinters and bobsledders insulin levels correlate with inflammation markers. As the
have seen a dramatic improvement in their sporting re­ insulin output is lower with low-carb diets, another cardio­
sults after adding wide-grip deadlifts to their preparation vascular risk marker, Hs-CRP, goes down faster than Paris
schemes. Hilton after a few highballs.
Whether you are interested in greater hypertrophy or 4) Improved glycemia and insulin levels. Blood
functional strength for your sport, longer range deadlifts sugar management is probably the biggest benefit of low­
are a short-cut to your goals. carb diets. Insulin is the hormone of aging and inflam­
mation, and 68 percent of Americans are prediabetic.
Q: What are some advantages and disadvantages
Managing insulin is one of the best ways of guaranteeing
of a low-carb nutrition approach?
healthy long life. An added benefit of improving glycemia is

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Lab research suggests that

stretch-position exercises may
contribute to hyperplasia, a
splitting of muscle fibers.

Q: What number of sets and reps

would you recommend for in-season
strength training for high school wres­
tlers? A typical practice is very demand­
ing, so I was thinking low volume with
high intensity. The exercises I like are
chinups or pullups, single-leg squats,
dumbbell chest presses or plyometric
pushups and a rowing movement.
A: For high school wrestlers the best ap­
proach in-season is to do one to two sets of
a four-to-10 RM weight and no more than
eight exercises that cover the whole body.

Neveux \ Model: Jay Cutler

Your main concern in-season is to maintain
muscle mass. So a routine would look like

A-1 Front squats, 1-2 x 4-6 on a 4/0/X/0

tempo, rest two minutes
A-2 Lying leg curls, feet inward, 1-2 x 4-6
reduced mood swings and less likelihood of food bingeing. on a 4/0/X/0 tempo, rest two minutes
5) Lowered blood pressure. Because low-carb diets B-1 Sternum chinups, 1-2 x 6-8 on a 3/0/X/0 tempo,
reduce inflammation, improved blood pressure is a direct rest 100 seconds
benefit. B-2 Incline dumbbell presses, 1-2 x 6-8 on a 3/0/X/0
6) Greater energy. Before all the armchair experts lash tempo, rest 100 seconds
out and rush to burn Canadian embassies, hear me out. C-1 One-arm dumbbell rows, 1 x 8-10 on a 3/0/X/0
Greater energy is indeed a very common report of low-carb tempo, rest 90 seconds
dieters. Psychometrics tests always report greater well­ C-2 Seated dumbbell presses, 1 x 8-10 on a 3/0/X/0
being of the patient after this dietary approach. It probably tempo, rest 90 seconds
has more to do with the better management of glycemia.
As Robert Crayhon says, you want more energy, take care Keep the workouts short. The only goal is staying
of your mitochondria. Lower insulin levels help with the healthy. In-season is not the time to try to build strength.
mitochondria’s energy-producing capacities. Wrestling is more important now; build your strength in
the off-season. The main goals of in-season training are to
Here are some disadvantages of low-carb diets: maintain levels of muscle mass and strength and ensure
balance between the muscular structures.
1) Meals tend to be bland. Even so, there are plenty
of resources, such as books like Living the Low Carb Life by Editor’s note: Charles Poliquin is recognized as one
Jonny Bowden, that will provide you with a wealth of cook­ of the world’s most suc­
ing tips ( cessful strength coaches,
2) Food prep time is greater. Since the meat con­ having coached Olympic
tent is greater, more time is needed to prepare the food. medalists in 12 different
Cooking a steak takes more time than making a sandwich. sports, including the U.S.
But again, there are solutions. If you substitute lettuce for women’s track-and-field
bread, you can do low-carb wraps in a flash. team for the 2000 Olym­
3) Constipation is often an issue. That can be offset pics. He’s spent years
by taking in a mixture of ground flaxseed hulls and ground researching European
fenugreek seeds first thing in the morning. Besides provid­ journals (he’s fluent in
ing the body with many forms of fibers, it detoxifies xeno­ English, French and Ger­
estrogens and improves insulin sensitivity. man) and speaking with
4) Possible nutrient deficiencies. I recommend that other coaches and scien­
all my clients take quality multivitamin supplements. That tists in his quest to opti­
goes along with a plan of antioxidants that changes every mize training methods.
eight days. To make it simple, I change the antioxidant For more on his books,

colors. For example, the first product may have five to six seminars and methods,
flavonoids like limonene, which means the base color is visit www.CharlesPoliquin
yellow. The next eight days we switch to purple, so we use a .net. Also, see his ad on Charles Poliquin
formula that has grapeseed extract, bilberry, and so on. page 185. IM
w w w. C h a r l e s P o l i q u i n . n e t
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The Nutrition/Hormone Link Anabolic-diet facts

Both exercise and good nutrition secretion, the extent of its release is ger in the blood than GH because it’s
contribute to gains in muscle size and modified by certain nutritional practices. bound to proteins that prevent its pre­
strength, as well as fat loss. Various For example, having a drink con­ mature breakdown. As with other hor­
scientific studies have examined how taining 25 grams of protein and mones that bind to proteins in blood,
specific combinations of nutrients can 50 grams of carbohydrate before only the free, or unbound, hormone is
influence anabolic and catabolic reac­ and after weight training in­ considered biologically active.
tions in muscle. Nutrient and exercise creases the release of GH more Eating doesn’t affect a person’s IGF­
interactions have also been investi­ than exercise alone. It also pro­ 1, although levels do decline with insuf­
gated.1 The following is an overview of duces a rise in GH levels in the blood ficient calorie or protein intake. What
what the research has thus far shown: several hours after the workout. feeding does affect, however, are the
Growth hormone. While growth What you want to avoid is fat. Ex­ binding proteins associated with IGF-1,
hormone promotes muscle growth by cess fatty acids in the blood block the specifically insulinlike growth factor-
positively influencing muscle protein release of GH, and eating fat prior to binding protein 1. As the name implies,
synthesis, it also may blunt protein training blunts GH release. So, surpris­ IGFBP-1 can have a minor insulinlike
breakdown. GH provides what scien­ ingly, does the amino acid arginine. impact on blood glucose. When liver
tists call a nutrient-partitioning effect (Arginine promotes GH release but glycogen levels drop after extended ex­
that helps add muscle while also stimu­ only under resting conditions, and you ercise, IGFBP-1 increases and prevents
lating the use of fat instead of carbohy­ have to take in quite a lot to make that further lowering of blood glucose.
drates as fuel. happen.) The B-complex vitamin niacin One recent study examined the
While intense exercise stimulates GH blocks the use of fat during exercise. hormonal effect of an ultralow level of
Paradoxically, that increases carbohydrate (5 percent) coupled with a
the GH response to exercise high protein intake (35 percent) for one
What you eat or because of the lower fatty week in eight healthy young subjects.2
drink before and acid levels in blood. That diet was compared to a typical
after a workout Some people have writ­ Western diet of 60 percent carbs, 30
can change your ten that GH release during percent fat and 10 percent protein.
growth hormone exercise doesn’t mean much Both diets contained the same number
levels. because the GH is broken of total daily calories.
down in the liver after about The measurements of blood plasma
an hour. Recent research, showed a 50 percent drop in insulin
however, shows that there levels; a 32 percent rise in free IGF-1;
are more than 100 forms of and a 14 percent decrease in IGFBP-3
GH in the body, and exercise (the primary protein-binder of IGF-1 in
interacts with the hormone blood). There was no change in total
to extend its anabolic effects IGF-1 or GH release, but the amount of
on muscle protein synthesis. IGF-1 messenger RNA in muscle dou­
Insulinlike growth bled, as did the rate of muscle protein
factor 1. Most of the synthesis. Paradoxically, whole-body
anabolic effects of growth protein breakdown (other than muscle)
hormone are attributable to increased 20 percent, apparently the
Neveux / Model: Nezzar Jamo

IGF-1, which is secreted in result of depressed insulin induced by

the liver under the influence the lack of carbs. A higher protein
of GH release. IGF-1 is also intake with minimal carbs seems
produced locally in muscle, to provoke a positive anabolic
where it participates in reac­ response in muscle because of
tions related to muscle repair the upgraded activity of muscle
and growth. It lasts far lon­ IGF-1.

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This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission

Testosterone. Testosterone is the has no effect on cortisol. Having carbs with other
hormone that most people think has the during training, however, seems to blunt anabolic hor­
most potent anabolic effect in muscle. the cortisol response. One study found mones, such
The well-known effects of anabolic ste- that taking in carbs during a weight as testoster­
roid drugs, which are synthetic versions workout led to an increase in muscle one and GH.
of testosterone designed to increase its size ascribed to lowered cortisol levels. All three offer
anabolic effects, illustrate the point. Trouble is, chowing down carbs during synergistic
You’d think that eating promotes a training blunts the use of fat as fuel. You effects. GH
rise in testosterone, but the opposite is also need to limit the carbs to prevent tends to raise
the case. Testosterone tends to drop possible gastrointestinal problems such blood glucose
after meals, while cortisol rises. Exactly as nausea. That means a workout drink levels, while
why isn’t clear. The lowered testoster- should contain no more than 8 percent insulin lowers
one may reflect an increase in cellular carbs, along with some electrolytes, it. GH primar­ PS controls cortisol.
uptake. Exercise promotes an increase meaning minerals, to promote greater ily promotes muscle protein synthesis,
in androgen receptors, which interact fluid uptake. Adding amino acids or while insulin prevents muscle protein
with Big T at the cellular level and thus protein to the drink is useless, since breakdown and opposes the activity of
diminish it in the blood. no muscle protein synthesis occurs cortisol. Insulin also promotes amino
Other studies show that certain during training and protein is used as acid uptake into muscle, glycogen
types of fat can influence testosterone a fuel source only after available carb replenishment and creatine uptake.
levels. Eating saturated fat depresses sources—glycogen and blood glu- Most bodybuilders don’t re-
them for about two hours after the cose—begin to dwindle. alize that insulin has anabolic
meal. Yet saturated fat maintains From a supplemental stand- effects in muscle only in the
testosterone levels in the body. point, phosphatidylserine has presence of an abundance of
So do monounsaturated fats, been shown in several studies to amino acids. That explains the main
such as those found in olive oil lower exercise-induced cortisol mechanism of protein-and-carb drinks
and avocados. Lowering fat intake levels by an average of 30 per- consumed before and after training.
to less than 20 percent of daily calories cent. The effect is thought to be due The combination boosts insulin release
leads to a significant drop in blood tes- to PS’s blunting of ACTH, the hormone more than either nutrient alone. Taken
tosterone. Omega-3 fatty acids, found that controls cortisol release from the before training, that type of drink inter-
in fish, nuts and other foods, lower cortex portion of the adrenal glands. acts with exercise, since the increased
total testosterone but don’t affect Some recent blood flow also boosts amino acid entry
other hormones, including the ac­ studies have into muscle. Adding the branched-chain
tive, or free, form of testosterone found no effect amino acid leucine to the mix further
and estrogen. of PS on corti- boosts the way the drink affects muscle
Cortisol. When cortisol levels sol but did find protein synthesis, leading to definite
are high, levels of anabolic hor­ that it extended anabolic effects in muscle.
mones, such as GH and testos­ exercise endur- —Jerry Brainum
terone, are low and vice versa. ance.
For muscle growth it’s best to Insulin.
limit the release of cortisol, the Although most References
body’s primary catabolic hor­ associated with
mone. glucose uptake 1 Volek, J., et al. (2006). Diet, ex-

Several studies have shown into cells, insulin ercise, and hormone interactions
that carbohydrates may blunt is a potent ana- in skeletal muscle. Hormone Res.
cortisol release during exercise. bolic hormone. 66(supp1):17-21.
Experiments involving weight That explains 2 Harber, M.P., et al. (2005). Effects

training, however, have dem­ why healthy of dietary carbohydrate restriction with
onstrated that having a protein- bodybuilders high protein intake on protein metabo­
and-carb drink before and after often use insulin lism and the somatotropic axis. J Clin
training influences GH levels but in combination Endocrin Metabo. 90:5175-81. \ JUNE 2007 53

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Food Facts
That can affect your
workouts, weight and wellness
Orange juice
should be a part
of your breakfast.
A study from
Vanderbilt Uni­
versity showed
that drinking
three glasses of
fruit or vegetable
juice every week
cut the risk of
memory loss by
76 percent.
fats are
bad for your
heart, and
they may
calories than
other types of fat. In a new study
Better Body With Probiotics monkeys gained three times more
bodyfat on an 8 percent trans fat diet
than others fed the same calories
Probiotics are the friendly (beneficial) bacteria in your digestive tract. without any trans fat.
They’re necessary for healthy digestion and may be the first line of de­ Resveratrol,
fense in preventing disease. the compound in
The main function of probiotics is to aid in the efficient absorption of red wine believed to
food, vitamins and minerals. They secrete antibiotic substances that de­ be responsible for
its health benefits,
stroy harmful bacteria, yeast and parasites and thereby help you digest
appears to boost
and assimilate your food (and so use protein optimally). endurance. A study
The human gastrointestinal tract is supposed to contain 85 percent published in Cell
“good” bacteria and 15 percent found that resvera­
“bad” bacteria. Unfortunately, many trol-supplemented
Westerners today have the opposite mice could run
ratio. When our ancestors ate fresh double the distance of the mice not
given the supplement.
plants hundreds and thousands of Vitamin D
years ago, they unknowingly took deficiency may
in large amounts of the beneficial be one of the
microorganisms. With the advent of biggest cancer
modern farming techniques, which triggers. More
use pesticides, herbicides and fungi­ than 1,000
studies show
cides, however, the essential microorganisms have been greatly depleted
a link between
from our food supply. Therefore, supplementation is often needed. a lower risk of cancer and vitamin D.
—Ori Hofmekler In fact, low levels of vitamin D may
produce up to a 70 percent increase
Editor’s note: Ori Hofmekler is the author of in the risk for prostate cancer and
the books The Warrior Diet and Maximum Muscle & double the risk of colon cancer. Get
Minimum Fat, published by Dragon Door Publications some sunshine so your body can
make more vitamin D—and/or use
( For more information or for
a consultation, contact him at, —Becky Holman or by phone at (866) WAR-DIET.

54 JUNE 2007 \

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Meal Frequency and Bodyfat

Those looking to lose bodyfat are frequentlly advised to No changes resulted
eat smaller meals more frequently. I’ve spoken with several from adding a meal,
champion bodybuilders who eat six to 12 meals daily. Some but dropping one led to
of those meals consist of nutrient drinks rather than solid food. increased bodyfat and
Eating small meals more often maintains a high level of blood late-evening measures of leptin. Some decreased
nitrogen from protein. Famed trainer Vince Gironda often activity accounted for fewer calories burned, but the subjects
suggested swallowing several liver tablets every two hours for who deleted the meal also increased their fat intake at the
anabolic purposes. Barry Sears, a biochemist who designed other meals. That, coupled with less activity, caused them to
the Zone eating plan, notes that your blood chemistry changes gain fat. Other studies show that after periods of decreased
every four hours, explaining why it’s vital to get in a meal within eating, there is a tendency to eat more fat, as if the body were
that time. attempting to make up for the calorie deficit. Since fat has a
Smaller meals taken more frequently also offer a number of greater concentration of calories than either carbs or protein,
health benefits. The smaller the meal, the lower the release of the reason for the weight gain is clear.
insulin and cortisol—both of which rise after a meal while tes­ The study did not distinguish between different types of fat
tosterone drops. Maintaining lower insulin and cortisol tends or consider the influence of increased exercise or even com­
to limit bodyfat synthesis. Keeping a lid on insulin also leads bination of nutrients. For example, if the subjects had upped
to a more stable blood glucose level, which, in turn, prevents their activity, the added calories in the other meals would have
binges. Smaller but nutrient-dense meals tend to blunt the been oxidized, and they wouldn’t have gained fat.
increased fat synthesis that results from larger meals. Some Although proportions of nutrients weren’t discussed, fat
studies even suggest that the more often you eat, the lower gain would also likely have been avoided if the meal-dropping
your blood lipids, such as cholesterol, so there’s less risk of subjects had cut down on their carbs, assuming that the fat
cardiovascular disease. Other hormones also come into play intake increased. That would have promoted a greater use of
in relation to meal frequency, such as leptin, GLP-1 and chole­ fat as a fuel source, again avoiding a fat gain.
cystokinin, among others. Finally, some forms of fat, such as trans fats and saturated
Does reducing your usual number of meals have any fats, tend to stimulate insulin resistance, which fosters fat gain.
adverse effects on body composition? French researchers Other, more benign fats, such as omega-3s, not only don’t
examined that issue in a study involving 24 young men, all of encourage fat gain but help suppress it as well.
normal weight. For 28 days half of the group ate four meals a —Jerry Brainum
day, while the other half ate three. The meals differed only in
that the four-a-day group ate an afternoon meal. Over time the Chapelot, D., et al. (2006). Consequence of omitting or
subjects either added or dropped one meal from their eating adding a meal in man on body composition, food intake, and
plan. metabolism. Obesity. 14:215-227.


Leaded or Unleaded? Careful With Carrots?

Coffee has recently been heralded as chock-full Carrots are often
of antioxidants and good for most people’s health. said to be bad for
But what about decaf? “There is no significant dieters because
difference in the anti­ they’re high on the
oxidant levels between glycemic index.
decaf and regular cof­ That depends,
fee,” according to Joe however, on how
Vinson, Ph.D., profes­ many carrots you
sor of chemistry at the eat. According to
University of Scranton Rob Thompson,
in Pennsylvania. If you M.D., author of the
have an aversion to Glycemic-Load
caffeine, you can still Diet, you’d need to
get coffee’s health ben­ eat 30 raw carrots
efits. Just go decaf. to get the same
—Becky Holman glucose shock as you’d get from one bagel.
www.X-tremeLean. —Becky Holman

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Eat to Grow


Brain Plasticity and Supplementation

You lift weights and eat plenty of protein, and what hap­ symptoms
pens? You get bigger. Isn’t it that simple? We know that of chronic
muscles adapt to whatever exercise or nutrition you provide. fatigue
The visual aspect is certainly clear for all to see—the marathon syndrome.
runner with little to no fat and not much muscle vs. the body­ Cerebral
builder with a tremendous amount of muscle and a variable magnetic
amount of bodyfat. But did you know that your brain also resonance
adapts to proper diet and/or supplementation? The evidence scanning
for that is fairly robust. I’d suggest you treat your brain the way was carried
you treat your muscles. If you give it the right nutrients, func­ out at base­
tion is optimal. If you feed it junk, be prepared for an IQ closer line and 16
to that of an avocado than an Einstein. weeks later.
For instance, one study looked at the effects of swimming The EPA-
and phytotherapeutic supplementation on oxidative damage rich essential
and brain cell survival. Oxidative stress, inflammation and fatty acid
neurotrophic markers were measured in the brains of Wistar supplemen­
rats that did “forced, chronic” (as the researchers called it) tation led to
swimming and that got a diet enriched with leaves of dried a dramatic
nettle (Urtica dioica). Nettle looks like a hairy weed with attrac­ improve­
tive little flowers. It’s been used as a medicine in Europe for ment in her symptoms, starting within six to eight weeks. The
more than 2,000 years. A tea made from its leaves and stems brain scan revealed a change in her brain’s morphology.5
has been used to stop bleeding. The root is a known diuretic It should be as clear as the Montana sky that what you eat
and relieves prostate problems, and dried nettle has antioxi­ goes to your head as well. The best general advice your pal­
dant properties. The rats were divided into groups subjected ate can take is to eat as many plants and unprocessed carbs
to swimming (six weeks) or to nettle supplementation (eight as possible, rather than the processed crap you typically see
weeks) or to a combination of the two. Nettle supplementation on the grocer’s shelves.
dispersed concentration of free radicals in two areas of the —Jose Antonio, Ph.D.
brain, the cerebellum and frontal lobe.1
Research done with animal subjects has looked at the Editor’s note: You can listen to Dr. Jose Antonio and
effect of various nutrients on focal ischemic brain damage, or Carla Sanchez on their radio show Performance Nutrition,
oxygen deprivation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Web and podcast at Dr.
equal amounts of food. One group got blueberry, spinach or Antonio is the CEO of the International Society of Sports
spirulina, the other a control diet. Animals that ate blueberry-, Nutrition— His other Web sites include
spinach- or spirulina-enriched diets had a significant reduction,, www
in the amount of damage to the brain.2 Another study exam­ and www.JoseAntonioPhD
ined the powerful antioxidant spice curcumin, which counter­ .com.
acted oxidative damage in the injured brain.3 Sesame oil may
also have a protective effect against brain ischemia.4
In an intriguing case study of a human patient, an essen­ References
tial fatty acid supplement rich in eicosapentaenoic acid was
given daily to a female with a six-year history of unremitting 1 Toldy, A., et al. (2005). The effect of exercise and nettle
supplementation on oxidative stress markers in the rat brain.
Brain Res Bull. 65(6):487-93.
2 Wang, Y., et al. (2005). Dietary supplementation with blue­
berries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage.
Exp Neurol. 193(1):75-84.
3 Wu, A., Ying, Z. and Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2006). Dietary
curcumin counteracts the outcome of traumatic brain injury on
oxidative stress, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Exp Neurol.
4 Ahmad, S., et al. (2006). Effect of dietary sesame oil as
antioxidant on brain hippocampus of rat in focal cerebral
ischemia. Life Sci. 79(20):1921-8.
5 Puri, B.K., Holmes, J. and Hamilton, G. (2004). Eicosa­
pentaenoic acid-rich essential fatty acid supplementation in
chronic fatigue syndrome associated with symptom remission
and structural brain changes. Int J Clin Pract. 58(3):297-9.
6 Scheff, S.W., and Dhillon, H.S. (2004). Creatine-enhanced
diet alters levels of lactate and free fatty acids after experimen­
tal brain injury. Neurochem Res. 29(2):469-79.

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Eat to Grow

Is Your Protein Supplement Damaged?

Most quality protein supple­ aged. One of the more reactive
ments on the market consist of amino acids under those conditions
milk-derived proteins, such as is the essential amino lysine. When
casein and whey. While some the Maillard reaction damages ly­
include both proteins, others sine, it produces a chemical called
contain only whey and mixtures furosine, and high levels of furosine
of other proteins, such as soy. in a supplement indicate damaged
There are various grades of whey, protein. That can lead to reduced
depending on how it’s processed. protein value and digestibility.
Overcooking food proteins leads A recent study looked at what
to denaturization—heat damages happens when various commercial
the amino acids that make up milk-based protein supplements
proteins. Overprocessed proteins commonly used by athletes are
are far less digestible and may processed. Nineteen ingredients
interfere with the absorption of and 13 sports supplements from
other food proteins. around the world were analyzed,
The less heat applied, the and the researchers looked at the
better for protein quality. Another amount of furosine in each product.
factor is how much sugar the Soy contained the least, mainly
supplement contains. When protein and sugar are heated, because soy isn’t a rich source of lysine. Of the milk pro­
the Maillard reaction occurs—a chemical version of cara­ teins tested, casein had the least furosine because casein
melization, which breaks food down during cooking even is processed less than whey. That’s especially true of
as the cooking adds flavor—and the amino acids are dam­ micellar casein, which is naturally derived and the highest
quality available. Whey protein
isolate (WPI), which is higher in
LEAN MACHINE protein and lower in sugar than
whey protein concentrate, had
less furosine than WPC. That’s
Protein to Get Lean because WPC contains more
lactose (6 to 8 percent) than WPI
Most people know that to get leaner you have to (less than 1 percent). The lactose
increase your meal frequency to five or six a day and content makes the protein more
err on the side of more protein than carbs. But what subject to the Maillard reaction,
type of protein is best when your goal is to drop fat as leading to amino acid damage.
quickly as possible without losing valuable muscle? What does all of that mean
Most bodybuilders have chosen whey in the past for you, the consumer? Stick
few years because of its high biological value and fast with higher-quality protein that
absorption; however, the tide is changing to a fast/ features whey protein isolates
slow combo—a mix of whey and casein with a help­ as the primary whey ingredient.
ing of egg. Why? Casein is a slow-releasing protein, WPI contains an average 86.8
so it protects your muscle from being used for energy percent protein compared to the
after the fast whey has rapidly moved in and out of 13.4 percent found in WPC. The
your bloodstream. Casein sticks around and trickle- higher lactose content of WPC
feeds your muscle tissue long after the whey has beat makes it a filler protein, which
a retreat. That’s good for metabolic stimulation and saves the manufacturer money

Becky Holman. but may result in the premature
What about egg protein? Eggs have been champi­ degradation of the product. Note
oned as the perfect food, so having some egg aminos that a high level of furosine re­
in the mix complements the other two proteins perfectly. duces the availability of the other
A fast/slow combo protein, like Muscle-Link’s Pro-Fusion (a fusion of the above three proteins, leading to poorer nutri­
proteins), is great for quick between-meal feedings, as an amino supercharger taken tional effect.
with solid-food meals and as a preworkout shake. It’s also great before bed, as the —Jerry Brainum
slow-releasing casein feeds your recovering muscle through the night. (It was my choice
during my body transformation process; visit for more on that.) Henares-Rufian, J.A., et
High-protein diets stimulate the metabolism and reduce hunger on low-calorie fat­ al. (2006). Assessing nutri­
loss-style diets, and an anabolic/anticatabolic mix extends both of those effects. You tional quality of milk-based sport
can thank casein’s ability to hang around for hours and hours for those lean-machine supplements as determined
boosts. by furosine. Food Chemistry.
—Becky Holman 101:573-78.

60 JUNE 2007 \

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Muscle-Training Program 92
From the IRONMAN Training & Research Center
by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson • Photography by Michael Neveux

ast month we switched Then repeat Week 1.

things up and went Week 1 2) We’ve got a lot of X-hybrid
Monday: Workout 1 (chest, lats, techniques—everything from
back to our original X- triceps, abs) Double-X Overload to X Fade to
Rep program, which has Tuesday: Legs (and lower back)
Static Xes—in our mass-build­
ing arsenal, and we’re not afraid
given us incredible gains Wednesday: Workout 2 (delts, to use them. (Those techniques
in the past. But we added a midback, biceps, forearms) and many others are explained in
Thursday: Off our e-book Beyond X-Rep Muscle
couple of twists: Building.)
Friday: Workout 1 (chest, lats,
1) We’re training only triceps, abs + soleus) 3) We’re wedging our X-Rep pro­
four days a week instead Weekend: Off (with cardio) gram into Eric Broser’s Power/Rep
Range/Shock system.
of five—Monday, Tues­
day, Wednesday and Fri­ Week 2 Most readers are familiar with
P/RR/S, but for those who are new
day. We always work legs Monday: Workout 2 (delts, mid- to this series and Eric’s work, here’s
back, biceps, forearms)
on Tuesday. The other a breakdown. In our version we do
Tuesday: Legs (and lower back) one workout for each muscle group
bodyparts are split over Wednesday: Workout 1 (chest, in the specific protocol, then move
two workouts, which lats, triceps, abs) to the next protocol at the next ses­
Thursday: Off sion for those muscle groups.
alternate over the other
Friday: Workout 2 (delts, mid-
three days. Here’s a two- back, biceps, forearms + soleus) Power. Train every exercise with
week snapshot of the straight sets—no supersets, tri­
Weekend: Off (with cardio)
sets or drop sets—and reps in the
schedule to clarify: four-to-six zone. We use slightly

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w w w. I ro n M a n M a g a z i n e . c o m
hit all three
triceps heads compound, moves, so they have the
hard, while most potential for force generation,
the flat-bench a key component of hypertrophic
version is stimulation.
less efficient, Then we move to a more isolated
giving less of exercise, either a contracted- or
a blast to two etch-position movement. We do
of the heads. two sets separated by a 20-second
est—as in Dante’s DoggCrapp
method. The first set we do 10 to
12 reps. Then we reduce the weight
during our 20-second rest and crank
out 13 to 15 reps—usually adding an
X Fade at the end. That means we
do X Reps in the contracted position
followed immediately by X Reps in
the semistretch position. Talk about
a killer burn and pump!
After that we do a final set on
the missing-position exercise for
around eight reps, with X Reps or an
X-hybrid technique. A good exam­
ple is triceps. Here’s our current

Model: Idrise W
program (M = midrange, S = stretch,
C = contracted):
M: Decline extensions 2 x 7-9
higher reps on endur S: Rope pushouts
ented muscles like calves, abs and (MRR/P; drop) 2 x 10-12, 13-15
forearms. C: Dips or pushdowns 1 x 8-10
Shock. Here you put your mus­
Rep Range. For the first exercise cles through the meat grinder That’s not a lot of sets, but when
you pick a weight that lets you get with supersets, drop sets and so you add X Reps and X-hybrid tech­
seven to nine reps. For the second on. Reps for most muscles stay in niques, the ache and pump are
exercise you do 10 to 12 reps. On the eight-to-10 range, but extend- outrageous. We smack the target
the third exercise you move the ed-set techniques are a must. muscle down with intensity and
rep range up to the high-end of efficiency.
Whew! Now that the Some bodyparts get a slightly
preliminaries are out of different attack, such as superset­
We’ve the way, let’s get to the ting two exercises for the MRR/P
swapped meat of the issue this rep-out sets on the second exercise.
Smith- month—our custom A good example of that is lats:
machine Rep Range workouts (we
incline M: Pulldowns 2 x 7-9
explained Power last
presses Superset (20-second rest)
month; Shock will be
for incline S/C: Machine
next month). We’re not
dumbbell pullovers 1 x 10-12
quite following the above
C: Rope rows 1 x 13-15
presses. description of RR, but it’s
C: Undergrip pulldowns 1 x 8-10
And for multiheaded bodyparts
Rep Range we sometimes add exercises to
cover all areas. A good example is
Redux our delt workout:
M: Smith-machine wide-grip
We’re starting every
upright rows 2 x 7-9
bodypart with a big,
C: Seated laterals
midrange movement,
(MRR/P; drop) 2 x 10-12, 13-15
usually doing two sets of
M: Smith-machine behind­
seven to nine reps, and
the-neck presses 2 x 7-9
we add X Reps and/or a
C: Bent-over laterals
Static X to the second set.
(MRR/P; drop) 2 x 10-12, 13-15
Remember, midrange ex­
S: One-arm cable laterals 1 x 8-10
ercises are multijoint, or

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Train, Eat, Grow / Program 92

version neglects the medial and lat­

eral heads somewhat. In other words,
declines are more efficient.

Incline dumbbell presses. We’ve

been using Smith-machine inclines
for a long while. It’s a great exercise,
but you can get burned out on any
move. We’ve swapped it for incline
dumbbell presses—when possible.
Our DBs go up to only 120s, so on
Power day (four to six reps) we may
have to go back to the Smith machine.
Or we could opt for a Double-X Over­
load set; that is, doing an X Rep after
each full rep. That requires less weight
while overloading the key semistretch
point more than a standard set. For
Rep Range day we’re doing both sets
with dumbbells at the moment.
Incline one-arm

Model: Jonathan Lawson

laterals work well as Free-bar squats. We always won­
a stretch-position der why we stopped doing this great
medial-delt-head exercise, and then—Bam!—our lower
movement. backs go out at the bottom once the
weight starts getting heavy. That’s why
we’ve decided to use it with lighter
Wide-grip upright rows are a exercise changes and additions that weights only. To ensure that, we do
midrange move for the medial-delt have done just that. You may have our squats at the very end of our
heads. We follow those with a con­ noticed one in the triceps routine. quad workout. It feels great to crank
tracted-position exercise for that out reps and actually feel our quads
head, seated laterals done with a Decline extensions. We were working—and we can keep our tor­
slight forward lean. Then we go back doing close-grip bench presses as sos upright to get better front-thigh
to a midrange exercise, Smith-ma­ our midrange exercise for triceps; activation. The Double-X Overload
chine behind-the-neck presses, that however, that worked best on our old technique is also a good option here,
focuses more on the front heads, split, when we were training chest double dipping at the bottom of each
although the medial heads are still and triceps at different workouts. rep—we just have to remember to
involved. Then it’s rear-head work Now we work chest and tri’s on the keep our lower backs tight and stay
with a contracted-position exercise, same day, so by the time we get to in control—no bouncing. We’re using
bent-over laterals. We end with a triceps, our pressing ability is fried. the Tommy Kono waist wrap. It’s a
stretch-position move for the im­ Because of that we’ve moved to the 10-inch-wide elasticized belt and
portant medial head, one-arm cable more-isolated decline extensions as wrap that has a Velcro closure—very
laterals. Once again, that’s not many our leadoff midrange triceps exer­ comfortable and pliable. New stud­
sets, but our delts are toast by the cise. According to MRI studies, the ies show that squatting with waist
end. It’s a very well-rounded rou­ decline version trains all three heads support helps you better engage the
tine—for well-rounded delts. of the triceps, while the flat-bench quads. We can feel it!
We won’t analyze every bodypart
routine. The point is that we’re flex­
ible about the Rep Range protocol; Behind-the-back
the main thing is to hit the three rep shrugs give us a
ranges. You can see all of our Rep unique angle for
Range workouts on page 68. attacking the upper
traps. They’re a Ronnie
Energize With Exercise Coleman favorite.
Sometimes you get in a rut and
don’t even realize it. It’s as if you
wake up and say, Hey, we’ve been
using this movement for almost a
year; time for a change. And that
one change can revitalize the entire
workout. We’ve recently made some

66 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Train, Eat, Grow / Program 92

One-arm leaning laterals. Coleman’s, a man whose traps are coming on the market, many train­
For these you hold a dumbbell in so large that they seem to insert into ees are asking us what we’re taking
one hand and grab an upright with his eardrums. You place a loaded or plan to take as we move into our
your free hand, keeping your feet barbell on the long pins of a power ripping phase. Here’s a rundown.
next to the base. Then you extend rack set at about knee level. Stand
your support arm so you’re leaning in front of the bar facing away from Protein. To build muscle you
out at an angle. Now do one-arm it. Squat down and grab the bar gotta have excess protein—no nega­
laterals. With your torso angled, you so you’re holding it at your upper tive nitrogen balance. Whey and ca­
get the upper range of medial-head hamstrings. Now shrug. It’s a unique sein, which are dairy products, plus
contraction. We often superset these contraction angle for traps. We like eggs, which are a superb food, work
with one-arm cable laterals to end to do these as part of a superset with synergistically, so we use a combi­
our delt workout—getting a super dumbbell shrugs. nation powder. Muscle-Link’s Pro-
stretch on the cable move and a Fusion has whey, micellar casein
searing upper-end contraction with
the leaning laterals.
Size Surge and egg protein in abundance—and
only six grams of carbs per serving.
Supplements Whey gives you a fast anabolic blast,
Behind-the-back barbell while casein’s slow release comple­
shrugs. This is a favorite of Ronnie With so many new supplements ments it with (continued on page 74)

IRON MAN Training & Research Center Muscle-Training Program 92

Workout 1 (Rep Range): Chest, Lats, Triceps, Abs Workout 2 (Rep Range): Delts, Midback,
Incline dumbbell presses (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Biceps, Forearms
High cable flyes (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 Smith-machine wide-grip
Wide-grip dips 1 x 7-9 upright rows (X Reps) 2 x 7-9
Wide-grip dips (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 7-9, 7-9 Seated laterals (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Middle cable flyes (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 Seated laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Pulldowns (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Behind-the-neck presses (X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Superset (20-second rest) Dumbbell presses (X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Machine pullovers (X Reps) 1 x 10-12 Bent-over laterals (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Rope rows (X Reps) 1 x 13-15 One-arm cable laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Undergrip pulldowns (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 Nautilus rows (X Reps) 2 x 7-9
Decline extensions (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Superset (20-second rest)
Superset (20-second rest) Bent-arm bent-over laterals (X Reps) 1 x 10-12
Cable pushouts (X Reps) 1 x 10-12 Behind-the-neck pulldowns (X Reps) 1 x 13-15
Bench dips (X Reps) 1 x 13-15 Barbell curls 2 x 7-9
Pushdowns (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 Concentration curls or one-arm
Incline kneeups (MRR/P; X Reps) 2 x 7-9, 10-12 spider curls (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Tri-set Incline hammer curls (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Ab-Bench crunches (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Superset (20-second rest)
Twisting crunches (X Reps) 1 x 10-12 Dumbbell reverse wrist curls (X Reps) 1 x 10-12
End-of-bench kneeups (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 Forearm Bar reverse wrist curls (X Reps) 1 x 13-15
Superset (20-second rest)
Legs (Rep Range): Quads, Calves, Hamstrings Dumbbell wrist curls (X Reps) 1 x 10-12
Forearm Bar wrist curls (X Reps) 1 x 13-15
Machine hack squats (nonlock; X Reps) 2 x 7-9
Rockers 1 x 12-15
Leg extensions (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Leg presses (nonlock; X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Squats 1 x 10-12 Add to Friday Workout (Power): Soleus
Lunges 1 x 7-9 Knee-extension leg press calf raises (X Reps)2 x 12, 20
Leg curls (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 Seated calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 12, 20
Leg curls (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Note: The leg workout is always performed on Tues­
Superset (20-second rest)
day; that is, legs are worked only once a week every
Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 x 10-12
week—seven full days of recovery. Workouts 1 and
Hyperextensions (X Reps) 1 x 13-15 2 alternate on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, so
Hyperextensions (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 upper-body muscles get four to five days of recovery.
Knee-extension leg press calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 10-15
Superset (20-second rest)
Hack-machine calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 10-15 Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one
Machine donkey calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 15-20 set or phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or an
X-Rep hybrid technique from the e-book Beyond X-Rep
Machine donkey calf raises (X Reps) 1 x 15-20 Muscle Building. See the X-Blog at for
Low-back machine (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 more workout details.

68 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Train, Eat, Grow / Program 92

(continued from page 68) an anticata­ doing any type of cardio. Plus, we nontraining individuals because
bolic effect. We use a few scoops keep a big bowl of amino acid caps they’ve adapted to intense train­
between solid-food meals, usually handy so we can grab three or four ing. Scientists surmise that because
midmorning and midafternoon. Its whenever we think about it to keep they do so many pain-zone sets,
fast/slow combo also makes it per­ our nitrogen balance positive. You the biggest bodybuilders stockpile
fect for before bed—to feed growing may recall that the amino acid carnosine—to help them get bigger
muscles while you sleep. Once we leucine has been shown in recent and stronger. Beta-alanine converts
start our ripping phase, however, studies to have the most anabolic to carnosine, so by taking it you load
we stop all food intake at 7 p.m., so effects on muscle hypertrophy, and your muscle tissue with carnosine,
no before-bed shake. We swallow it’s prevalent in most BCAA supple­ which will help you power further
amino capsules instead. ments. into the growth zone on work sets.
We began taking Red Dragon in
Branched-chain amino acids. Beta-alanine. Study after new its beta-test form last year and got
Studies show that taking about five study shows that carnosine in exceptional results. Our strength
grams of BCAAs before an intense muscle tissue provides a buffering kept moving forward at almost every
workout can curb the release of cor­ effect, which allows you to grind workout. Now that our calorie cuts
tisol, the stress hormone that eats out more growth reps—and X Reps. are starting, it will play a big part in
muscle tissue. For the same reason The biggest bodybuilders have more keeping our intensity in the growth
we also like to take BCAAs before than twice the carnosine levels of zone. New studies have shown that

ITRC Program 92, Home-Gym Routine

Workout 1 (Rep Range): Chest, Lats, Triceps, Abs Workout 2 (Rep Range): Delts, Midback,
Incline presses (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Biceps, Forearms
Incline flyes (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 Wide-grip upright rows (X Reps) 2 x 7-9
Bench presses or decline presses (X Reps) 1 x 7-9 Seated laterals (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Bench presses or decline Seated laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
presses (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 7-9, 7-9 Dumbbell presses (X Reps) 2 x 7-9
Flat-bench flyes (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 Bent-over laterals (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Chins (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Incline one-arm laterals (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Superset (20-second rest) Bent-over barbell rows 2 x 7-9
Undergrip chins (X Reps) 1 x 10-12 Bent-arm bent-over laterals
Dumbbell pullovers (X Reps) 1 x 13-15 (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Undergrip rows (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 Dumbbell shrugs (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Decline extensions (X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Barbell curls 2 x 7-9
Superset (20-second rest) Concentration curls (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Overhead extensions (X Reps) 1 x 10-12 Incline hammer curls (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Bench dips (X Reps) 1 x 13-15 Dumbbell reverse wrist curls
Incline kneeups (MRR/P; X Reps) 2 x 7-9, 10-12 (MRR/P; drop; X Rep) 2 x 10, 15
Superset Dumbbell wrist curls (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15
Weighted full-range crunches or Rockers 1 x 12-15
Ab Bench crunches (drop; X Reps) 1 x 8-10(8)
End-of-bench kneeups (X Reps) 1 x 8-10
Add to Friday Workout (Power): Soleus
Knee-extension donkey calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 12, 20
Legs (Rep Range): Quads, Calves, Hamstrings Seated calf raises (X Reps) 2 x 12, 20
Squats or front squats (nonlock; X Reps) 2 x 7-9 Note: The leg workout is always performed on Tues­
Leg extensions or old-style day; that is, legs get worked only once a week every
hack squats (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 10, 15 week—seven full days of recovery. Workouts 1 and
Leg extensions or old-style 2 alternate on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, so
hack squats (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 upper-body muscles get four to five days of recovery.
Squats or front squats (nonlock; X Reps) 1 x 7-9
Lunges 1 x 7-9 Note: Where X-Reps are designated, usually only one
Leg curls (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 1 x 10, 15 set or phase of a drop set is performed with X Reps or
Leg curls (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 an X-Rep hybrid technique from the e-book Beyond
X-Rep Muscle Building. See the X-Blog at www.X-Rep
Superset (20-second rest)
.com for more workout details.
Stiff-legged deadlifts 1 x 10-12
Hyperextensions (X Reps) 1 x 12-15 Note: For drop sets it’s best to have a selectorized dumb­
Hyperextensions (X Reps) 1 x 8-10 bell set, such as the PowerBlock, if you don’t have a rack
Knee-extension donkey calf raises (X Reps) 3 x 10-12 of fixed dumbbells of various weights. If you don’t have
One-leg calf raises (MRR/P; drop; X Reps) 2 x 15, 20 a leg extension machine, do old-style hacks, nonlock
style. Use partner resistance, towel around the ankles, if
you don’t have a leg curl machine.

74 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Cort-Bloc with fat burners.

Fat burner. We’re preparing

for our ripping phase and trying
to decide between two elite fat
burners—SAN’s Blaze Xtreme and
NxLabs’ Methyl Ripped. We like
them because both contain ample
amounts of forskolin. What’s so
great about that? Several new stud­
ies have shown significant fat-loss
effects with human subjects who
took a forskolin-based supple-
One-arm leaning ment—with no serious negative side
laterals train effects. Positive side effects, other
the medial-delt than ramping up fat loss, are lower
head’s upper blood pressure, more high-density
contraction lipoprotein and—get ready—more
free testosterone! Yes, forskolin
range. They
stimulated the production of the
work well
active form of that key anabolic
supersetted hormone. The amount in the study
after one-arm

Model: Jonathan Lawson

was 250 milligrams of 10 percent
cable laterals, a forskolin twice a day. At the begin­
stretch-position ning of our ripping phase we’ll take
delt exercise. our chosen fat burner before our
workouts infrequently at first, ramp­
ing it up to before every session for
beta-alanine synergizes with creatine, and get bigger faster. We take four four to six weeks, then go off for a
making size and strength gains even capsules—about 800 milligrams—of week or two.
more pronounced—a muscle-build­ phosphatidylserine, a soy lipid, prior
ing smart bomb. We take two cap­ to each workout to control cortisol L-carnitine. This compound
sules of Red Dragon upon awakening release and minimize the body’s use helps move fat into the mitochon­
in the morning and two before we of prized muscle tissue for energy. It’s
dria of the cells for energy. It helps
train. a must for high-strung hardgainer us dial in the last bit of detail to our
types, who should also use two cap­ physiques, as it’s a fat shuttle that
RecoverX and CreaSol. We sules before bed (cortisol release is kicks in the adipose-burning mech­
believe our famous X Stack is es­ very high in the later hours of sleep).anism sooner. There’s mass-building
sential to kicking off the recovery It’s also a must when you start taking potential as well: New research says
and muscle-building processes after fat burners that contain caffeine, as that carnitine increases anabolic
a workout. It gives you 60 grams of caffeine raises epinephrine release, receptors in muscle—something an­
fast carbs and 40 grams of fast whey which triggers cortisol surges. That abolic steroids do (J Steroid Biochem
protein, much of it in peptide form, means it’s good idea to always stack Mol Bio. 93(1):35-42; 2005). To make
the fastest whey available. that happen, subjects took
The compounds are quickly one gram in the morning
digested so they get into your and one at noon. Anabolic-
bloodstream almost imme­ receptor proliferation means
diately. The CreaSol provides much faster size gains.
five grams of titrated creatine, L-Carnitine has also been
which is also a “fast” creatine shown to boost muscle
that’s almost 100 percent us­ recovery, which we need
able by the body. We each use while we’re taking in fewer
three scoops of RecoverX and calories, and muscular force
one scoop of CreaSol mixed production. In one study
in water immediately after it improved the contractile
We’re doing
our workouts. force in the latissimus dorsi
free-bar squats
of dogs by 34 percent and
Cort-Bloc. Any stressful
again, but we overall force production by
situation causes your body to put them at 31 percent (J Strength Cond
secrete muscle-eating corti­ the end of our Res, 17:455-462; 2003). (That
sol, even intense workouts. quad workout means it can give your X
If you minimize cortisol, you to fry our Reps more firepower, syn­
minimize muscle wasting thighs. ergizing with creatine and

76 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Train, Eat, Grow / Program 92

beta-ala­ tap Note: Our Rep Range week

nine!) into fat is outlined on page 68. For the
We stores original X-Rep routine that our
usu­ faster. current programs are based on,
ally take (Some see pages 78 through 80 in the e-
three caffeine book The Ultimate Mass Workout,
grams a can available at www.X-Rep
day: one help en­ .com. For more on Power/
gram hance Rep Range/Shock, see
in the that last Chapter 15 of the e-book 3D
morn­ effect.) Aminos preworkout Muscle Building, available at
ing, one We to help minimize
gram also catabolism.
Beta-alanine to help prior to take a multivitamin and multimin­ Editor’s note: For the latest
get more growth reps. cardio eral in the morning with breakfast on X Reps, including X Q&As, X
and one and a multimineral at night, as well Files (past e-zines), before and
gram prior to bed. By the way, the as extra vitamin C. We’ll add a po­ after photos and the X-Blog train­
killer cardio fat bomb is three to five tent antioxidant supplement as we ing and supplement journals,
amino tablets and 600 milligrams progress into our ripping phase and visit To order
of phosphatidylserine (Cort-Bloc), calories move lower. To follow what the Positions-of-Flexion training
which helps your body preserve we add and subtract, visit www manual Train, Eat, Grow, call (800)
muscle during cardio, along with and go to our Supple­ 447-0008, visit www.Home-Gym.
one gram of L-carnitine to help you ment Blog. com, or see the ad below. IM

Free download from

Steve Holman’s

Critical Mass

Q: I’ve been reading IRON MAN for more than 20
years, and I’ve enjoyed your training and nutrition
insights. They’ve helped me build a stage-worthy method of discovery and betterment of self. Don’t get me
physique, and I love how you’ve taken Postions-of- wrong; I still follow the competitive side, checking out who
Flexion training to the next level and merged it with wins what and marveling at the incredible mass so many of
X Reps. One thing I’ve been curious about is that you today’s champs have. (I even take my daughters and their
used to do a lot of bodybuilding-contest reports. In friends to the IM Pro every year.) But due to genetics—not
recent years you seem to be mum about the com­ to mention other extenuating circumstances—I don’t en­
petitive scene. Why? tertain the idea that I could ever get to that level.
You could say I’m more into bodybuilding for the health
A: As Body for Life author Bill Phillips once said, most of it, self-improvement and accomplishment these days,
fans in the audience at bodybuilding contests have hopes which usually happens to those of us who are still lifting in
of someday being onstage or are already involved in com­ middle age. Of course, I’m still trying to build more muscle.
peting. In other words, identifying with the competitors is Am I happy with the state of competitive bodybuilding?
what makes it interesting. I found that to be true during my No, but that’s a subject for another time and place. (Don’t
high school and college years in Texas. I competed, and I get me started!)
went to so many bodybuilding contests that it boggles my
Q: What do you think is more effective for build­
mind. No complaints. Those were the days, and my passion
ing muscle in the Positions-of-Flexion exercise
helped me get my dream job as editor of IRON MAN maga­
sequence after the first midrange movement? A
zine (newspaper experience and a journalism degree didn’t
stretch movement to activate the myotatic reflex?
hurt either).
That would better set up the fibers for the con­
My passion for competitive bodybuilding flourished
tracted-position exercise. Or is it best to follow the
in my first few years with the magazine. I covered and/or
midrange movement with a contracted-position
attended show after show. I went to a number of Mr. Olym­
movement and then finish the bodypart with a
pias and Arnold Classics and helped develop and put on
stretch movement?
our show, the IRON MAN Pro—from driving the athletes to
and from the airport and the venue to taking tickets at the A: The original POF sequence was stretch after mid­
door to manning booths to loading and unloading trophies. range, to trigger that emergency response and get more
But as I moved into my mid-30s and beyond, I began to see fibers to fire during the contracted-position exercise that
bodybuilding as more of a competition with myself—trying ended the bodypart workout. For example, a POF triceps
to improve every year—as opposed to viewing it as a com­ workout would be:
petition against others.
Midrange: Close-grip bench presses 2 x 8-12
In other words, for me bodybuilding evolved into a
Stretch: Overhead extensions 1-2 x 8-12
Contracted: One-arm pushdowns 1-2 x 8-12
Steve, his daughters Lindsey and Chelsea and friend Haili
Matsukawa at the ’07 IM Pro. So the overhead extensions, with their extreme
triceps elongation and myotatic reflex action,
heighten fiber activation for the contracted-posi­
tion move that follows them, one-arm pushdowns.
Now, however, I’m starting to think that there
may be a better growth response if you do the
stretch-position exercise last, especially if you’re
going to integrate static holds. The rationale is that
the occlusion produced by the contracted-position
exercise will make stretching after it more effec­
tive—the target muscle is more pumped, so elon­
gating it will expand fiber encasements and may
even facilitate fiber splitting due to more heat and
blood flow.
We’ve been experimenting with that sequence—
midrange, contracted, then stretch—and getting
good gains. In the triceps routine above you’d do
close-grip bench presses first and one-arm push­

downs second, finishing with overhead extensions

82 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
for stretch work—and we like to use static holds at exhaus­
tion on stretch-position exercises, what we call a static X.
We’ll see what happens as we intensify our workouts over
the spring and summer. [For a workout-by-workout log of
what Holman and Jonathan Lawson are doing in the gym,
see their X Blog at]
Q: I recently read in one of your articles that
chins are better than pulldowns. But in your e-book
3D Muscle Building you say chins or pulldowns
are both good midrange movements for lats. So
are chins really more effective than machine pull-
downs? I train in a commercial gym, so I can do
either, but I want to do the best lat exercise.
A: I consider chins better than pulldowns in most cases
because it’s too easy to use your lower back to cheat the

Neveux \ Model: Tito Raymond

weight down on pulldowns. In fact, if you “hitch” at the bot­
tom of a chin, you actually engage
more lat fibers at the turnaround,
the key fiber-activation spot on
the stroke. (Note: Hitching at the
bottom of chins can be danger­
ous; you get a better mass-build­
ing effect by staying strict and
Neveux \ Model: Dave Goodin

Should stretch position exercises come last in the

adding X-Rep partials at that im­ bodypart workout? That may be best for possible
portant bottom area of the stroke hyperplasia activation and fascia stretching
at full-range exhaustion.) especially if you like to use static holds to end a set.
However—and this is a big
however—with pulldowns you
can angle your torso to hit the lats fiber recruitment and how the low-threshold motor units
from a slightly different trajectory, fire first in a set, followed by the mediums and finally the
which stresses different lat fibers. high-threshold motor units, which are most conducive to
You can’t do that on chins. growth. But we also read about how the nervous system
So both exercises have advantages and disadvantages, and fatigue cause the target muscle to fizzle too early in
with the edge going to chins. You say you can do either, so a set to stress the majority of those key high-threshold
why not do both? Do overgrip chins for your first midrange growth fibers. The choice is to do more sets to hit more of
set, with X Reps, then do a set of overgrip pulldowns with them, or do fewer sets but extend them to get at more of
your torso angled back at about 45 degrees, and add X Reps those mass-making fibers. X-Rep partials, which encom­
and/or a Static X. If you’re using 3D Positions-of-Flexion pass the point on the stroke where the most force occurs,
protocol, you can follow with a set or two of undergrip the semistretch point, do that job exceptionally well. That’s
pulldowns as your contracted-position exercise and finish why we made such spectacular gains the first month we
with pullovers for stretch overload. started using them—and we were doing only about five sets
per bodypart.
Q: I have all of your e-books, and I’ve read all of
Now we’ve discovered that forced X Reps may have even
them at least three times. Incredible information,
more growth-fiber-activation potential. That’s using about
and I learn something new every time I reread one.
a 4RM poundage and doing pure X Reps with partner as­
My question is, why do so many other bodybuild­
sistance. It produces extreme semistretch-point overload
ing trainers prescribe so many more sets than you
and high-threshold activation. We’ll have more on that in a
and Jonathan? Even drug-free guys like John Han­
future IRON MAN and at our Web site
sen often tell intermediates to do up to 15 sets per
Editor s note: Steve Hol­
A: You’ve read our e-books, so you know that we’re not man is the author of many
against volume training. It can work if it’s used correctly; bodybuilding best sellers, in
however, Jonathan and I can’t use it because we have to cluding Train, Eat, Grow: The
work out on our lunch hour. That means we have to do Positions of Flexion Muscle
everything we can to stimulate muscle growth quickly and Training Manual (see page
efficiently. In my first book, IRON MAN’s Home Gym Hand­ 78). For information on the
book, I coined the phrase efficiency of effort, and that de­ POF videos and Size Surge
scribes our workout philosophy—getting the most growth programs, see the ad sections
bang for our effort buck at every session. beginning on page 146 and
That’s why we’re constantly analyzing new research 278, respectively. Also visit

and physiology texts—in an attempt to find better ways www.X IM

to stimulate growth. It’s what led us to our most produc­
Steve Holman
tive technique, X Reps. We ran across the size principle of \ JUNE 2007 83

Free download from
Mr. Natural Olympia John Hansen’s
Naturally Huge

development. To be compared to the best pro bodybuilders

Best Chest Full chest

is quite a compliment.
I can see you’ve really analyzed your chest development.
That’s important, and it’s something that many bodybuild­
ers don’t do when making up a training program. They
just do exercises that they hear are good for developing a
development muscle group.
requires a Now let’s talk about the exercises that are best for de­
multiangular veloping the areas that you’re concerned about. Many
training attack. bodybuilders develop big lower pecs just from doing bench
presses, but others have to do specific lower-pec exercises
like dips or decline presses to develop that area. Dips have
always worked better for me than decline presses or flyes.
Do them bending over at the waist with elbows flared out
wide and going deep to feel the stress in your lower pecs.
Also, rise only three-quarters of the way to keep tension on
your pecs. When I was younger and in my bulking phase, I
used to do dips with a weight belt and strap on an extra 50
to 100 pounds.
Incline flyes with a good contraction at the completion
of each rep will work the inner and middle part of your
upper pecs. Keep the bench at a 30 degree incline to focus
more on your chest. A higher incline will work your front
deltoids more. I also like dumbbell pullovers for chest
Neveux \ Model: Mike Morris

development. Doing them at the end of my chest workout

really pumps up my inner-upper pecs. Although the stretch
position of the pullover works the lats more than the chest,
you’ll feel these more in your pecs at the completion, or
top, of the movement.
As for the line defining the pecs, that’s basically the outer
portion. When the outer part of the chest is developed from
Q: I’m 6’8” and about 200 pounds—thin and the top to the bottom, a distinct line separates the pecs
ripped—but I’m having a tough time packing on from the rest of the torso. I see from your training routine
muscle and getting detail in certain areas. I’ve been that you include dumbbell flyes regularly, and that’s the
working out on and off for about 1 1/2 years and best exercise for building the outer pecs. Follow Arnold’s
have a fairly good base, but one area keeps lagging lead, as I do, and keep your feet off the floor, which helps
in size and definition: my chest. I noticed that you put more stress on the pecs. Maintain a slight bend at your
have exactly what I want—a huge, ripped chest. elbows, lower the ’bells even with the bench, and then
Yours is one of the better ones I’ve seen on anyone, bring them up in a wide arc, beginning another rep when
including the top pros. The problem with my chest there’s approximately 10 inches between the dumbbells.
is that it’s only growing in the middle and it’s not That keeps your pecs under constant tension and builds
very wide. Three things would make my chest better: more mass in the outer pecs.
1) more delineation around the chest muscle, 2) a I notice that you do a lot of sets of either incline presses
lot more outer-lower-pec development and 3) more or bench presses. Since the middle part of your chest is
upper-pec development—especially middle and more developed than other areas, you should concentrate
inner regions. Here’s my current chest workout: on other exercises. Bench presses will continue to build
Monday that part of your chest more, and it will remain out of pro­
Flat-bench or incline barbell presses portion to your upper and lower pecs.
warmup 2 x 12-10 I also think you’d be better off doing your chest work­
80 to 90 percent 1RM 3-4 x 4-6 out by itself instead of supersetting it with back work. I
70 to 80 percent 1RM 2 x 8-10 used to do chest/back supersets all the time when I was
Incline or decline dumbbell presses 3 x 8-10 younger, and it’s a great routine for getting an awesome
Flat-bench or decline flyes 3 x 10 pump throughout the whole upper body; however, when
you have one strong bodypart and you superset it with a
I do medium to medium-heavy back work su­ weaker bodypart, the stronger and more responsive muscle
persetted with those exercises on Monday—three group usually gets the better pump than the struggling one.
sets of wide-grip pullups, three sets of barbell rows For that reason I think you should do your chest workout
and three sets of either behind-the-neck pulldowns before your back workout to prioritize chest.
or seated cable rows. My back is one of my strong Here’s the routine I recommend for your chest workouts:
bodyparts. I train legs on Tuesday, shoulders on
Wednesday and arms on Thursday. On Friday I do Monday
the same chest workout as on Monday, but I add a Incline barbell presses 4 x 10, 8, 6, 6
few sets of cable crossovers. Flat-bench flyes 3 x 10, 8, 6
Dips 3 x 10, 8, 6
A: First of all, thank you for the comments on my chest

88 JUNE 2007 \

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Thursday Workout 2: Tuesday and Friday

Dumbbell bench presses 3 x 10, 8, 6

Incline dumbbell bench presses 3 x 8, 6, 6 Incline leg raises 2 sets
Superset Squats 4 sets
Decline dumbbell flyes 2-3 x 6-8 Leg presses 3 sets
Dips 2-3 x 8-10 Leg curls 3 sets
Stiff-legged deadlifts 3 sets
Q: You must get this question all the time, but I’d Standing calf raises 3 sets
like to know the best way to gain muscle mass. I Close-grip bench presses 3 sets
only weigh 144 pounds, and I have a very fast me­ Dips 2 sets
tabolism. I’ve been trying to gain muscle and get my Barbell curls 3 sets
weight up to 180. Any advice? Total number of sets: 26
A: I could (and should) write a longer article on how to
gain muscle mass. It’s probably the number-one question Nutrition is also crucial. If you have a very fast metabo­
among bodybuilders because bodybuilding is all about lism, you need more calories. Exactly how many you need
getting big and putting on more muscle. The basic rules for is an individual matter. When I was 21 years old and trying
building muscle are to use the best exercises for the right to bulk up, I needed to eat an average of 5,000 calories a
number of day.
sets and You want to eat plenty of protein because protein re­
reps. I gave a builds the muscle after training. Shoot for about 1.25 to 1.5
seminar on grams of protein for each pound of bodyweight. In your
the subject case, you should try to eat 180 to 216 grams of protein each
at the ’07 day. It would be a mistake for you to eat low-fat protein
FitExpo in foods such as egg whites, fish and chicken. Go for more fat
Pasadena, with your protein—eggs, milk and red meats, such as sir­
California, loin steak and lean ground beef. You need that to get more
in Febru­ calories.
ary because In addition to the protein, you need to eat lots of com-
many body­ plex carbs. Carbohydrate foods like oatmeal, potatoes,
builders are rice, pasta and bread are ideal for providing your muscles
Hansen at his confused with the energy they need to fuel your heavy workouts. You
mass seminar about the should be eating at least two grams of carbs for each pound
at the FitExpo. best way of bodyweight. In your situation, I would recommend
to design nearly 300 grams of carbs per day to add more muscle
a training mass.
routine that will build muscle. If you follow these basic rules, you’ll be on your way to
You need to use the basic exercises—such as bench building more muscle. You just have to train hard and eat
presses, incline presses, squats, deadlifts, barbell rows, consistently and never give up. Even if your gains are slow­
military presses, dips, barbell curls, stiff-legged deadlifts er than you’d like, as long as you’re making progress each
and calf raises—for six to eight reps. Lower reps will build month, you’ll eventually get to your goal weight of 180.
thicker muscle fibers as well as strength. For a guy who’s
thin and trying to get bigger, that’s key. Editor’s note: John Hansen has won the Natural Mr.
It’s also important not to overtrain. Doing too many sets Olympia and is a two-time Natural Mr. Universe winner.
will prevent the body from growing to its maximum po­ Visit his Web site
tential. As I discussed in my seminar, anyone trying to add at www.natural
more mass should limit the total number of sets in a work­ You
out to about 25. If you were training four days a week using can write to him
a two-day split, you could do the following routine: at P.O. Box 3003,
Darien, IL 60561,
or call toll-free
Workout 1: Monday and Thursday (800) 900-UNIV
(8648). His new
Barbell bench presses 3 sets
book, Natural
Incline barbell presses 3 sets
Bodybuilding, and
Dumbbell flyes 2 sets
new training DVD,
Wide-grip chins 3 sets
“Real Muscle,”
Barbell rows 3 sets
are now available
Deadlifts 3 sets
from Home Gym
Military presses 3 sets
Warehouse, (800)
Upright rows 3 sets

447-0008 or www
Incline situps 2 sets
Total number of sets: 25
IM John Hansen \ JUNE 2007 89

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92 JUNE 2007 \
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Things You May Not
Know About the Popular
Power Supplement—and
How to Take It
by Jerry Brainum

frequent criticism of many

food supplements is that
they’re marketed with little
or no scientific proof to
back commercial claims.
You can’t say that about creatine. An
estimated 70 percent of published
studies about the ergogenic effect of
creatine are positive. Since it came
on the market in 1993, creatine has
become one of the most popular—
perhaps the most popular—sports
supplements. And yet it’s still
surrounded by misconceptions and
eux \ Model: Dave Fisher


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Creatine may
cause water
however, one
solution is to

Neveux \ Model: Steve Namat

avoid creatine

Many, for example, think that in high-intensity exercise. Soviet percent.2 A study published in 2000
creatine was unknown prior to its athletes got small vials containing found that when six subjects took 20
introduction to the athletic world in creatine phosphate, which they took grams of creatine, growth hormone
the early 1990s. In fact, creatine was prior to competition. release rose by 83 percent, mainly
discovered back in 1832, although during the last four hours of the ex­
its mechanisms were not fully ap­ periment.3 In a later study, creatine
preciated until a century later. The What Is Creatine? didn’t add any hormonal effects to a
first evidence that creatine has weight-training session.4 More re­
something to do with exercise oc­ Creatine is a by-product of amino cent evidence, however, shows that
curred in 1847, when active foxes acid metabolism, synthesized in using creatine supplements, when
were found to contain 10 times the liver, kidneys and pancreas combined with exercise, increases
more creatine in their bodies than from the amino acid precursors the activity of IGF-1, which has
inactive animals. arginine, methionine and glycine. anabolic effects in muscle.5
We may have beaten the Russians The body synthesizes about a gram
to the moon in 1969, but they were a day of creatine, and most people,
already giving creatine to their elite especially those who eat red meat, To Load or

athletes that year. The pioneering get another gram a day from food. Not to Load?

studies about the ergogenic effects Studies show that 95 percent of

of creatine were published by a creatine in the body is stored in Studies published in the early
Russian scientist named Olexander skeletal muscle, with the remaining 1990s showed that the best proto­
Palladin in 1916.1 He showed that 5 percent distributed in the brain, col for loading the muscles with
the amount of creatine in muscle liver, kidneys and testes.The average creatine was to take five grams five
has a direct relation to exercise. He 150-pound man’s body contains 120 times a day for five to six days in a
also found that fast-twitch muscle grams, or about a quarter pound, of row. Once the initial loading period
fibers, the ones most linked to creatine. ended, the suggested dose was three
muscle growth, contain the highest Thyroid hormone, growth hor­ to five grams daily to top off creatine
amounts of creatine. In 1937 Palli­ mone and testosterone are among stores and keep the muscles loaded.
din predicted that a full understand­ the factors that regulate creatine A more specific loading protocol
ing of creatine biochemistry would synthesis. Thyroid hormone based on bodyweight suggests an
enhance athletic performance. produces a threefold increase in intake of 0.3 grams of creatine per
The Soviet government spon­ creatine content, while insulin- kilogram (2.2 pounds) of body-
sored research on creatine, finding like growth factor 1 (produced by weight, followed by a maintenance
that it improved the running times growth hormone stimulation in the dose of 0.03 grams per kilogram of
of sprinters and others engaged liver) increases creatine by 40 to 60 bodyweight. In a 200-pound man

94 JUNE 2007 \

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that translates to a loading dose get from eating 100 grams of simple Once the muscles are loaded
of 27 grams daily in divided doses carbs with the creatine. with creatine, they stay loaded
for five days, followed by a main­ Still later studies found that for a month, even without more
tenance dose of 2.7 grams a day taking only five grams a day, or a supplementation. After that creatine
(about half a teaspoon). teaspoon, of creatine for 30 days levels return to baseline. So if you
Later studies suggested that tak­ brought about the same muscle cycle creatine, take it for about two
ing a creatine supplement with loading as the five-day high-dose months, laying off for at least five
simple sugars would lead to a load system. The advantage of the weeks before beginning another
higher absorption and retention longer and lower-dose intake was cycle.
rate. The theory was that insulin that less creatine was broken down
release triggered the activity of the to its immediate metabolite, creati­
creatine transporter protein, or CTP, nine, than on the high-load system. Insulin and Uptake
which determined creatine uptake. The usual recommendation now
Achieving that, however, required a is to avoid loading creatine, unless Few realize that the creatine
much higher than usual secretion of you have an imminent competition transport protein and not insulin
insulin. You had to eat 95 grams of featuring anaerobic metabolism, is the primary impetus for creatine
simple sugars with creatine at least such as sprinting. muscle uptake. CTP is powered by
four times daily, to the tune of at Some research shows that caf­ a mechanism known as the sodium
least 1,400 additional calories. feine interferes with the ergogenic pump. That doesn’t mean it’s better
Later studies found that the in­ benefits of creatine, so it may be a to take creatine with sodium than
sulin effect on creatine uptake was good idea to avoid taking creatine carbs, for normal food intake easily
short-lived, lasting only about one supplements with caffeine-contain­ regulates the sodium balance of the
day. Other research showed that ing beverages like coffee. On the pump mechanism.
even the much vaunted creatine other hand, creatine doesn’t block A more practical technique is
load system wasn’t all that effec­ the ergogenic effects of caffeine. The to take creatine with a fast-acting
tive. After 48 hours on a load most early studies showing creatine effec­ protein, such as whey. Whey is rich
subjects were excreting 60 percent tiveness delivered creatine dissolved in several amino acids that provoke
or more of their creatine intake. One in hot tea, which contains caffeine, an insulin response. That’s why a
study found that taking 50 grams of with no apparent ill effect. Other whey-and-simple-carb combination
protein and 50 grams of carbohy­ evidence shows that taking creatine is often suggested for posttraining
drate with creatine led to the kind with lipoic acid may increase cre­ recuperation. The combined ef­
of muscle-creatine increases you atine uptake. fect of whey (continued on page 102)

show that
95 percent
of creatine
in the body
is stored
in skeletal

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(continued from page 96) and carbs research has yet to prove that. Keep in mind that when you’re
provides a greater insulin response Remember, the most trustworthy re­ taking even one teaspoon—five
than either taken alone. The in­ search is produced by independent grams—of creatine, you’re get­
creased insulin release that results researchers with no financial link to ting some five times more than
leads to more muscle glycogen and the product. your body normally synthesizes.
protein synthesis following train­ Some creatine delivery systems The body detects the additional
ing. Adding creatine to a moderate are better than others. While gastro­ creatine and responds by shut­
intake of simple carbs, coupled with intestinal distress, such as bloating ting down its own production. In
whey, stimulates CTP activity. As and gas, is rare with creatine use, a study of 16 healthy young men
discussed recently in IRON MAN, some people are more sensitive who took a 20-gram loading dose
research by Australian scientist Paul than others. Using a product that of creatine for a week followed by
Cribb showed that taking in a com­ contains either effervescent or mi­ a maintenance dose of five grams
bination of whey and creatine prior cronized creatine—meaning it has for 19 more weeks, the precursor
to and following training doubled smaller particles—may decrease substances for creatine synthesis
the rate of muscle gains compared such problems. Some liquid forms in the body declined by 50 percent
to a placebo. of creatine supplements claim not after the loading phase and 30 per­
Don’t be fooled by ads implying only fewer potential side effects cent throughout the maintenance
that certain creatine supplements but also greater absorption rates. In phase.6 Since the precursor sub­
increase blood creatine. How much fact, these formulas contain mostly stances of creatine synthesis are
is in the blood is irrelevant. What creatinine, the useless by-product downgraded, there’s more arginine
matters is how much is absorbed of creatine breakdown. One product in the system. Arginine, the primary
into muscle, and that’s determined that claimed to provide 250 mil­ amino acid for creatine synthesis, is
by CTP. Various newer forms of cre­ ligrams per dose of creatine actu­ a useful factor in urea production,
atine supplements, such as creatine ally contained only 27 milligrams, but it can also convert into two sub­
ethyl ester, creatine alpha-ketoglu­ or about 10 percent of the stated stances that can cause convulsions.
tarate, creatine gluconate, creatine dosage, according to an analysis Fortunately, that doesn’t seem to
methyl ester and tricreatine orotate, published by happen with creatine supplementa­
all claim superior absorption and ConsumerLab found that most tion. The added arginine your sys­
uptake over creatine monohydrate. other commercial creatine products tem gets is applied to the synthesis
Some new version of creatine may were free of contaminants and did of nitric oxide.
well prove superior to creatine contain the potency stated on the
monohydrate, but independent label.
Creatine Controversies
Several coaches have gone on
The body record as saying that since the
synthesizes long-term health effects of creatine
about a aren’t established, it’s premature for
athletes to use it. They cite reports
gram a day of side effects, including muscle
of creatine. cramps, dehydration, kidney dis-
Meat eaters ease—even cancer.
Most side effects linked to
can get creatine have not showed up in
another controlled studies that evaluated
gram a day creatine safety. On the other hand,
water retention is a common side
from food. effect of high-dose creatine load­
ing. It’s usually temporary but can
add four to 12 pounds in many
users. That may cause some of the
above-mentioned side effects. One
solution is to avoid creatine load­
ing—which isn’t effective after two
days anyway.
Besides the minor side effects
associated with creatine—often
related to something else, such as
dehydration—some more serious
side effects have been published in
the medical literature. They include
seizures and atrial fibrillation, a
heart rhythm disturbance. Those

102 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Neveux \ Model: Daniele Seccarecci

104 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Creatine has
from free
Neveux \ Model: Buster

which can
help skin

cases, however, often involve just any significant effect.7

a single person and may therefore The other alleged dangerous sub­
represent an idiosyncratic reaction, stance isn’t produced in amounts
considering how many others take that could cause health problems.
creatine supplements without inci­ Besides, the studies that identified
dent. the problem were in vitro, or test
To be safe, it’s best to stay hy­ tube, studies, so the effect itself is
drated while you’re on creatine theoretical. It appears only under
supplements. That means ensuring conditions of high temperature in
that you drink sufficient fluid during cooked meat. So if you don’t cook
the course of a day, especially when your creatine supplements under
you’re training. That should prevent high temperature conditions, you
muscle cramps, strain and dehydra­ have little to fear.
tion. One synthetic analog of creatine,
In 2001 France’s equivalent of called cyclocreatine, is known to
the Food and Drug Administration shrink tumors by displacing creatine
issued a report indicating that cre­ in tumor cells. Tumors synthesize
atine is a carcinogen, or substance creatine as an energy source for
capable of causing cancer. The as­ replication, though creatine itself is
sertion was based on two products known to shrink tumors. A notable
created when creatine was heated, side effect of cyclocreatine is muscle
both of which are known carcino­ weakness and mental problems,
gens. One of the substances was since it provides no actual creatine
activated by the presence of nitrates energetic activity.
in the stomach. Nitrates (used as
preservatives in some kinds of meat)
can form mutagens when combined Creatine: For the
with creatine by-products. But the Health of It
reaction is completely curtailed by
the presence of vitamins C or E. Creatine provides likely health
Besides, few athletes eat enough benefits beyond normal energy pro­
nitrates to trigger that problem, and duction. Many diseases result from
the amount produced naturally in out-of-control oxidation reactions
the body is also too small to have in the body, (continued on page 108)

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One study
that growth

Neveux \ Model: Hisashi Kamisawa

rose by 83

(continued on from page 105) includ­ The side effect most often linked the other hand, with normal kidney
ing cancer and cardiovascular and to creatine relates to its effect on function and copious fluid intake,
brain diseases. Creatine provides kidney function. Some isolated the body has no problems handling
some direct antioxidant activity, es­ reports of kidney failure in creatine creatinine, even the higher than
pecially against a noxious free radi­ users have led to the notion that usual levels that are produced by
cal called the hydroxy radical, which creatine is toxic to the kidneys. creatine supplementation. Inter­
is implicated in many diseases.8 That’s been investigated and de­ estingly, much renal pathology is
Another recent study showed that bunked by a number of researchers. related to oxidative reactions, and
by maintaining the energy produc­ It turned out that those who expe­ creatinine, like creatine, has some
tion of skin cells, creatine may help rienced kidney-related side effects antioxidant properties, thus pos­
prevent skin aging and help protect after creatine use had prior kidney sibly helping protect the kidneys.
the skin from damaging ultraviolet problems. Creatine has even been given to
rays.9 Can creatine cause kidney prob­ people on dialysis—who already
The synthetic production of lems? The major by-product of have kidney failure.10
creatine yields a number of by- creatine metabolism, creatinine, is Creatine also may help prevent
products, one of which is related a minor irritant of the kidneys. On disease by lowering levels of homo­
to cyanide, a deadly poison. They cysteine, a toxic metabolite of the
include creatinine, dicyandamide, amino acid methionine. Homocys­
dihydrotrianzines and even arsenic, teine is implicated in such varied
another poison. The by-products diseases as cancer, Alzheimer’s
are removed during the processing disease and heart disease. Using
of creatine supplements, though it’s supplemental creatine lowers blood
hard to tell how much may remain levels of homocysteine by an aver­
in any particular supplement. Gen­ age of 27 percent.
erally, supplements manufactured Creatine has shown preliminary
in the United States and Germany value in the treatment of various
have a strong reputation—a high neuromuscular disorders, in­
grade of creatine with no known cluding muscular dystrophy and
impurities. One author a few years amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or
ago suggested that anyone contem­ Lou Gehrig’s disease. It stabilizes
plating the use of a creatine product In 1847, active foxes were mitochondria, the portion of the cell
should first contact the manufac­ found to contain 10 times more where energy is created. Mitochon­
turer to obtain a certificate of qual­ creatine in their bodies than drial dysfunction leads to cellular
ity control. inactive animals. failure. One review even stated that

108 JUNE 2007 \

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“the neuroprotective role of creatine regulate appetite and weight. With­
may be more relevant for mankind out creatine, appetite declines.15
than the effect on muscle perfor­ Some ads say that creatine
mances.” monohydrate, the most common
supplemental form, is mostly de­
graded into creatinine in the harsh
Creatine on the Brain acidic conditions of the stomach.
Curiously, no references are ever
The brain loads creatine, just as provided for claims like that. In fact,
muscles do, and in the brain cre­ orally taken creatine monohydrate
atine helps maintain energy reac­ is 99 percent absorbed. A study with
tions, as it does in muscle.12 The human subjects found that blood Creatine helps protect the
level of creatine in the brain is relat­ creatine peaks after 2 1/2 hours fol­ brain and may help it work
ed to the protection against various lowing oral intake. While some cre­ better.
brain diseases. Through maintain­ atine is converted into creatinine,
ing the vital energy production in the amount is considered negligible creatine reaction in the stomach oc­
the brain, creatine helps protect during the first six hours.16 Common curred to any significant degree, cre­
the brain against traumatic injury.13 sense dictates that if the alleged atine would provide no benefits at
One study showed that giving rats all. That’s belied by the vast research
and mice creatine before they were base confirming the effectiveness of
subjected to brain injury led to 50 creatine supplementation.
percent and 36 percent less injury, Most important from a body­
respectively. building standpoint is whether the
Creatine may also help the brain gains that accrue from creatine
work better. In one study, 45 adult use are merely water or actual lean
vegetarians who took five grams a mass. While creatine is known to
day experienced improved memory produce water retention, especially
and decreased mental fatigue. Other following a loading phase, some
studies show that creatine helps evidence does point to definite
prevent the negative effects of sleep Some studies suggest that anabolic effects. One study, for
deprivation.14 Another found that caffeine may interfere with example, showed that creatine use
creatine in the brain appears to help creatine absorption. after training amplified the activity

Studies show
that creatine
blunts the
effects of
cortisol, the
hormone that
increases due
to stress.
Neveux \ Model: Hidetada Yamagishi

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Stacking creatine
with your
should contain
whey and simple
carbs— is ideal,
as your muscles
are more
receptive after a

of satellite cells, which are stem cells creatine’s water-retention proper­ supplementation. Med Sci Sports
required for both muscle repair and ties. Exer. 37:731-736.
growth.17 Other studies show that While the primary function of 6 Derave, W., et al. (2004). Plasma

creatine blunts the catabolic ef­ creatine is to provide a backup for guanidino compounds are altered
fects of cortisol on muscle.18 Those maintaining ATP (the immediate by oral creatine supplementation
two effects alone would encourage cellular energy source) activity in in healthy humans. J App Physiol.
muscle growth. Other studies sug­ cells, it also provides many health 97:852-857.
gest that creatine may help increase benefits that extend beyond its 7 Derave, W., et al. (2007). Oral

muscle protein synthesis, possibly usual function. creatine supplementation in

by promoting a cellular hydration, humans does not elevate urinary
which signals anabolic effects in excretion of the carcinogen N­
muscle; that’s a hypothesis based on References nitrosarcosine. Nutrition. In press.

1 Kalinski, M.I. (2003). State-

sponsored research on creatine

supplements and blood doping in
elite Soviet sport. Pers Biol Med.
2 Persky, A., et al. (2001). Clinical

pharmacology of the dietary

supplement creatine monohydrate.
Pharm Rev. 53:161-76.
3 Schedel, I.M., et al. (2000). Acute

creatine loading enhances human

growth hormone secretion. J Sports
Med Phys Fitness. 40:336-42.
4 Eijnde, B., et al. (2001). Short-

term creatine supplementation does We may have beaten the

Simple sugar is believed to Russians to the moon in
increase creatine absorption, not alter the hormonal response to
1969, but they were already
but it takes 95 grams of simple resistance training. Med Sci Sports giving creatine to their elite
sugar taken with creatine four Exer. 33:449-53. athletes that year. They found
times a day to get that effect— 5 Deldicque, L., et al. (2005).
that fast-twitch muscle fibers
that’s about 1,400 additional Increased IGF mRNA in human contain the highest amounts of
calories. skeletal muscle after creatine creatine.
112 JUNE 2007 \
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against traumatic brain injury. Ann
Neurol. 48:723-29.
14 McMorris, T., et al. (2006). Ef­

fect of creatine supplementation

and sleep deprivation, with mild
exercise, on cognitive and psycho­
motor performance, mood state,
and plasma concentrations of
catecholamines and cortisol. Psy­
chopharmacology. 185:93-103.
15 Galbraith, R., et al. (2006).

Possible role of creatine concen­

trations in the brain in regulating
appetite and weight. Brain Res.
16 Schedel, J.M., et al. (1999).

Acute creatine ingestion in hu­

mans: consequences on serum
creatine and creatinine concentra­
tions. Life Sciences. 65:2463-2470.
17 Olsen, S., et al. (2006). Creatine

supplementation augments the

increase in satellite cell and myo­
nuclei number in human skeletal
muscle induced by strength train­
ing. J Physiol. 573:525-34.
18 Menezes, L., et al. (2006). Cre­

Neveux \ Model: Steve Namat

atine supplementation attenuates
corticosteroid-induced muscle
wasting and impairment of exer­
cise performance in rats. J Appl
Physiol. In press. IM

8 Sestili, P., et al. (2007).

Creatine supplementation affords Creatine,

cytoprotection in oxidatively when
injured cultured mammalian cells
via direct antioxidant activity. Free
Rad Biol Med. In press. with
9 Lenz, H., et al. (2005). The
creatine kinase system in human
skin: Protective effects of creatine increases
against oxidative and UV damage the activity
in vitro and in vivo. J Invest of insulinlike
Dermatol. 124:443-452.
10 Poortmans, J., et al. (2000). growth
Adverse effects of creatine factor 1.
supplementation: Fact or fiction?
Sports Med. 30:155-170.
11 Wyss, M., et al. (2002). Health

implications of creatine: Can oral

creatine supplementation protect
against neurological and athero­
sclerotic disease? Neuroscience.
12 Dechent, P., et al. Increase of

total creatine in human brain after

oral supplementation of creatine
monohydrate. Am J Physiol. 277:
13 Sullivan, P., et al. (2000). Di­

etary supplement creatine protects

114 JUNE 2007 \

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Craig Titus is currently
being held on suspicion
of murder charges.

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All Great Athletes Are Not Great Role Models
by Ron Harris Photography by Michael Neveux Episode 23

fter a fruitful off-season in which To each his own would normally be the case,
I’d built some good size and but not with Randy and his magazines. He s
strength, it was time to lean never content to merely read them; he also feels
out for the summer and, more the need to engage me in discussions about
important, for my contest in every little thing on the pages before him. It s
September. That meant that the same thing every time. He calls my name,
cardio, which had been mini­ and I ignore him, pretending I can t hear him
mal during those cold months of heavy lifting over my headphones. That buys me only about
and stuffing my face with obscene amounts of two seconds of peace before he taps me on
food, was back as a regular part of my workout the shoulder. Sighing to show that I’d much
regimen. Randy, my protégé and copycat, was rather be listening to good tunes than debat­
also doing cardio. Of course, his only motiva­ ing someone s calf routine or whether beef is
tion was to, and I quote, make all the babes a better protein source than chicken, I remove
drool over my six-pack at Hampton Beach this the headphones from the ear facing him and
summer. I’ll be sure to bring some Kleenex say, What?”
along and walk 10 steps behind him, dabbing Today he was really eager to talk, which had
away at all the excess saliva on the chins of his to mean he d been looking over the latest gos­
female admirers. sip and news items about the pro bodybuild­
Randy preferred to walk fast on the tread­ ers. “Did you hear about (blank)? He just got
mill; I like the Precor elliptical runner, as it s busted again for receiving steroids from China
easier on my knees. The two are right next in the mail! And (blank) just got out of jail for
to each other in my gym. We re also differ steroids.
ent when it comes to what we do while we He flipped a few more pages in the gossip
perform our cardio. I put my headphones on section. “(Blank) just left his wife and kids,
and blast my MP3 player, with plenty of tunes and now he s with this bimbo fitness pro, he
from bands like Disturbed, Marilyn Manson continued, and online last night they were
and Godsmack. There may also be some tracks talking about how (blank) looked so bad at his
from less macho musicians, such as Avril Levi­ last show because he s a big Nubain addict. Can
gne and Britney Spears, but you don t need to you believe these frigging guys?” Clearly, he was
know that. Randy prefers to read, and his gym waiting for some reaction from me and said the
bag is always full of dog-eared bodybuilding last with genuine disgust: “Some role models
Model: Craig Titus

magazine he pores over as he sweats and burns they are. Doesn t it piss you off?”
fat. “No, I honestly don t (continued on page 120) \ JUNE 2007 117

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You need to separate the physiques Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Freud
of these men and the hard work were both addicted to cocaine.”
that went into them from what “Sir Arthur who? What did he do,
they do in their private lives. invent the Conan the Barbarian
character?” At least he knew who
Sigmund Freud was—I hope.
“Okay, let’s make it easier. There
have been many famous rock stars
and musicians who struggled with
alcoholism and drug addiction. But
you still love and appreciate their
music. Hemingway was one of the
greatest writers of the 20th century
and also happened to be an incor­
rigible drunk and a suicide. Is any­
thing getting through to you yet?”
“Not really. Bodybuilders are sup­
posed to be role models, at least
more than those other types of fa­
mous people.”
(continued from page 117) even care Randy actu­
anymore.” ally watched
Randy was mortified. “How can professional
you say that? We’re supposed to look sports and was
up to these guys! They’re profes­ somewhat of
sional athletes, aren’t they?” The kid a fan when it
was on a holy roll. came down to
“Yes, they are,” I said. “Which playoffs. “Does
means what? That they’re excep­ what Kobe does
tional at their chosen sport. Nothing in his per­
more, nothing less. Charles Barkley sonal life off the
said, ‘I’m not a role model,’ and court make his
Just as in any cross section of the population,
I think that was one of the most achievements
genuine and meaningful statements and skills on
you will always have a few who are into criminal
to ever come out of an athlete’s the court any less activity.
mouth.” impressive? Was he a better player “And why is that? It’s because it’s
“Yeah, but...” Randy trailed off. He when you thought he was a Boy the only sport where most of the fans
didn’t really have any rebuttal. Scout? are trying to be stars themselves.
“Randy, look at something like “Let’s broaden the scope. There How many guys watch baseball and
the Kobe Bryant incident.” I knew have been plenty of brilliant people then spend two hours a day, six days
that would work because unlike me, with drug problems through history. a week practicing so they can be the
next Barry Bonds? Because most
bodybuilding fans are trying to look
No matter who the like their idols in the IFBB, they try
bodybuilder is, to emulate them down to the last
you can still draw detail.”
inspiration from Randy tossed the magazine to the
his physique and floor. He wasn’t paying attention
dedication. and almost hit the leg of the woman
on the treadmill next to us. Luckily
she was so entranced reading the
subtitles on the TV monitor showing
Regis and Kelly that she didn’t notice.
“Okay then, so see what I mean
how these guys are letting us down
getting into legal problems and
“Look, you can train the way these
guys train and eat the way they eat,
Model: Ron Harris

but it has to end there. If Jay Cutler

buys a lime-green Mercedes Benz
and enjoys foreign films, does that
mean you have to?”

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Not many fans watch I train hard and eat right and do my
baseball or football and best to show as many people as I can
then spend two hours how they can do it too, but I’m not
a day, six days a week an angel. I’m just a human being like
practicing so they can anyone else, with my good and bad
be the next Barry Bonds points. If some people want to con­
or Peyton Manning. sider me a role model because I have
a wife and kids, am somewhat suc­
cessful in my industry and stay out
of trouble, fine. I’d never stand up on
a pedestal, though, and proclaim my
perfection to the world. Every single
one of us has faults and makes mis­
takes, but when you’re in the public
eye as a professional athlete, the
whole world knows about them.”
I looked down at the display on
my machine. Thirty-two minutes,
and only 410 calories. If I’d been
rocking out to my music, I would
“I work at a Ford dealership,” builders, and at least 90 percent of
Randy reminded me. “And foreign them are solid, upstanding men and
films? They make movies in other women with integrity and character.
countries or something?” I’m not saying they all have halos
“You’re missing the point. You gleaming around their heads, but
need to separate the physiques of they are good, decent people. But
these men and the hard work that bodybuilders are human beings.
went into them from what they do Just as in any cross section of the
in their private lives.” population, you will always have
Randy snorted. “Yeah, because a few who are into drugs, criminal
they’re a bunch of degenerates these activities, who are violent, what­
days.” ever the case may be. That doesn’t
“That’s not true at all. I know mean you can’t look at their photos
plenty of top amateur and pro body­ in a magazine or on the Internet
and draw inspira­
tion from them. It
doesn’t mean that
they have nothing
to offer when it
comes to showing Bertil Fox, convicted
the rest of us how murderer, great physique.
to train hard and
eat right. I know it’s
very hard to look have kept a faster pace and would
past the lurid gos­ have been up over 500 by this point.
sip and appreciate I scowled, considered telling Randy,
what those men but said nothing. Randy was now
and women have watching Regis and Kelly with his
done and continue mouth hanging open; the Olsen
to do as athletes, twins were the guests.
but you really need “Jailbait,” I said.
to try.” “Nah, they turned 18, dude.”
Randy was pen­ “You doing okay at work, selling
sive. He looked some cars?”
over cautiously. “Yeah,” he replied, only half pay­
“What about you, ing attention.
Ron—you’re not a Something caught my eye in the
You shouldn’t try role model?” newspaper someone had left on
to emulate your That’s a question the machine next to me. “Best Buy
athletic heroes I’m never comfort­ is having a big sale on MP3 players
down to the last able answering. starting today,” I told him. “I think
detail of their lives. “You know what?” I you should go and pick one up im­
said. “I don’t know. mediately.” IM

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Stepping Into Dante’s DoggCrapp Workouts
by Mark Subsinsky - Photography by Michael Neveux

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One thing I’ve noticed while surfing the Internet
is a lot of bodybuilding discussion on D.C., or
DoggCrapp, training. I initially tried the standard
multirep rest/pause formula based on what was
available in posts on message boards, but as with
any training system, it needed some tinkering to
fit my needs.
What follows is my take on D.C. training,
focusing on the things I’ve found that I liked and
exploited to my advantage. What I did may differ
from what others consider “pure” D.C. training.

Free download from INCLINE PRESSES
The Basics
DoggCrapp is the brainchild of
Dante Bautista, and bodybuilders
appear to have a love/hate rela­
tionship with his training philoso­
phy—people either love it or hate
it. There’s very little middle ground.
I’m not sure why because the train­
ing style really isn’t that radical. It’s
multirep rest/pause; that is, you
take a weight you can get about 10
reps with. You do a set to failure,
rest 20 seconds, do a second set to
failure, rest 20 seconds, and then do
a third and final set to failure. Reps
decrease on each succeeding set.
Is D.C. training effective? Yes. I’ve
made significant gains in strength,
size and weight. The Program fibers to accomplish the work.
Is D.C. training tough to follow? As I said, it’s three sets with the
That depends. If you haven’t Although I’m not an authority on same weight separated by 20 sec­
trained with much intensity in the D.C. training, I have enough experi­ onds of rest. I use 12 to 15 deep
past, then it’s a difficult system. If ence to provide my interpretation breaths between sets. For the en­
you’re a novice trainee, I don’t rec­ and my adaptation. If you really tire set, you should be performing
ommend it. If you’ve been training want the true training and diet pro­ anywhere from 10 to 25 total repeti­
for more than a couple of years, gram, go directly to Dante or one of tions. The set could look something
then D.C. isn’t that difficult to follow. his trainers. like this: nine reps, four reps, two
Is the D.C. training system the D.C. is based on the often-ne­ reps. For most exercises, I preferred
best method of training? glected overload principle and rest/ a higher rep total—13 to 18.
Let’s save the answer to that one pause, which enables you to recruit Notice that you use both low and
for the end. a maximum amount of muscle high repetitions. Combining the

Model: Nathan Detracy

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two in a workout stimulates both limited number of sets to maximum
muscular growth and strength intensity. As in other high-intensity
improvement. programs, dense muscularity is a
D.C. training also limits the common result.
number of working sets per muscle
group—one or two exercises in the
multirep rest/pause fashion and
Important Aspects
an extreme stretch. Static holds Three other important aspects
are also an effective addition at the to the program are exercise rota­
more advanced stages, but I used tion, record keeping and breaks in
those sparingly. training. None of those are all that
The low volume of work enables radical.
faster recuperation and a shorter Exercise rotation. The program
turnaround time between work­ is set up with a three-workout rota­
outs. You can train the whole body tion. Each of these three workouts
over two workouts, and the system has distinct exercises. The rotation
is typically set up with sessions on would be A1, B1, A2, B2, A3, B3, A1,
Monday, Wednesday and Friday. B1 and so on, with A being the first
So every bodypart is worked twice half of the body and B being the
every eight days. other half.
Intensity must be high. D.C. Training journal. The idea
training has a Mentzeresque or behind keeping a journal is that
Yates-like training feel to it—a more work must be performed in

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program. To start I used a three-day
split because of my time constraints
CABLE ROWS and recovery ability. My commit­
ments outside the gym often take
precedence over workouts. I found
that the two-day split required too
much time at each session. Gen­
erally, the three days I lifted were
nonconsecutive and varied based
on my work schedule.
Another reason for splitting my
bodyparts into three sessions: Al­
though I used a limited number of

Model: Michael Semanoff

working sets, I still needed adequate
warmups. Coupled with some cool-
down after the workout and recov­
ery between sets, the two-day-split


each successive workout, and writ­ or increase the weight.

ing down your exercises, weights and Training breaks.
reps lets you see how you’re doing. The break, or cruising, as
For example, if you did bench Dante calls it, gives your
presses and got 12 total repetitions joints, tendons and central
with 315 pounds in your first A1 nervous system time to re­
workout, you should do more repeti­ cover. I was taking a week
tions with the same weight or use off from lifting roughly
more weight the next time you per­ every 10 weeks. During the
form an A1 workout. week off, I usually did one
You should make progress each or two light weight-train­
time you train. The exercise rotation ing sessions, no exercises
provides a natural break of roughly to failure.
12 days from the first performance of
an exercise to its next performance.
That should be ample time to re­
cover, grow and overcompensate, As mentioned earlier,
thus enabling you to get more reps I deviated from the basic


workouts were taking roughly 90

minutes to finish—too long for me.
With a three-way split, I was in
and out of the gym in roughly an
hour. I adapted an exercise schedule
and split more to my liking:

Round 1
A1: Chest, delts, triceps
Incline presses, lateral raises,
rear lateral raises, close-grip bench
Model: Sagi Kalev

A2: Back, traps, biceps

Rows, undergrip pulldowns,
shrugs, barbell curls
A3: Legs

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Seated leg curls, seated calf rais­ posterior heads, so I added some.
es, squats I also included some direct trape­
zius work, which I did on back days
when I didn’t deadlift.
Round 2 For most dumbbell work,
B1: Chest, delts, triceps namely, lateral and curl exercises, I
Bench presses, seated Arnold often reduced the poundage—drop
presses, rope pushdowns sets—instead of keeping the weight
B2: Back, traps, biceps the same. The reason was to reduce
Pulldowns, cable rows, shrugs, the possibility of injury. I found it
preacher curls unwise to use exercises like lateral
B3: Legs (continued on page 134)
Standing calf raises, hack squats,
adductor ma­
chine, lying leg STANDING CALF RAISES

Round 3
C1: Chest,
delts, triceps
incline presses,
seated overhead
presses, dips
C2: Back,
traps, biceps
curls, Zottman
curls, chins,
C3: Legs
deadlifts, leg
press calf raises,
leg presses

I changed a
couple of things.
The program
didn’t include
much direct
deltoid work for
the medial and

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(continued from page 131) raises for
EZ-CURL-BAR CURLS extremely low repetitions.
For quads the original D.C. pro­
gram calls for two sets—the first
for four to eight reps followed by
a second set of 20 reps. It calls for
quads to be done last in the session
because you should be spent after
training them. For regular squats
that’s true; however, I found I had
enough left in the tank after hack
squats, so I did them earlier in the
leg routine. Additionally, I added a
set of adductor exercises after hack
Back exercises were of two variet­
ies, either for width or for thickness.
And like quad work, back exercises
should be done in a two-set man­
ner to reduce the risk of injury. For
deadlifts and rows I used two low-
rep sets. For pulldowns and chins I
STRAIGHT-BAR did rest/pause sets.
CURLS Calves are also unique. D.C.
training calls for one set, but with
a 10-to-15-second pause/stretch
at the bottom of each repetition. I
modified that by doing a set with
the stretch between reps for roughly
seven to 12 reps. I followed with
a standard 12-to-20-rep set—no
stretch between reps.
Based on my energy levels I often
added an additional pure X-Rep set
to the training program. I particu­
larly liked machines for that, usually
performing one or two X-Rep sets
per training session. For example, I
used the seated row machine at the
end of the C2 workout and focused
on the bottom half of the stroke.


Stretching in the program is
unique and needs further explana­
tion. The stretch is used at the end
of a bodypart routine to stimulate
fascia expansion, to make room
for additional size. The validity of
the technique is questionable, but
I do believe the stretch assisted my
recovery. Here are the stretches for
each bodypart. Hold the stretch po­
sition for 30 seconds to one minute.
Chest. On a flat or incline bench,
take a pair of dumbbells to the
extended lockout position. Do a
10-second controlled negative rep
Model: Binais Begovic

into a deep stretch at the bottom of

a press.
Triceps. Perform it like an over­
head dumbbell extension. From the

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extended overhead position, slowly
lower the dumbbell into the stretch
position and resist the weight while
leaning back slightly.
Shoulders. Face away from a
squat rack and grab a barbell in
the rack that’s set at roughly shoul­
der height. While maintaining a
palms-up grip on the bar (hands
below the bar), walk out until the
stretch gets painful—then roll your
shoulders downward and hold.
Biceps. Work them the way you
do the shoulder stretch position,
but hold the barbell palms down
now (hands over the bar), and sink
down to stretch your biceps.
Back. I prefer a weighted hang
from the chin bar, lats flared out.
Hamstrings. Place one leg up
on a high barbell, grab either your
toe or the barbell, and force your
upper body toward your knee.
After a minute, repeat it with the

Model: Richard Longworth

other leg. You can also use light
stiff-legged deadlifts.
Quads. Basically a sissy squat—
quads and torso on the same
plane—with the bottom position SISSY SQUAT STRETCH

held as a stretch. Stay up on your

toes, upper body leaning back as far
as you can go (head almost touch­
ing the floor).
Calves. Stretching for the calves
is done as part of the exercise rou­
tine—you hold the stretch position
for 10 to 15 seconds after each rep.

A specific aspect of D.C. train­
ing is nutrition and, in particular,
protein. Excess protein is the key
to repair, recovery and mass devel­
opment. Most information on the
D.C. diet recommends roughly two
grams of protein for each pound
you weigh.
I was getting roughly 1.5 to two
grams of protein per pound of
bodyweight every day. That’s a good
Supplementation was basic. My
supplements included various pro­
tein drinks, some thermogenics,
glutamine, flaxseed oil and multivi­
tamins and minerals. No pro-hor­
mones or pro-steroids.

I trained on the program consis­

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tently for nearly eight months. That reps dropping). My take is that D.C. training program—the ability to
was a more than adequate amount training needs to be further modi­ make it your own.
of time to evaluate its success. fied for contest prep. The other essential ingredient for
My increase in gross weight was Should you use D.C. training all a good training program is that you
a little more than 30 pounds. Lean the time? For mass-gaining cycles, actually perform it. If you don’t go
muscle increase was slightly more it’s a great program; however, if your out and bust your butt in the gym
than 14 pounds. That’s accurate, as goals vary, you should vary your and then provide adequate nutri­
I proceeded to diet down to a simi­ training. tion and
lar condition I was in eight months So, is the D.C. program the best? recovery,
prior. Size increases were visible, Simply put, there isn’t one “best” the pro­
although I didn’t measure. training program; however, D.C. gram will
Strength gains were considerable. ranks up there as one of the best be worth­
I moved up significantly in each lift methods for building mass that I’ve less. So get
I used. ever experienced. to the gym
My final thought is that D.C. and train
training principles and the various hard!
Conclusion adaptations are excellent for inter­
The bottom line is that I was mediate to advanced bodybuilders. Editor’s
very pleased with the results, doing The D.C. style of training is system­ note:
everything with average supple­ atic, and it works. If you have a good Mark
mentation and average genetics. base coming into the program— Subsinsky
The program was enjoyable—I liked having lifted for a few years—and has been
Mark Subsinsky
hitting the gym to train that way. good nutrition, you can make some lifting
Do I think I could have made significant gains. weights
similar results with other training You can stay with a traditional since his high school years in the
methods? No, not as consistently, as D.C. program or follow what I out­ ’70s. He was educated as a biochem­
my past had proven. lined here. Or you can further tinker ist but currently works as a nuclear
Why did I stop? I started a con- with the program and adapt it to fit power plant operator For more of
test-prep diet and found my train­ your own needs and likes. To me, his articles visit www.Bodybuilding.
ing results diminishing (weights and that’s essential for any successful com. IM

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How New Pro Omar Deckard

Blasts Bi’s for Size and Detail

by Cory Crow
Photography by Michael Neveux

O n Saturday, February 17, the ’07

IFBB professional season officially
got under way with the IRON MAN Pro.
By the time you read this, we’ll know
who the winners are, and we’ll also know
which competitors finished in the top
five, qualifying for the ’07 Mr. Olympia.
As I write this, on the Tuesday before the
show, all we have is excitement about
the arrival of another bodybuilding
season. One thing we can be sure of: The
competitors will be hitting a front double-
biceps pose almost as soon as they hit the

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It’s probably no accident that this

pose comes first. No other muscle is
so synonymous with strength as the
biceps. From Michelangelo’s David
to Superman, Western culture is full
of examples of well-developed bi­
ceps. They’re the first muscle group
that novice lifters focus on when
they take up lifting, and the make-
a-muscle command never elicits a
lat spread or a most muscular. The
first pose we hit is the front double-
The biceps are so hardwired into
our psyche as the muscle to build,

Leading Up to the Show

Do you ever wonder what it’s
like those last few days before a
big bodybuilding contest? Here’s
Omar Deckard’s routine for the
three days leading up to the
Wednesday: Posing. No
workouts are planned, but there
will be a lot of posing practice
and physique assessments with
his adviser, Hany Rambod.
Today Omar will finally get to
take in some carbohydrates so
his physique will start to fill out.
During the USA he had difficulty
sleeping due to logistical issues
and other problems and came
in at (for him) a flat 255. He
plans to be much fuller this time
out with the same crisp condi­
tioning he had at that show.
Thursday: Rest, food and
posing. Omar plans to do a
quick full-body workout today,
doing one exercise per bodypart
of only about two sets each.
He’ll do some calf work and
forearms and use pretty light
weights. The objective here is
more to burn the food that he
eats than to work any muscle
Friday: Friday is typically
hectic, as the expo gets under
way and the press conference
takes place. Omar thinks the
key will be getting plenty of rest
and making sure he’s on time
for his tanning. He also plans
to reserve time for talking busi­
ness with sponsors and supple­
ment companies. —C.C.

(continued on page 148)

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“I’m constantly
harping on
kids to look at
bodybuilding from
a month-to-month
perspective, not day
to day.”

(continued on from page 144) we often When the arms match, however, the more motivated if you focus on
forget that the triceps makes up a deltoids flow into cannonball biceps making long-term improvements.”
large majority of the arm mass. The set off by hanging triceps. The result In our “fast-food” world that’s a
biceps are what we want to see— is a physique that is awesome to be­ philosophy that would benefit many
what we want to build—sometimes hold. In Omar’s case that physique areas of life, not just bodybuilding.
to the exclusion of other muscle is big—around 6’1” big. I caught up with Omar on Tues­
groups. In detailing his chest routine in day, four days out from the IM Pro.
It was with that thought in mind the January ’07 IRON MAN, Omar His final biceps workout was sched­
that I contacted IFBB rookie pro explained that he took things slow uled for that evening, so the topic
Omar Deckard in the week just be­ and steady when building his pecs. was on his mind. It was his last day
fore he made his professional debut His philosophy for biceps is much of extreme carb depletion, and he
at the IRON MAN, in Pasadena, the same: Take it slow and build had some filling out to look forward
California. I wanted to give read­ quality muscle. “I’m constantly to over the next couple of days, a
ers some insight into how the pros harping on the kids to look at body­ process that would be closely moni­
build their mammoth arms. There’s building from a month-to-month tored by bodybuilding nutritionist
no hiding weak arms on a pro stage. perspective, not day by day,” Deck­ Hany Rambod. One thing about
If they’re out of balance with the ard said. “You’ve got plenty of time Omar: He loves to talk about body­
rest of the physique, it’s obvious. to build your physique and will stay building, carb depleted or not.

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Deckard’s father was a wrestler

and dabbled in bodybuilding in
the ’60s. Omar’s introduction to
weight training came at the age of
12. As you might imagine, he grew
just a little more quickly than the
other kids on the block, although
he didn’t realize that until people
remarked on how big he was. Those
old workouts consisted of grabbing
a bar and curling until he couldn’t
curl anymore. Workouts of eight
sets per exercise for high reps were
common. Of course, form and
efficiency were anything but com­
mon, although Omar thinks that
he could handle the stress of those
workouts because he was “young
and resilient.”
Today his biceps workout is a
shortened and modified version of
the one he did as a child. Gone are
the mammoth set counts and bad
form, but the exercises he performs
remain basically the same. “I don’t
feel the need to lift ultraheavy
weights for biceps anymore, since
they’re a relatively small muscle,”
he said. Instead he focuses on lift­
ing a comfortable weight designed
to stimulate the muscle in a vari­
ety of ways. One other thing has
changed as well, he said: “When I
was a kid, I thought that by working
arms everything else would grow. I
thought that by doing curls my legs
would get bigger, etc. Of course,
now my workout is more varied.”
On the cusp of his professional
debut and what may be the biggest
bodybuilding show of his life, Omar
performed the biceps routine he’s
done for the past several years—the
one that has made his double-bi­
ceps pose a sight to behold.

“The biceps is a
relatively small
muscle than can
reach its capacity
without extremely
heavy weight.”

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Preacher curls 3 x 8-10

Standing barbell curls
135 pounds 1 x 10
185 pounds 1 x 8-10
225 pounds 1 x 5-6
185 pounds 1 x 8-10
Concentration curls 3 x 8-10
Hammer curls 3 x 10-12

Preacher Curls
“I do preacher curls just to get
blood into the biceps before I start
working on them,” Omar said. Be­
cause of that, the weight he uses
isn’t as important as is keeping a
medium rep speed and ensuring
that he works through a full range
of motion on every rep. All too often
he sees novice lifters starting off too
heavy. “I try to help them, especially
the new lifters. When I was younger,
there wasn’t anyone around to guide
me, so I learned by doing and read­
The warmup was something
Omar learned from bodybuilding
books as a young man, and he be­
lieves in it firmly today. He also be­
lieves that novice lifters should read
all of the bodybuilding books and
publications they can. “There’s all
kinds of information out there if you
want to learn; you just have to be
willing to go and get it.” His advice
to new lifters is to use a weight on
the preacher curls that just flushes
the muscle; don’t worry about wear­
ing it out—that comes next.

Standing Barbell Curls

After Omar finished describing
this workout to me, I was curious
if he ever mixed things up by using
an EZ-curl bar. “No,” he said, “but
that doesn’t mean I don’t like to do
curls that way.” Deckard feels that
the standard Olympic bar better
targets the biceps, but he’s quick to
point out that it can put stress on
the joints. If you have shoulder or
elbow problems, it would be wise
to use an EZ-curl bar in place of a
standard bar.
My second question was about
weight—specifically, how much.
“The focus [on concentration curls] is the He said that the weight he uses has
been built up over time and again
rep speed and the muscle squeeze all the stressed his belief that lifting ultra-
way up and down the rep.” heavy weights is counterproductive
for a smaller muscle like the biceps
and lends itself more to injury than
it does muscle growth. “The biceps

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is a relatively small muscle that the amount of weight he chooses Omar focuses on lifting
can reach its capacity without ex­ for every set. Egos and pride often
tremely heavy weight.” His weights make for torn muscles caused by a comfortable weight
are based largely on feel, as is the excess weight or bad form. A muscle designed to stimulate the
rep range. Omar tries to ensure that that’s broken won’t grow, and a

muscle in a variety of ways.

’ -

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rest of the workout is designed to Workout Schedule

augment that and balance out the
stress placed on his biceps to pro­ Deckard uses a three­
vide multiple stimuli for complete
on/one-off split:
Omar keeps the same basic lifts,
oup of
ounded accompaniments. Day 1: Hamstrings
eplaces and calves in the
ation curls with
nate dumbbell curls just morning; shoulders
to attack the biceps at a in the evening
ry the
stimuli. On most oc-
Day 2: Quads in the
’ll see him in morning; chest and
the gym, bang-
ing away
biceps in the evening
using the
outine Day 3: Traps and tri­
that’s ceps in the morning;
re, back in the evening
to slow­ Day 4: Off*
ly add
size Repeat

attain a

better shape
*Depending on how
to his biceps.
or all lifters his body feels, Omar
d suggests occasionally takes a
k the best and second day off to en­
“ oo sure complete recov­
ernight. ery. The second day off
n about your is always taken in con­
eact to differ-
ks and junction with the first
” one and never between
ookies the three working
was heading to the gym to give his
days—barring illness.
ed, but feeling
’ ever felt leading up
had a good support
itionist Webcast as Omar climbed up on a
’ wife and his pro stage for the first time. Deckard
ew knew that he had to hit the gym and
, who would be watching via get in one last workout, because he
could be the guy who would lead off
“Take your time and learn the show—with his 6’1” frame and
your biceps and how they 265 pounds squeezing into a front
react to different lifts. Then
take what works, and use Editor’s note: Omar Deckard
can be reached for guest posing and
that to grow.” sponsorships at omardeckard2@ IM \ JUNE 2007 155

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How Your Nervous System Controls Muscle
Size and Strength Gains
by Jerry Robinson • Photography by Michael Neveux

T he nervous system is divided into two parts: the central

nervous system—the brain and spinal cord—and the
peripheral nervous system, which consists of the nerves
traveling to and from the spinal cord, serving the muscle, skin
and all organs.
Muscle contraction calls on both systems. The signal to
contract begins in the central nervous system in the brain and
travels to the spinal cord. From there it moves to the peripheral
Model: Skip La Cour

nervous system, where it travels along nerves to the muscles.

(continued on page 162)

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Total strength is related to total muscle mass: The more muscle

tissue you have available for contraction, the greater strength you

can deliver. That’s only part of the story, however.

(continued from page 159) When with the muscle fibers it supplies, is brain sends a weak signal down the
a nerve nears a muscle, the nerve called a motor unit. nerve, and only a small percentage
splits into many tiny branches. Each Not all motor units are activated of the total motor units are acti­
branch supplies a number of muscle with every contraction. If a gentle, vated. If a strong, fast contraction
fibers. The nerve branch, together slow contraction is needed, the is needed, the brain sends a strong
signal, activating a larger percentage
Past Nervous System Failure for Bigger Muscle Gains of the total motor units. The brain
has a great deal of control over the
Your nervous system is preventing you from growing. Why? It doesn t number of motor units it can acti­
want you to get hurt. It prevents you from overexerting, and it s also a vate, which is why the same muscles
roadblock to unnecessary muscle, which the body perceives as excess that can do a quarter-ton deadlift
baggage. But we want more muscle, so we have to figure out ways to get can also perform delicate surgery.
past nervous system failure. Total strength is related to total
Training consistently enables you to gain more neuromuscular effi­ muscle mass: The more muscle
ciency, but scientists say that only 30 percent of the available fast-twitch tissue you have available for con­
fibers ever engage in any one all-out set. The nervous system fizzles way traction, the greater strength you
before total activation (it s that saving-you-from-yourself syndrome). can deliver. That’s only part of the
Right when you re on the verge of max growth stimulation in any set, story, however. Even with substan­
your nervous system short-circuits. The nerve of that CNS! tial muscle mass, if you can activate
During a set, the size principle of muscle fiber activation sets the stage only a small percentage of total
for order of recruitment. On the first few easy reps, the low-threshold motor units, your strength will be
motor units fire. As the set gets harder, the mediums engage. Finally, limited. That’s where nervous sys­
near the end of the set, the high-threshold motor units kick in. Those tem adaptations come in: Intense
highs are the ones with the most growth-stimulation potential, but right training increases how much of that
as they start to activate, your nervous system craps out, and you re left muscle mass you can activate for a
with the vast majority of your fast-twitch fibers unused. How do you get contraction, how frequently you can
around that to make the set more productive in the growth-stimulation get individual motor units to fire
department? There are a few ways: and how long each motor unit can
1) Forced reps. When you hit exhaustion, your training partner can sustain a contraction. Those chang­
apply just enough help to get you through a few more reps. Forced reps es lay the groundwork for mass-
could be called nervous system helpers, but there s also a lot of waste building, high-intensity workouts.
and unbalanced loading and unloading throughout each forced rep—
which can actually overstress the nervous and endocrine systems. Increased Muscle

2) Drop set. When you hit exhaustion, reduce the poundage and

continue with more reps immediately. That will engage a few more fibers
in the second phase, as the recruitment pattern changes. Most of the evidence for nervous
3) Rest/pause. At the end of a set, rest for 10 to 20 seconds, then system adaptations to exercise has
continue. The break will let energy substrates recharge to a degree and come from electromyographic stud­
regenerate nervous system activity. ies. EMGs measure the electrical
4) X Reps. At exhaustion move the resistance to a point on the stroke activity of a muscle. Because muscle
at which the target muscle is slightly elongated, such as near the bot­ contraction is an electrical process,
tom of an incline press or leg extension, and continue with eight-inch the stronger the signal from the
partial movements. That s the max-force point for the target muscle and brain to contract, the greater the
enables more fibers to fire. When no more partials are possible (you may electrical activity in muscle.
need help from a partner to get more than a couple), hold the resistance Though not all motor units are
in the semistretch position and force the muscle to continue to fire. That activated with every contraction,
improves neuromuscular efficiency and triggers more fiber activation training increases the maximum
and mass stimulation. X Reps are much more effective than full-range number of motor units that can be
forced reps because of the concentrated movement at the max-force activated during a contraction. So
point—there s no imprecise unloading over a long stroke, which has your strength increases.
been shown in research studies to cause cortisol, a muscle-eating stress How does training increase motor
hormone, to skyrocket. unit activation? Untrained people
—Steve Holman may have either some kind of motor unit inhibition or insufficient moti­
vation that prevents full activation
under normal circumstances.

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Motor Unit Inhibition

Contraction of the main muscle
motivating a movement is often
associated with simultaneous
contraction of its antagonists, the
muscles opposing that movement.
That may seem paradoxical—like
having your foot on the accelera­
tor and the brake at the same time.
Simultaneous contraction of a main
muscle and its antagonist, however,
does have a purpose: It increases
precision. Indeed, it occurs most
prominently in movements requir­
ing precision.
Contraction of the antagonist also
occurs when the action of the prime
mover is strong and rapid, especially
in untrained subjects. Here, the
“braking” action of the antagonist
may have a protective function. It
may limit full activation of the main
muscle, preventing the beginner
from lifting much more than he or
she is accustomed to—thus decreas­
ing risk of injury. With training and
experience you reduce antagonist
braking, and your apparent strength

Increased Motor Unit

Firing Rate
The second nervous system adap­
tation to strength training changes
how frequently individual motor
units fire. Motor units don’t just fire
once per contraction but repeatedly.
The more frequently they fire, the
greater the strength, with maximum
strength occurring at a firing rate
of about 50 times a second. Trained
Model: Tommi Thorvildsen

bodybuilders are able to come

closer to the 50-times-per-second
maximum than untrained ones.
In some small muscles, such as
those of the hand, most, perhaps all,
motor units are called upon when
you contract with half of your maxi­
mum strength. To increase force to
greater than half of maximum, you
must increase the firing rate of the
motor units already recruited.
In the big “power” muscles, such
as the biceps and delts, motor units
are recruited throughout the range
Contraction of the main muscle motivating
of force—and force is increased by a movement is often associated with
raising both the motor unit firing
rate and the number of motor units
simultaneous contraction of its antagonists.
activated. Training probably im­
proves strength in the biceps, delts \ JUNE 2007 163

Free download from
Model: Sagi Kalev

and other large muscle groups by

Intense training increases how much muscle facilitating both changes.

mass you can activate for a contraction, how Prolonged Motor Unit
frequently you can get individual motor units Contraction
to fire and how long each motor unit can The third neurological adapta­
tion to exercise is an increase in how
sustain a contraction. long each motor unit can sustain a
contraction. While a motor unit may

164 JUNE 2007 \

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Other Neurological

start out contracting 50 or even 100 Adaptations

times per second, it can’t sustain

those rates for long. Within a few There are other neurological ad­
seconds some motor units drop aptations to training that are not as
to a rate of 30 to 40 cycles per sec­ well understood. These are changes
ond. Along with the drop in firing in strength that seem to be adapta­
rate comes a loss in overall muscle tions of the central nervous system.
strength. Learning. The best-known of
Training, however, appears to these adaptations is learning. Ev­
delay the drop in firing rates for at eryone knows that practice makes
least some individual muscle fibers. perfect, but how that happens is
In one experiment untrained sub­ not well understood at all. Feed­
jects could keep certain motor units back from repeated performance of
active for only about three seconds. specified movements somehow gets
After training, the same subjects incorporated into the nervous sys­
could keep those motor units active tem so that the movements come a
for about 20 seconds. In addition, little closer to ideal every time. That
they were able to fire the motor involves carefully balancing speed
units more rapidly. That kind of ad­ and strength of contraction in both
aptation probably prolongs time to main muscles and antagonists.
overall muscle contraction failure. Motivation. Trained bodybuild-

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In the big “power”

muscles motor
units are recruited
throughout the
range of force.

ers seem to be better at focusing

their attention and energies on
lifting than nonweightlifers. The
increased mental focus results in ac­
tivating a greater number of motor
units. Motivation can also be in­
creased with hypnosis or with feed­
back during an event—for example,
when the audience shouts encour­
agement at a physique contest.
Cross training. Another such
adaptation is cross training. Cross
training is an odd phenomenon:
Believe it or not, training one limb
increases strength in the other. If,
for example, you do biceps curls
with just your right arm, strength
will increase in both your right and
left arms. The left arm shows in­
creases in strength, even though it
was never trained.
In one study eight weeks of train­
ing one biceps resulted in a 36.4
percent increase in strength in that
arm and a 24.7 percent increase in
the other, untrained arm.
You can’t attribute the cross-
training effect to local changes
within the muscle or to changes
in the peripheral nervous system.
It’s probably due to changes in the
central nervous system, in the cross-
communication networks between
Bilateral deficit. Another cen­
tral nervous system adaptation is
the bilateral deficit, in which exert­
ing one limb decreases strength in
the other.
Let’s say you squeeze a hand grip
strength-testing device with one
hand. If you retest that same hand
Model: Allen Sarkiszadeh

while testing the other hand simul­

taneously, strength in the first hand
will drop. The drop is usually about
5 percent to 25 percent of maximum
strength and (continued on page 170)

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Feedback from repeated

performance of specified

movements somehow

gets incorporated into the

nervous system so that the

movements come a little

closer to ideal every time.

(continued from page 166) is not at-

tributable to changes in posture or
Bilateral deficit seems to come
from the way we use our limbs. We
generally use our limbs separately,
instead of together. For example,
we use both legs separately, as with
walking, more often than we use
them together, as with the leg press
or vertical jump.
With training, however, you can
turn a bilateral deficit into an in­
crease. For example, the deficit in
the legs is usually fairly large, ex­
cept in athletes such as bodybuild­
ers who train both legs together
with leg presses, squats and other
two-legged exercises.
Those athletes can experience
bilateral facilitation rather than
bilateral deficit. That suggests that
the bilateral deficit is a central ner­
vous system phenomenon that will
adapt with training.
Bilateral deficit is the argument
behind recommendations to do
dumbbell movements one arm
at a time or alternating arms (for
example, to do supinated dumb­
bell curls first with one arm, then
with the other). Since training can
turn bilateral deficit into bilateral
facilitation, however, the argument
doesn’t hold water. So if you feel
like doing a dumbbell movement
with both hands at the same time,
go right ahead—you won’t be com­
promising your gains.
Note: To learn how to apply the
above information in the gym, see
“Past Nervous System Failure for
Bigger Muscle Gains” on page 162.
Editor’s note: Jerry Robinson
Model: Dave Goodin

is the co-author of The 7-Minute

Rotator Cuff Solution, available for
$29.95 from,
or you can call (800) 447-0008. IM

170 JUNE 2007 \

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How Boxer Michael Lockett Lifted Weights for a Little
More Than a Year to Win the NPC Team Universe
by David Young • Photography by Bill Comstock

Maybe one person in a million is born with the

genetics to become an outstanding bodybuilder.
Of those few, not many have the drive or work
ethic to realize their potential. So it’s rare to
encounter a guy like Michael Lockett, who has
the predisposition for building muscle and is also
hungry—and I do mean hungry!—to achieve his
After only 15 months of serious (gut-wrench­
ingly serious) hardcore training, Michael gained
27 pounds of muscle, completely clocked his
competition, won the overall at the Team Uni­
verse and became an IFBB pro. Sit down, tune
in, and listen up. Here’s how he did it.

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“I’m ver
Once I
decide I want
I don’
anything stop
me. If I have to
train harder
train harder \ JUNE 2007 181

Free download from

DY: How did you get started in

bodybuilding and fitness?
“If I hadn’t taken ML: I was a boxer. But after sev­
up bodybuilding, eral years it was time to leave it. My
it would be like brother Reggie and my sister Donna
influenced me to start bodybuilding.
I was wasting They told me that I was born with a
my God-given natural bodybuilding physique, so
genetics.” why not take up bodybuilding and
realize my full potential?
I took what they said to heart
and joined a gym called Fitworks.
It’s sort of an old-school hardcore
gym: real weights that clang, people
working out with fire in their eyes,
grunting, sweating—you know, a
real gym. When I was working out at
Fitworks, I met the general manager,
Mark Sustin, who could write sev­
eral textbooks on bodybuilding. He
was a bodybuilder, and he encour­
aged me. He also taught me what
I needed to know about training,
nutrition and motivation. I already
had the work ethic and conditioning
from boxing.

DY: I love those types of gyms.

It sounds like your brother, sis­
ter and Mark were all good in­
fluences on you. It also sounds
like you did do your homework.
Give us your stats.
ML: I’m 23, 5’10” and 220 pounds.

DY: And how long have you

been training?
ML: 15 months.

DY: No, I don’t mean how long

you trained for the Team Uni­
verse. I mean how long have you
been bodybuilding?
ML: That’s it, just 15 months.
In that time I gained 27 pounds of
muscle, won the Team Universe and
got my IFBB pro card.

DY: Oh, but you used to lift

weights for boxing, right?
ML: No, never. I didn’t lift weights
until 15 months before the Team
Universe. When I was boxing, it
was just boxing training along with
pushups and situps.

DY: I’m shaking my head. That

just doesn’t happen.
ML: I know, I get that all the time.
That’s why my brother and sister
told me to start bodybuilding. They
saw the determination and condi­
tioning I had from boxing and they

182 JUNE 2007 \

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boxing again.

DY: The passion is still there

for boxing?
ML: Yes. There’s a certain confi­
dence that comes from being able
to handle yourself in the ring.

DY: Does that confidence

carry over into other worth­
while endeavors?
“If I’m in the ML: Yes, it does. It carries over
into my business, it carries over
gym and into bodybuilding, and it even
carries over into my personal
I need to relationships. I’m not referring
to the violent part; I’m referring
get 12 reps to the fact that boxing is a series
of strategies and overcoming
with a new obstacles and setbacks. It’s also
very motivating to know that I can
weight, I’m overcome those obstacles and
going to get setbacks.

those reps DY: Bodybuilding training

and dieting require a lot of
no matter motivation. What keeps you
motivated for that?
what.” ML: I’m very competitive. Once
I decide I want something, I don’t
let anything stop me. If I have to

also saw the predisposition I have for

building muscle. In fact, if I hadn’t
taken up bodybuilding, it would be
like I was wasting my God-given ge­
netics. The way I look at it, I was given
my genetics for a reason, and it would
be almost a discredit to my Maker.

DY: Let’s go back. When did you

start boxing?
ML: When I was about 15.

DY: I understand that now

you’re a personal trainer at Fit-
works. What do you like about
ML: I like taking people who
aren’t getting results and completely
turning them around. When people
start getting the kind of results they
should, they get motivated. I love
motivating and influencing others in
a positive way. I loved learning about
bodybuilding, nutrition and motiva­
tion. That’s why I became a personal

DY: Do you play any other

sports or have any other hob­
ML: No. But I’m thinking about

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“I don’t diet.
train harder, I train harder. I set my I always stay
goals. If I’m in the gym and I need ripped. It comes
to get 12 reps with a new weight, I’m
going to get those reps no matter
naturally to me.”
what. I fire up my willpower, I roll
up my sleeves—metaphorically—
and I dig in.

DY: Tell us your diet strategy

on-season and off.
ML: It’s the same on- and off­
season. I don’t diet. I always stay
ripped. It comes naturally to me.
I even cheat three days a week by
having an entire bag of red licorice.
I love it.

DY: I really hate you now.

[Both laugh] Maybe we could
sell this as the new diet fad:
“The licorice way to fab abs.”
Okay, Mr. Licorice, can you give
me a sample of your eating for
a day?
ML: Oatmeal, egg whites, chicken
breast, protein shakes and brown

DY: So you eat clean except

for the licorice—you just don’t
think of it as a diet.
MY: Correct. That would be the
wrong mind-set. I love what I eat. I people what’s really possible with­ ML: I’m ready all the time, so I
just don’t have a huge appetite. out drugs—no steroids, no growth make only a few alterations one or
hormone, no insulin or whatever two weeks out.
DY: Do you have a favorite else they’re using. You have to have
supplement? faith in your own abilities. DY: Do you use supersets or
ML: Met-Rx RTD protein shakes. forced reps?
DY: So you want to take it to ML: Yes, on occasion, just to mix
DY: How do you overcome another level without drugs it up. Never as a regular training
training plateaus? Although you and influence people that way. principle, though.
probably haven’t had too many Is that your life philosophy?
in only 15 months. ML: Yes, that’s it. Without a clear DY: What kind of sets-and­
ML: I really feel as though it’s all vision, I will perish. reps patterns do you use?
about concentration. You have to be ML: On every exercise, I do ei­
totally focused in your workouts and DY: Are there any secrets to ther four sets of 12 or four sets of
let nothing stand in your way. You’ve your training success? You eight. Let’s say it’s four sets of 12.
got to stand toe to toe with the know, secrets to muscle growth. That first set or two may be rela­
weights. They’re either going to beat ML: Without pain we can’t grow. tively easy to get my 12 reps, but
you, or you’re going to beat them. You’ve got to push through the pain the last two or three sets, it’s a fight.
It’s up to to you to decide which. barrier. That’s what makes the dif­ It’s me against the iron. It’s cold,
ference. The pain is going to come. hard and nasty, and I’m getting my
DY: Toe to toe—just like a box­ The question is, Can you keep going reps no matter what.
ing match. Ah, now I’m starting beyond the pain, or will it stop you?
to understand your mind-set. If it stops you, you’re done. If you DY: How many exercises do
ML: I’m a naturally self-motivated can go through it, that’s the secret to you do for each bodypart?
person. No one has to force me into success. ML: Almost every bodypart gets
the gym. No one has to push me. It’s I train that way all year-round. four exercises and four sets per
all on me—and God. And I look the same all year-round. I exercise. Back gets slightly more
God is responsible for my suc­ just keep trying to improve. That’s it. because I’m trying to bring it up
cess. It’s not me; it’s God. My goal is into balance with the rest of my
to be the best bodybuilder I can be. DY: How many weeks out do physique, and calves and abs get
But more important, I want to show you start your preparation? less because they are naturally my

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Michael Lockett’s Team

Universe Training

He does four sets of eight

to 12 reps on each exercise,
except where indicated. He
uses a two-seconds-up/two­
seconds-down cadence and
rests about 90 seconds after
each set—slightly longer on
bench presses and squats.

“It’s about Incline dumbbell presses
concentration. Flat-bench dumbbell
You have to Incline flyes
be totally Flat-bench flyes
focused in your
workouts and Biceps
let nothing Barbell curls
Preacher curls
stand in your One-arm dumbbell curls
Pullups (5 sets)
Seated cable rows
Bent-over rows
Dumbbell rows

best-developed bodyparts. To do to twice in eight days, and it’s Seated dumbbell presses
more for them would be wasted ef­ worked well. Front raises
fort and simply cut into my recovery ML: I think you need to train Lateral raises
ability. slightly more frequently than once Rear-delt-machine laterals
a week, especially if you’re drug- Shrugs
DY: How do you organize your free. [Note: Michael’s complete
training week? routine is at right.] Triceps
ML: Like this: Pushdowns
DY: What about cardio? Reverse pushdowns
Monday: Back, Triceps ML: None. Dips
Tuesday: Chest, Biceps DY: Are there any other Quads
Wednesday: Legs training, nutrition, supple­ Squats
Thursday: Shoulders mentation or cardio strat­ Legs presses
Friday: Back, Triceps egies that you think are Leg extensions
important to building a great Lunges
The following week continues the ML: Consistency. One day of Hamstrings
sequence, beginning with chest and training, eating right or what­ Leg curls
biceps. It works out to each body- have-you does not build a great Stiff-legged deadlifts
part getting trained two times every body. It’s all the days, weeks and
eight days rather than one time a months put together over time. Calves
week. Standing calf raises
Editor’s note: To contact Mi­
DY: Yes, I follow a similar phi­ chael Lockett for appearances, Abs
losophy. I found that training training or sponsorship, send e- Roman-chair situps
a bodypart only once a week mail to thebutcher_1982@yahoo
wasn’t enough for me. So I went .com. IM

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Q & A: Muscle-Building Solutions
From the IM E-zine
by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson • Photography by Michael Neveux

Q : I’ve been getting excellent results with X-Rep

partials, using them at the end of a set in the
semistretch position [near the bottom of bench
presses for instance]. I’m in college, and my physiol­
ogy professor agrees with the X-Rep concepts, but he
says the X spot should be at the fully stretched posi­
tion because you get more fiber action there. Why do
you think it’s higher on the stroke than at the very
bottom [full-stretch point]? (continued on page 202)

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Free download from

are too crowded to fire optimally,

and the result is less force. So that
discounts the so-called flexed posi­
tion for maximum fiber recruit­
ment. What about the semistretch
and stretch positions? Back to the
At lengths greater than optimal
[more stretch] there is less and less
overlap of the actin and myosin
filaments. This results in less po­
tential for crossbridge contact with
the active sites on the actin.... Some
prestretch of the muscle prior to
initiation of an action will increase
the amount of force generated. Too
much prestretch will, however, actu­
ally decrease the total amount of
force developed.
So at the full-stretch point the
fiber alignment is not optimal, and
you get less force. That means the
full-stretch position is not the best
X spot and neither is the fully con­
tracted position; it s the semistretch
point, in a range from just above
full stretch to the midpoint of the
Models: Markus Reinhardt and Hubert Morandell

stroke, which is where the actin

and myosin filaments are perfectly
aligned for max-force production.
That eight-to-10-inch range is
where you should do the X Reps.
That goes for all exercises.
Moving from near the bottom of the stroke to Nevertheless, we suggest using a
near the halfway mark covers the X Range, where static X in the full-stretch position
optimal force and fiber activation occur. on stretch-position exercises. As we
and others have found, that can re
sult in big strides in muscle size. To
A: It may depend on the exercise and works well. Then we came get through the pain, just remem­
and individual leverage points, across findings from William J. ber the 300 percent size gains one
but let s generalize. We originally Kraemer, Ph.D., and Steven J. Fleck, animal study achieved in only one
developed the X-Rep concept to Ph.D., two of the most respected month of static-stretch overload.
interact with 3D Positions of Flexion researchers in strength training:
training. So in the beginning the X The total amount of force devel­ Q: You guys suggest a rep
spot corresponded with a particular oped depends on the total number speed of 1.5 seconds up and
exercise s position. For example, of myosin crossbridges interacting 1.5 down. Wouldn’t a slower
quads: with active sites on the actin. At the negative be more beneficial?
optimal length there is potential for It would mean lower training
Midrange: squats—X Reps near maximal crossbridge interaction poundage, but since the nega­
the middle of the stroke. and thus maximal force. Below this tive is so important, emphasiz­
optimal length, less tension is devel­ ing it seems like a no-brainer.
Contracted: leg extensions—X oped because with excessive short­ A: Because the muscles are so
Reps at the top, contracted posi­ ening [closer to peak contraction] much stronger on the negative,
tion. there is an overlap of actin filaments or lowering, part of the rep, many
Stretch: sissy squats—a squat so that the actin filaments interfere fibers disengage. In other words, a
up on your toes with the legs with each other s ability to contact lot of fibers rest during the negative.
and torso on the same plane—X with the myosin crossbridges. Less So if you perform it too slowly, you
Reps and/or a static X at the full- crossbridge contact with the active lose tension on groups, or bundles,
stretch point. sites on the actin results in a smaller of fibers for too long—but you still
potential to develop tension. build up fatigue products quickly,
That is described in our first e- In other words, as you get close to leading to premature exhaustion,
book, The Ultimate Mass Workout, the contracted position, the fibers a.k.a. failure.

202 JUNE 2007 \

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That s why we use the same speed the muscle engaged and more fast- (force) activation on your first set
on both the positive and negative— twitch fibers firing. and the best hypertrophic (growth)
fast, but not too fast. One and a half stimulation on your second.
seconds up and 1 1/2 seconds down Q: I’m pressed for time, so When you reduce your weight for
is about as fast as you can go with­ I like the idea of using the ul­ your second set, you ll feel much
out using momentum; however, you timate exercise for each body more powerful because of that
should move a bit slower on both part [as listed and explained in heightened innervation. That means
phases of the stroke on the first few the e-book The Ultimate Mass you ll glide through the size princi­
reps because that s when the muscle Workout]. I’m using one of the ple of fiber recruitment much more
is strongest and can produce more split routines you outline, but readily and activate more growth
force—which could trigger injury. I want to vary the rep range on fibers toward the end of that second,
As the set progresses, your rep my two work sets. My question lighter growth set—especially if you
speed should increase so by the end is, Should I do my higher-rep add X-Rep partials at exhaustion.
of the set you re trying to explode at work set (10 to 12 reps) or my The other reason you should do
the turnaround—without jerking or lower rep set (four to six reps) your heavy set first is that you deal
bouncing. Keep in mind that even first? I know pyramiding is with less fatigue-product accumu­
though you re thinking explosive, popular, so I would guess the lation. You want to be as fresh as
the reps will be even slower than higher-rep set. possible so the muscles don t crap
normal due to fatigue. But attempt­ A: If you do a quick, comprehen­ out early. Remember, low-rep sets to
ing to move as fast as possible as the sive warmup, you ll be primed for exhaustion cause your central ner
set progresses recruits more high- your heavy set first, which is what vous system to balk very early—an
threshold motor units toward the we recommend. Why the power set emergency shutdown. If you reverse
end of a set. first? The reason is twofold. the order and do your higher-rep
What about X-Rep partials? You First, heavy weights heighten ner set first, residual fatigue products
should still be thinking explosive, vous system response, so you ll be make hitting that CNS wall on your
but with control. Luckily, on most able to activate more fibers on your heavier set happen even sooner.
exercises you won t be able to heave second higher-rep growth-range set, Do your lower rep set first most
or jerk at the X spot, but even if you which should have about 30 sec­ of the time. You may be asking, But
can, don t do it! Move as fast as pos­ onds of tension time. That s exactly won t fatigue products accumulate
sible, but stay in control. That keeps what you want—the best strength with that (continued on page 208)

Forced reps
can extend
time on the
much of
the range
is wasted
due to
loading and
Models: Andre and Rune Nielsen

from your
partner. \ JUNE 2007 203

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are a few people who have very

low neuromuscular efficiency, or
nerve-to-muscle connections, and/
or fewer-than-average fast-twitch
fibers. But those anomalies aside,
let s outline a few things you must
do to get the most out of every set of
your quick-hit workouts:
1) Nonlock sets. You must keep
tension on the target muscle, even
on the big, multijoint exercises like
bench presses and squats. That
means you shouldn t lock out and
rest between reps. If you re after
maximum size stimulation, do
enough reps to give you at least 25
seconds of tension time—usually
about nine.
2) Continu­
ous-tension sets. Jay Cutler
That means no uses a lot
heaving or jerking,
as momentum can
of partial
reduce stress on pulses
the target muscle between
along the stroke.
For example,
full reps,
bouncing the bar such as
off your rib cage near the
on the bench press
takes tension off
bottom on
your pecs through dumbbell
part of the bot­ presses, a
tom range—not
good, as that s
the most impor we call
tant area for fiber Double-X
activation. Keep
your reps under
control—about His delts
1 1/2 seconds up appear
and 1 1/2 seconds
down. Move like a
to have
(continued from page 203) as well?” most trainees. piston in an en­ responded
No—at least not enough to nega­ gine, but don t use nicely to
tively affect your higher-rep set. Q: I’ve tried a lot of quick momentum. Feel
There isn t much fatigue-product workouts similar to [the three- the muscle work­
that tactic.
pooling on a six-rep set, and the days-per-week] Phase 1 of your ing. Notice that
Inset photo from Mitsuru Okabe’s “Jay Cutler Ripped to Shreds” DVD

low-rep power set will supercharge 20-Pounds-of-Muscle-in-10­ nine reps times

your second set due to heightened Weeks program [in 3D MB]. I three seconds
nervous system response. haven’t found one that’s done per rep equals 27
Pyramiding, as in doing four sets much for my muscle size. Am seconds—putting
and adding weight on each, is okay, I just one of those people who you smack in the
but keep in mind that the first few need more sets? Maybe I’m ge­ muscle-building
sets are like heavier and heavier netically not cut out to be any target zone.
warmups. The last, heaviest set in bigger. What do you think? 3) Efficient
the pyramid is usually the only one A: Almost everyone should be warmup sets.
taken to exhaustion, which means able to get considerably bigger in We usually recom­
there s a lot of fatigue-product pool­ the muscle-size department—even mend two pro­
ing by then and you don t get that with workouts that last about an gressively heavier
CNS-turbocharging effect. That hour three days a week. We say al­ warmup sets that
makes pyramiding inefficient for most” everyone because, yes, there mix full-range and

208 JUNE 2007 \

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partial reps to get blood into the down through that eight-inch range your quick-hit workouts with all of
muscle quickly without creating too to exhaustion. Then hold the bar the above. You should see a mind-
much fatigue-product pooling (see right above your pecs for a static blowing, muscle-growing difference
Chapter 12 of 3D MB). hold. immediately.
4) Beyond-exhaustion sets. Keep in mind that when Jonathan
Go past failure on at least one set gained 20 pounds of muscle in 10 Q: You mention the myotatic
per bodypart. A forced rep or two weeks, he was on a two-phase ab­ reflex in 3D Muscle Building.
can work, but in our opinion, X-Rep breviated program that included I’ve seen it mentioned other
partials that encompass the semi- most of the above—except for X places as a way to get more
stretch, or max-force, point on the Reps, which we hadn t discovered muscle fibers to fire on stretch
stroke are best, followed by a static X yet. He did use a few forced reps, exercises. [Editor s note: To
right at that X spot for more stretch however. We think if hed had X activate the myotatic reflex,
overload. For example, once you Reps, he could ve gained even more use a quick twitch—but not
reach exhaustion on incline presses, muscle. a bounce—to change direc­
move the bar to just off your chest Before you consider yourself tions. There s no pause in the
and do partial reps up to just below genetically challenged in the stretch position.] But I’ve also
the halfway point—fire up and muscle-building department, try read about fascial stretching, \ JUNE 2007 209

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which can loosen up

the fiber encasements
to make more growth
happen. That requires a
long hold in the stretch
position. Which is bet­
ter—a long pause in the
stretch position or no
A: The simple answer is,
don t pause during sets of
stretch-position exercises,
like dumbbell flyes, so you
take advantage of the myo­
tatic reflex for enhanced
fiber recruitment; then,
when you reach full-range
exhaustion—you can t do
another full-range rep—
hold the weight at or near
the full-stretch position for
as long as possible. (Yes, it
hurts, but remember those
animal-study results men­
tioned above.)
In most Positions-of-
Flexion programs we usu­
ally recommend two sets
of stretch-position exer
cises—like flyes for pecs
and pullovers for lats—so
you may want to do your
second set with a reduced
poundage and use Double-
X Overload, which is per
forming an X Rep between
full reps throughout the
set. Then at exhaustion do
a static hold in the stretch
position. DXO gives you
more stretch-point stimu­
lation throughout the set,
which can heighten fiber
We noticed that Jay Cut­
ler, the current Mr. Olym­
pia, uses a version of that
technique on many of his
exercises, even big moves
like dumbbell presses.
While that seems to have
worked for him in the delt­
development department,
we think DXO works best
on stretch-position exer
cises. But we re not going to
argue with Mr. O.
One of Arnold’s favorite biceps programs contained a Q: You talk about the
3D attack—dumbbell curls (midrange), incline curls force/extended-tension
(stretch) and concentration curls (contracted). concept in 3D Muscle

Building, and you say

210 JUNE 2007 \
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that it’s similar to the heavy/

light system bodybuilders in
the ’50s and ’60s used to get big.
Why don’t pro bodybuilders
today use heavy/light or F/X­
style training?
A: Anabolic steroids. They have
all but destroyed the science of
bodybuilding because they distort
recovery. When you re on drugs, just
about any type of training works
and no stress-and-recovery balanc­
ing act is necessary. You can train
heavy and with loads of sets at al­
most every workout and do just fine.
If you re drug-free, you can still
train hard at every workout, but
we ve found that if you do, you have
to incorporate a back-off week,
which entails subfailure training Jonathan packed on 20 pounds of muscle in 10 weeks using a basic
and/or less volume, every so often. three-days-per-week routine followed by a Positions-of-Flexion
Depending on individual recovery, phase. (The program he used appears in 3D Muscle Building.)
you should do it about every five
weeks—sooner in many cases. and recovery ability are different, train the biceps in a range where
Keep in mind that when Jona­ keep in mind that a recent study they’re back behind your torso
than gained 20 pounds of muscle showed that doing only three sets (stretch; incline curls), in a range
in 10 weeks, he was training heavy of barbell curls depletes more than where your arms are slightly in
three times a week; however, he 70 percent of the glycogen stores in front of your torso (midrange; bar
downshifted for supercompensation the biceps. And that exercise has no bell curls) and a range where your
every fifth week for at least three continuous tension! arms are out and up close to your
workouts. If you re familiar with our Posi­ head (contracted; concentration
If you train with a heavy/light tions-of-Flexion mass-building curls). They cover the biceps’ full
system, which is a heavy, lower rep approach, you know that we follow arc of flexion—and it takes only one
workout followed later in the week two sets of the midrange exercise or two sets in each position to get
by a lighter, higher-rep session, you (barbell curls) with a stretch-posi­ full, dense development.
can push that back-off supercom­ tion movement and then a continu­ That approach gives you max-
pensation week further out—say, ous-tension contracted-position force production, occlusion (blood­
seven to eight weeks. exercise, with some X Reps or flow blockage, which has been
Once again, those time frames X-hybrid techniques thrown in for shown to significantly increase size
depend on individual recovery good measure (and bigger mea­ and strength) and stretch overload
ability, which is radically distorted surements). Once you try it, you ll (which has been linked to hyper
by anabolic steroids. If you re using, see that with an efficient, precise, plasia, or fiber splitting—the bird-
you can train intensely for months intense program like that, it doesn t wing study that increased muscle
on end and not have to worry about take a lot of volume to completely mass by 300 percent in one month).
overtraining and muscle catabo­ annihilate the target muscle. By the way, one of Arnold s fa­
lism. When you go off, however, And speaking of measures and vorite biceps programs was barbell
you ll have no idea of how to train to measurements, remember that Jon­ or dumbbell curls, incline dumb-
build muscle. athans arms measure more than 19 ell curls and concentration curls.
We think it s best to not use inches, and that s without steroids Sound familiar? Yes, he had good
drugs, and that means training with and after using brief 3D workouts. genetics, but he also knew instinc­
heavy/light, or F/X, or working in a If you re new to 3D POF, it s basi­ tively that those three exercises in
downshift week after every month cally training a muscle through its one workout were very powerful.
of all-out training. three specific arcs of flexion so you
accomplish full-range, max-fiber Editor s note: For more
Q: I notice that your arm recruitment with minimal sets. For on X Reps and other con­
workouts are very short. I’m example, for biceps you d do barbell cepts mentioned in this fea­
interested in building big arms, curls for midrange work, incline ture, visit and
but I’m worried that four or five curls (reclining on an incline bench) To
sets won’t be enough. If I want for stretch and concentration curls subscribe to the weekly IM e-zine,
to specialize, should I add more for continuous-tension, contracted- go to
sets? position work. It s free. IM
A: While everyone s work capacity With those three exercises you \ JUNE 2007 211

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Jerry Brainum’s
Bodybuilding Pharmacology


the effects are mild at best, and some studies that have
compared a few of them with placebos have found no
In an effort to tap into the lucrative fat-loss market,
various companies have produced exotic-sounding com­
pounds that are claimed to promote relatively rapid fat

Faster Fat Blaster?

loss. The scientific evidence proving the effectiveness of
the products is either based on animal studies or simply
Despite inflated advertising claims, the truth is that One compound that looks good on paper and that is
most over-the-counter fat-loss supplements have limited an ingredient in many fat-loss supplements is yohimbe,
value. The combination of ephedrine and caffeine proved which is extracted from the bark of a West African tree
to be the most effective combination on the market, but called Pausinystalia yohimbe. A pharmaceutical form of
the Food and Drug Administration banned products con­ yohimbine called Yacon was formerly used to treat impo­
taining ephedra due to dubious safety concerns. Since tence, though it has since been supplanted by Viagra and
that happened, a number of books and articles have im­ other more effective drugs. Yacon worked for only about
plicated the pharmaceutical industry, in cahoots with the a third of users and, like Viagra, had no effect on libido.
FDA, in a plan to eliminate the competition that products Yacon worked as an alpha-2 adrenergic blocker, increas­
containing ephedrine plus caffeine were giving to various ing blood flow within the sex organs, thereby improving
weight-loss drugs. Most of those drugs are no more effec­ erections. Yohimbine is still a major ingredient in so-called
tive than OTC fat-loss supplements, and they have consid­ herbal Viagra formulas.
erably greater chance of side effects. From the standpoint of promoting fat loss, yohimbe
The current crop of fat-loss supplements provides is thought to act through its alpha-adrenergic block­
some mild thermogenic effects, which, in conjunction ing properties. Fat cells contain two types of adrenergic
with proper diet and exercise, can result in fat loss. But receptors, beta and alpha. Beta-receptors respond to
catecholamines, such as
norepinephrine, leading to
A recent study a cascade that culminates
concluded that in the release of fatty acids
yohimbe enhances from lipocytes, or fat cells.
fat burning when it s Lipocytes that contain a
used in conjunction preponderance of alpha-
with a weight adrenergic receptors, such
training program. as those found in the upper
thighs, buttocks and hips,
are more resistant to the
fat-releasing effects of
norepinephrine. By block­
ing the function of alpha-
adrenergic fat cell receptors,
yohimbe helps you lose
stubborn fat deposits.
Animal studies—on dog,
rat and mouse subjects—
show that yohimbe seems
to increase fat mobilization.
The rodent studies have
little relevance for humans
because most of the fat
mobilization occurred in
brown fat, or BAT, a highly
thermogenic fat tissue that
is scarce in adult humans.
The results in human
studies of yohimbe have
been equivocal. Exercise
also stimulates catechol­
Neveux \ Model: Joey Gloor

amine release, and an

additive effect has been
observed in human subjects
who take yohimbe. Other
studies show increased
fat loss when yohimbe is

Free download from

combined with a low-calorie diet. In one study a group of
overweight women who took yohimbe supplements while
following a 1,000-calorie-a-day eating plan lost more
weight than another group of women following the same
diet minus yohimbe.
In a Polish study published years ago, a group of women
who’d been previously unable to lose bodyfat in their
upper thighs, buttocks and hips did so successfully after
taking yohimbe supplements. Despite continual dieting,
the women had never been able to lose their recalcitrant
fat stores. Those areas are hard to reduce because the
fat cells contain a preponderance of alpha-2 adrenergic
fat cell receptors. Scientists think that the female body
evolved in this way to ensure an adequate number of
calories for perpetuating the species (it takes an average of Some studies done
80,000 calories to produce a human baby). with humans show a
Other human-based studies, however, have come up heightened fat-burning
empty in terms of the fat-loss properties of yohimbe. One effect when yohimbe is
study examined the effects of various topical creams on fat taken before exercise
loss in the thighs of a group of women.1 Aminophylline, and/or combined with
a beta-adrenal agonist, proved most effective. Yohimbe
a low-calorie diet.
turned out to be the least effective. Even so, several skin-
cream products are currently on the market with yohimbe
as the primary ingredient. One reason the human studies produced such diver­
In a double-blind study 33 men, average age 42, were gent results may be quality control. Analysis of commer­
randomly assigned to a yohimbe or a placebo group, with cial yohimbe supplements indicates that many contain
neither group knowing who was taking which substance.2 either too little or no active ingredients. Yohimbine bark
The men in the yohimbe group took a peak dose of 43 mil­ contains 0.7 percent yohimbine, while most supplement
ligrams a day, considered an effective dose for fat-loss pur­ forms contain zero to 0.05 percent. One survey of prod­
poses. For six months researchers tested body mass, blood ucts sold over the Internet showed a variance in yohimbe
lipids, bodyfat and bodyfat distribution as measured by a content that ranged from zero to 9.5 milligrams per unit.
CAT scan and waist-to-hip ratio. There were no differences In the American products tested, two out of 18 contained
in fat loss between those getting the real yohimbe and clinically relevant amounts of yohimbe. Many dietary
those who got the placebo. supplement forms of yohimbe contain 3 percent yohimbe,
Yohimbe has also been touted as a testosterone booster. which means that a 100-milligram tablet will provide only
How that came about isn’t clear, but there’s no proof that three milligrams of actual yohimbe—if any at all. The
yohimbe has any effect on any anabolic hormones, in­ accepted dose for fat-loss purposes is 0.2 milligrams per
cluding testosterone and growth hormone. kilogram of bodyweight.
A recent study examined the effects of yohimbe on Yohimbe lasts for only about an hour before being
body composition and sports performance in 20 top- degraded in the body. Active metabolites, however, can
level soccer players.3 The athletes were assigned to two last up to six to eight hours. For best results you must take
groups, with one group taking yohimbe at a dose of 20 yohimbe on an empty stomach, since food totally negates
milligrams twice daily for 21 days. The other group got a its fat-mobilizing effects. That may explain the failure of
cellulose placebo. No significant differences in body mass some studies to show yohimbe’s role in fat loss.
and muscle mass were found between the groups. Those Since yohimbe works by triggering norepinephrine
in the yohimbe group, however, did have a significantly release, it would initially appear logical that combining
greater loss of bodyfat than those in the placebo group. No it with other supplements that promote catecholamine
performance changes occurred in either group, nor were release would increase the effectiveness of all. Taken
any side effects reported. Since both groups also trained alone, yohimbe isn’t considered stressful to cardiovascular
with weights, the authors concluded that yohimbe supple­ function, though it isn’t recommended for those with high
mentation boosts fat loss when used in conjunction with a blood pressure or kidney problems. Adding it to a stack of
weight-training program. ephedrine and caffeine, however, put more stress on the

Yohimbe has been touted as a testosterone

booster. How that came about isn’t clear, but
there’s no proof that yohimbe has any effect on
any anabolic hormones, including testosterone
and growth hormone. \ JUNE 2007 217
Free download from
Jerry Brainum’s

Bodybuilding Pharmacology

A recent study examined the effects

of caffeine and cortisol on exercise.4
Ninety-six men and women took 250
milligrams of caffeine three times a
day—the equivalent of about six cups
of coffee. Their cortisol levels were
measured eight times a day, and they
engaged in either mental stress or
moderate-intensity exercise, followed
by an afternoon meal.
At the start of the study, both men
and women had similar resting corti­
sol levels. The women had a smaller
cortisol response to mental stress
than the men, and caffeine increased
the cortisol response to stress in both
sexes. The exercise alone didn’t in­
crease cortisol, but when the subjects
took caffeine before exercising, the
same workout led to elevated cortisol
in the men.
Exercise alone didn’t activate a
cortisol response because the work­
out was of moderate intensity and not

Neveux \ Model: Moe El Moussawi

long. Cortisol helps regulate blood
glucose, among other functions, so
cortisol release during exercise is usu­
ally activated when the blood glucose
level begins to fall. In this study the
men who took caffeine prior to train­
ing experienced substantial cortisol
release that persisted into the evening
One way to contol cortisol release during exercise is to take branched hours.
chain amino acids before training at least five grams. One way to control cortisol release
during exercise is with carbohydrates,
heart. that promotes the breakdown of as lower blood glucose signals cortisol
As with ephedrine, too much yo­ protein in the body. It is the yang to release. Another way to block corti­
himbe can bring on side effects. They the yin of anabolic hormones, such sol’s catabolic effect on muscle is to
include high blood pressure, since as testosterone, growth hormone and take at least five grams of branched-
norepinephrine constricts blood insulin. In fact, they vary inversely— chain amino acids—leucine, isoleu­
vessels, rapid heart rate and severe when cortisol levels are high, anabolic cine and valine—before training. Be
anxiety. Blood pressure is height­ hormone levels are usually low and aware, however, that if you take in
ened if you eat foods containing an vice versa. One key to gaining muscle carbs during training, you’ll blunt any
amino acid by-product called tyra­ size and strength is controlling excess fat-releasing effect induced by caf­
mine—aged cheeses, red wine and cortisol release. You wouldn’t want to feine.
chocolate. Years ago I spoke with a completely curtail all cortisol release,
martial artist who said that his use of since it helps your body manage
an OTC yohimbe supplement resulted
in a panic attack so severe that he had
stress; without it shock could prove
deadly under some conditions. You
to be hospitalized. His experience was also need it to control inflammation 1 Greenway, F.L., et al. (1995).

idiosyncratic and uncommon. Still, in the body, and curtailing all cortisol Topical fat reduction. Obes Res.
it’s best not to take more than 40 mil­ synthesis would likely lead to severe Supp4:561S-568S.
ligrams a day. joint pain in most hard-training 2 Sax, L. (1991). Yohimbine does not

Perhaps the best way to use yo­ bodybuilders. affect fat distribution in men. Int J
himbe for fat loss would be to take it Caffeine is a popular ergogenic aid Obesity. 15:561-565.
in the morning before doing aerobic for athletes and bodybuilders because 3 Ostojic, S. (2006). Yohimbine: the

exercise. Early morning aerobics it promotes alertness and may help effects on body composition and ex­
minus food increases fat oxidation increase fat oxidation during exercise. ercise performance in soccer players.
more than usual, and adding yo­ Other studies show that caffeine may Res Sports Med. 14:289-299.
himbe may increase the effect. increase the potency of muscle con­ 4 Lovallo, W., et al. (2006). Cortisol

tractions during training through an responses to mental stress, exercise,

Caffeine and Cortisol interaction with calcium ions. What’s
less well known about caffeine is that
and meals following caffeine intake
in men and women. Pharm Biochem
Cortisol is a catabolic hormone it also increases the cortisol count. Behavior. 83:441-47. IM

218 JUNE 2007 \

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222 JUNE 2007 \

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Heavy Duty

All-out physical
effort requires
not only ample
motivation but
physical and
mental courage
as well.

A: Mike viewed the mind and massive and very strong, I can assure “I assess the power of a will by
body as interrelated. Because high- you that the principle of intensity re­ how much resistance, pain, torture
intensity muscular contraction fers almost exclusively to the human it endures and knows how to turn
places a large demand on the body’s will and the ability to command your to its advantage.”
limited supply of adaptive energy muscles to contract against the only —Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will
and because the body has been real resistance—your own mind.” to Power
conditioned over time to use such That of course has been a malefac­
energy only sparingly as a response tor of human performance for eons Mike’s point is well taken, as
to conditions that are potentially and has been written about and all-out physical effort requires not
life threatening, one’s mind and commented on by everyone from only ample psychological moti­
body do everything possible to psychologists and philosophers to vation but physical and mental
prevent conditions from occurring poets and playwrights: courage as well. The mind is im­
that would warrant tapping into the mensely capable of aiding muscu­
extremely potent but rare supply of “Thus conscience doth make cow­ lar contractions. The strength of a
energy. As Mike once pointed out: ards of us all.” muscle is directly proportional to
“Lassitude, anxiety and even a —Shakespeare, Hamlet (III.i) its physiological or effective cross
preference for low-intensity work­ section, which is approximately
outs are manifestations of the “Compared with what we ought to 140 pounds per square inch in the
mind’s disinclination to engage be, we are only half awake. Our fires average male and 105 in the aver­
the body in such maximal efforts. are damped, our drafts are checked. age female.1 It’s the pull exerted
Therefore, as your muscles get We are making use of only a small at the point of attachment to the
stronger and stronger, you must part of our possible mental and skeleton. Under normal condi­
exercise your will to get stronger physical resources.” tions, however, we can’t produce
apace. Having been successful in my —William James, “The Energies of the physiological maximum. The
efforts to become both muscularly Men” reason, according to physiologist

224 JUNE 2007 \

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Arthur Steinhaus, is that we typical­ vived by being efficient at conserv­ Mike went on to cite psycholo­
ly operate only to our psychological ing energy—rather than dispelling gist and philosopher William James
limit, although it may be extended it. Again, to quote Mike: to the effect that only the “unusual
via excitement, desperation, hyp­ “Other than in athletic train­ stimulus” can fill you with the
nosis, insanity or shock therapy. ing and competition, such effort emotional excitement to make the
No doubt most of us have noted a is required only in emergency “‘extra effort’ that will carry you
degree of reluctance to engage in an situations. Only a person fired by a over the dam to optimal training
all-out physical effort; it’s something strong, almost overwhelming sense progress.”3
that we ordinarily avoid. Over the of purpose and meaning will be able That point was verified scientifi­
millennia human beings have sur­ to train with maximum intensity.”2 cally by Dr. Steinhaus more than
50 years ago during experiments
he conducted in order to deter­
mine the factors that affected the
The body maximum expression of human
strength. As Steinhaus recalled:
requires a “I came to try a very simple
fairly severe experiment in this area. We pulled
against a scale to measure strength
stimulus to of forearm flexors. Whenever the
bring about second sweep hand came to the
one o’clock position, the individual
physiological was to pull as hard as he could. So
change. we registered a maximal contrac­
tion every minute. Then without
warning to the individual we shot
a gun at various times before the
clock came to the pulling position.
Invariably, we found the individual
had more strength after the shot.
We found that the shot about four
seconds before the pull got the
greatest increase. We found the in­
crease was sometimes as much as
30 percent. Then we tried yelling.
When they yelled, their strength
was also more than usual. Then we
tried hypnosis. Under hypnosis it
is possible to do away with inhibi­
tions. We found up to 50 percent
improvement in strength.... We had
found three ways of crashing the
psychologic [sic] barrier that stops
us in the execution of strength. The
psychologic limit is always short
of the physiologic one. Professor
Hill of England once said that one
of the big differences between the
athlete and the nonathlete is that
the athlete has learned to close
the gap between the psychologic
and physiologic limits. He drives
himself closer to the physiologic
Most trainees, except perhaps
the greatest champions, rarely
Neveux \ Model: Chris Cook

summon the mental drive nec­

essary to wring maximum con­
traction from their muscles. The
majority of bodybuilders who seek
to achieve maximum results have
to find a means of strengthening
their will—or to bypass their mo­
tivational shortcomings. It can be

226 JUNE 2007 \

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done by applying an exogenous into the subject’s muscles. old friend and sometime training
training method such as forced In 1974, shortly after he returned partner Roger Schwab, currently
reps or negatives to the muscle so to the East Coast from a lengthy proprietor of the hugely success­
that contractions can always be trip to Deland, Florida (where he ful Main Line Health and Fitness
maximal—exogenous means exter­ trained with Casey Viator and talk­ Center in Pennsylvania. It wasn’t
nal, or initiated from outside the ed training for many months with long before Mentzer told him of
body. Some believe that through Nautilus impresario Arthur Jones), Ziegler’s machine, with the result
normal conscious direction per­ Mike began to work with Ziegler. As that Schwab decided to check it out
haps only 30 percent of a single he recalled: for himself.
muscle can be stimulated at any “What made Dr. Ziegler even “Mike told me about it, and it
one time. If that limiting factor more interesting was his world-fa­ sounded very intriguing,” Schwab
could be removed, you would ef­ mous electronic muscle stimulator. says, “so I went down to see Mike
fectively remove the impediment With the assistance of an electron­ and Dr. Ziegler once a month, over
to your stimulating closer to 100 ics engineer, Ziegler developed a the course of a year, maybe 10 or
percent of that muscle at one time. machine that could contract any 12 times. The machine was incred­
Many years ago John Zeigler, of the body’s skeletal muscles to ible—you could put it on any body-

“Only a person
fired by a
strong, almost
sense of
purpose and
meaning will
be able to train
with maximum

a physiologist from Olney, Mary­ varying degrees—including maxi­ part—and you turned it up and it
land, created a muscle-stimula­ mal contraction where every fiber would contract the muscle, some­
tion machine that was used by of a given muscle is activated. times really intensely. We put it on
champion bodybuilders (such as The Federal Trade Commission our calves and abs, pecs, delts and
Mike and Ray Mentzer) and pro­ investigated Ziegler’s machine and arms, and Mike was using it twice
fessional athletes, such as mem­ claimed it was harmless, because a week—and I was using it once a
bers of the Washington Redskins it wasn’t supposed to work. Well, month—and it gave me the oppor­
football team. Both Ziegler and the machine most certainly did tunity to spend the day with him.
the Mentzers considered it help­ work, since my brother and I were “You’d sit or lie there, and he
ful because it enabled the indi­ giving each other treatments, as would dial up the intensity. It felt
vidual to stimulate 100 percent of a well as administering them to in­ like you were really fatiguing the
muscle via bypassing the trainee’s jured athletes and those who were muscle even though you weren’t
motivational and neuromuscular handicapped or had lost the use of doing any lifting, but it felt after­
shortcomings. The resistance was certain limbs.”5 ward like you had done a workout.
provided through an exogenous In almost constant touch with It was not a continuous buildup. It
source—electricity wired directly Mentzer during that period was his was intermittent—contract/relax, \ JUNE 2007 227

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Heavy Duty

contract/relax—but that was Mike;

always on the lookout for new ways
to build more muscle.”
Thus the benefit of an exogenous Perhaps only
stimulus. But who said that you can 30 percent
get an exogenous muscle stimulating of a single
effect only from an electronic ma­
chine? As you get bigger and stron­ muscle can
ger, many very real barriers—both be stimulated
physiological and psychological— at any one
begin to impose themselves on your
physiology. Your body doesn’t want time.
to change. It literally must be forced.
A high-intensity rep—all things
being equal—is the most productive
rep you can perform. That contrac­
tion, and thus the resistance you’re
contracting against, is maximal. It
becomes increasingly difficult to
psych yourself up for a maximum
effort—much as Olympic sprinters
must psych themselves up for an all-
out sprint every time they go to the
track. Indeed, Heavy Duty training
is even more difficult, as the inroad
into the muscle’s recovery ability is
greater than what you encounter
in sprinting. The depletion of the
body’s energy reserves is greater.
Given how slow the muscle-growth
process is, it takes an individual of
incredibly strong willpower to de­
rive motivational sustenance from
witnessing changes in your strength
and appearance that are incremental
at the best of times. How, then, can
you improve your motivation shy
of enrolling in a course of hypno­
Moreover, as you get stronger,
your body doesn’t remove waste
products as efficiently. Contractions
become so draining and the onset
of fatigue so immediate that it gets
Neveux \ Model: Steve Namat

progressively more difficult for you

to derive full benefit from a set. Neu­
romuscular efficiency can also limit
the recruitment and stimulation
of muscle fibers. Some individuals
are born with a tremendous genetic
advantage in that regard; they can
contract almost all of their available
muscle fibers (providing sufficient
overload is imposed on them) at • He must reduce the volume of put a trainee generates, the greater
will, while others can contract only his workouts to enable his muscu­ the corresponding rest required
a small percentage of fibers, despite lar contractions to become more prior to his next workout. In some
their greatest conscious effort. Nev­ intense. instances it can be as long as three
ertheless, the advanced bodybuilder • He must adjust the frequency of to four weeks—just to let adequate
must make a concerted effort to his workouts to permit full recovery recovery take place. Then, of
do three things if he desires further and growth to take place after each course, an additional block of time
progress: workout. must elapse to allow for the mus­
• He must make his muscular The third point requires some cle growth that was stimulated to
contractions more intense. elaboration. The greater energy out- be produced.

228 JUNE 2007 \

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At my training facility in Canada, increase the likelihood of burning a was required to induce maximum
Nautilus North Strength & Fitness hole in your stomach lining. growth stimulation. And if, in fact,
Centre, we’re often asked whether A similar relationship between I had not recovered—which was
it’s better to train more frequently dose amount and frequency ex­ obvious—why train at all? Recovery
to hasten the fat-loss and/or ists with exercise, with anything always precedes growth, and growth
muscle-growth processes. Since we above the threshold impeding or was our ultimate goal; if we had not
typically don’t prescribe more than preventing the desired physiologi­ recovered, then, in fact, there was
one training session per week (at cal response from taking place. no way we could have grown from
most), it is to be expected that in That’s being corroborated by more the first workout. In that kind of
an age of chronic misinformation, and more researchers in the field case the best thing that can happen
many people believe that “more is of exercise physiology, who report would be that you merely wouldn’t
better” when it comes to their exer­ that if another stimulus (workout)
cise habits. is introduced before recovery is
While “more” may or may not be complete, a host of negative bio­
“better” in terms of achievement, chemical reactions occurs within
happiness and understanding, the body.
“more” can be downright toxic in Sound familiar? It should. Mike
the case of exercise. Exercise is a Mentzer said it first—back in the
stimulus that acts upon the body early 1980s. He told me about it in
to produce a response. As with 1986:
medicine, the precise dose can and
should produce the optimal re­
sponse—but too much of the stim­ Training is like
ulus administered too frequently
simply results in an overdose that ibuprofen. If you
can have disastrous consequences. increase the dosage
The body, being very resistant to past a certain
change and very protective of the point, you get no
status quo, requires a fairly severe
stimulus in order to bring about more pain relief
any desired physiological change, but you increase
such as a change in body composi­ the likelihood of
tion—that is, in bodyfat-to-muscle physical damage.
ratio—whether the stimulus is in
the form of a drug or exercise. Ac­
cording to Doug McGuff, M.D.,
an emergency-room physician in
Seneca, South Carolina, and the
owner of Ultimate Exercise, a per­
sonal-training facility:
“The problem with most drugs
is that there is a narrow window
between an amount of stimula­
tion which produces the desired
response and an amount of
stimulation which produces a toxic
response. Generally, the more ef­
fective a drug is at producing a
stimulus, the more narrow the
space between a therapeutic and
toxic dosage. Another critical ob­
servation is that the therapeutic
effect always plateaus so that push­ “Back in 1979 I remember meet­ make any progress. You’d just spin
ing the dose higher only produces ing my brother in the gym for one your wheels. Carried on for too
toxicity and never produces any of our usual workouts. I think it was long, you’ll actually lose muscular
additional therapeutic effect.”6 the second day of a split routine mass and strength—you’ll always be
Dr. McGuff logically concludes schedule, and we were both quite making inroads into your recovery
that there’s no point in risking fatigued, apparently still not hav­ ability and never allowing yourself
toxicity. He cites the pain-relieving ing recovered from the previous to recover, let alone grow, which is
effects of ibuprofen, which max out day’s workout. Just all of a sudden secondary. You have to recover be­
at approximately 400 milligrams. If it occurred to me that it would be fore you can grow.
you increase that dosage, you get useless to train with anything less “It was obvious that we were
no more pain relief but you will than all-out intensity—since that still tired, that the forced reps and \ JUNE 2007 229

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Heavy Duty

the negatives we’d done with the same amount of resistance for as
legs and the back, for instance, long as you did in the last workout.
were so exhausting that we hadn’t If you have waited long enough, you
overcome the effects of the work­ should be stronger on every set of
out. How the hell were we going every movement in your workout.
to grow unless we at least let that We have found through experimen­
happen? We knew that recovery tation that four days is the mini­
was important in terms of overall, mum that most average adults will
or systemic, recovery. We weren’t require between workouts. Some
worried about localized or particu­ people may require as many as
lar muscle recovery; we knew that nine or 10 days. In general, the vast
happened relatively quickly after majority can recover sufficiently in
a workout. But it was obvious due seven days.”7
to our general exhaustion that we At Nautilus North, people have
hadn’t even recovered our overall made excellent progress training
systems’ energies and so forth—let as little as once every four weeks.
alone grown. And since growth was Indeed, two women at our facil­
our primary goal along with getting ity were out of the gym for three
defined, at that point we realized months and both went up in reps
that it would have been counter­ and weight in every exercise upon
productive—perhaps even harm- their return. Science has revealed
ful—to our progress to train.”
Science has revealed that train­
that training before
ing before recovery has taken place recovery has taken
creates a very negative environ­ 1 Mentzer, M. (2003). High Inten­

ment for muscle growth, the result sity Training the Mike Mentzer Way. place creates a very
of incomplete protein turnover, New York: McGraw-Hill. negative environment
which causes a slowing of the re­ 2 Mentzer, M. (1979). Metabolic

covery process and creates an over­ momentum. The Revised Heavy for muscle growth, the
stressed condition. That leads to Duty Journal. Copyright renewed
secretion of the catabolic hormone 2002 Mentzer-Sharkey Enterprises, result of incomplete
cortisol, which, in turn, creates Inc.
3 Mentzer, M. (1979). Metabolic
protein turnover, which
additional tissue breakdown. The
degeneration can bring on a host of momentum. causes a slowing
maladies, including but not limited 4 Steinhaus, A.H. (1961). Towards

to muscle soreness and stiffness, an understanding of health and

of the recovery
tendinitis, a suppression of the im­ physical fitness. Paper presented at process and creates
mune system, increased frequency the 29th annual convention of the
of upper-respiratory-tract infec­ southern district of AAHPER, At­ an overstressed
tions, depression, lethargy, weak­ lanta, Georgia, February 28–March condition. That leads
ness, reductions in testosterone 3, 1961.
and greatly reduced sperm count 5 Mentzer, M. (2003). High Inten­ to secretion of the
in men, depressed muscle glyco­ sity Training the Mike Mentzer Way.
gen reserves, insomnia, a marked 6 McGuff, D. (2000). The dose-re­ catabolic hormone
decreased in exercise performance sponse relationship of exercise, part cortisol, which, in turn,
and symptoms of Cushing’s dis­ II: The narrow therapeutic window
ease. In fact, research conducted ( creates additional
by Kuipers and Keizer in 1988 re­ 7 McGuff, D. (2000). The dose-re­

vealed that individuals who are so sponse relationship of exercise.

tissue breakdown. The
overtrained may require upward of degeneration can bring
three to six months off from train­ Editor’s note: For a complete
ing in order to fully recover. presentation of Mike Mentzer’s on a host of maladies.
That’s why Heavy Duty train­ Heavy Duty training system,
ing calls for but one workout per consult his books Heavy Duty II,
week—particularly for trainees High Intensity Training the Mike rates and information, contact
with more than two months of Mentzer Way and the newest book, Joanne Sharkey at (310) 316-4519
training under their belts. As Mc- The Wisdom of Mike Mentzer, all of or at, or
Guff points out: which are available from Mentzer’s see the ad on the opposite page.
“If you work out too soon, you official Web site, www.MikeMentzer Article copyright © 2007, John
will know that you have done so .com. Little. All rights reserved. Mike
because you will actually be weaker John Little is available for phone Mentzer quotations provided
in your workout rather than stron­ consultation on Mike Mentzer’s courtesy of Joanne Sharkey and are
ger. You will not be able to lift the Heavy Duty training system. For used with permission. IM

230 JUNE 2007 \

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Eric Broser’s

If you find something on the Web that IM readers should know about, send the URL to Eric at

Question: Where on earth are you most likely to
hear the following phrases uttered? “Ain’t nuthin’ but
a peanut.” “Light weight, baby.” “Yo-o-o buddy.” “Ev­
eryone wants to be a bodybuilder, but nobody wants
to lift heavy-ass weights.” Well, if you’re a serious fan
of pro bodybuilding, you know the answer without
hesitation: Metroflex Gym in Arlington, Texas, the
Neveux \ Model: Ronnie Coleman
legendary stomping ground of eight-time Mr. Olympia,
and the very man—man? More like an alien from the
planet Freakazoid—who made the above lines famous,
Ronnie Coleman. Look up the word hardcore in the
dictionary, and you’ll find a picture of Metroflex. It’s
known throughout the bodybuilding world as one of
the most dungeonlike, sweaty, intense and pure gyms
on the planet. There’s nothing fancy, modern or pretty about the place, and that’s exactly the way the members
want it. When you walk through the doors of Metroflex, you better be ready to “go hard, or go home.” You have two
choices when training there: Pour out some serious sweat, or run away with your tail between your legs. Just talking
about Metroflex is enough to get my testosterone skyrocketing, but what has me even more pumped up is that we
all now have the opportunity to learn from the main man behind the Metroflex madness, owner and operator Brian
Dobson. Just think how cool it would be to have the same secrets in your back pocket as Brian has taught to Ronnie
Coleman, Branch Warren and dozens of other top-level pro bodybuilders, powerlifters, football players, fitness ath­
letes and UFC fighters. What are you waiting for? Check out the Web site and find out how you too can benefit from
the insights of a man who’s spent 30 years creating champions in the iron sports. You have nothing to lose and only
slabs of new muscle to gain.

232 JUNE 2007 \

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Just having a great body, effective product, sexy
look or even an IFBB pro card doesn’t guarantee
financial success in the extremely competitive
bodybuilding industry. You may be exceptional
when you’re out among the general public, but
within the confines of the fitness and physique
world you’re a dime a dozen. Thus you must find
ways to promote yourself so you stand out among
your peers. That’s where a company like Lift Stu­
dios, a brand-strategy and design firm providing
branding, consulting, design, interactive and
marketing services, can be enormously valuable.
Located in Denver, Colorado, Lift Studios offers
creative solutions for everything from your adver­
tising, marketing and public relations to corporate
identity, Web design and photography—and any­
thing in between. With such well-known clients as
Monica Brant, Phil Heath, King Kamali and Dina
Al-Sabah, Lift Studios is trusted in the bodybuilding and fitness industry. Go to to learn
more about this company and how it may be able to help you get your career on the fast track to success.

> cular pounds, she’s just plain hot. There’s not a lot of
information on this site, nor is it up to date; however,
Okay, sometimes I just got to take care of my
the gallery is worth the trip—you know, just for the
boys—my iron brothers. I know you guys work hard,
stress relief. Consider it therapy.
at school or in the office—and, of course, in the gym.
Every once in a
while it’s just nice
to relax, kick back,
sip a protein drink
and enjoy a little
eye candy. If you
agree, then let me
introduce you to
California personal
trainer and IFBB
Fitness pro Monica
Guerra. Born in
beautiful Santa
Barbara and now
residing in Redon­
do Beach, Monica
has a stunning,
exotic look that
causes men’s—and
to boil. At 5’2” and
109 symmetrical
and not-too-mus­ \ JUNE 2007 233

Free download from
Eric Broser’s
Q: I really
>Net Results Q&A like your
Interesting queries and replies from message boards P/RR/S pro­
and forums from across the Internet, answered with gram, ex­
precision, accuracy and plenty of outrageous opinions... cept for one
thing: You
Q: I really feel the need to have a couple of advocate
cheat meals each week—you know, something training
way off the typical bodybuilding diet. Is that each body-
horrible? Will it totally kill my progress? When part once
is the best time for me to have meals like that? per week,
and I have
A: Hey, we’re all human, so I totally understand the a couple of
need to break free from the typical chicken, brown rice weak points
and vegetables in order to eat something that lets you (shoulders
focus more on your taste buds than your muscles. and chest)
That said, most bodybuilders who eat cheat meals that I think need more stimulation. Can I do
still take in plenty of protein and useful carbohydrates extra work? If so, how would you arrange a
when they go off their split for four days per week?
diet, instead of eating
100 percent nutrition­ A: One of the greatest attributes of my program is
ally vacant meals. that it’s very versatile and can be tweaked to meet
Typical cheats for the specific needs of each individual. Normally, yes,
bodybuilders are burg­ I do advocate training each bodypart very intensely
ers and fries, pizza, just once per week, but there are certainly exceptions
fried chicken, Chinese to that rule. I have some clients with extraordinary
food and so on. What recovery ability who need to train each muscle twice
really makes those per week, or at least twice every five to six days rather
meals cheats is the than every seven. I also have clients who burn out very
number of calories, easily and benefit most from training each bodypart
as well as the excess once every eight or nine days. We all have somewhat
sodium and fats. different needs, due to our individual hormonal profiles,
So is it horrible to constitutions, immune systems, lifestyles, stress levels,
eat those things a few sleep patterns, eating habits, etc.
times per week? Will Now, as to your specific question, yes, there’s room
it destroy all of your hard work in the gym? Thankfully, in P/RR/S for more frequent bodypart training, espe­
the answer in no. In fact, it can be quite beneficial to cially when it comes to lagging muscle groups. In fact,
splurge once or twice per week, as the excess calories I believe that one of the best ways to bring up a muscle
will have a positive effect on your metabolism, serving is to train it a bit more often. Remember, though, that
to rev it up a bit. More important, eating things that you won’t always solve the problem. Some people fail to
truly enjoy will give your mind a rest, which makes it improve certain muscle groups because they use poor
a lot easier to remain on a strict regimen the majority form or improper exercise selection or even have com­
of the time. Just try to make your cheats reasonable, promised nerve innervations. If none of those apply,
with at least some nutritional value. Hey, even pizza has however, more frequent training for the lagging muscle
some important antioxidants (lutein, anyone?). group quite often alleviates the problem.
As for the best time to put away delicious goodies, Generally, I don’t recommend two full workouts per
that would be at the meal immediately following your week for lagging muscles but rather one full and one
workout. Right after you train, your body is metabolical­ miniworkout that’s at half your normal volume. In other
ly set up to absorb more overall calories and to partition words, if your normal chest workout consists of 10
most of these calories toward muscle cells rather than sets, then your miniworkout should be no more than
fat cells. Because of the metabolic posttraining window five or six sets. Usually, that’s enough to get the stub­
it’s best to have a cheat meal at that time—as long as born muscle growing without compromising your over­
it’s a meal and not ice cream, cake, cookies and so on. all recovery ability.
Your muscles will get what they need in terms of protein Since your weak bodyparts are shoulders and chest,
and carbs and will be less likely to store the excess here’s a split for you:
calories as fat.
So go ahead and enjoy a guilt-free cheat meal once Monday: Chest, biceps, abs
or twice per week—and the extra time you’ll spend in Tuesday: Quads, hamstrings, shoulders (mini)
the bathroom (just make sure you have the latest copy Thursday: Lats, lower back, chest (mini)
of IRON MAN with you). Friday: Shoulders, traps, triceps, calves IM

234 JUNE 2007 \

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Lonnie Teper’s

’07 Arnold Classic

Vic Does the Trick

As Yogi did predict

Ron ”Yogi” Avidan says his partners on “The Experts”—me and
Isaac Hinds—should get down on our knees and pay homage to him.
Dan Solomon says the Swami might need a crystal ball cleaning.
I say both of you must be sniffin’ glue.
First, Yogi. As you can see on “The Experts” video wrapup of the pre­
judging at the Arnold Classic on March 3—find it at www.GraphicMuscle Victor
.com—Avidan is flowing with attitude because he feels his pick to win the Martinez.
Columbus, Ohio, bash, Victor Martinez,
is a lock to take home the grand prize of
$130,000, a $20,000 Audemars Piguet
watch, a splendid Tony Nowak jacket
and congrats from the Governator.
Several hours later Yogi’s prediction
becomes a reality. What makes things even
worse is, as the emcee of the contest, I’m
the one who gets to make things official
when I read off the final placings. Isaac, I
feel your pain. This is nothing against Mar­
tinez, who is a great bodybuilder. It’s more
about losing to Avidan.
Now for the real story behind Avidan’s
pick. As executive producer of “The Ex­
perts” I wanted three different athletes to
be selected by our terrific trio. I was going
with two-time defending champ Dexter “the Blade” Jackson,
and Isaac’s choice was sophomore sensation Phil Heath.’s Big Ron was confused, as usual. He was waf­
fling between two or three contestants (who did not end up in

the top six) when I told him that his time was up and that he

would be selecting Martinez, the co-precontest favorite with the

Arnold Classic photography by John Balik, Roland Balik and Merv

Blade. Talk about a handout.

Now he’s acting like some legit expert and wants praise for

“his” pick? Okay, I’ll be a man about it and give Avidan his props,

tainted as they are. Well, all three of us did say Toney Free­
man would win the IRON MAN Pro, so Ron is on a roll.

Let’s see just how long Yogi’s winning streak lasts. I’m picking
Dennis James to take the New York Pro on May 12. Hinds
says last year’s Nationals champ, Desmond Miller, will win
it in his pro debut. I’ve been a fan of Miller’s since I first saw
him at the ’05 Nationals, and it was hard not going with Big D
for this one. In fact, I was going with him up until the moment
that I heard that James would compete. Yogi is taking Darrem
Charles. At press time—mid-March— I’m not sure who’s all in,
who’s out of the Steve Weinberger production.
Now back to Solomon. The creator of the standout radio
show “Pro Bodybuilding Weekly” (can you believe the Gover­ Freeman and Badell (right).
nator was actually on for an hour before the Arnold Classic?) Above: The Blade and Mar
danced up to me at the postcontest banquet (with Canadian tinez compare cuts.
dance diva Nancy Di Nino doing the leading) and promptly let

238 JUNE 2007 \

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to be nicknamed How many See pages
Dancezilla? times does this 242 and 243
Pages 238 to garment appear
240 in this column?
Pages 242 and

me know that the Swami’s predictions of late haven’t been first rate.
Hold on a minute, young man. It’s not like the Blade got stomped in
Columbus. He looked terrific, as I said he would. Count me as one of
many who thought the show was a lot closer than the final verdict—a
unanimous victory for Martinez.
Jackson was great; the judges simply thought Victor
was greater. I can live with that. In the end Vic was just
too slick. That he was selected to win the Most Mus­
cular Award is noted as well.
You and your Webcast mate Bobzilla Cicherillo
need to get over your obsession regarding my ’Zilla
nicknames. In more than 20 years I have given the
moniker three times: to the late Paul
“Quadzilla” DeMayo in 1989, to Tommi
“Glutezilla” Thorvildsen in 2001 and to
Ahmad “Abzilla” Haidar in 2003. Okay, I
did give a gal out of San Diego the moniker
of “Boobzilla” about 18 years back, but if
you saw her, you’d understand. Gee, I’m up
to six now; you two may have a point.


the show. I felt the lineup might have been
one of the most balanced in Classic history,
and although the point totals don’t reflect
that (except for the battle between Freeman
and Gustavo Badell for third, I stand tall
on that statement. Check the pictures here
and in the pictorial that begins on page
244—as well as those at GraphicMuscle.
com—and let me know your thoughts.
I went with Dex because he’s really at
the top of his game. I know that Martinez
has perhaps the best genetics in the sport
but wasn’t sure he could peak again so
soon after coming in prime condition to last
season’s Mr. Olympia. Although he didn’t
look as good as he did at that show, he
was impressive. And, yes, he does beat Jackson in both the
front and rear lat spreads and in the back double-biceps pose.
Freeman, my ’06 Comeback Bodybuilder of the Year, is lead­
ing the pack for ’07 Bodybuilder of the Year honors after he
edged Badell for third. The 6’2”, 280-pounder out of Atlanta had
made it two for two a week earlier with a victory at the Sacra­
mento Pro. (The X-Man was also set to compete at the Australia
Grand Prix a week after the Arnold but had passport problems
and was forced to miss the event, which, by the way, was won
by the Blade. Darn, that Swami knows his stuff! Okay, okay,
Martinez wasn’t onstage at that contest.)

Clockwise from Some folks had Heath as high as third early in the judging, but the 27­
top: Vic with
Governor S, L.T. year-old Denver phenom had slipped to fifth when all was said and done.
at the podium, A disappointment? Hardly. Heath added about eight pounds to his 5’9”
Phil Heath, frame and wasn’t tight enough in the upper body to match his awesome
Abzilla, Silvio wheels, calves and hams.
Samuel and After the show, Heath and trainer Hany Rambod expressed dis­
Markus Rühl. appointment and admitted they were thinking about passing on the
Olympia again to concentrate on next year’s events. “If Phil placed fifth \ JUNE 2007 239

Free download from
here,” Rambod reasoned, “where will he finish at the Olympia, with Jay gets
[Cutler], Ronnie [Coleman], Gunter [Schlierkamp], Melvin [An­ down.
thony] and other top guys competing?”
Well, I don’t think Gunter will be getting onstage in 2007, so one of
your worries is over.
I do understand Rambod’s concern that the Gift won’t have enough
time before the Big Dance—at the end of September—to make the im­
provements the judges are looking for. Still, Phil the Thrill will be someone
to be reckoned with in the near future. Trust me.
This season’s biggest surprise, Silvio Samuel, continues to prove
that his name deserves to be uttered when people are discussing the
best in the game. Fourth at the IRON MAN, second in Sacramento and
sixth at the Arnold, he was set to compete in Australia as well but, like
Freeman, had passport problems.
Branch Warren, Ronny Rockell,
Markus Rühl and Vince Taylor finished
seventh through 10th, respectively, and, in
the biggest upset of the night, Taylor was
beaten by Marcus Haley for the Most
Entertaining Posing award, which padded
Haley’s wallet with 10 grand. To be fair,
Marcus deserved it; Vince is one of the all-
time greats, both as a bodybuilder and a
poser, but, for reasons unknown, his per­
formance lacked the creativity and energy
we’ve become accustomed to.
Back to Branch. After finishing eighth in
his initial try at the Olympia, in 2005, War­
Nancy Di Nino
ren muscled his way into second place and Dan Solomon.
at last season’s Arnold—and he won the
Most Muscular award to boot. Then, after
losing to Badell at the ’06 San Francisco Pro,
he finished fifth a week later at the Australia

NPC Arnold photography by Amir Marandi

Grand Prix. He had a legit excuse for the lat­
ter; he was on his honeymoon.
But Warren was way off at the ’06 Olym­
pia, landing in 11th, and this year’s Arnold
was his “I’ll show you I’m still a contender”
contest. Branch came in a bit smaller, espe­
cially in the upper body—his wheels were still
outrageous—in an obvious attempt to bring
back his grade-A conditioning. He’s sched­
uled to compete in the New York Pro. A
huge performance there would put him back
where he left off a year ago.
Mark Dugdale (11th), Haley (12th), Hi­
detada Yamagishi (13th), David Henry
(14th), Sergey Shelestov (15th) and Luke
Wood (16th) rounded out the field.

CORY IS THE STORY—It was great to

see Cory Everson again. The six-time
Ms. Olympia, who retired after her final
victory in 1989, was on hand to receive
the Arnold Schwarzenegger Lifetime
Achievement Award, and the Governator
himself was on hand to present it.
Not only did I get to chat with Cory at
the postcontest banquet (and meet her
husband, Steve Donia, and her two
beautiful children, Boris and Nina, who
were adopted from Russia at ages three Arnold amateur top names (clockwise from
and five), but I did likewise with another upper left): Miguel Neil, Diane Brown, Kara
blast from the past—Cory’s sister, Cameo Kneuer-Bernard. Flowers, Sara Flom and promters Lorimer and
240 JUNE 2007 \
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For those who remember, Cameo was big in the fitness industry
around the time Cory was dusting her Ms. O opponents year after year.
She was the very first winner of the very first big fitness competition, the
’87 Ms. National Fitness Championship, and held the title for two years.
The fitness business has been very rewarding to her, she said.
“I have been doing infomercials on a yearly basis ever since I compet­
ed and have made a great living from it,” said Cameo. “Cory and I live a
few miles apart, and we train as much as we can
together. We hold each other accountable and
are best friends. We help each other with our
kids, and she is so happy to be a mom.”
Cameo is married to Randy Bernard, CEO
of Professional Bull Riders, and they have three
children—Priscilla, 17, Ryan 16 and Alexan­
dria, 14. They live in Woodland Hills, California,
Ronnie’s Jay
tanks it. Reg and and Colorado Springs, Colorado.
pinstripes. Mareon Park. “Priscilla is a varsity water-polo player,” said
Photography by Lonnie Teper, Dave Lliberman and Ron Avidan

the proud mother. “Ryan is a varsity volleyball

Lisa player and plays for the number-two-ranked Santa Monica
Aukland Beach Club team. Alexandria is a freshman varsity water-polo
and Dave player, is on the varsity swim team and also played junior
Liberman. varsity basketball.”
Is that all? Now, what would you expect from anyone
blessed with those wonderful Kneuer genes? Have those 18
or so years been kind to Cory and Cameo? I can’t wait an­
and Monica. other two decades until we meet again, so let’s connect soon,
ladies. Lunch on me. Just no sprints in the pool with the kids.

MORE ARNOLD ACTION—Good thing I like to talk. Because I

certainly did a lot more than usual during the weekend in Columbus.
In addition to my usual duties as emcee of the Arnold Classic and
Ms. International finals, I was hired by Bob Lorimer and Mike Da­
vies to host the newly revived NPC Arnold Championships,
Rockell which took place on Friday and Saturday morning at Veterans
cake. Auditorium and on the expo stage.
About 250 athletes from around the United States joined the
fray, which began on Friday at 9 a.m. and ended at 2 p.m. with
the completion of the bodybuilding prejudging and the fitness
and figure finals. Even I’m surprised I could jabber that long
(including a new all-time fill record of more than 30 minutes).
There were so many figure competitors that the fitness and
figure prejudging had to be held in a separate room (hosted by
former Collegiate National champ and current engineer/writer­
photographer-emcee Mike Lackner) while I handled things at
Vets Memorial.
Elissa On Saturday morning the trophies were given out to the fit­
Sandy, Lats and Schlichter ness and figure winners, and all the bodybuilding finalists posed
Debbie. and John and got their medals on the main stage at the ever-expanding
Tuman. expo. When I called out the first contestant at 9 a.m. sharp, the
place was already packed.
Congrats to men’s champ Miguel Neil, a home­
town guy out of Columbus, and Dazzling Diane
Brown, from Hyattsville, Maryland, in the women’s
bodybuilding category. Ditto for fitness champ Sara
Flom, a Granada Hills, California, athlete who in her
spare time doubles as an attorney. The figure winner
Photos courtesy of Cameo Kneuer-Bernard

was Kara Flowers of Blacklick, Ohio, who I met

when I announced her as the winner of the Natural
Ohio last year. I predicted then that she’d earn her pro
card at the Team Universe in 2006, but she was unable
to compete there, so I’m making the prediction again
for 2007 here and now.
Emceeing the NPC Arnold was a fun experience,
and I hope to do it again next year. Kudos to Lorimer
and Davies for bringing the event back (it was held in a

Cory with Arnold (above) and with sister Cameo and L.T. \ JUNE 2007 241
Free download from
smaller format a couple of times about a decade ago), as well as to head
judge Gary Udit and head expediter Rick Bayardi for running such a
smooth show.

Teper’s Tales
As always, the weekend attracted an industry who’s who. Mr. Long.
Olympia Jay Cutler and the man he dethroned, Ronnie Cole­
man, greeted each other warmly. The Big Nasty, known for his
wild suits, was true to form with a shiny new black pinstripe; Jay
was sporting a suit as well, but he looked more at home in his
Team MuscleTech tanker at the expo.… Don Long, who fulfilled
his wish of competing in a pro bodybuilding show again at the
Atlantic City Pro in September, told me he’s signed a contract with
ISS Research. Congrats, Don, you looked great as always.… At
the postcontest banquet I sat at the legends table, which included
Reg Park and his lovely wife, Mareon. They both looked great.
Also at the table were Mike Katz and Winston Roberts, Hunter (left) and Lee
Dave Liberman and Linda Reho (how in the heck did they Labrada with Linda Reho.
get to sit at the legends table?—oh, I got them tickets) and my
fellow emcee Clint Richards. Clint, are they trying to tell
us something?… Liberman couldn’t contain himself when L.T. greets
Dot and Mits.
he saw Lisa Auckland’s marvelous calves walking into the
Veterans Memorial lobby after the Ms. International finals.
“If I had calves like that, I could have been a pro,” lamented
Liberman.… A Lee Labrada look-alike was working the
Labrada Nutrition booth—none other than Lee’s 14-year-old
son, Hunter. Does he look like Pops, or what?... Chris
Cormier was at the MuscleTech booth and said he’ll prob­
ably make his comeback at the Europa in August.… The
IRON MAN staff, sans Ruthless Ruth Silverman, who was
having dinner with friends, met at Mitchell’s Steakhouse on
Friday night and sat opposite a table filled with IFBB and Jack and Elaine LaLanne.
NPC promoters and judges, led by Lats Manion, whose
one-liners keep me in stitches every time we meet. We Tony Novak.
all got to see Johnny Tuman and Elissa Schlichter announce
their engagement. I got the money shot of the weekend while the two
smooched just as Jim Rockell was preparing to dive into his super­
sized piece of carrot cake. Elissa is a doctor, as well as an NPC figure
competitor. Also at the table was Sandy Williamson, who used to
be known as Sandy Ranalli. Here’s a belated best wishes to Sandy
and former NPC Los Angeles District Chairman Ted Williamson on
their marriage…. Mike Lackner brought along his charming wife,
Monica, who is a huge supporter behind the scenes in Lackdaddy’s

MORE TALES—I ran into ageless Jack LaLanne and his super-
energized wife, Elaine, while changing planes in Phoenix, and the two
kids drew admirers as always. Also as usual, I was unable to get Jack Shawn
to spring for a free Power Juicer, the kitchen appliance that has made Loevenguth.
him a very well-to-do man in recent years, as if he hadn’t been one
already!...Mits and Dot Kawashima made their annual trek in
from Hawaii to attend the Arnold Sports Festival. Mits said he won’t
be promoting his Hawaii Classic anymore, but the show will continue
to run.… Tony Nowak, who produced the official jackets for the
Olympia, did likewise for the Arnold. Tony has done terrific work for
many years with his handmade leather works; check them out at, or call (800) 272-555.… One guy who really Carol does
loved this year’s jacket was Shawn Loevenguth, the main man a Semple.
at Live Technologies, the company responsible for set design and
lighting at the Classic. In fact, Shawn cherished the coat so much
he had to be apprehended in the production office before he could
run off with the one that would eventually go to Victor Martinez.

242 JUNE 2007 \

Free download from
Corney’s The man lost it for a moment, hitting various poses while wearing
DVD. the Nowak creation, trying to show why he was the best fit for the
garment.… I ran into Carol Semple at the Columbus airport on
Sunday, and the former Fitness International and Fitness Olym­
pia champ (has it really been 10 years since Carol copped those
crowns?) was talked into performing her famous legs-over-shoul­
ders pushups by some lunatic who was waiting to board a flight
to California. Semple is simply amazing.… Remember Roger
Stewart and his giant calves? Saw Roger, who’s still living in
Orlando, Florida, at the banquet, and he showed that he still has
the huge diamonds on his lower legs. Stew­
art edged John Romano in a calf down,
even though Romano did shock the hell out
of me with his well-developed lower leg.…
Rob Klein is getting his wish. “Since Kim
[Klein] won the show,” he said, meaning
the Figure International, “do I finally get my
Cathy’s calf. picture in your column?” Yes, Rob, you do.
And are you going to congratulate me on my
correct prediction of Kim’s win on Graph­
icMuscle two weeks earlier? Solomon, are
you listening?... The saddest news to come
out of the Arnold Weekend: Ray “Thunder”
Stern passed away at the age of 74, ac­
cording to his wife Debi Lee Stern, the
Kris Gethin and former fitness star-turned-physique judge.
Marika Johannson. Stern, who was born Walter Bookbinder in
Brooklyn, New York, on January 12, 1933,
became a pro wrestling star, gym owner and
avid pilot, proving successful in all three fields. In 1979 he founded Stern
Air, a charter flight service, in Dallas. Ray always had a big smile on his
face and was always very complimentary whenever we met. Debi, whom
he met 10 years ago, was the biggest reason for his happiness. Condo­
lences to Debi and the Stern family.…

STILL MORE TALES—The San Francisco Pro, which has played

Kim and in various Bay Area venues over the years, seems to have finally found a
Rob Klein. Chris Cormier. home. The Jon Lindsay–Steve O’Brien production, now known as
the Sacramento Pro and featuring men’s and women’s bodybuilding, was
held at the Crest Theater in that city this year, and the guys were happy
Draper. with the outcome. So the show stays in Sacramento, moving to a week
after the Arnold, in 2008.… Cathy LeFrancois, who finished second
to Tonie Norman in the women’s lightweight division at the Sac, had a
full plate, to say the least: competing in the Ms. International the follow­
ing week and co-promoting her first contest, with Paco Hernandez, in
Fresno, California, a week after that.… Ed Corney was in the lobby sell­
ing pictures and his DVD, “The Master Poser,” which
features some of his amazing posing routines. I was
mesmerized watching the film; check out Ed’s Web
site at… Kris Gethin and Marika
“Da Freeka” Johansson were also greeting fans,
Romano and with Kris displaying his new magazine, Kaged Muscle,

Stewart. and Marika selling her new DVD, on which she trains
with industry icon Dorian Yates. Gethin is one of the

most enthusiastic, hardworking gents in the sport—

Ray and check out his Web site,
Debi Lee To contact Lonnie
Stern. for more details.… And, finally, Dave Draper, who
Teper about material
had a quadruple bypass and valve repair surgery on possibly pertinent to
February 23, came home a week later and wrote his News & Views, write
first recovery column a week after that. According to to 1613 Chelsea
wife Laree, Dave started to feel pretty good after only Road, #266, San
Photo courtesy of Debi Lee Stern

three weeks and was “planning to dink around the Marino, CA 91108;
gym Saturday or Sunday for the first time. No weights fax to (626) 289-7949;
allowed.” Yeah, try and tell the Blond Bomber to stay or send e-mail to
away from the iron! IM \ JUNE 2007 243

Free download from
Martinez Snags a
Unanimous Win
at the ’07 Arnold
Schwarzenegger Classic

by John Balik,
Roland Balik
and Merv

244 JUNE 2007 \
Free download from
1) Victor Martinez

’07 Arnold Classic

1) Victor Martinez*
2) Dexter Jackson*
3) Toney Freeman*
4) Gustavo Badell*
5) Phil Heath*
6) Silvio Samuel*
7) Branch Warren
8) Ronnie Rockel
9) Markus Rühl
10) Vince Taylor
11) Mark Dugdale
12) Marcus Haley
13) Hidetada Yamagishi
14) David Henry
15) Sergey Shelestov
16) Luke Wood
*Qualifies for the ’07 Mr.
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2) Dexter Jackson


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3) Toney Freeman

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4) Gustavo Badell


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5) Phil Heath

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6) Silvio Samuel

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7) Branch Warren

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8) Ronnie Rockel


See More Photos at

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Top five finishers at pre-judging, Badell, Heath, Freeman, Jackson and Martinez.

Jackson, Martinez, Freeman and Heath.

254 JUNE 2007 \

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9) Markus Rühl

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10) Vince Taylor


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11) Mark Dugdale


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12) Marcus Haley—Most
Entertaining Posing Award

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13) Hidetada Yamagishi


See More Photos at

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Whole Lotta Shakin’ Goin’ on
Another slam-bang Arnold Classic
weekend went down in Columbus, Flexing in the age of Iris
Ohio, on March 2 through 4. They
keep adding sports and changing
the name of this mammoth meeting
of the fit and fabulous—now known
as the Arnold Sports Festival—but
when you’re on the physique beat,
it’s all about the Arnold, a.k.a.
“Columbus,” a.k.a. the Arnold
Schwarzenegger Classic World
Bodybuilding Championship and
Ms., Fitness and Figure International
This year’s edition of the IFBB Pro
League’s early-season A-list party
was so full of fascinating develop­
ments, even the contests that were
business as usual were not business
as usual. Snowstorms in the Mid­
west and Northeast plus tornadoes
in the South ensured that everyone
traveling to central Ohio would have
interesting stories to swap before the
women’s judging got started at noon Is it my imagination, or was Iris glow­
on Friday. Once the fitness athletes ing under all that muscle? See page
strode onstage in their one-piece 266.
End of an era. Hendershott calls it suits, there was plenty of other stuff
quits. See page 265. to talk about. Here’s as much of it as “Iris will win until she retires.” That
would fit on five pages. observation by one bodybuilding sage
of my acquaintance pretty much sums
up the results of the Ms. International
D R E S S I N G R O O M TA L E S competition, in which defending champ
Sage advice. and Ms. Olympia Iris Kyle nabbed a
Amanda five-point victory over Yaxeni Oriquen
Savell teach­
es Sonia Ad- and a lineup of 16 of the world’s finest
cock how to female flexers. Yaxeni would be the first
pose for the to disagree with that assessment—she’s
money shot. beaten the 5’6”, 158-pounder with the
anyone? fab X-factor from Fullerton, California,
numerous times and no doubt expects
to do it again—but now that Kyle has
put consistency on her list of admirable
qualities, not even the Yaxinator may be
able to stop her.
Not that Oriquen didn’t try. Those
who were
Photography by Ruth Silverman

if the ’05
and Inter
Girl talk. Lisa champ’s
Aukland tells drop to
Tonie Nor
Hot bods seventh at
man about
her own long, collide (from the ’06 O
slow climb to left): Inga, signaled
the Ms. I top Zena, Debbie
and Chris­
the end
tine make
for colorful
Free download from
of the 5’8”, 170-pound
Venezuelan vixen’s own
run at the top can find
something else to stew
about. Yaxeni was back
in championship form,
meaning tighter, her
large, evenly distrib­
uted bodyparts flowing
majestically as she hit
her mandatories at the
Even so, Yaxeni is
40, and in an interview
published online last So there. Policky declared her
self a major force in the sport.
year, she questioned
how long she would
Yaxeni is back! (Was there any want to continue com­ the judges thought she could
doubt?) peting. Iris is 32 and have been drier—and sharp­
seems to be settling in er. I also wondered whether
for a Ronnie Coleman–like run. Queried the above-men­ they were so blinded by the
tioned sage, Is anyone with the genetics to beat Iris even beef, they didn’t actually see
coming up? anyone who weighed under
Fans of new pro sensation Heather Policky, who 140 (Dayana is thick, but
was fresh off her win at the Sacramento Pro Grand Prix the she’s a lightweight).
week before, clear their throats at that. Based on the first Not for nothing did another
callout—Kyle, Oriquen and Policky—they may have a point. wise observer say, “The con­
Ms. and Fitness International photography by Roland Balik, Merv and Bill Dobbins \

Policky’s got all the ingredients, with jaw-dropping muscular test was a complete waste
ity, anatomy-book definition and a vicious V-taper leading the of time and money for the
list. The Olympia should be very interesting, eh? smaller girls.” While that may
Rounding out the top six, in a surprising order, were Lisa be a bit of an exaggeration—I don’t know any athletes who
Aukland, Betty don’t enjoy competing at the International—it’s also true
Pariso and Daya­ that none of the leaner, “more aesthetic” types, even
na Cadeau. (See, among the heavier women, could break into the money
I told you you’d be placings. From top: Cadeau’s
surprised.) Aukland One larger athlete who sixth-place fin­
is another vet who wasn’t at her best, Annie ish was her low­
has developed the Rivieccio, dropped to seventh est since her Ms. I
debut in ’99, when
knack of nailing her from third at the O in Septem­ she was 11th; Pariso
conditioning every ber. Bonny Priest, fourth at was at her best; and
time. Now that the O, landed in eighth. She so was Aukland.
she’s brought her looked good but perhaps a little Don’tcha just love
Lisa’s new shape?
waist in and, literally, smaller than at recent shows.
changed her shape, With the 5’7”, 173-pound
there appears to Policky grabbing the spotlight,
be no stopping her. however, the 5’5 1/2” 158­
Pariso—speaking of pound Priest could have ap­
veterans, Lisa is 48, peared downright diminutive.
Betty is 51—may Tonie Norman, the light­
have brought her weight winner at the Sac, dialed
personal-best phy­ “Hey, don’t forget it in again, only to finish ninth,
sique to the stage in us!” cries the 5’2”, with Cathy LeFrancois
135-pound Cathy. The
Columbus. I’ve said call for having weight much improved from the week
that before, but she classes at more pro­ before but again landing be­
actually keeps get­ women’s shows is hind Norman, in 10th. Eleventh
ting better. getting louder. through 16th, in order, went to
As for Cadeau’s Lora Ottenad, Denise Ma­
sixth-place finish, I’m sino, Kim Perez, Colette
not sure what that was about. At first glance her physique Nelson, Rosemary Jennings
seemed on point. On closer inspection I considered whether and Susanne Niederhauser. \ JUNE 2007 263

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So In-Kleined
Panel says Kim’s
time has come
The revolving crown of professional
Kim nailed her
routine—and the fitness took a new turn in Columbus
title. when Kim Klein, the runner-up at
every major competition since the
’05 Olympia, (gracefully) flipped past
Adela Garcia and Jen Hender­
shott to land her now-dainty derriere
on the throne at last. Fifteen of the
most amazing athletes in the fitness
universe (note lower case) came to
Columbus in tip-top condition to
perform for the industry’s most en­
thusiastic audience. No one expected
the winner to be other than one of the
three above-mentioned headliners,
and when it turned out to be Kim, no
one was shocked—pleased for the
5’2 1/2” former grade-school teacher
from New Jersey, but not really sur­ With the
prised. Stairs. “Say
Was it Adela’s coming in a bit hello to my
smaller again or Kim’s trimming her little friend.”
lower body just a smidge more that
made the difference? No matter. The I have to admit I was really sur
point shift definitely occurred in the prised when Adela Garcia didn’t
physique rounds, where Kim finally win the ’07 Fitness International—
slipped past Texas transplant Garcia to win them solidly. A pair of second-place and not because I’d predicted that
scores in the routine rounds gave her a seven-point margin of victory. she’d retain her title. After all, I’d
Considering the history of pro fitness since Susie Curry retired—Garcia won seen her in the past win the physique
the International and the Olympia in 2004, lost both titles to Hendershott in ’05 rounds looking exactly the way she
and won them back in ’06—Klein would seem to be halfway to the double crown. did that morning. Plus, I thought
With Hendershott out of the mix at the Olympia, who’s going to stop her? she had the best two-minute rou­
tine—tangoing with her silent partner.
Oh, well. Another example of why
STILL MORE FITNESS I’ll never be invited to judge these
things. Adela, in fact, took third in
both routine rounds and third overall,
Best perfor
mance by a
rookie. Hol­
lie Stewart
The Rest with Jen Hendershott, third last
year, moving up to second.
Hendershott, who looked her best
was the only
Of the best ever in the physique rounds, took
first-timer to third in both, and aced both routine
break the top Tanji Johnson continued wig­ rounds. Despite the sentiments ex­
10. gling her way up the totem pole with a pressed above, I don’t have a prob­
fourth-place finish at the International. lem with her finish. These ladies are
Julie Palmer, who I thought had the so good, any one of them could win.
best physique in the bunch, picked Too bad about that difference in prize
up the fifth-place check, and Tracey money (see item on page 265).
Greenwood got the last of the top-six
Julie Shipley-Childs had to
settle for seventh. That’s what hap­
pens when there are too many divas
onstage. Debbie Czempinski and
her Zorro routine took the number-eight
spot, ’06 Team Universe champ Hollie
Stewart landed in ninth, and Angela
Semsch was 10th, with Amy Villa Who
Nelson, Mindi O’Brien, Bethany says
Gainey and Amy Haddad rounding cat-suit
out the lineup. aren’t

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Speaking of Jen Hendershott Cash Concerns

Did someone say prize money?
Jenhen takes The first big news to drift my
her eighth way in Columbus came from the I usually don’t go into the prize money at these shin­
Fitness I
bow above-named gal, who greeted me digs because, where the women’s sports are concerned,
and bids with a twinkle in her eye. “This is there’s not much to talk about. That makes the exception
adieu. going to be my last competition,” of the International competitions worth mentioning. Even
she said. as the women’s physique
Shut up, I replied. sports grew to three, Arnold
No, she would not be onstage Sports Festival promoters
for the Olympia in September, in­ Jim Lorimer and Governor
sisted fitness’ reigning performance Arnold Schwarzenegger
artist, who moved with hubby continued to support them
Brian Kinn to Charlotte, North all. The Columbus shows are
Carolina, from Columbus a year invitationals, meaning all the
or so ago. It’s time to start making athletes’ expenses are paid
babies. (16 men and 46 women this
Hendershott, who is 35, wanted year). The ladies get a royal
to go out with a bang in her home­ production at the Veterans
town, and she succeeded. Dressed as a Girl Scout, she wheeled Memorial Auditorium on
a wagonload of cookies onstage and proceeded to pass them out Friday night, and the money

to the judges, shaking booty and body and thoroughly pleasing the prizes, although nowhere
crowd at the Veterans with her trademark moves and grooves. near the $130,000 Victor
I can’t say I’m really shocked at Jen’s decision. In fact, I’ve kind Martinez earned for win­ Mad money. Julie got
of been expecting it (and there’s another old interview favorite I ning the Classic, are way three grand for taking
wouldn’t be surprised to hear making a similar statement soon). above the $3,000 picked fifth, the same as she
Having won the Fitness International—and the Olympia—Hender­ by the victor at the average earned for taking first at
the Palm Beach Pro last
shott has nothing to prove, and with her Phat Camps threaten­ women’s show. First-place fall.
ing to take over the fitness world, she’ll hardly be gone from the checks at the International
scene. are $25,000 each to the
Jen will be a motivating force in the industry for years to come— bodybuilding and fitness winners and $12,000 to the
you can take that to the bank. But those high-energy, high-con­ figure champ.
cept, choreographed-to-thrill routines—Who else could have won Could it be more? Absolutely, but women’s body­
the Olympia dressed as a banana?—will be sorely missed. building, fitness and figure competition are by definition
don’t-quit-your-day-job situations. On the other hand, it’s
a nice chunk of change a gal could get used to having;
UPCOMING EVENTS so don’t be surprised if you see some high-on-the-phy­
sique-chain competitors not waiting until the O to hit the

Cleveland Rocks!
stage again. As one gal who dropped a couple of plac­
ings from 2006 said after a reporter suggested she’d be
taking an Olympia qualification away from some young
If reading about the Colum­ hopeful, “Honey, I gotta make some money.”
bus festivities has you jonesing
for something to motivate your
spring shape-up, look no further
than 143 miles to the northeast:
What About Figure?’s Healthy P&C coverage of two- More on
Lifestyle Weekend goes down at time Figure Interna­ M.E. next
tional champ Mary month.
Gray’s Armory in Cleveland on
June 9 and 10. Promoter Robert Elizabeth Lado and the
rest of the quarter-turn­
Szarek has lined up a two-day
ers continues in the July
expo designed to knock your gym issue, when IRON MAN
socks off: “My goal is to have per­ presents its eye-widen­
formances going on all day and try ing pictorial on women’s
to make it a family event.” The fun night at the Arnold
will include an NPC fitness contest Classic. In the mean­
presented by Mari Kudla; a time—if you haven’t
performance by Tanji John­ already—check out our
son; the Danielle Rouleau Fit in-the-moment media-
blitz coverage of the
Body contest; the “Posedown in
weekend in Columbus,
Tanji’s guest-posing routine C-Town,” with Frank Roberson including video reports
and “Save Fitness” seminar are and a slew of NPC and IFBB pos­ and photo galleries, at
part of the Healthy Lifestyle ing artists, plus tons of exhibitors.

Weekend. “We had 50 booths last year and and

expect 70 to 75 this time,” said Szarek. For the full rundown, visit \ JUNE 2007 265
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Photography by Ruth Silverman
Who said
ers Cynthia
James and
Merry Chris­
tine are
never in the
same place
at the same
time? Care­
ful, ladies,
seems to be
going after
both your
e trends. Su
hauser (top) sanne Nied
and Rosem er
the short-h ary Jennings
A hot dressing- aired route went
bottom of th and finishe
room shot? No e rankings. d at the Peak attraction.
problem, says e? Mindi O hits a
Colette. personal best.

Even in
brings a
touch of
to the
No truth to the rumor
that Betty has to be
Did somebody say
wound up before she rumor? Adela
and Tracey practic
does her Mike Mata­ e a not-so­
Cute Couplings razzo impression.
mixed pairs fitness

Nancy and Dina get a little anxious wait­

ing for their steaks at Morton’s. Watch it,
girls. This is how rumors get started.

cute Co­
Hometown honeys and
Speaking of rumors, here’s one
in the house. Briana hubby “True story,” says He
that proved to be true: Iris Kyle idi. “Adela
Tindall and Nick Sam. used to drive a sch
and John Sherman. ool bus!”

NPC Arnold Julie bills herself as Shipley-Childs these days. Not

Figure that she ever really intended to drop her maiden
champ name, but after a fan told her she was a dead ringer
Sara Flom for a ’90s fitness star named Julie Shipley—and what
and Stacy ever happened to her?—she thought it might be time
Cravens to make a statement.
themselves You can contact
a surprise Ruth Silverman,
last De­ fitness reporter
cember, and Pump & Cir

family and
cumstance scribe,
friends to in care of
an “en­ IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave.,
party.” Oxnard, CA 93033; or via e-mail at
Nice way to
do it your
way, guys.

Free download from

268 JUNE 2007 \
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Austin’s Abby Marie Wolf
Packs a Feminine-Muscle Punch
Compiled by Jonathan Lawson Photography by Michael Neveux

Height: 5’6” - Age: 29 - Weight: 116

Hometown: Austin, Texas
Current residence: Austin—“The best city in Texas!”
Occupation: Medical equipment company owner for five

years and fitness and bikini model

Marital status: “Married to a very patient and supportive


Workout schedule: Five days a week—Sunday, legs; Tues­

day, chest; Wednesday, back; Thursday, shoulders; Friday,


Sample bodypart workout (legs): Leg presses, 5 x 20;

squats, 5 x 12; leg curls supersetted with leg extensions, 4 x


Favorite foods: “Cereal—at least four kinds mixed in the

same bowl; Tri-O-Plex protein cookies, which are addictive;

Hair and makeup by Alexandra Almond

well-seasoned chicken breasts; sweet potatoes; and any­

thing sweet—especially carrot cake with a glass of milk.”

Factoid: “I have a three-year-old daughter, Kirsten Nicole

Wolf, who is the cutest kid in the world. I have a bachelor's

degree from Texas A&M. I was the floor exercise Texas State

champion in high school and a college gymnast. More re­

cently I was the ’05 NPC Texas State Fitness champion,

the ’05 INBF Alamo Classic Fitness champion and the ’06

Southwest Regional Fitness and Bikini America champion. I

took fifth in the ’06 Bikini America Championship.” \ JUNE 2007 269

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Building Hip and Lower-Back Strength

by Bill Starr • Photography by Michael Neveux

ery few The trouble is, few meet those strength in your hips to perform
strength requirements. They cut off their everyday tasks and keep them
back squats, substituting partial from being injured. Should you
athletes’ or movements for full-range ones or happen to be one of the million
bodybuilders’ at most barely breaking parallel. All people genetically disposed to
routines in­ they re interested in is a legal squat osteoarthritis, then it s even more
in regard to powerlifting rules. crucial that you pay close attention
clude specific exercise Many of those same lifters also start to strengthening your hips.
for their hips. They fig­ their deadlifts with hips set high. Even though the hips can
ure if they’re working They neglect specific exercises for be made extremely strong,
the lower back or use only light they re also quite complicated
their legs and lower weights. They shun front squats and are susceptible to many
backs, they’re also unless they do some Olympic types of injuries, both large and
hitting their hips. lifting. As a result, their hips start small—and a host of diseases,
falling behind, and that s when such as rheumatoid arthritis and
Not necessarily. If problems occur. osteoarthritis.
you’re going deep on The muscles and corresponding A couple of points that are often
back squats, doing attachments of the hips are misunderstood: Osteoarthritis
potentially the strongest in the is not an inevitable part of the
front squats, setting body. If they re not stimulated aging process. It can be halted and
your hips very low directly and with heavy reversed if you catch it in time.
on your deadlifts weights, though, they become You sometimes hear that joint
disproportionately weaker than the deterioration happens because of
and high pulls and surrounding groups. What makes the stress placed on them during
handling heavy pound­ the hips even more important is strenuous physical activities, such
age on good mornings they re at the very center of the as weight training. Not true—just
body, and that s the source of all the opposite. Studies have shown
or almost straight- strength development. that vigorous exercise enhances
legged deadlifts, then
Model: Noel Thompson

Even if you re no longer trying joint integrity and is a useful

you’re indeed strength­ to see how much you can move means of improving the health of
in the squat or deadlift, you still joints that are showing signs of
ening your hips. need to maintain a certain level of osteoarthritis. \ JUNE 2007 283

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afternoon an older gentleman came
to see me just as I got to the Hopkins
weight room. He came to the athletic
center to swim and play squash
regularly, but his left hip was hurting
him so badly that he limped when he
walked and had trouble getting up
from a chair. He was dreadfully afraid
that he might have to have surgery
and was willing to try anything I
I laid out a program. He came
in and worked out under my
supervision before the teams started
their programs. Naturally, he wasn’t
very strong, since he’d never weight-
trained before, but that proved to
be an advantage because he hadn’t
picked up any bad form habits. He
started out using only the Olympic
bar and, for the good mornings,
just a broomstick. As he learned
the technique on the lifts, I slowly
increased the resistance. He lifted
three days a week and swam six. He

Model: Mike Morris

agreed to curtail playing squash until
his hip got better.
Right away I saw that his lower
back was very weak, so I put lots
of lumbar work into his program.
Don’t shun front squats. They can do a lot to bring the Prior to lifting, he did situps and
hips and lower back into strength alignment. hyperextensions and after the
workout leg raises and reverse
hypers. I also had him come to the
weight room on his nonlifting days
I’m not, however, giving an you’re likely already doing, but I and do situps and hyperextensions
across-the-board endorsement of want to modify them just a bit so before he swam.
all forms of exercise. High-impact that they involve
aerobics, for example, should be your hips even
avoided. Sloppy form, which jars the more. They should
hips, is also harmful. Whenever any be most useful
exercise continually traumatizes your to someone who
hips, knees or shoulders, you need is experiencing
to eliminate it from your routine a slight hip pain
because it’s doing more harm than that’s not severe
good. enough to visit
Here’s why the hip is a complicated a doctor. Even
joint. It’s formed of bone, of course, though it doesn’t
and safeguarded by 22 muscles, not hurt terribly, you
including the lower abs and lumbars, know something
which are also connected to the hips isn’t quite right.
and play a major role in stabilizing I’ve given the
them. There are six flexors, four program to a
extensors, two abductors, four number of athletes,
adductors and six outward rotators, and they were
plus all the tendons and ligaments able to remedy
that add support to the structure. An the problem
Model: Idrise Ward-El

amazing piece of work. completely in a

I’m going to list some things you couple of months.
can do to maintain the health of That may seem
your hips, but first I want to deal like a long time,
with exercises that can help you but consider the
to strengthen them. Most of them alternative. One Good mornings may be difficult, but they’re
one of the most productive moves in strength
284 JUNE 2007 \ training.
Free download from
two recommendations I gave him
were equally important. We’ll get
to them, but I want to stay with the
exercises for now.
The reason I like wide-stance
squats and deadlifts is that they work
the hips more than when you do
them with a closer foot placement.
In order for them to be effective,
however, you really must go low on
the squat and set your hips extra low
before you pull on the deadlift. If
you can’t go low with a wide stance,
use your normal stance and try to sit
on your heels. Also, whenever you
employ a wide stance, you activate
your adductors to a greater extent,
and they’re most valuable to leg and
hip strength.
When starting out on wide-stance
squats, stay with higher reps until
you get the feel of the different
movement. How wide? As wide
as you can set your feet and still
maintain your balance when you go
low. The key to making the lift work

Model: Chris Cook

for you is locking your back tight and
keeping your torso erect throughout
the up-and-down motion: no
leaning whatsoever. When you think
Regular deadlifts can do a lot for core strength. And because you’ve gone just as low as you can,
the exercise trains so many muscles at once, it has tremendous squeeze down another inch; then
metabolic-stimulating powers. another.
Four sets of 20 will give you plenty
of work. That final set should be
Here’s the workout tough. After a few weeks doing 20s,
I gave him: Monday, you can reduce the reps to five and
deep squats and low add a few extra sets. That will enable
deadlifts; Wednesday, you to use more weight and thus
wide squats and increase your hip and leg strength.
good mornings; In the event you’re not bothered
Friday, deep squats by any sort of hip problem but still
and sumo, or wide- want to work them just for a bit of
stance, deadlifts. insurance, do wide-stance squats as
Occasionally. I your back-off set or sets after your
substituted almost regular squat workout.
straight-legged Sumo deadlifts also activate the
deadlifts for various muscles and attachments of
good mornings the hips in a fashion slightly different
and hack lifts for from conventional deadlifts. So
deadlifts. Once he they’re quite useful for building
got comfortable strength in those joints. Be sure to
with wide-stance set your hips extra low at the start,
When you’re setting up your program to squats, he did them and don’t let them rise too fast. The
improve hips and lower-back strength, be exclusively. bar and your hips should elevate
sure you give your abs plenty of attention. By the third week at the same rate. Concentrate on
There should be something for the upper he’d stopped limping, squeezing your hips down as the
and lower abs and the obliques. True, and after a month bar breaks off the floor. It will take
your midsection isn’t formed by two he was pain free. a bit of trial and error to determine
separate planes but rather is a continuous
While the strength exactly where to place your feet and
girdle of muscle. So you need to work all
parts—front, back and sides—in order to work certainly played grip the bar, but it’s a simple exercise
maintain proportionate strength. a major role in his to learn. I like to alternate these set-
recovery, the other and-rep formulas: four sets of eight;

286 JUNE 2007 \

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five sets of five; three sets of five
followed by three sets of three.
I also use regular-stance deadlifts
for improving hip strength, but with
a twist. Do the exercise with 25­
pound plates and, again, position
your hips extra low at the start.
That makes them do more work
at the start than when you use 45­
pound plates. Get in the low starting
position, tighten all the muscles of
your body, and think about driving
your feet down through the floor. If
you think about pulling on the bar,
your hips will tend to come up too
rapidly, and the exercise resembles
an almost straight-legged deadlift.
Be sure to lower the bar in the
same way—lowering your hips as
you lower the bar. Change the sets
and reps as suggested for the sumo
Another excellent hip exercise
that was part of almost every
strength routine when I first started
training is the hack lift. It’s also

Model: Daryl Gee

called the straddle lift, and for good
reason: You straddle the bar. While
it will take a bit of practice to figure
out where to place your feet and
where to grip the bar, the hack lift When starting out on wide-stance squats, stay with higher reps
is easy to master. It works your hips until you get the feel of the movement. Go as wide as you can
in unique ways. Your upper body and still maintain your balance when you go low.
must stay erect from start to finish.
Change your hand placement on
every set. If you place your rightthat position on the following set. many neglect their lumbars is that
hand in front of your body on the Lift and lower the bar in a smooth, when done correctly, lower-back
first set, move your left hand to rhythmic stroke, and never rebound exercises are very demanding. Good
the plates off the mornings may be the most difficult
floor. The lower you exercise in strength training, but
set your hips at the they’re also the most productive.
start, the more you Using token weight on specific
involve them. Use lower-back movements just doesn’t
the same rotation get the job done, and when the
of sets and reps, lumbars lag behind strengthwise,
changing them at the weakness affects the hips.
every workout. Whenever people complain to
I’ve found me about hip pain, I check out their
that, as with my program to see how much work
older gentleman, they’re doing for the lower back.
pain in the hip is Invariably, it’s severely lacking.
frequently caused Once they increase their overall
by a weakness in workload on lumbars, the hip pain
the lower back. disappears. The increase is achieved
That’s almost always gradually. It’s not prudent to attack
because the person any muscle group that’s obviously
isn’t doing any deficient.
specific exercise I have them do hypers prior to
to strengthen his lifting and reverse hypers to finish
The muscles and corresponding lumbars, or if he is, off the workout. Start out with 20
attachments of the hips are potentially the he isn’t handling reps on both, and steadily add a
strongest in the body. enough weight. couple of reps at each session until
The main reason so you reach 50. Also do one or both \ JUNE 2007 287

Free download from
on your nonlifting days. It isn’t
that hard to figure out a way to do
them at home. I’ve done reverses
on kitchen counters and hypers on
a small table with my feet locked
under my desk.
Those exercises are useful in
helping to expand your base, but
you’ll need to do one core exercise
for your lower back in order to get it
strong. While I think good mornings
are the most beneficial, almost
straight-legged deadlifts are good
too. Neither, however, will bring
the result you’re seeking unless you
work them hard and heavy. The key
form points for good mornings are
1) once you break your knees at
the start, don’t allow them to bend
any further, and 2) the lower you
go, the more muscles you activate.

Model: Moe Elmoussawi

You can do them with a flat back,
rounded back or while seated. It
doesn’t matter where you start,
only where you end up. My older
gentleman, who used a broomstick
at his first two workouts, was doing
them with 100 pounds by the end Use hypers prior to lifting and reverse hypers to finish off the
of a month’s training. Your eventual workout. Start with 20 reps on each, and steadily add a couple
goal is to handle 50 percent of what of reps at each session until you reach 50.
you’re squatting for eight to 10 reps.
Someone who squats 300 pounds
should be doing eight to 10 reps Unlocking your knees doesn’t affect the two lower-back exercises suits
on good mornings with at least 150 the benefits of the exercise at all and them better than doing either one
pounds. greatly reduces the risk of pulling exclusively. I use the same set-and­
Many prefer almost straight- your hamstring. That applies to rep sequence for both: five sets of
legged deadlifts over good mornings hyperextensions as well. eight at one workout and four sets of
because they think they’re Keep in mind that whenever 10 at the next. Although that might
easier—not true if they’re done you’re working your lumbars, you’re not seem like much of a change, it is.
right. They’re very demanding. Use also strengthening
straps, and don’t stand on a bench your hamstrings—
or block. You can get the same yet another
benefits by using 25-pound plates reason to include
and standing on the floor. When you specific lower-back
stand on a bench, you have to deal exercises in your
with balance, and there’s a risk of hip-strengthening
dropping the bar across the bench. routine. The
I’ve seen it happen several times, hamstrings are
and it didn’t make the gym owner crucial to the
happy at all. health of the hips.
The most important thing to My guideline for
know about that exercise is you almost straight-
must bend your knees slightly. I legged deadlifts
realize that it’s generally called is to use three-
the stiff-legged or straight-legged fourths of your
deadlift and that nearly every photo best squat weight
in fitness magazines shows the for eight to 10 reps.
model doing them with his or her Our 300-pound
legs locked. Well, that’s incorrect squatter should
form. Whenever you’re working your aim for 200 for
lower back directly, you need to eight to 10 reps.
unlock your knees. Otherwise you’re Some find
placing your hamstrings in jeopardy. that alternating Vitamin C and manganese increase the joint-
support formula of chondroitin and glucosamine.
288 JUNE 2007 \
Free download from
his bad hip healthy were 1) find a
competent chiropractor and 2) go to
a health food store and buy vitamin
C, multimineral supplements,
chondroitin and glucosamine
(making sure the latter two were
By competent, I mean a
chiropractor who knows how
to work on muscular people.
Regardless of what those in the
profession declare, some are
definitely more capable than others.
So don’t look for a chiropractor
in the Yellow Pages. Instead, ask
around in the athletic community
before making your selection.
The strength work you’re doing
in the weight room for your hips
and lower back will be much more
productive if your back in aligned
properly. Alignment, however, is
not enough to solve the problem.
If your back muscles remain weak,
they’ll be unable to hold the spine
in place as the vertebrae move out

Model: Ray Campisi

of alignment when placed under
stress. So you need both strength
work and alignment.
Chondroitin and glucosamine
The hip is formed of bone, of course, and safeguarded by 22 have a terrific success rate in
muscles, not including the lower abs and lumbars, which are halting osteoarthritis, if you
also connected to the hips. catch the problem early enough.
Obviously, if the cartilage in your

In addition to strengthening
the muscles and attachments
responsible for keeping your hips
stable, you can do other things to
help ensure that the joints stay
healthy as you grow older. While
genetics may finally win out, you
can prolong it as long as possible
and not succumb without a fight.
Avoid high-impact activities, such
as running. Studies have shown
that walking can bring you the
same benefits as running without
the pounding to your back, hips,
and knees. Walking at a brisk pace
for 12 miles a week helps improve
cardiovascular and respiratory
fitness, control bodyweight, reduce
cholesterol levels, enhance the
health of your heart and lower the
risk of many types of cancer. Sounds
good to me. Other useful, low-
impact aerobic activities include
biking, rowing and, maybe best of
all, swimming.
By the way, the two additional
recommendations I made to my Sumo deadlifts activate the various muscles and attachments
older gentleman (he was 72) to get of the hips in a fashion slightly different from conventional
290 JUNE 2007 \
Free download from
Models: Adrian Janicke and Amy Lynn
Walk, don’t run. Studies show that walking can bring you the
same benefits as running without the pounding to your back,
hips and knees.

hips is completely worn away, Another product, ASU, has been

no supplement is going to help. used successfully for the treatment
If the problem is slight, though, of osteoarthritis in France since
those substances help build new the early ’90s, but it’s only recently
cartilage as well as the ends of the become available in the United
bones where cartilage is attached, States. It’s derived from avocado
the capsules surrounding the joints and soybean oils and works well
and the muscles adjacent to the with chondroitin and glucosamine.
joints. Take 1,200 milligrams of It may be hard to find. If you do,
chondroitin three times a day and take 300 milligrams a day. To
1,500 milligrams of glucosamine learn more about taking care of
every day. your joints, read The Arthritis
Vitamin C and manganese Cure by Dr. Jason Theodosakis
increase the effectiveness of (St. Martin’s). It’s changed the way
chondroitin and glucosamine. people deal with joint pain and
Water-soluble, both vitamin C osteoarthritis.
and manganese are antioxidants Even though your hips feel
and assist the immune system strong and healthy, it’s a smart idea
in destroying joint-damaging to include specific exercises for
free radicals. Manganese plays them in your strength program.
a key role in the synthesis of You may be able to avoid future hip
cartilage, so it needs to be taken problems by taking the nutritional
regularly. Take five grams of C supplements I mentioned. An
daily, and every time you do, take a ounce of prevention.…
multimineral tablet as well. I think
taking minerals in a mixed form Editor’s note: Bill Starr was a
rather than separately is a good strength and conditioning coach
idea because of mineral synergy at Johns Hopkins University from
in the body. Just make sure your 1989 to 2000. He’s the author of The
multimineral has an adequate Strongest Shall Survive and Defying
amount of manganese in it. Gravity. IM

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Pick Your Personality Is it time to re-create yourself?


o into any gym and you’ll see people who attack their The truth is, the so-called permanent personality character­
workouts. They don’t coast through the tough exercis­ istics are extremely malleable; they can usually change with the
es. They make each set count. They have an air about social situation we’re in. That means you can change who you
them—they expect to succeed. You can almost feel it. It’s the are and become what you want.
same outside the gym, too, and other people can’t help but Before we touch on how to make the changes you want,
notice it. They describe such people as winners, attributing all let’s take a minute to explore just how flexible our personalities
manner of good things to them and summing it up by saying are. We’ll begin by considering the importance of the social
that they have terrific personalities. situation in determining how we think and act.
You know the other side of this story: the people who lose Twenty-some years ago Stanford research psychologist Phil
at everything they try; the people for whom failure seems to Zimbardo and his colleagues recruited students and randomly
be a required result no matter what they are doing—building assigned them to be either prisoners or guards in a study.
biceps, taking a test, handling a job. It’s always the same, and Conditions were as realistic as could be managed, from the
it isn’t good. Once again, others notice and write those people time the students were “arrested” by the local police to their
off as chronic losers. incarceration in cells. Very quickly, the stereotypical relation­
ships and behaviors of prisoners vs. guards developed. The
prisoners became passive and depressed, while the guards
became aggressive and abusive. The first prisoner had to be
released in less than a day and a half due to his uncontrollable
crying, disorganized thinking, fits of rage and so forth. It wasn’t
pretty. Things became so strained that what originally had been
planned as a two-week experiment had to be terminated after
six days. Remember, only random assignment determined who
was a prisoner and who was a guard.
Not so startling but just as telling was a body of psychologi­
cal research demonstrating that, lo and behold, people weren’t
as consistent as you might think from one situation to another.
They might be honest here, dishonest there and somewhere
in the middle in a third situation. That posed a big problem for
classic personality theories that would have us expect people
to behave very predictably across a variety of settings. Now it
was clear that particular situations influence a person’s behavior
in a very particular way.
The moral of the story is that you might think you’re destined
to waste away as a wanna-be or a wallflower, but you really
don’t have to. You can re-create yourself in whatever image you
Neveux \ Models: Clark Bartram and Michael O’Hearn

want, Viking warrior, Amazon queen or anything in between.

Less dramatic but more to the point, you don’t have to be the
person who misses workouts, makes a halfhearted effort when
in the gym and always finds the best reasons for not sticking
with a program. You can be a winner.
The first step in your transformation is to pick the type of
personality you want to have. In our example you’d want to be
someone who isn’t just enthusiastic about training when he’s
lying on a couch watching his favorite muscle video. You’d
want to be the type of person whose deep-rooted enthusiasm
motivates and sustains each workout. You look forward to
training and can’t wait to get started. You can’t wait to get to

Free download from


your heavy sets, and you welcome the chance to set a

new personal record, no matter how hard the required
effort or how small the step forward. After training, it’s
natural to get the nutrition and rest required for optimum
recovery and progress. You’re brimming with energy, and

Laugh Ends With GH

it seems as if the harder you train, the harder you want to

train. It’s great—you’ve become a self-sustaining training n a new study
machine. volunteers who an-
To reach that state, you need to cultivate the right ticipated watching
thoughts and behaviors. Gone are the people who tell you a funny movie had 27
that lifting weights is a waste of time. Gone are the people percent more endor­
who tell you that you’re genetically suited to be a wimp. phins and 87 percent
Gone are the people who say that they never built more more human growth

Neveux \ Model: David Yeung

than a 16-inch arm, so why should you expect any more? hormone. Both of
Gone are the people who always say “no,” “can’t” and those substances
“never.” Gone are the thoughts of everything that could enhance the immune
possibly go wrong along the way. Gone are the late-night system, and GH can
binges that cripple the next day’s training. Gone is the help boost fat burning
junk food that can undo your best efforts in the gym. and muscle growth
In their place are the elements you need to build the [Bottom Line Health,
successful you. Here are the people who always believe March ’07]. —Becky Holman
that you can do what you dream about. Here are the
people who are in charge of their own lives. Here are
the people who like to challenge themselves and never
settle for yesterday’s best. Here are the people who do
the things that others said were impossible. Here are the
thoughts of how to make the next step forward. Here is Mental Health
the discipline to eat, sleep and think in a way that almost
guarantees progress.
As you can see, building a winning personality isn’t just
Flax or Fishin’ For omega-3s
a bunch of emotional cheerleading or fanciful visualiza­

tion—it’s serious work. Along the way you have to keep ou may know that omega-3
your eyes and ears open, trying to learn things that will fatty acids are good for your
help you reach your goal. You have to keep your sleeves heart and can even relieve
rolled up to do the work that will get you there. It’s a chal­ depression, but are you eating
lenge, but look at what you stand to gain. more fish? If not, you may want to
It’s your choice, winner or loser: Pick your personality. consider flaxseed. Two tablespoons
—Randall Strossen, Ph.D. of ground flaxseed provides 1,000
milligrams of omega-3s—and only
Editor’s note: Randall Strossen, Ph.D., edits the 25 calories. You can get the same
quarterly magazine MILO. He’s also the author of Iron- amount of omega-3s in two ounces
Mind: Stronger Minds, Stronger Bodies; Super Squats: of cooked salmon, but that has a
How to Gain 30 Pounds of Muscle in 6 Weeks and Paul little over 100 calories, not to men­
Anderson: The Mightiest Minister. For more information tion a fishy taste. You may want to
call IronMind Enterprises Inc. at (530) 265-6725 or Home try adding ground flaxseed or flaxseed oil to your protein
Gym Warehouse at (800) 447-0008, ext. 1. Visit the Iron- drinks to get more of those important omega-3 fats.
Mind Web site at —Becky Holman \ JUNE 2007 293

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Bomber Blast MIND/BODY

Lost-and-Found Department

ome folks col­ clutter of things only you risk touching—battered
lect rare coins, water bottle, frayed wraps, chalky towel, sticky loose
stamps or an­ change, squashed MRPs, smeared phone numbers
tique cars—precious, on Post-its and business cards, and that brown
impressive and a joy paper sack of training tricks ’n’ treats—tells the story
to the owner. The of a long, arduous and worthy journey. The know­
fascinating items are ing and persistence with which you approach your
appropriately stored in dilemma defines a responsible, purposeful individual.
safe places and ad­ Each step, sure or uncertain, takes you forward and
mired by enthusiasts makes you more, better, tougher and smarter. You’re
on special occasions. a creator, an innovator, an improviser, a battler. You

Neveux \ Model: Sagi Kalev

Sometimes they’re are dauntless.
traded or sold for large Ah-ha! What’s this? A dusty, retired slumpbuster
sums of money. created to blast the arms and spirits out of their stinky
I collect old forgot- socks. Had you not paused to refresh yourself with a
ten facts and similar tug on the ole flask of gratitude, you might have en-
abstract collectibles tertained frustration and displeasure, doubt and sur-
relative to exercise render. Unlikely, really. That’s the
and fitness (I also have course of a loser, and a loser
a garage full of rusty doesn’t know a good slump-
scrap metal). They’re buster from a ham-and-cheese
valuable yet don’t cost a dime. People sandwich. You’re a bomber.
seek them as precious gold nuggets, yet The bi-tri slumpbuster is nei-

Neveux \ Model: Jose Raymond

I find them in plain sight on any gym floor. ther retired nor old, but another
Once found, they are not stored under dirty trick to remind you of my
lock and key; they are applied and utilized favorite builder of big guns, or,
regularly. And I don’t trade them or sell in the case of gals and fitness
them for large sums of money; I give them rascals, developer of strong and
away to anyone who can use them. shapely arms. I resort to tricks,
Not a week goes by at the gym that smoke and mirrors and teensy
I’m not reminded of an effective exercise,
exaggerations (lies) to effect the
training technique or nutritional truth that has slipped through
growth of healthy muscle and might. Watch closely.
the ever-widening cracks in my mind. For example...
The slumpbuster is standing barbell curls supersetted with
I’m watching a couple of nerd-types (I’m not a prejudiced lying barbell extensions. I like five sets with reps ranging from
person; some of my best friends are nerds) out of the corner 10 to six for bi’s and 12 to eight for tri’s. The mass, density,
of my eye as I carefully make my workout preparations. One’s shape and strength of the arms and assisting muscles improve
wearing Bermuda shorts and knee-high socks and a spiffy in proportion to the maximum-muscle intensity applied—each T-shirt, the other’s in a puffy gray sweat­ set, every rep. Work equals improvement.
shirt and sweatpants and new Reeboks, and they both wear Remember, intensity is relative. I work harder today—fo­
iPods and carry cell phones, calculators, clipboards and tim­ cusing, exerting, forging and burning—than I did 10, 20, 30
ers. Goofy and Goofus. and 40 years ago. I move a fraction of the weight with less
Now get this. Goofy takes the lead, closely followed by freedom, I search for an agreeable groove to facilitate muscle
Goofus, and commences a series of exercises—one after the engagement with solid effort and I use a frazzled elastic wrap
other—with little more than 15-second pauses. The string of where and when necessary, but I blast it. With one eye on risk
exercises at first glance appears to be a calamity of random­ and both eyes on the goal, I get what I can while I can. See
ness typical of new lifters, but further scrutiny reveals that the my crooked mouth? That’s a smile.
routine demonstrates advanced formation: five upper-body Whadaya know...the end of the runway. I have one ole
movements in a thoughtful and complementary cycle—incline battered body to get this tin can off the ground and high in the
dumbbell presses (chest and shoulders), straight-arm pullovers sky before it’s too late. That and a
(two hands, one dumbbell—lats), lateral raises (shoulders), in­ lot of heart is all it takes.
cline curls (biceps), overhead triceps presses (two hands, one —Dave Draper
dumbbell—triceps). They complete three cycles of five sets of
six reps with weights that make them work hard. Editor’s note: For more from
Who are these guys? Dave Draper, visit his Web site,
That workout MO has been in the closet for a generation., and sign
Where and when did this unlikely pair uncover the lost, forgot­ up for his free newsletter. You can
ten alternative muscle-building technique? Apparently, they’ve also check out his amazing Top
been paying attention. Squat training tool, classic photos,
Going through a sack of bodybuilding tricks can be frus­ workout Q&A and forum.
trating, but often riches unfold. The familiar gym bag with its

294 JUNE 2007 \

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VPX Sports Awards $50,000

PX is proud to announce team
“Fat 2 Fit” as the winners of
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of team Fat 2 Fit set a new fat-loss
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The team Fat 2 Fit members are
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What’s next? How about a $75,000 grand prize!
That’s right, the next Zero Impact contest will have a $75,000 grand prize,
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New Stuff
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Gallery of Ironmen MIND/BODY

Sergei Ivanovich Eliseev

arly-20th-century Russia was
a volatile place where the
czar ruled with an iron fist and
revolutionaries strove to overthrow
him. One of those rebellious fighters
was a mighty athlete who challenged
authority and demonstrated that
strength of muscle and strength of
character are sometimes united in
the same person. The young man’s
name was Sergei Ivanovich Eliseev,
and he was one of the most powerful
lifters ever to emerge from the heart
of Mother Russia.
Eliseev was born in 1876 in Ufa,
a city in the remote southern Ural
Mountains. He was a strong youth
and a champion wrestler from an
early age. In April 1898 he went to
St. Petersburg, where he began his
lifting career under the sponsorship
of Vladislav Krajewski (Gallery of
Ironmen, May ’05). There he learned win an international gold medal for his
the finer points of weightlifting from country.
the growing community of athletes Although he continued to compete
who were active there. His progress occasionally as an amateur in national
was so dramatic that he was sent to and international contests, Eliseev
Italy in 1899 to the World Weightlift­ left St. Petersburg and returned to
ing Championships. The newcomer Ufa, where he found work as a met­
surprised almost everyone by taking alworker at a locomotive repair shop.
top honors at the competition, thus In addition to lifting, Sergei Ivanovich
becoming the first Russian ever to was politically active, and when a
revolution broke out in 1905, the ath­
lete was in the thick of things.
He came to the attention of
the czarist secret police often
enough to earn a code name
in the official records. He was
known as “the Athlete.”
Eventually, he was exiled
to Siberia, and two years after
the Communist revolution of
1917 he settled in the city of
Tomsk, located on the Trans-
Siberian Railroad. Eliseev held
a variety of jobs, but despite
the poverty and hardships that
beset almost everyone in the
Soviet Union at that time, he
continued to work out and to
coach others in weightlifting.
Lon \ Photo courtesy of the David Chapman collection

Although the facts of his death

are not entirely clear, it seems
that the outspoken Russian
lifter was liquidated in 1939 in
the infamous Stalinist purge
of “troublemakers.” Tragically,
Eliseev had survived one tyran­
nical regime only to fall victim
to another.
—David Chapman

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Use Your Stress To fuel your success

n so many people’s lives, stress effectiveness
has become a life-robbing nega­ and measur­
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For 27 years Pete Siegel, through you’ve ever
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pearances, book and CD sales, Your Stress
seminars, classes and, more recently, to Fuel Your
podcasts and e-articles, has helped Success! presents unique and prov­
millions worldwide overcome nega­ en concepts. Siegel has taken all the
tives in their lives and then go on to guesswork out for you. Just read and
experience remarkable levels of apply the book’s step-by-step, easy­
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pecially in the areas of performance begin to deliberately use your stress
enhancement and personal income). and stress factors to richly enhance
His new, groundbreaking work Using your life—in esteem-building, power-
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the unsettling effects of stress—in a Your Stress to Fuel Your Success!,
way that leads to truly enhanced per­ visit
sonal vitality, emotional strength, life

New Stuff

Carb-Conscious Bar
he Supreme Protein bar, long a favorite among serious athletes, will soon be
available at 7-Eleven and Vitamin Shoppe stores. That merchandising move
marks a radical change in sales strategy for Supreme Protein maker Pro-
Source, which has always been content to restrict sales of its gourmet protein bar
to its own Web site and exclusive catalog.
Why the change of heart? It seems ProSource and the national retail chains have
been inundated with thousands of requests from customers who simply couldn’t
understand why their favorite bar wasn’t available in convenience stores (like so
many other bars that, frankly, lack Supreme Protein’s premier protein content and
great taste).
The Supreme
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its outrageously
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caramel and crispy protein wafers. At the same time, thanks to its superior whey
isolate, it is the undisputed industry leader in protein content. That makes it a far
cry from most competing bars, which contain large amounts of useless gelatin. It
contains healthful fats, including flaxseed oil, and a full spectrum of vitamins and
minerals. The Supreme bar also has only six net carbs, low sugar and zero trans fat.
Of course, those of you who have long preferred to deal with ProSource directly
can still get your favorite bodybuilding snack by going to or
calling up its industry-leading customer service team at (800) 310-1555.

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Physique Flaws MIND/BODY

The Perfect Body?

ecently, someone asked me what constitutes the
“perfect” body. I was somewhat taken aback, as
I don’t think perfection is possible. Even if it were,
wouldn’t perfection be different for each one of us? So
here’s how I answered:
When discussing the look of a bodybuilder’s physique,
we normally mention symmetry first. Basically, that means
both sides of the body are equal in size and shape. Is it
possible to achieve this? Yes, visually pretty much, al­
though everyone has slight variations on each side in terms
of size (sometimes up to an inch or so on a tape measure),
as well as in the shape of each muscle group. You don’t
need perfect symmetry, however, to be successful as a
bodybuilder. Jay Cutler proves that every year; one of his
thighs looks bigger than the other, and he’s the number-
one pro in the world.
Another important aspect of the equation is propor­
tion, which means that every bodypart is in balance with
the others. While people have come up with formulas to
describe perfect proportions, few people actually fit that constitute the perfect body for me might not be what you
measure. Proportion is more of a visual experience, in that feel is perfection. Some feel that the freakiness of Markus
it is easy to see when someone’s arms look too big for his Rühl defines perfection, while others feel it’s Flex Wheeler
chest (sorry, Lee Priest), or someone’s thighs are too small or Shawn Ray. Still others look at all IFBB pros as being
in relation to the upper body, or one’s shoulders dominate entirely too large for their bone structures and appreciate
the chest or arms. guys more along the lines of Steve Reeves or Reg Park.
Accordingly, “perfection” comes down to trying to make You need to look in the mirror and decide for yourself
sure that your physique is symmetrical and proportionate. what perfection is. Nobody has your exact structure, in­
In bodybuilding we also look for the best V-taper possible, sertions and shapes, so you must look to simply make
which means a wide back and shoulders coupled with a yourself the best you can be in your eyes—especially if
small waist. Take that further and you have the X-frame, you don’t plan to step onstage in front of judges. In other
which includes thighs that sweep nicely out to the sides, words, you need to be your own judge.
from the hip to the knee. —Eric Broser
But remember: Bodybuilding is subjective. What might

New Stuff Sleep

Edge Active Care Sound for Shut-eye

C Johnson has created the first

ntermittent sounds during the night can disrupt your
premium shave preps with the sleep, which can lead to less growth hormone release
launch of Edge Active Care, a line and muscle repair. According to Thomas Roth, Ph.D.,
of products that deliver a great shave director of the Sleep Disorders and Research Center at
and good skin care. Each of the new Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, “It’s the inconsistency
shave preps specifically addresses a of the sound or silence that’s disruptive.” Fans or other
man’s unique needs while providing a white-noise devices produce steady sound that can
superior shaving experience with unsur­ block out noises that can disrupt sleep. If you’re having
passed protection from the razor’s edge. trouble staying asleep, white noise may do the trick.
Edge Active Care shave preps are all —Becky Holman
dermatologist-tested, and the creams
sit close to the skin to give you a close,
comfortable shave.
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Graphic Muscle Stars /

Meriza Goncalves
Weight: 96 pounds contest; 100
pounds off-season
Height: almost 5’
Years training: Six
Residence: San Diego
Favorite foods: Sushi (healthful);
cheesecake, In-N-Out Burgers
Web site:
of Pete Ciccon
Photo courtesy

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Readers Write

Delightful Di Nino Mentis the Man

I’ve always been a big
fan of IRON MAN. I like
the fact that many of the
bodybuilders featured are
in their 40s or above. Last
March you did an article on
one of them, Jimmy Mentis.
After checking out his nu­
trition ideas and workout
programs on his Web site,
I decided to write to him
with some questions. To
my surprise, he responded
immediately. He even gave
me a great workout pro­
gram and nutrition guide to
follow and told me he’d be
at the Arnold Classic pro­
moting his new supplement

line. I went, and it was an Jimmy Mentis.
honor to meet him and his
wife, Suzie. To this day he checks up on me via e-mail and
makes sure I’m leading a healthy lifestyle. At 46 years old, I
need that. I am amazed that he took so much time to help
me out. He’s changed my life.
Brian Clerici
Nancy Beaver Falls, PA

Di Nino.
Editor’s note: For more on Jimmy Mentis, click your
way to
Nancy Di Nino [IRON MAN Hardbody, April ’07] is so-o-o
hot—fiery red hair, just the right amount of muscle and an
exotic, angular face that is very sexy. I was blown away when
I realized she’s a correctional officer in a men’s jail. Lock me
Packin’ on Muscle
up—please! Just wanted to drop you a note and let you know how
Sam Frutousky well my workout routine is going with the Phase 1 Mass F/X
via Internet Program from the e-book 3D
Muscle Building. I decided
Walkin’ and Talkin’ to use that program for 10
weeks, and I’m now entering
I am impressed that so many of IRON MAN’s writers talk week six. The results have
the talk and walk the walk. John Hansen, Steve Holman, been outstanding. Since the
Jonathan Lawson and now Eric Broser—these men have start of the program, I’ve
drug-free physiques that I can aspire to. I’ve enjoyed read­ put on about five pounds of
ing Train, Eat, Grow and how Holman and Lawson are using solid muscle, only about one
Broser’s Power/Rep Range/Shock method along with their pound of fat and 4.5 pounds
own POF and X Reps. Very interesting, and it was good to of “lean body mass”—which
see a big photo of Broser in the latest installment [April ’07]. to me means intercellular
You guys keep it real to keep me training real hard. water weight. A big thank-you
Cesar Martinez for such an outstanding mass-
Oakland, CA building routine!
via Internet

Editor’s note: For more information on 3D Positions of

Flexion and X-Rep training, visit www.3DMuscleBuilding
.com and
Muscle-Training Program 90 Vol. 66, No. 6: IRON MAN (ISSN #0047-1496) is published monthly by IRON MAN Pub­
From the IRONMAN Training & Research Center
by Steve Holman and Jonathan Lawson • Photography by Michael Neveux lishing, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Periodical Mail is paid at Oxnard, CA, and at
ou couldd say y that
h w example,
p for upper
pp p pecs w ddo additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives
Week 1: Power
on a quest
q to find
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S h h incline p

Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Please allow six to eight weeks for change to take effect. Subscrip­
perfect muscle-building
b d g T ain ev y ex cise with h incline flyes and
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p flyes.)
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tion rates—U.S. and its possessions: new 12-issue subscription, $29.97. Canada, Mexico and
use slightly
h h higher
h repsp on en­
p g
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durance-oriented d muscles like Th week is for putting
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other foreign subscriptions: 12 issues, $49.97 sent Second Class. Foreign orders must be in
Week 2: Rep Range sets and
d so on. Reps
R for most
The human
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b d is de-
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U.S. dollars. Send subscriptions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Ave., Oxnard, CA 93033. Or call
q b B
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d want en to nine reps.
p For
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1-800-570-4766. Copyright © 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be
abbig, midrange-position
d p ex ing to many that
h how
h size gains

reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the USA.
R g Sh k is designed
Range/Shock d g d with h
h body
b dy highh gh level of adapt-
d p cise as our first mo ement and da h pp
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d p mo andd intensifying our efforts could d
P/RR/S works: k . .

304 JUNE 2007 \

TEG90_402_F.indd 58-59 3/8/07 3:06:48 PM

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