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Q1. [20 marks]

1 2 −1 1

1 3 2 k

3 6 −3 k

The row operations

R2 := R2 − R1 , R3 := R3 − 3R1

lead to

1 2 −1 1

0 1 3 k − 1

0 0 0 k−3

So for the system to be consistent, we need k = 3.

1 2 −1 1

0 1 3 2

0 0 0 0

Solve by back substitution with z = t to obtain

y + 3t = 2, i.e. y = 2 − 3t

x + 2(2 − 3t) − t = 1, i.e. x = −3 + 7t

(b) [4 marks]

(i)

A A A2 A A

(I − A)(I + )=I −A+ − = I −A+ + = I

2 2 2 2 2

and similarly

A

(I +

)(I − A) = I

2

A

So I − A is invertible and (I − A)−1 = I + .

2

(ii) If A is invertible,

i.e. (A−1 A)A = −I

I A = −I

A = −I

1

(c) [4 marks]

(i) If x is in the natural domain of f , we must have x − 1 ≥ 0 and so the natural

domain is [1, ∞).

1 − 1.

(Alternately, show that f ′ (x) > 0.)

√

To find f −1 , start with the equation x = y − 1 giving

y = f −1 (x) = x2 + 1.

(d) [4 marks] Consider the inequality on each of the two cases x < 4 and x ≥ 4.

S

The solution is therefore (−∞, 1) (7, ∞).

2

Q2. [17 marks]

(a) [6 marks]

(i)

lim− f (x) = lim− (1 − x2 ) = 1 and

x→0 x→0

lim f (x) = lim+ cos x = 1

x→0+ x→0

2

Since also, f (0) = 1 − 0 = 1, f is continuous at x = 0.

(ii)

f (h) − f (0) cos h − 1

lim+ = lim+ =0

h→0 h h→0 h

f (h) − f (0) (1 − h)2 − 1

lim− = lim− =0

h→0 h h→0 h

So f is differentiable at x = 0 and f ′ (0) = 0.

dy dy

2x + 2y + 2a x + y = 0

dx dx

dy

∴ (y + ax) + x + ay = 0

dx

dy x + ay

and so =−

dx y + ax

In the case a = −1,

dy x−y

=− =1

dx y−x

so that the curve is the straight line y = x.

(This also follows from the original equation which becomes x2 + y 2 − 2xy = 0,

i.e. (x − y)2 = 0, or y = x.)

(c) [6 marks]

0

(i) This is an indeterminate form of the type so we can use L’Hôpital’s rule

0

and obtain

1

ln x x

lim = lim

x→1 x2 − x x→1 2x − 1

1 1

= lim = = 1.

x→1 2x − x

2 2−1

0

(ii) This is also of the form . Applying L’Hôpital’s rule gives

0

cos ax − cos bx −a sin ax + b sin bx

lim = lim

x→0 x2 x→0 2x

0

which is still of the form . Applying L’Hôpital’s rule again gives

0

cos ax − cos bx −a2 cos ax + b2 cos bx b2 − a2

lim = lim = .

x→0 x2 x→0 2 2

3

Q3. [17 marks]

x−2

y=

x2

(i) When y = 0, x = 2 so that the intercept with the x axis is the point (2, 0).

(ii) Since x = 0 is not in the domain of f (and lim f (x) = −∞), there is a vertical

x→±0

asymptote at x = 0 (the y axis).

x→±∞

(i) 4 − x > 0 and x3 > 0, or when

(ii) 4 − x < 0 and x3 < 0.

I.e. when either (i) 0 < x < 4 or (ii) x > 4 and x < 0 — (which case is

impossible.)

S

It follows that f is decreasing on (−∞, 0) (4, ∞).

1

When x = 4, y = f (x) = so that (using the first derivative test), f has a local

8

1

maximum at the point (4, ).

8

(iv) f is concave up when f ′′ (x) > 0, i.e. when x > 6, i.e. on the interval (6, ∞).

f is concave downSwhen f ′′ (x) < 0, i.e. when x < 6 and x 6= 0. So f is concave

down on (−∞, 0) (0, 6).

Since concavity changes when x = 6, there is an inflexion point when x = 6, i.e.

1

at the point (6, ).

9

4

(v)

y

1

(4, )

8

· 1

(6, )

9

·

·

(2, 0) x

5

(b) [7 marks]

y = 3 − x2

y

Area A

x √

3

A(x) = 2xy = 2x(3 − x2 ) = 6x − 2x3 .

√

Note that the natural domain of A is [0, 3]. This is defined by the problem!

√

(ii) So we need to maximize A on [0, 3].

dA

= 6 − 6x2 = 0 when x = 1

dx

(The case x = −1 is not in the domain of A.)

Finally √

A(0) = 0, A( 3) = 0, A(1) = 6 − 2 = 4

So the maximum area is 4.

6

Q4. [17 marks]

(a) [6 marks]

(i)

Z Z Z Z

− 21 −2x − 12

2x − sin 3x + e dx = 2 x dx − sin 3x dx + e−2x dx

1

2x 2 cos 3x e−2x

= 1 + − +C

2

3 2

1 1 1

= 4x 2 + cos 3x − e−2x + C

3 2

√ 1 du 1 dx

(ii) Let u = x = x 2 so that = √ , i.e. √ = 2 du.

dx 2 x x

Then

√

sin x

Z Z

√ dx = 2 sin u du

x

= −2 cos u + C

√

= −2 cos x + C.

(b) [6 marks]

y = 3x + 2

A1

3

A2

2

(i)

1

1 3 7

Z

(3x + 2) dx = A1 + A2 = ×1×3+1×2= +2 = .

0 2 2 2

7

f (x) = 3x + 2

k−1 k 1

n n

(ii)

n

X 1 k

Consider Rn = f( )

k=1

n n

n

X 1 3k

= +2

k=1

n n

n n

3 X 2X

= k + 1

n2 k=1 n k=1

3 n(n + 1) 2

= + n

n2 2 n

3 1

= 1+ +2

2 n

3 7

Therefore lim Rn = + 2 = as above.

n→∞ 2 2

8

(c) [5 marks]

Z ∞

2

In = x2n e−x dx

Z0 ∞

dv −x2 x2n+1

= u dx where u = e and v =

0 dx 2n + 1

Z ∞

du

= uv |∞

0 − v dx

0 dx

2

∞ Z ∞ 2n+1

x2n+1 e−x x 2

= − · −2xe−x dx

2n + 1 0 2n + 1

0

Z ∞

2 2

= 0−0+ x2n+2 e−x dx

2n + 1 0

2

= In+1

2n + 1

2n + 1

Therefore In+1 = In .

2

9

Q5. [14 marks]

(a) [3 marks] Write this equation as

dy

y = cos x.

dx

Integrating both sides of the equation with respect to x gives:

Z Z

dy

y dx = cos x dx

dx

Now use the chain rule to get

Z Z

y dy = cos x dx

Integrating the LHS with respect to y and the RHS with respect to x gives

y2

= sin x + C

2

Since the required integral curve goes through the point ( π2 , 1),

1 π

= sin + C = 1 + C

2 2

So C = − 21 and the equation of the integral curve is

y2 1

= sin x −

2 2

R

2dx

(b) [5 marks] The integrating factor is ρ = e = e2x .

Multiplying the DE by this gives:

dy

+ 2 y e2x = 5 e3x e2x

dx

d

y . e2x = 5 e5x

dx

y . e2x = e5x + C

y = e3x + C e−2x

10

(c) [6 marks]

(i) Since there is originally 50 grams of sugar present, the DE becomes

dS

= k (50 − S)

dt

Separating the variables, and using the chain rule gives

1 dS

= k

(50 − S) dt

1

Z Z

dS

dt = k dt

(50 − S) dt

1

Z Z

dS = k dt

(50 − S)

1

Z Z

dS = − k dt

(S − 50)

ln(S − 50) = −kt + C

Taking exponentials gives

S − 50 = e−kt+C = A e−kt

where A = eC .

The general solution to the differential equation is

S = 50 − A e−kt .

Since at t = 0, S = 0,

0 = 50 − A e0 = 50 − A

so A = 50 and hence

S = 50 − 50 e−kt = 50 (1 − e−kt )

as required.

S −→ 50

11

Q6. [15 marks]

(a) [6 marks]

(i) The first and second order partial derivatives are:

fx = 2x − 6y fy = 3y 2 − 6x

fxx = 2 fyy = 6y fxy = − 6 ( = fyx )

3y 2 − 18y = 0

3y(y − 6) = 0

The critical points are (0, 0) and (18, 6).

2

point fxx fyy fxy D = fxx fyy − fxy

(0, 0) 2 0 −6 −36

(18, 6) 2 36 −6 36

A minimum occurs at (18, 6) since D > 0 and fxx > 0.

∂W

= (−c) cos(x − ct)

∂t

and

∂2W

= (−c)2 (− sin(x − ct)) = − c2 sin(x − ct)

∂t2

Differentiating W wrt x twice holding t constant gives

∂W

= cos(x − ct)

∂x

and

∂2W

= − sin(x − ct)

∂x2

So

2∂2W 2 ∂2W

c = − c sin(x − ct) =

∂x2 ∂t2

and the wave equation is satisfied by W (x, t).

12

(c) [5 marks]

(i) The contour of f (x, y) which passes through the point (0, 0) is given by setting

(x − y) (x2 + y 2 ) = 0

This line breaks the region close to the critical point into two regions.

(See diagram below.)

(ii) By testing points in these regions we can work out where f is positive and where

f is negative. If a maximum occurs at (0, 0), then f < 0 in all regions. If a

minimum occurs at (0, 0), then f < 0 in all regions . Any other case means that

a saddle has to occur at the critical point.

−3 − − y=x

−

point sign of f − 2 − +

−

(−1, 0) − − − + +

1

(1, 0) +

−3 −2 −1 1 2 3

− −1 + +

−

− + −2 + +

+

+ +−3 +

13

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