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ADL-01 PRINCIPLES AND PRACTISES OF MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT 'A' ASSIGNMENT 'B' ASSIGNMENT 'C'
SUBMITTED BY: SAHIL JASSAL PEN:A1921210014(el) BBA (JULY 2010-11)
Each person's job should be broken down into elements & a scientific way to perform each element should be determined. The second statement was based on the series of ideas developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor. commanding. to plan. commercial . Classical school : classsical management theory consists of a group of similar ideas on the managament of organizations evolved in late 19th & early 20th century. Classical theorists recognized human emotions. classical school discusses management as: A. and the worker should be free to perform the work himself. B. managers should appeal to their monetary desire. 2. The first statement of management was based on economic rationality of the employee. coordinating and controlling. . This school evolved as a result of industrial revolution in response to the growth of large organizations. Managers should take over the work of supervising and setting up instructions and designing the work. He focused on the managerial activity & propounded that basic functions of a manager consists of planning. That assumes that people choose there course of action that maximizes their monetary rewards. organizing . Fayol wrote that all the activities of business enterprises could be divided into six groups: technical. accounting . to coordinate and to control. There should be a division of labour between managers & workers. 4. He also presented 14 principles of management. Management is to forcast. C. The third statement was based on the Fayol's unified concept. Thus to get employees to work hard. There should be good cooperation between management & workers so that tasks are performed in the designed manner. financial . This school is also called the traditional school of management. Management is ordering people to do the job. commanding. 3. Schools of Management 1. coordinating and controlling. Which are as follows: 1. Management is desigening job structure. Workers should be scientifically selected & trained to do the work in designed & trained manner. to organize.Assignment A Ans 1.
which tends to degrade the human spirit and is nonresponsive to human needs. systems theory: A system is an entity made up of two or more interdependent parts that interacts to form a functioning organism.2. A system can either be open or closed. motives. Important behavioural scientists like Abraham Maslow.which gives primacy to psychological needs but treats fulfillment of emotional needs mainly as a means of achieving other primary economic goals. contingency theory: The contingency approach stresses the absence of a single best way to manage and emphasizes the need for managerial strategies based on all relevent facts. It focuses on making objective & rational decisions. Organizational humanism focuses on individual needs and the satisfaction of these needs at work. The term modern behaviourism refers to the current stage of evolution of the behavioural school of management. 4. Modern Management School: The Modern management theory highlights the complexity of the organization as well as individuals and the diversity of their needs. universal management principles are impracticable. 3. As a result . A system adapts and adjusts to the changing conditions of its environment and exercises control over its operations through feedback. They regarded the classical management theory as highly mechanistic . particularly its environment & the technology it uses. There is no single managerial strategy that works for all the poeple at all times. organizational humanism: The philosophy of this theory is that the individuals need to use all of their capacities and creative skills at work as well as at home. 3. This theory says that organization must be designed to fit its situation. 2. The behaviourists preferred more flexible organization structures with jobs built around the capabilities and aptitudes of average employees. aspirations and potentials. management science: This theory proposes the use of quantitative technique to aid decision making. . Four important modern management theories are: 1. Frederick Herzberg & Karl Lewin had regorous traning in various social sciences and used sophisticated research models. Behavioural school: The human relations approach of management has evolved into modern behaviourism.
. As it is not possible to have a common management strategy for different oranizational needs in a fast changing business world. The Modern Management theory ephasises on having different strategies for different needs.The most important theory out of three is Modern Management school theory. Also it caters for the human needs at work place so taking in account some important findings & theories of Behavioural school.
2. to give orders so that tasks will be accomplished. 6. 5. His observations are still valid after 7-8 decades. The goals of organization must take over the intrests of individuals. 3. and there should be horizontal communication only when the need arises. Unity of command: This principle suggests that for any action what so ever. an employee should receive orders from one boss only. 4.Basically . Centralization: According to this principle organizations must attain a balance between centralization and decentralization and the degree of both can be determined by individual circumstances. Fayol found these are related. Order: This principle suggests that in organizations there should be aplace for everything and everything should be in place. 8. Scalar chain: This principle suggests that communication in organizations should be basically vertical. Principles of Management by Henry Fayol.the . Fayol applied this principle to both managerial as well as technical work.Ans 2. His 14 pinciples of management are flexible not absolute. 10. Fayol wrote a book called 'General and Industrial management'. Subordination of individual to general interest: This principle proposes that employees must sacrifice their personal interests for the good of the organization. Remuneration: Compensation for work done sholud be reasonable to both employee and the organization. with latter arising from formal. He stressed on managerial aspects and he regarded elements of management as its functions. 7. Division of work: This principle proposes that work can be performed more efficently and more productively if it is divided into smaller elements & assigning specific elements to specific workers. He is also called the real father of modern management theory. 9. and it should be sufficiently motivational. 1. Discipline: This principle suggests that along with good supervisors at all levels. Unity of direction: This principle proposes that there should be only one plan and one boss for each group of activities having the same objective. Authority and responsibility: Managers require auhority commensurate with responsibility. organizations require a set of clearly defined rules and procedures aimed at attaining good employee discipline and obedience.
best utilization & less wastage of the resources. Stability of tenure: This principle suggests that training new employees takes time and it is expensive. 12. Espirit-De-Corps: According to the last principle maintance of high moral and unity among employees is imperative. Initiative: This principle proposes for managers who possess the ability to conceive new ideas as well as the ability to implement them while sacrificing personal vanity. . According to this principle the equity that results from managers being kind and just towards their subordinates will lead to devoted and loyal service. 14. Dividing the work according to the expertise of the employees leads to better productivity . 11. Equity:Equity means fairness. Division of work according to employee's area of knowledge also increases job satistaction among the employees. 13.principle provides a form of formal organizational control. The most important principle out of the 14 is the "Divison of work" as this also forms a part of planning process.Unnecessary employee turnover would thus be inefficient and should be avoided.
Evaluating the decision: After the sucessful implementation. 2. These objectives include sucessfully solving the problems by analysing the causes of the problem and implementing solutions to prevent the problem in future. Steps involved in Decision making process: 1. Contingency plans may come into play if necessary.Ans 3. . These teams are regularly reviewd to ensure progress and cost control. Then the plan is presented to the higher management for further consideration. Risks likely to be encountered and Outcomes that are desired. Analyse the cause of the problem : This step involves brainstroming all potential causes of the discrepancy and collecting data which provides the needed facts to determine the root cause of the problem. Decision Making Decision making is considered as the most critical part of managerial task as it is the core of all planned activities. 4. All the objectives of decision making process are directly focused on the improvement of the business. the project needs to be closley monitered and evaluated to find out the extent to which the desired results have been achived. It is important to get to know all the possible solutions as the first idea is not always the best. 6. A manager should be able to idetify the problem and its urgency at the moment it aries. 3. Generate potential decisions: For most problems there are usaually several solutions. Decide and implement: Project teams are now formed to implement the decided solution. A specific acton plan is prepared in this step which identifies the key activities. Identify and select the problem : A discrepancy between an existing and desired state of affairs is known as problem. Select & plan the decison to be implemented: This step involves prioritising the best solution identified while keeping in mind the costs that will be incurred. 5.
Effective communication = Receipt of message + Understanding + Acceptance + Action For proper receipt of message the responsibility lies with the sender as the sender must be clear about purpose of message and this is the first part of communication process. This will tell the sender that the recevier understood the message. Listening is the key to understanding. How do the sender know that message has been received properly? By feedback. Last step of the process is to take proper action which is being sent in the message this step is recevier's responsibility. Hence one can say Communication is an exchange . This feed back forms the third step of the process. . not just to give . listening is the responsibility of recevier and this is the second part of the process. Communication Process: The responsibility of an effective communication lies with both the sender and recevier. both parties must complete the information exchange for an effective communication.Ans 4.
Hence can be said"planning is charting the future course of action at present" Advantages of palnning : # Attention on objectives #Minimising uncertaninties #Better utilization of resources #Better coordination #Facilitates control Planning covers all the important areas of management such as objectives and goals of the company . . planning is involved in every management process wether it be finacial process like budgeting or planning the course of action for expansion & growth of the business. In business planning is an ongoing effort. and controlling the standards. Advantages of planning include unidirectional efforts of the employees and managers to achieve the goal faster . A paln is a predetermined course of action to achieve goals. A detailed planning is always needed in every mangement process to achieve desired results. Its a blue print of action. at certain time what is to be achived. Planning as a management process: Planning is deciding in advance who will do what. effectively managing the change .Ans 5.
(2) organizing and staffing. and attitudes of employees in an organization" is not a very good or satisfactory definition of management. (3) motivating and leading. Thus desorption of management as "a process of bringing about improvement in knowledge. skill. Management is consists of four broad function. habits. which are (1) planning or decision making. habits.Also the definition of management given in the question makes no mention of the responsibility of management in achieving the organizational objectives. . toward which all management activities need to be directed. and (4) controlling. All the activities described in the question form a small part of staffing activity.Assignment B Ans 1. skill. and attitudes of employees in an organization is a fairly important part of management activities. The process of bringing about improvement in knowledge. which in itself is a part of the second activity listed above. still it constitutes too small part of the total scope of management activities to qualify as a definition of management.
3. And the objectives which are short term . market trends.Ans 2. Policies – The general statements that guide or help in desicion making process. specific & measurable targets that must be reached to accomplish organizational goals. Carefull allocation of work among the employees according to their expertise. 3. Objectives – Ends towards which organization's activities are focused. Clearly framing the time limits. Types of plans & steps of planning: Different types of plans could be: 1. 5. economic indicators and competitors. and feedback of data. Programs & Budget. 2.they are guides to action. Carefull budgeting according to the project. Strategies – The broad areas of organization's operations . 2. Assessing current conditions – Dertermining the current situation including examination of resources. Purpose or mission – Basic function assingned by the society to the organization. objective driven actions. money & time. 5. Establishing an action plan – Placing in a action plan with specific set of behaviour that will lead to the atatainment of an objective. Implementation – Implementing the decided action plan with the organizational resources through the delegation of taskes. Controlling the implementation – Continusly managing the plans to ensure they meet objectives int the correct time frame. 6. Steps pf planning: 1. Procedures also include Rules . 4. Determining Goals & Objectives – Clearly determining the goals which are the future states or the long term plans contributing to the fulfillment of organiz 's mission. 4. These are a framework for guiding. . Allocating resources – Resources include people . Procedures – Procedures establish a required method of handling future activities. thinking & action.
Departmentalization by enterprise function. Functional Departmentalization based on organising activities 5. Process Departmentalization used by manufacturing firms 7. Product Departmentalization used by multi line large scale enterprises . 6.Ans 3. grouping of activities in accordance with the functions of an enterprise. Departmentalization by simple numbers. only useful at the lowest level. Forms of Departmentalization : 1. 4. Customer Departmentalization grouping of activities to reflect a primary intrest in coustomers. 2. Departmentalization by time very old-system shifts 3.
. To have confidence in one's abilities. Ans 2.Case Study Ans 1. Bansal satisfied his full time employees's need of Esteem by providing them their own counter area and their own line of merchandise. He fulfilled their need by recognizing their capabilities & skills. Ans 3. Bansal satisfied satisfied his employees's esteem needs by using Advancement & Recognition as motivational strategies. To be recognized as having capabilities or skills by peers. These meetings gave him an opportunity to recognize the accomplishments of employees as a part of recognition strategy. Mr. Bansal provided him employees with their own work stations & line of merchandise. In given case Mr. He gave seperate work stations to his full time employees & gave more responsibility to the sales staff for managing their own inventory as a part of advancement strategy. He also organised staff meetings every week to bring staff together to review the policies & procedures. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs Esteem need is the need to feel good about oneself. Mr.
Ans. Ans. C Q 6. D Q 8. B Q 3. B . C Q 10. Ans. B Q 7. D Q 5. A Q 4. Ans. Ans. Ans. D Q 11. Ans. Ans. D Q 9.Assignment 'C' Q 1. Ans. C Q 2. Ans. Ans.
Ans. D Q 16.A Q 24. Ans. Ans. C Q 15. Ans. A Q 20. D Q 13. Ans. D Q 22. C Q 21. D Q 14. D Q 17. A . Ans. Ans.Q 12. Ans. B Q 23. D Q 19. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. Ans. A Q 18.
Ans. Ans. Ans. C Q 27. B Q 37. Ans. A Q 30. D Q 35. Ans. Ans. C Q 31. Ans.A Q 36. Ans. D Q 28. Ans. C Q 34. Ans .Q 25. D Q 29. Ans. Ans. C Q 33. Ans. D Q 32. B Q 26. C .
Ans. Ans. D Q 39. C . C Q 40.Q 38. Ans.
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