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The shortest sentence contains a verb. You can make a oneword sentence with a verb, for example: "Stop!" You cannot make a one-word sentence with any other type of word. Verbs are sometimes described as "action words". This is partly true. Many verbs give the idea of action, of "doing" something. For example, words like run, fight, do and work all convey action. A verb always has a subject. (In the sentence "John speaks English", John is the subject and speaks is the verb.) In simple terms, therefore, we can say that verbs are words that tell us what a subject does or is; they describe:
action (Ram plays football.) state (Anthony seems kind.)
Verb Classification We divide verbs into two broad classifications: 1. Helping Verbs Imagine that a stranger walks into your room and says:
• • •
I can. People must. The Earth will.
Do you understand anything? Has this person communicated anything to you? Probably not! That is because these verbs are helping verbs and have no meaning on their own. They are necessary for the grammatical structure of the sentence, but they do not tell us very much alone. We usually use helping verbs with main verbs. They "help" the main verb. (The sentences in the above examples are therefore incomplete. They need at least a main verb to complete them.) There are only about 15 helping verbs. 2. Main Verbs Now imagine that the same stranger walks into your room and says:
I teach. People eat.
The Earth rotates.
Do you understand something? Has this person communicated something to you? Probably yes! Not a lot, but something. That's because these verbs are main verbs and have meaning on their own. They tell us something. Of course, there are thousands of main verbs. In the following table, we see example sentences with helping verbs and main verbs. Notice that all of these sentences have a main verb. Only some of them have a helping verb. helping verb John You They The children We are must main verb likes lied are playing. go now. coffee. to me. happy.
Gerunds (-ing) When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund:
Fishing is fun.
When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle:
Anthony is fishing. I have a boring teacher.
What are Nouns? The simple definition is: a person, place or thing. Here are some examples:
• • •
person: man, woman, teacher, John, Mary place: home, office, town, countryside, America thing: table, car, banana, money, music, love, dog, monkey
The problem with this definition is that it does not explain why "love" is a noun but can also be a verb. Another (more complicated) way of recognizing a noun is by its: 1. Ending 2. Position 3. Function 1. Noun Ending There are certain word endings that show that a word is a noun, for example:
• • • • •
-ity > nationality -ment > appointment -ness > happiness -ation > relation -hood > childhood
However, this is not true for the word endings of all nouns. For example, the noun "spoonful" ends in -ful, but the adjective "careful" also ends in -ful. 2. Position in Sentence We can often recognise a noun by its position in the sentence. Nouns often come after a determiner (a determiner is a word like a, an, the, this, my, such):
• • • • • •
a relief an afternoon the doctor this word my house such stupidity
for example: • • • subject of verb: Doctors work hard. bag Uncountable Nouns Uncountable nouns are substances. gas. we cannot count "milk". Here are some more uncountable nouns: • • • • • • music. but we cannot count "milk" itself. We can count pens. Countable Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. water electricity. butter. litre coin. It could be a pronoun or a phrase. information. Function in a Sentence Nouns have certain functions (jobs) in a sentence. We can have one.Nouns often come after one or more adjectives: • • • • • • a great relief a peaceful afternoon the tall. object of verb: He likes coffee. three or more pens. We cannot "count" them. power money. man. cat. happiness advice. For example. fork table. the noun is "doctor" but the subject is "My doctor". Indian doctor this difficult word my brown and white house such crass stupidity 3. news furniture. Here are some more countable nouns: • • • • • dog. note. dollar cup. sugar. In the sentence "My doctor works hard". animal. plate. But the subject or object of a sentence is not always a noun. love. They are things that we can count. We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk". For example: "pen". subject and object of verb: Teachers teach students. box. currency . chair. art. luggage rice. concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. suitcase. two. person bottle.
Shhhhh! I thought I heard a noise. We had a great time at the party. often with a change of meaning.We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. Macbeth is one of Shakespeare's greatest works. I need work! . For example: • • This news is very important. There's too much light! noise paper It's difficult to work when there is too much noise. I want to draw a picture. Your luggage looks heavy. Have you got a paper to read? (= newspaper) Our house has seven rooms. light Close the curtain. Have you got some paper? room Is there room for me to sit here? time Have you got time for a coffee? work I have no money. We use a singular verb. hair Uncountable I don't have much hair. Nouns that can be Countable and Uncountable Sometimes. Countable There are two hairs in my coffee! There are two lights in our bedroom. the same noun can be countable and uncountable.
coffee. you. you. Look at these examples with the main verb like: subject + I. 3. . even for questions and negatives. we. they do He. she. we. 2. Notice that there is no auxiliary: subject + I main verb am French. coffee? coffee? - ? Look at these examples with the main verb be. For the 3rd person singular (he. For the verb to be. it). it auxiliary verb main verb like likes not like not like like like coffee. you. she. it I. we add s to the main verb or es to the auxiliary. we do not use an auxiliary. they He. she.ENGLISH TENSE SYSTEM Simple Present Tense I sing How do we make the Simple Present Tense? subject + auxiliary verb + main verb do base There are three important exceptions: 1. it Do Does does I. we do not normally use the auxiliary. coffee. they he. she. For positive sentences. coffee. we.
or habitually. French. they he. it not not not French. present and future. John drives a taxi. present and future the action is not only happening now the statement is always true John drives a taxi. Past. Do you play football? Note that with the verb to be. in the past. we. old. she. Look at these . we. We can use the simple present tense to talk about now. they He. old. old. we. We do not work at night. it I You. we can also use the simple present tense for situations that are not general.You. past present future It is John's job to drive a taxi. she. He does it every day. it Am ? Are Is are is am are is I you. He does not drive a bus. late? late? late? How do we use the Simple Present Tense? We use the simple present tense when: • • • • the action is general the action happens all the time. The Moon goes round the Earth. she. they He. Look at these examples: • • • • • • I live in New York.
past present future The action is happening now. some of them are now: Am I right? Tara is not at home. present and future. You are happy. past present future The situation is now. I am not fat.examples of the verb "to be" in the simple present tense—some of them are general. . past present future The situation is general. How do we use the Present Continuous Tense? We use the present continuous tense to talk about: • • action happening now action in the future Present continuous tense for action happening now a) for action happening exactly now I am eating my lunch. Why are you so beautiful? Ram is tall. Past.
We've already booked the table. "Future words" include. change 3. in June. continuing situation .b) for action happening around now The action may not be happening exactly now. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. at Christmas etc. When are you starting your new job? In these examples. The decision and plan were made before speaking. We're eating in a restaurant tonight. I am living with my sister until I find an apartment. but it is happening just before and just after now. Look at these examples: • • Muriel is learning to drive. They're not working. experience 2. How do we use the Present Perfect Tense? This tense is called the present perfect tense. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense: 1. next year. we have a firm plan or programme before speaking. Look at these examples: • • • future The action is in the future.. They can play tennis with you tomorrow. I am taking my exam next month. and it is not permanent or habitual. We have already made a decision and a plan before speaking. We only use the present continuous tense to talk about the future when we have planned to do something before we speak. Present continuous tense for the future We can also use the present continuous tense to talk about the future—if we add a future word!! We must add (or understand from the context) a future word. past present !!! A firm plan or programme exists now. for example. tomorrow.
past + Yesterday John had a good leg. now. He has lived in Bangkok. present Now he has a bad leg. Have you been there? We have never eaten caviar. past Last week I didn't have a car. We only want to know if you did it: I have seen ET. I have a memory of the event. We are not interested in when you did something. present + Now I have a car.1. Present perfect tense for change We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information: I have bought a car. future Connection with past: the event was in the past. I know something about the event. In my head. past present !!! The action or state was in the past. future John has broken his leg. Connection with present: in my head. I have experience of it. Present perfect tense for experience We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. I have a memory now. 2. future .
This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). 3. (It will probably continue into the future. past Yesterday the killer was free. Present perfect tense for continuing situation We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation.50 yesterday? present Is the price $1. Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past. present + Now he is in prison. How long have you known Tara? past present future The situation started in the past. He has been ill for 2 days. We usually use for or since with this structure. Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.) Connection with past: the situation started in the past. This is a state (not an action).Has the price gone up? past + Was the price $1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense .70 today? future The police have arrested the killer. future Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present. It continues up to now. I have worked here since June.
we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. her? their homework? for one hour. I have been You have been He has been She has been It has been John has been The car has been We have been They have been I've been You've been He's been She's been It's been John's been The car's been We've been They've been . We also sometimes do this in informal writing. ? Have ? Have Contractions When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking.I have been singing How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb + auxiliary verb + main verb have been base + ing has Here are some examples of the present perfect continuous tense: subject + I + You It We auxiliary verb have have has have you they not not auxiliary verb been been been been been been main verb waiting talking raining. playing seeing doing football. too much.
2. There is usually a result now. This is often used with for or since. We've been playing tennis for two hours. Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining? You don't understand [now] because you haven't been listening. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. I have been reading for 2 hours. How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense? This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. [I am still reading now. • • Action is continuing now. I have been reading for 2 hours. past present future Action started in past. There is usually a connection with the present or now. The car's been giving trouble. past present !!! Recent action.Here are some examples: • • • I've been reading. [We're still studying now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense: 1. An action continuing up to now We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now.] . I'm tired [now] because I've been running.] We've been studying since 9 o'clock. I'm tired because I've been running. • • • future Result now.
[And we are not smoking now.15pm Monday January 1994 1800 I left school the beginning of time etc I have been studying for 3 hours. He has been playing football for a long time.] We have not been smoking.] For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous Tense We often use for and since with the present perfect tense. 2 weeks. • • We use for to talk about a period of time—5 minutes. 1st January. for since a point in past time · a period of time 20 minutes three days 6 months 4 years 2 centuries a long time ever etc Here are some examples: • • • • • • 6. He has been living in Bangkok since he left school. The event can be short or long. I have been watching TV since 7pm. 6 years. Monday. How do we use the Simple Past Tense? We use the simple past tense to talk about an action or a situation—an event—in the past. Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.• • How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now. Tara hasn't been visiting us since March. . We use since to talk about a point in past time—9 o'clock.
Mary did not go to work yesterday.15am.Here are some more examples: • • • • • • • • • I lived in that house when I was young. The door opened and James Bond entered. and ordered a drink at the bar. Were you angry? Note that when we tell a story. How do we use the Past Perfect Tense? The past perfect tense expresses action in the past before another action in the past. Look at these examples: • • • • • • • I was working at 10pm last night.. We were having dinner when it started to rain. He didn't like the movie. Did you play tennis last week? I was at work yesterday. We arrived at 9. What did you eat for dinner? John drove to London on Monday. When we use the past continuous tense. He took off his coat.. For example: • The train left at 9am. When we arrived. which was very wet. . We were not late (for the train). It was cold. He sat down in the corner of the lounge and quietly drank his. For example. The action started before that moment but has not finished at that moment. We may use the past continuous tense to "set the scene". Ram went home early because it was snowing. Look at this example of the beginning of a story: "The wind was howling around the hotel and the rain was pouring down. This is the past in the past. the train had left. What were you doing at 10pm last night? What were you doing when he arrived? She was cooking when I telephoned her. The film started at 7pm and finished at 9pm." How do we use the Past Continuous Tense? The past continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the past. our listener usually knows or understands what time we are talking about. yesterday I watched a film on TV. we usually use the simple past tense. but we almost always use the simple past tense for the action. They were not playing football at 9am this morning.
I arrived at 11am. We will see what we can do to help you. Prediction We often use the simple future tense to make a prediction about the future.How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous Tense? The past perfect continuous tense is like the past perfect tense. we had no firm plan before speaking. People won't go to Jupiter before the 22nd century. When I arrived. . Look at these examples: • • • Hold on. Who do you think will get the job? Be When the main verb is be. there is no firm plan. For example: • Ram started waiting at 9am. We make the decision spontaneously at the time of speaking. we can use the simple future tense even if we have a firm plan or decision before speaking. Here are some examples: • • • It will rain tomorrow. We often use the simple future tense with the verb to think before it: • • • I think I'll go to the gym tomorrow. Ram had been waiting for two hours. I'll get a pen. I think I will have a holiday next year. but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. Examples: • I'll be in London tomorrow. We are saying what we think will happen. Again. I don't think I'll buy that car. How do we use the Simple Future Tense? No Plan We use the simple future tense when there is no plan or decision to do something before we speak. Maybe we'll stay in and watch television tonight. In these examples. The decision is made at the time of speaking.
I won't be very long. He will be tired when he arrives. How do we make the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? The structure of the future perfect continuous tense is: subject + auxiliary verb WILL invariable will + auxiliary verb HAVE invariable have + auxiliary verb BE past participle been + main verb present participle base + ing How do we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense? We use the future perfect continuous tense to talk about a long action before some point in the future. For example: • The train will leave the station at 9am. Will you be at work tomorrow? How do we use the Future Continuous Tense? The future continuous tense expresses action at a particular moment in the future.15am. tomorrow I will start work at 2pm and stop work at 6pm How do we use the Future Perfect Tense? The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. the train will have left. You will arrive at the station at 9. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment. He will have been travelling for 24 hours. Look at these examples: • • I will have been working here for ten years next week. This is the past in the future. For example. When you arrive.• • I'm going shopping. .
their Other determiners: • • • • • • • • • • each. They are grammatically similar. the Possessives: • my. Articles: • a. whatever. all several enough Determiners: A.Adjectives An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun. half. no much. an. many. least few. some. every either. Determiners Determiners are words like the. most little. They all come at the beginning of noun phrases. an. your. less.) An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun (a big dog). fewer. (By "noun" we include pronouns and noun phrases. We can often use two or more adjectives together (a beautiful young French lady). more. Adjectives can be used before a noun (I like Chinese food) or after certain verbs (It is hard). whichever both. An or The? . fewest what. our. which. neither any. some. her. his. and usually we cannot use more than one determiner in the same noun phrase. my.
an We use "definite" to mean sure. not the word. countable nouns. James Bond ordered a drink. Think of the sky at night. "Definite" is particular. we use the. an The capital of France is Paris. I have found the book that I lost. certain.When do we say "the dog" and when do we say "a dog"? (On this page we talk only about singular. John had an omelette for lunch. Please switch off the TV when you finish. When we are talking about one thing in particular. I saw a star last night. When we are talking about one thing in general. Have you cleaned the car? There are six eggs in the fridge. "Indefinite" is general. Have you got a pen? Of course.) The and a/an are called "articles". • • • • • I was born in a town. we use a or an. It depends on the situation. In the sky we see 1 moon and millions of stars. We want to buy an umbrella. often we can use the or a/an for the same word. not a particular umbrella. So normally we would say: • • I saw the moon last night. not certain.) . Look at these examples: • We want to buy an umbrella. We use "indefinite" to mean not sure. Look at these examples: the • • • • • a. (Any umbrella. We divide them into "definite" and "indefinite" like this: Articles Definite Indefinite the a.
We are looking for our umbrella. get. In the example below. after certain verbs (be. In the example below. seem. smell. We can see if they are the same or different. verb adj. feel.• Where is the umbrella? (We already have an umbrella.) Adjective Order There are 2 basic positions for adjectives: 1. become. we can "compare" them. before the noun 2. . My car is big. Comparative Adjectives When we talk about two things. Perhaps they are the same in some ways and different in other ways. a particular umbrella. look. Superlative Adjectives A superlative adjective expresses the extreme or highest degree of a quality. taste) adj. "bigger" is the comparative form of the adjective "big": A1 A2 A1 is bigger than A2. noun 1 I like big 2 cars. We can use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. We use a superlative adjective to describe the extreme quality of one thing in a group of things. "biggest" is the superlative form of the adjective "big": A B C A is the biggest. We can use comparative adjectives when talking about two things (not three or more things). sound.
We can use a pronoun instead of a noun. Personal Pronouns This summary of personal pronouns includes possessive adjectives for convenience and comparison. He is too pompous.. themselves. With pronouns. If we didn't have pronouns. we can say: • Do you like the president? I don't like him.English Pronouns Pronouns are small words that take the place of a noun. we would have to repeat a lot of nouns. each. you. pronouns number person gender* subject object possessive reflexive 1st 2nd singular 3rd m/f m/f m f n 1st plural 2nd 3rd m/f m/f m/f/n I you he she it we you they me you him her it us you them mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves possessive adjectives my your his her its our your themselves their * m=male f=female n=neuter Examples: . We would have to say things like: • Do you like the president? I don't like the president. Pronouns are words like: he. The president is too pompous. ours. some..
subjective case objective case personal pronouns singular 1st I me you him her it us you them whom whomever possessive case my. theirs whose 2nd you 3rd he she it plural 1st we 2nd you 3rd they relative/interrogative pronouns who whoever which/that/what which/that/what indefinite pronouns everybody everybody everybody's .pronoun subject object possessive reflexive She likes homework. This homework is yours. Their function can be: • • • subjective (they act as the subject) objective (they act as the object) possessive (they show possession of something else) The following table shows the different forms for pronouns depending on case. John did the homework himself. hers its our. ours your. The teacher gave me some homework. yours their. The teacher corrected our homework. mine your. possessive adjective Pronoun Case Pronouns (and nouns) in English display "case" according to their function in the sentence. yours his her.
Mary and I are delighted to be here today. What did you come for? (For what did you come?) English Preposition Rule There is one very simple rule about prepositions. If we want to follow a preposition by a verb. Would you say "I am delighted to be here" or "Me am delighted to be here"? Would you say "The letter was addressed to me" or "The letter was addressed to I"? English Prepositions A preposition is a word governing. according to the above rule: • • I would like to go now. we must use the "-ing" form which is really a gerund or verb in noun form. By "noun" we include: • • • • • noun (dog.A problem of case: Mary and I or Mary and me? 1. In 2. as in: • • She left before breakfast. money. She used to smoke. us) noun group (my first job) gerund (swimming) A preposition cannot be followed by a verb. why is "to" followed by a verb? That should be impossible. this rule has no exceptions. a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element. love) proper noun (name) (Bangkok. Mary) pronoun (you. and usually coming in front of. An easy way to check the correct case is to try the sentence without Mary. Rule A preposition is followed by a "noun". The letter was addressed to Mary and me. (NOT Mary and I) In 1. Quick Quiz: In the following sentences. unlike most rules. Mary and I are subjects. which is why the pronoun takes the objective case ("me"). him. It is never followed by a verb. . And. Mary and I are objects. (NOT Mary and me) 2. which is why the pronoun takes the subjective case ("I").
Japan. English people. you. coming.Here are some examples: Subject + verb The food is She lives Tara is looking The letter is Pascal is used She isn't used I ate preposition on in for under to to before "noun" the table. your blue book. English Prepositions List • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • aboard about above across after against along amid among anti around as at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by . working.
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • concerning considering despite down during except excepting excluding following for from in inside into like minus near of off on onto opposite outside over past per plus regarding round save since than through to .
we use: • • • at for a POINT in for an ENCLOSED SPACE on for a SURFACE in ENCLOSED SPACE in the garden in London in France in a box on SURFACE on the wall on the ceiling on the door on the cover on the floor on the carpet on the menu on a page at POINT at the corner at the bus stop at the door at the top of the page at the end of the road in my pocket at the entrance at the crossroads at the entrance in my wallet in a building in a car Look at these examples: . on In general.• • • • • • • • • • • • • toward towards under underneath unlike until up upon versus via with within without Prepositions of Place: at. in.
CENTURIES and LONG DAYS and DATES PERIODS in May in summer in the summer in 1990 on Sunday on Tuesdays on 6 March on 25 Dec. 2010 . YEARS. Notice the use of the prepositions of place at. CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS on for DAYS and DATES in on at PRECISE TIME at 3 o'clock at 10.30am at noon at dinnertime MONTHS. The shop is at the end of the street. on We use: • • • at for a PRECISE TIME in for MONTHS. on an elephant on the radio.• • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop. in. on television on the left. in and on in these standard expressions: at at home at work at school at university at college at the top at the bottom at the side at reception in in a car in a taxi in a helicopter in a boat in a lift (elevator) in the newspaper in the sky in a row in Oxford Street on on a bus on a train on a plane on a ship on a bicycle. on the right on the way Prepositions of Time: at. YEARS. on a motorbike on a horse.
I don't usually work at the weekend. this we do not also use at. next. in. on. Try later. • • I went to London last June. (not in last June) He's coming back next Tuesday. (not on next Tuesday) . Notice the use of the prepositions of time in and on in these common expressions: in in the morning in the mornings in the afternoon(s) in the evening(s) on on Tuesday morning on Saturday mornings on Sunday afternoons on Monday evening When we say last.at bedtime at sunrise at sunset at the moment in the 1990s in the next century in the Ice Age in the past/future on Christmas Day on Independence Day on my birthday on New Year's Eve Look at these examples: • • I have a meeting at 9am. The shop closes at midnight. Notice the use of the preposition of time at in the following standard expressions: Expression at night at the weekend at Christmas/Easter at the same time at present Example The stars shine at night. I stay with my family at Christmas. He's not home at present. every. We finished the test at the same time.
. as long as. or.The water was warm. for example: . although Compound (often ending with as or that) for example: provided that. but I didn't go swimming. unless We can consider conjunctions from three aspects. The two parts may be single words or clauses.. (not at every Easter) We'll call you this evening. Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause. since. because.that • • Function Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs": • Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. but. yet. because. but. A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. in order that Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective) for example: so. Form Conjunctions have three basic forms: • Single Word for example: and. Here are some example conjunctions: Coordinating Conjunctions and. (not in this evening) Conjunctions A conjunction is a word that "joins". for.I went swimming although it was cold. for example: . . • . so Subordinating Conjunctions although.Jack and Jill went up the hill. nor.• • I go home every Easter.
[Ram likes tea]. • Coordinating Conjunctions The short. or. a comma is optional: • • He drinks beer. When a coordinating conjunction joins independent clauses.the two elements that the coordinating conjunction joins are shown in square brackets [ ]: • • I like [tea] and [coffee]. so A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. nor. so I am studying Russian at university. Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause. for. it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction: • I want to work as an interpreter in the future. whisky. if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced.Position • Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join. Subordinating Conjunctions The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating conjunctions". When "and" is used with the last word of a list. but. He drinks beer. whisky. Common subordinating conjunctions are: . simple conjunctions are called "coordinating conjunctions": • and. and rum. wine and rum. However. wine. A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure: Look at these examples . yet. but [Anthony likes coffee]. a comma is not really essential: • She is kind so she helps people.
until.• after. because. before. Active voice 2. In the passive voice. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. that. till. object The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb: subject active passive Everybody Water verb drinks object water. although. The passive voice is less usual. as. is drunk by everybody. while A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate (dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause: Active Voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. Passive Voice . whether. when. once. since. the object receives the action of the verb: subject active Cats eat verb object > fish. how. than. where. if. In the active voice. Passive voice The active voice is the "normal" voice. Passive Voice There are two special forms for verbs called voice: 1. though. the subject receives the action of the verb: subject passive Fish verb < are eaten by cats.
In this lesson we look at how to construct the passive voice. Construction of the Passive Voice The structure of the passive voice is very simple: ` The main verb is always in its past participle form. ? Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish are eaten by cats).The passive voice is less usual than the active voice. give importance to active object (President Kennedy) active subject unknown President Kennedy My wallet has been stolen. in yen? 100 people are I We Are am are they Use of the Passive Voice We use the passive when: • • we want to make the active object more important we do not know the active subject subject verb was killed object by Lee Harvey Oswald. in dollars. by this company. in euro. The active voice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passive voice. Look at these examples: subject Water auxiliary verb (to be) is main verb (past participle) drunk employed paid not paid paid by everyone. when to use it and how to conjugate it. .
It would be being washed. . It will be being washed. In fact. It was washed. we conjugate the auxiliary verb. It was being washed. It is being washed. conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rather easy. It has been being washed. for example: • • • present simple: It is made present continuous: It is being made present perfect: It has been made Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses: infinitive present past simple future conditional present past continuous future conditional present past perfect simple future conditional present past perfect continuous future conditional It will have been being washed. to be washed It is washed. To form the required tense. It will be washed. It had been being washed. So. It had been washed. It would have been washed. It has been washed.Conjugation for the Passive Voice We can form the passive in any tense. as the main verb is always in past participle form and the auxiliary verb is always be. It would be washed. It would have been being washed. It will have been washed.
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