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# Outline

Element Analysis
FEA Concept

## Bar Element and Beam Element

Di Su Application of FEA
Research assistant professor
Bridge & Structure Laboratory Discussion of Some Key Problems
Department of Civil Engineering
The University of Tokyo
2010 Asia-
Asia-Pacific Summer School in Smart Structures Technology
2
July 27, 2010

##  Fundamentals of finite element analysis

Construction
 No a textbook of FEA, no tensor, no Galerkin method… Structure
 Only focus in Civil Engineering
 Realized by Matlab, Abaqus and Ansys

##  Try to study FEA by

Maintenance Finite Element
 Mathematical principle + Analysis modeling + Software application Demolish Method

##  Try to use FEA by

 Software + Practical problem + Self development

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FEA & Structure Beijing National Stadium
 Beijing National Stadium (40,000 tons)  Mode shape

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From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.

 Failure verification  Truss column design

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From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG. From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.
 Construction process  Construction process

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From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG. From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.

## Finite Element Method Defined Discretized approximation

 Complexities in the geometry, properties and in the boundary
Rayleigh-Ritz principle
conditions that are seen in most real-world problems usually • Approximation in the whole
means that an exact solution cannot be obtained or obtained in domain
• Higher-order continuous
a reasonable amount of time. function
• Fewer base functions
 Engineers are content to obtain approximate solutions that can
be readily obtained in a reasonable time frame, and with
reasonable effort. The FEM is one such approximate solution Another method
technique. • Pieces function
approximation in sub-domain
• Linear or polynomial function
 The FEM is a numerical procedure for obtaining approximate Describe one complex • More base functions
solutions to many of the problems encountered in engineering function
analysis.
Basic idea of FEM

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Finite Element Method Definition The concept of “FINITE”
 The continuum has an infinite number of degrees-of-freedom
(DOF), while the discretized model has a finite number of
DOF. This is the origin of the name, finite element method. FINITE

##  The number of equations is usually rather large for most real-

world applications of the FEM, and requires the computational Finite Number Finite Accuracy
power of the digital computer. The FEM has little practical There is only finite The accuracy of your
number of elements
value if the digital computer were not available. in your analysis
analysis is finite. Even
for very fine model, it
model, not infinite.
is not accurate
solution.
 Solution of FEM gives the approximate behavior of the
continuum or system.

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## History of FEM History of FEM

 It is difficult to document the exact origin of the FEM, because the basic
Engineering Mathematics concepts have evolved over a period of 150 or more years. The first book
on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in 1967.
Finite difference
Trial function method
Variational Method of Weighted Richardson 1910
Liebman 1918
 Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s and
method Residuals
Rayleigh 1870
Southwell 1946
1980s.
Similar structure Ritz 1909
Gauss 1795
Galerkin 1915
replacement Biezeno-Koch 1923
Hrenikoff 1941
Mchenry 1943  The FEM is one of the most important developments in computational
Newmark 1949 Continuous trial
function methods to occur in the 20th century. Advances in and ready availability of
Direct continuum Courant 1943
Variable finite computers and software has brought the FEM within reach of engineers
Prager-Synge 1947 difference method
elements
Argyris 1955
Zienkiewicz 1964 Varga 1962 working in small industries, and even students.
Turner et al. 1956

Present Finite
Element Method
First coined by Clough 1960
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FEA Concept FEA Concept
 Example1: One dimension problem

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## FEA Concept FEA Concept

 Use uA, uB, uC as unknowns

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FEA Concept FEA Concept
Let’s derive more More general form

Nodal
displacement

matrix
• The equilibrium for each node has turned into the relationship of each component.
The equilibrium equation for whole structure, not for each component
• This component description is generalized and standard; i.e. ELEMENT.
21 • In this example, it is Bar Element. 22

## General description of 1D bar element Application of bar element

Nodal displacement
Example2:

External force

Inner force

P3=50N

Equilibrium equation

##  Could you solve this three-link structure problem using

Stiffness matrix the bar element you just learned?

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FEM Solution process FEM Solution process
 Solve the linear equations

Nodal force

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Stiffness matrix

## Analysis modeling process FEM Solution

Step 1: Discretization Step 2: Stiffness matrix for Step 3: Assembly Step 4: Solution (nodal disp.)
each element Step5: Other parameters (strain,
stress, et al.)

Complex structure

Simple element

## 1D model 2D model 3D model

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Element type in FEM software Bar Element and Beam Element
 Abaqus  Let’s discuss the process more generally.

##  It will be very difficult to derive the stiffness matrix of

element by the mechanical equations in most cases. In
this section two general methods will be introduced to
obtain the basic equation for bar element and beam
 Ansys element.
 Principle of virtual work
 Principle of minimum potential energy

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## Bar Element Bar Element

Example 3: 1D problem

##  Basic equation of 1D problem

 Equilibrium equation or (c1 is constant)

##  The basic parameters in x axis How to solve?

 Geometric equation 1.Direct solution: 3 unknowns
 Displacement: u(x)
for 3 equations
 Strain: εx(x) 2.Indirect solution: Trial
 Physical equation
 Stress: σx(x) function?

 Boundary condition
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Principle of virtual work Principle of virtual work
 Principle of virtual work for a deformable body

##  If δU is virtual strain energy, and δW is the virtual work by

external force
 For this equilibrium system

##  If a small disturbance happens,

Virtual displacement  External virtual work is equal to internal virtual strain
but still remains equilibrium
energy when equilibrated forces and stresses undergo
unrelated but consistent displacements and strains.
 Principle of virtual work based on the virtual displacement

## When a rigid body that is in equilibrium is subject to virtual compatible

displacements, the total virtual work of all external forces is zero.
--Johann (Jean) Bernoulli (1667-1748) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)
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##  Assume the displacement field as  From the principle of virtual work

(Trial function, c is unknown)
 The strain, virtual displacement, and virtual strain is
 Final solution

##  The virtual work and virtual strain energy

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Principle of minimum potential energy Application of principle of minimum potential energy

##  It asserts that a structure or body shall deform or displace

to a position that minimizes the total potential energy.
 Assume the displacement field as u(x)
 Potential energy  Again,
(U is the strain energy, W is the external work)

##  For bar element

 Potential energy

 The true displacement field should satisfy  From the minimum value

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## Bar element Bar element in local coordinate system

 Description of one element
 Geometrics and node description
 Displacement field (Trial function)
 Geometrics and node description
 Strain field
 Nodal displacement
 Stress field
 Nodal force
 Potential energy
 Displacement field
 Assume the linear function
 Obtain the stiffness equation of element by principle of
 From the nodal displacement
virtual work or principle of minimum potential energy

 Then

## Shape function Nodal

displacement
39 matrix 40
vector
Bar element in local coordinate system Bar element in local coordinate system

##  Strain field  Potential energy

Strain-displacement
matrix

 Stress field
Stress-displacement
matrix

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Bar element in local coordinate system Bar element in global coordinate system
 Local coordinate system

##  Global coordinate system

Stiffness matrix of element

##  Stiffness equation of bar element

Transformation matrix

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Bar element in global coordinate system Bar element in space
 Potential energy

 Transformation matrix

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## Bar Element in MATLAB Bar Element in MATLAB

MATLAB program for 1D bar element MATLAB program for 2D bar element

##  Bar1D2Node _Stiffness(E,A,L)  Bar2D2Node _Stiffness(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha)

 Calculate the stiffness matrix k(2×2)  Calculate the stiffness matrix k(4×4)
 Bar1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)  Bar2D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
 Assemble the stiffness matrix  Assemble the stiffness matrix
 Bar1D2Node _Stress(k,u,A)  Bar2D2Node _Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
 Calculate the stress of element  Calculate the stress of element
 Bar1D2Node_Force(k,u)  Bar2D2Node_Force(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)
 Calculate the nodal force vector  Calculate the nodal force vector

Application of bar element Application of bar element
 Example 4: Four-bar truss structure  Stiffness matrix for each element

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## Application of bar element Bar Element and Beam Element

 Assemble to whole stiffness equation  Results

 Boundary conditions
Compare with the results from MATLAB, ANSYS and ABAQUS

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MATLAB Program ANSYS Program

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## ABAQUS Program Beam element

 Example 5: Simple beam under uniform load

##  Long beam assumption

The basic parameters
 Displacement:
 Strain: εx
 Stress: σx

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Basic equation of beam element Basic equation of beam element
 Equilibrium equation  Choose deflection v as the fundamental unknown
Equilibrium in y

Equilibrium in x

 Geometric equation
Physical

Geometric

 Boundary conditions

 Physical equation

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##  Description of one element

 Geometrics and node description
 Displacement field (Trial function)
 Strain field  Geometrics and node description
 Stress field  Nodal displacement
 Potential energy  Nodal force
 Displacement field
 Assume the polynomial function
 Obtain the stiffness equation of element by principle of
virtual work or principle of minimum potential energy  From the nodal displacement

## Shape function matrix

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Beam element in plane in local coordinate system Beam element in plane in local coordinate system

## Stiffness matrix of element

Strain-displacement matrix

 External work
 Stress field
Nodal force vector
Stress-displacement matrix
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 Stiffness equation

## General beam element in local coordinate system Equivalent nodal force

 How to obtain the nodal force?

##  Bending beam + axial deformation

Nodal displacement

Nodal force

## Stiffness equation of beam element

Equivalent nodal force

Different BC

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Equivalent nodal force Equivalent nodal force
 Displacement field

Shape function

 External work

## Application of beam element Application of beam element

 Example 6: Cantilever-continuous beam

## How to obtain structural responses?

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Application of beam element Plane beam element in global coordinate system

Local
Global

## No need to solve the differential equations or partial

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differential equations, just linear equations

## Beam element in space Beam element in space

 Local coordinate system  Stiffness matrix for beam element in space (local
coordinate system)

##  For θx1 and θx2, similar with bar element

 For v1, v2, θz1 and θz2, the same with pure bending beam

##  For w1, w2, θy1 and θy2, similar as above equation

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Coordinate transfer in space Beam Element in MATLAB
 Transfer to global coordinate system MATLAB program for 1D beam element

 Beam1D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,L)
 Calculate the stiffness matrix k(4×4)
 Beam1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)
 Assemble the stiffness matrix
 Beam1D2Node_ Strain(x,L,y)
 Calculate the geometric matrix B(1×4)
 Beam1D2Node _Stress(E,B,u)
 Calculate the stress of element
 Beam1D2Node_Deflection(x,L,u)
 Calculate the deflection of element
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## Beam Element in MATLAB Application of beam element

MATLAB program for 2D beam element  Example 7: One frame structure

 Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L)
 Calculate the stiffness matrix k(6×6)
 Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k,i,j)
 Assemble the stiffness matrix
 Beam2D2Node_Forces(k,u)
 Calculate the nodal force of element

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Application of beam element Application of beam element
 For element 1, stiffness matrix is

##  Modeling using 3 beam elements

 For element 2 and 3,

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## Application of beam element Application of beam element

 Transfer matrix for element 2 and 3  After considering the BC,

system
 Final solution

##  Assemble the whole stiffness matrix

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MATLAB Program ANSYS Program

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## Discretization for continuum elements Application of FEM

 General-purpose FEM software packages are available at
reasonable cost, and can be readily executed on
microcomputers, including workstations and PCs.

##  The FEM can be coupled to CAD programs to facilitate solid

modeling and mesh generation.

##  Many FEM software packages feature GUI interfaces, auto-

meshers, and sophisticated postprocessors and graphics to
speed the analysis and make pre and post-processing more
user-friendly.
The real power of Finite Element method is that it successfully
solved the continuum problem.
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Commercially available general FEM software Information Available from Various Types of FEM Analysis

## Year Software Company Website  Static analysis  Heat transfer analysis

1965 ASKA (PERMAS) IKOSS GmbH, (INTES),Germany www.intes.de
STRUDL MCAUTO, USA www.gtstrudl.gatech.edu • Deflection »Temperature
1966
1967
NASTRAN
BERSAFE
MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., USA
CEGB, UK (restructured in 1990)
www.macsch.com
• Stresses » Heat fluxes
SAMCEF Univer. of Liege, Belgium www.samcef.com • Strains
1969 ASAS Atkins Res.&Devel., UK www.wsasoft.com
MARC MARC Anal. Corp., USA www.marc.com
PAFEC PAFEC Ltd, UK now SER Systems • Energies » Heat flow from
SESAM DNV, Norway www.dnv.no
1970 ANSYS Swanson Anal. Syst., USA www.ansys.com convection faces
SAP
1971 STARDYNE
NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA
Mech. Res. Inc., USA
www.eerc.berkeley.edu
www.reiusa.com
 Dynamic analysis
TITUS (SYSTUS) CITRA, France; ESI Group www.systus.com • Frequencies
1972 DIANA TNO, The Netherlands www.diana.nl  Fluid analysis
WECAN Westinghouse R&D, USA • Deflection (mode
CASTEM CEA, France www.castem.org:8001/ HomePage.html • Stresses » Gas temperatures
FEAP NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA www.eerc.berkeley.edu
1976 NISA Eng. Mech. Res. Corp., USA www.emrc.com • Strains
1978 DYNA2D, DYNA3D Livermore Softw. Tech. Corp., USA www.lstc.com • Forces » Convection coefficients
1979 ABAQUS Hibbit, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., USA www.abaqus.com
1980 LUSAS FEA Ltd., UK www.lusas.com • Energies » Velocities
1982 COSMOS/M Structural Res. & Anal. Corp., USA www.cosmosm.com
1984 ALGOR Algor Inc., USA www.algor.com
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Example FEM Application Areas Variety of FEM Solutions is Wide and Growing Wider

 Automotive industry  The FEM has been applied to a richly diverse array of scientific
• Static analyses • Aerospace industry
and technological problems.
• Modal analyses » Static analyses
• Transient dynamics » Modal analyses  The next few slides present some examples of the FEM applied
• Heat transfer » Aerodynamics to a variety of real-world design and analysis problems.
• Mechanisms » Transient dynamics
• Fracture mechanics » Heat transfer
• Metal forming » Fracture mechanics
• Crashworthiness
» Creep and plasticity analyses
• Architectural
» Composite materials
» Soil mechanics
» Aeroelasticity
» Rock mechanics
» Metal forming
» Hydraulics
» Crashworthiness
» Fracture mechanics
» Hydroelasticity
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## Several examples Sever examples

 Joint expansion of aerospace structure  Lung cancer analysis

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From Mr. M., Chingthaka and Dr. Pellegrino, S. @Caltech From Jaesung Eom. et al @ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Several examples Several examples
 Balloon inflation  Heat transfer analysis

## From Mr. Hida@ the University of Tokyo 94

From Mr. XW. Deng @Caltech

## Several example Classification of Solid-Mechanics Problems

Analysis of solids
 Electromagnetic analysis
Static Dynamics

## Behavior of Solids Stress Stiffening

Large Displacement
Geometric
Instability
Linear Nonlinear
Fracture
Plasticity
Material
Viscoplasticity
Geometric
Classification of solids

## Skeletal Systems Plates and Shells Solid Blocks

1D Elements 2D Elements 3D Elements
Trusses Plane Stress Brick Elements
Cables Plane Strain Tetrahedral Elements
Pipes Axisymmetric General Elements
Plate Bending
From Mr. Mizutani@ the University of Tokyo Shells with flat elements
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Shells with curved elements
Application of FEM Application of FEM
 Example 8: Elastic-plastic analysis  Example 9: Multibody system

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How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer? How can the FEM Help the Design Organization?

• The FEM offers many important advantages to the design engineer: • Simulation using the FEM also offers important business advantages to
the design organization:
• Easily applied to complex, irregular-shaped objects composed of
several different materials and having complex boundary conditions. • Reduced testing and redesign costs thereby shortening the product
development time.
• Applicable to steady-state, time dependent and eigenvalue • Identify issues in designs before tooling is committed.
problems.
• Refine components before dependencies to other components
• Applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. prohibit changes.

• One method can solve a wide variety of problems, including • Optimize performance before prototyping.
problems in solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, chemical reactions,
electromagnetics, biomechanics, heat transfer and acoustics, to name • Discover design problems before litigation.
a few.
• Allow more time for designers to use engineering judgment, and less
99 time “turning the crank.” 100
Discussion of Some Key Problems Advantages of the Finite Element Method

##  Can readily handle complex geometry:

 Advantage and disadvantage • The heart and power of the FEM.
 Sources of Error in the FEM  Can handle complex analysis types:
• Vibration
 Stiffening and lower bound
• Transients
 High-order element • Nonlinear
 H-method vs p-method • Heat transfer
 General software vs specific software • Fluids
 Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation  Can handle complex loading:
 Can handle complex restraints:
• Indeterminate structures can be analyzed.
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Advantages of the Finite Element Method Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method

 Can handle bodies comprised of nonhomogeneous materials:  A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A
• Every element in the model could be assigned a different set general closed-form solution, which would permit one to examine
of material properties. system response to changes in various parameters, is not produced.
 Can handle bodies comprised of nonisotropic materials:
• Orthotropic  The FEM is applied to an approximation of the mathematical model
• Anisotropic of a system (the source of so-called inherited errors.)
 Special material effects are handled:
• Temperature dependent properties.  Experience and judgment are needed in order to construct a good
finite element model.
• Plasticity
• Creep
 A powerful computer and reliable FEM software are essential.
• Swelling
 Special geometric effects can be modeled:
 Input and output data may be large and tedious to prepare and
• Large displacements. interpret.
• Large rotations.
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• Contact (gap) condition.
Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method Sources of Error in the FEM
 Numerical problems: The three main sources of error in a typical FEM solution are
• Computers only carry a finite number of significant digits. discretization errors, formulation errors and numerical errors.
• Round off and error accumulation.
• Can help the situation by not attaching stiff (small) elements Discretization error results from transforming the physical system
to flexible (large) elements. (continuum) into a finite element model, and can be related to
 Susceptible to user-introduced modeling errors: modeling the boundary shape, the boundary conditions, etc.
• Poor choice of element types.
• Distorted elements.
 Certain effects not automatically included:
• Buckling
• Large deflections and rotations.
• Material nonlinearities .
• Other nonlinearities.
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## Sources of Error in the FEM Sources of Error in the FEM

 Formulation error results from the use of elements that don't precisely describe the Numerical error occurs as a result of numerical
behavior of the physical problem.
 Elements which are used to model physical problems for which they are not suited are calculation procedures, and includes truncation errors and
sometimes referred to as ill-conditioned or mathematically unsuitable elements. round off errors.
 For example a particular finite element might be formulated on the assumption that
displacements vary in a linear manner over the domain. Such an element will produce
no formulation error when it is used to model a linearly varying physical problem (linear
varying displacement field in this example), but would create a significant formulation
Numerical error is therefore a problem mainly concerning
error if it used to represent a quadratic or cubic varying displacement field. the FEM vendors and developers.

## The user can also contribute to the numerical accuracy,

for example, by specifying a physical quantity, say
Young’s modulus, E, to an inadequate number of decimal
places.

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Stiffening and lower bound High-order element
 The finite element method (FEM) provides a lower bound  Using a different set of shape functions of high-order polynomials will
in energy norm for the exact solution, i.e., the expect to reduce the computational effort and increase the accuracy
of the results. It can provide that an increase of polynomial degree is
approximation solution (displacement field) from FEM is combined with a proper mesh design.
smaller than actual case.

##  This is simply explained like this. FEM uses a finite

number of DOF to describe the continuum which has an
infinite number of DOF. This will made the stiffness of 2 nodes, linear function
system increase (stiffening), therefore, displacement will
become small for the same external force.

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## h-method vs p-method h-method vs p-method

 h-method  p-method
The basis functions for each finite element can be refined and the The finite element mesh can be refined and the minimal order of
diameter of the largest element, hmax, allowed to approach zero. This (polynomial) basis functions, pmin, allowed to approach infinity.
mode is called h-convergence and its computer implementation the This mode is called p-convergence and its computer implementation
h-version or h-method of the finite element method. the p-version or p-method of the finite element method.
Defined in Ivo Babuska , Barna Szabo, On the rates of convergence of the finite element method, International Journal for Numerical Defined in Ivo Babuska , Barna Szabo, On the rates of convergence of the finite element method, International Journal for Numerical
Methods in Engineering, 18(3):323-341, 2005. Methods in Engineering, 18(3):323-341, 2005.

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h-method vs p-method h-method vs p-method
 Which method is better? No conclusion  Really? From p-version FEM software Stresscheck
 In the p-version of the finite element method the rate of
convergence cannot be slower than in the h-version.
 Numerical oscillation problem would happen for p-version of the
finite element method.
 For obvious practical reasons, finite element analyses should be
both efficient and reliable.

 My personal view
 For structural analysis, h-method is more popular. Two-order
element is a good application considering the efficiency and
Up to 8-order element???
reliability.
 p-method seems to act against the original goal of FEM. From http://www.ada.co.jp/products/StressCheck/sc_pfem.html

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## General software vs specific software General software vs specific software

 My personal view:
 It is very important to make the FEM program by oneself
when studying the FEM.

##  For normal use of FEA, general software is more

recommendable. The current software has been well-
developed and ready to handle all the problems

##  Even for very specific problems, plenty of user-defined

subroutines can be used.

##  Comparing with maintenance of one whole analysis

program, just to maintain one specific part of the program
will be more focused and efficient. 115 User Subroutine in ABAQUS 116
Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation

 The FEM in particular, and simulation in general, are becoming  Enhanced multiphysics capabilities are coming:
integrated with the entire product development process (rather than  Coupling between numerous physical phenomena.
just another task in the product development process). » Ex: Fluid-structural interaction is the most common example.

##  Increasing use of non-deterministic analysis and design methods:

 A broader range of people are using the FEM.  Statistical modeling of material properties, tolerances, and anticipated loads.
 Sensitivity analyses.
 Increased data sharing between analysis data sources (CAD, testing,
FEM software, ERM software.)  Faster and more powerful computer hardware. Massively parallel processing.
» Ex: ADVENTURE PROJECT @ the University of Tokyo.

##  FEM software is becoming easier to use:  Decreasing reliance on testing.

 Improved GUIs, automeshers.
 FEM and simulation software available freely.
 Increased use of sophisticated shellscripts and wizards.
» Ex: OpenSees @ University of California, Berkeley .
» Ex: ADVENTURE PROJECT @ the University of Tokyo.
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Suggested reference

##  Chandrupatla, T. R. and Ashok D. Belegundu, 1997. Introduction to Finite Elements

in Engineering, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
 Kardestuncer, H., 1987. Finite Element Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York.
 Segerlind, L. J., 1984. Applied Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New
York.
Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R., 2002. Introduction to finite elements in engineering,
Prentice Hall, Third Edition.
R2. O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor and J. Z. Zhu, 2005. The Finite Element Method:
Its Basis and Fundamentals, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Sixth Edition.
Pan Zeng, 2008. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis, Tsinghua University.

su@bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

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