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Element Analysis

FEA Concept

Di Su Application of FEA

Research assistant professor

Bridge & Structure Laboratory Discussion of Some Key Problems

Department of Civil Engineering

The University of Tokyo

2010 Asia-

Asia-Pacific Summer School in Smart Structures Technology

2

July 27, 2010

About this short course Design

Construction

No a textbook of FEA, no tensor, no Galerkin method… Structure

Only focus in Civil Engineering

Realized by Matlab, Abaqus and Ansys

Maintenance Finite Element

Mathematical principle + Analysis modeling + Software application Demolish Method

Software + Practical problem + Self development

3 4

FEA & Structure Beijing National Stadium

Beijing National Stadium (40,000 tons) Mode shape

5 6

From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.

Failure verification Truss column design

7 8

From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG. From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.

Beijing National Stadium Beijing National Stadium

Construction process Construction process

9 10

From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG. From Herzog and de Meuron, Arup, CAG.

Complexities in the geometry, properties and in the boundary

Rayleigh-Ritz principle

conditions that are seen in most real-world problems usually • Approximation in the whole

means that an exact solution cannot be obtained or obtained in domain

• Higher-order continuous

a reasonable amount of time. function

• Fewer base functions

Engineers are content to obtain approximate solutions that can

be readily obtained in a reasonable time frame, and with

reasonable effort. The FEM is one such approximate solution Another method

technique. • Pieces function

approximation in sub-domain

• Linear or polynomial function

The FEM is a numerical procedure for obtaining approximate Describe one complex • More base functions

solutions to many of the problems encountered in engineering function

analysis.

Basic idea of FEM

11 12

Finite Element Method Definition The concept of “FINITE”

The continuum has an infinite number of degrees-of-freedom

(DOF), while the discretized model has a finite number of

DOF. This is the origin of the name, finite element method. FINITE

world applications of the FEM, and requires the computational Finite Number Finite Accuracy

power of the digital computer. The FEM has little practical There is only finite The accuracy of your

number of elements

value if the digital computer were not available. in your analysis

analysis is finite. Even

for very fine model, it

model, not infinite.

is not accurate

solution.

Solution of FEM gives the approximate behavior of the

continuum or system.

13 14

It is difficult to document the exact origin of the FEM, because the basic

Engineering Mathematics concepts have evolved over a period of 150 or more years. The first book

on the FEM by Zienkiewicz and Chung was published in 1967.

Finite difference

Trial function method

Variational Method of Weighted Richardson 1910

Liebman 1918

Most commercial FEM software packages originated in the 1970s and

method Residuals

Rayleigh 1870

Southwell 1946

1980s.

Similar structure Ritz 1909

Gauss 1795

Galerkin 1915

replacement Biezeno-Koch 1923

Hrenikoff 1941

Mchenry 1943 The FEM is one of the most important developments in computational

Newmark 1949 Continuous trial

function methods to occur in the 20th century. Advances in and ready availability of

Direct continuum Courant 1943

Variable finite computers and software has brought the FEM within reach of engineers

Prager-Synge 1947 difference method

elements

Argyris 1955

Zienkiewicz 1964 Varga 1962 working in small industries, and even students.

Turner et al. 1956

Present Finite

Element Method

First coined by Clough 1960

15

16

FEA Concept FEA Concept

Example1: One dimension problem

17 18

Use uA, uB, uC as unknowns

19 20

FEA Concept FEA Concept

Let’s derive more More general form

Nodal

displacement

matrix

• The equilibrium for each node has turned into the relationship of each component.

The equilibrium equation for whole structure, not for each component

• This component description is generalized and standard; i.e. ELEMENT.

21 • In this example, it is Bar Element. 22

Nodal displacement

Example2:

External force

Inner force

P3=50N

Equilibrium equation

Stiffness matrix the bar element you just learned?

23 24

FEM Solution process FEM Solution process

Solve the linear equations

Nodal force

25 26

Stiffness matrix

Step 1: Discretization Step 2: Stiffness matrix for Step 3: Assembly Step 4: Solution (nodal disp.)

each element Step5: Other parameters (strain,

stress, et al.)

Complex structure

Simple element

27 28

Element type in FEM software Bar Element and Beam Element

Abaqus Let’s discuss the process more generally.

element by the mechanical equations in most cases. In

this section two general methods will be introduced to

obtain the basic equation for bar element and beam

Ansys element.

Principle of virtual work

Principle of minimum potential energy

29 30

Example 3: 1D problem

Equilibrium equation or (c1 is constant)

Geometric equation 1.Direct solution: 3 unknowns

Displacement: u(x)

for 3 equations

Strain: εx(x) 2.Indirect solution: Trial

Physical equation

Stress: σx(x) function?

Boundary condition

31 32

Principle of virtual work Principle of virtual work

Principle of virtual work for a deformable body

external force

For this equilibrium system

Virtual displacement External virtual work is equal to internal virtual strain

but still remains equilibrium

energy when equilibrated forces and stresses undergo

unrelated but consistent displacements and strains.

Principle of virtual work based on the virtual displacement

displacements, the total virtual work of all external forces is zero.

--Johann (Jean) Bernoulli (1667-1748) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782)

33 34

(Trial function, c is unknown)

The strain, virtual displacement, and virtual strain is

Final solution

35 36

Principle of minimum potential energy Application of principle of minimum potential energy

to a position that minimizes the total potential energy.

Assume the displacement field as u(x)

Potential energy Again,

(U is the strain energy, W is the external work)

Potential energy

The true displacement field should satisfy From the minimum value

37 38

Description of one element

Geometrics and node description

Displacement field (Trial function)

Geometrics and node description

Strain field

Nodal displacement

Stress field

Nodal force

Potential energy

Displacement field

Assume the linear function

Obtain the stiffness equation of element by principle of

From the nodal displacement

virtual work or principle of minimum potential energy

Then

displacement

39 matrix 40

vector

Bar element in local coordinate system Bar element in local coordinate system

Strain-displacement

matrix

Stress field

Stress-displacement

matrix

41 42

Bar element in local coordinate system Bar element in global coordinate system

Local coordinate system

Stiffness matrix of element

Transformation matrix

43 44

Bar element in global coordinate system Bar element in space

Potential energy

Transformation matrix

45 46

MATLAB program for 1D bar element MATLAB program for 2D bar element

Calculate the stiffness matrix k(2×2) Calculate the stiffness matrix k(4×4)

Bar1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j) Bar2D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)

Assemble the stiffness matrix Assemble the stiffness matrix

Bar1D2Node _Stress(k,u,A) Bar2D2Node _Stress(E,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)

Calculate the stress of element Calculate the stress of element

Bar1D2Node_Force(k,u) Bar2D2Node_Force(E,A,x1,y1,x2,y2,alpha,u)

Calculate the nodal force vector Calculate the nodal force vector

http://www.bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/apss/downloads/FEM%20code.zip 47 48

Application of bar element Application of bar element

Example 4: Four-bar truss structure Stiffness matrix for each element

49 50

Assemble to whole stiffness equation Results

Boundary conditions

Compare with the results from MATLAB, ANSYS and ABAQUS

51 52

MATLAB Program ANSYS Program

53 54

Example 5: Simple beam under uniform load

The basic parameters

Displacement:

Strain: εx

Stress: σx

55 56

Basic equation of beam element Basic equation of beam element

Equilibrium equation Choose deflection v as the fundamental unknown

Equilibrium in y

Equilibrium in x

Geometric equation

Physical

Geometric

Boundary conditions

Physical equation

57 58

Geometrics and node description

Displacement field (Trial function)

Strain field Geometrics and node description

Stress field Nodal displacement

Potential energy Nodal force

Displacement field

Assume the polynomial function

Obtain the stiffness equation of element by principle of

virtual work or principle of minimum potential energy From the nodal displacement

59 60

Beam element in plane in local coordinate system Beam element in plane in local coordinate system

Strain-displacement matrix

External work

Stress field

Nodal force vector

Stress-displacement matrix

61 62

Stiffness equation

How to obtain the nodal force?

Nodal displacement

Nodal force

Equivalent nodal force

Uniform load

Different BC

63 64

Equivalent nodal force Equivalent nodal force

Displacement field

Shape function

External work

Example 6: Cantilever-continuous beam

67 68

Application of beam element Plane beam element in global coordinate system

Local

Global

69 70

differential equations, just linear equations

Local coordinate system Stiffness matrix for beam element in space (local

coordinate system)

For v1, v2, θz1 and θz2, the same with pure bending beam

71 72

Coordinate transfer in space Beam Element in MATLAB

Transfer to global coordinate system MATLAB program for 1D beam element

Beam1D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,L)

Calculate the stiffness matrix k(4×4)

Beam1D2Node _Assembly(KK,k,i,j)

Assemble the stiffness matrix

Beam1D2Node_ Strain(x,L,y)

Calculate the geometric matrix B(1×4)

Beam1D2Node _Stress(E,B,u)

Calculate the stress of element

Beam1D2Node_Deflection(x,L,u)

Calculate the deflection of element

73 74

MATLAB program for 2D beam element Example 7: One frame structure

Beam2D2Node_Stiffness(E,I,A,L)

Calculate the stiffness matrix k(6×6)

Beam2D2Node_Assemble(KK,k,i,j)

Assemble the stiffness matrix

Beam2D2Node_Forces(k,u)

Calculate the nodal force of element

75 76

Application of beam element Application of beam element

For element 1, stiffness matrix is

For element 2 and 3,

77 78

Transfer matrix for element 2 and 3 After considering the BC,

system

Final solution

79 80

MATLAB Program ANSYS Program

81 82

General-purpose FEM software packages are available at

reasonable cost, and can be readily executed on

microcomputers, including workstations and PCs.

modeling and mesh generation.

meshers, and sophisticated postprocessors and graphics to

speed the analysis and make pre and post-processing more

user-friendly.

The real power of Finite Element method is that it successfully

solved the continuum problem.

83 84

Commercially available general FEM software Information Available from Various Types of FEM Analysis

1965 ASKA (PERMAS) IKOSS GmbH, (INTES),Germany www.intes.de

STRUDL MCAUTO, USA www.gtstrudl.gatech.edu • Deflection »Temperature

1966

1967

NASTRAN

BERSAFE

MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., USA

CEGB, UK (restructured in 1990)

www.macsch.com

• Stresses » Heat fluxes

SAMCEF Univer. of Liege, Belgium www.samcef.com • Strains

1969 ASAS Atkins Res.&Devel., UK www.wsasoft.com

• Forces » Thermal gradients

MARC MARC Anal. Corp., USA www.marc.com

PAFEC PAFEC Ltd, UK now SER Systems • Energies » Heat flow from

SESAM DNV, Norway www.dnv.no

1970 ANSYS Swanson Anal. Syst., USA www.ansys.com convection faces

SAP

1971 STARDYNE

NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA

Mech. Res. Inc., USA

www.eerc.berkeley.edu

www.reiusa.com

Dynamic analysis

TITUS (SYSTUS) CITRA, France; ESI Group www.systus.com • Frequencies

1972 DIANA TNO, The Netherlands www.diana.nl Fluid analysis

WECAN Westinghouse R&D, USA • Deflection (mode

1973 GIFTS CASA/GIFTS Inc., USA shape) » Pressures

1975 ADINA ADINA R&D, Inc., USA www.adina.com

CASTEM CEA, France www.castem.org:8001/ HomePage.html • Stresses » Gas temperatures

FEAP NISEE, Univ. of California, Berkeley, USA www.eerc.berkeley.edu

1976 NISA Eng. Mech. Res. Corp., USA www.emrc.com • Strains

1978 DYNA2D, DYNA3D Livermore Softw. Tech. Corp., USA www.lstc.com • Forces » Convection coefficients

1979 ABAQUS Hibbit, Karlsson & Sorensen, Inc., USA www.abaqus.com

1980 LUSAS FEA Ltd., UK www.lusas.com • Energies » Velocities

1982 COSMOS/M Structural Res. & Anal. Corp., USA www.cosmosm.com

1984 ALGOR Algor Inc., USA www.algor.com

85

Example FEM Application Areas Variety of FEM Solutions is Wide and Growing Wider

Automotive industry The FEM has been applied to a richly diverse array of scientific

• Static analyses • Aerospace industry

and technological problems.

• Modal analyses » Static analyses

• Transient dynamics » Modal analyses The next few slides present some examples of the FEM applied

• Heat transfer » Aerodynamics to a variety of real-world design and analysis problems.

• Mechanisms » Transient dynamics

• Fracture mechanics » Heat transfer

• Metal forming » Fracture mechanics

• Crashworthiness

» Creep and plasticity analyses

• Architectural

» Composite materials

» Soil mechanics

» Aeroelasticity

» Rock mechanics

» Metal forming

» Hydraulics

» Crashworthiness

» Fracture mechanics

» Hydroelasticity

89 90

Joint expansion of aerospace structure Lung cancer analysis

91 92

From Mr. M., Chingthaka and Dr. Pellegrino, S. @Caltech From Jaesung Eom. et al @ Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Several examples Several examples

Balloon inflation Heat transfer analysis

From Mr. XW. Deng @Caltech

Analysis of solids

Electromagnetic analysis

Static Dynamics

Elementary Advanced

Large Displacement

Geometric

Instability

Linear Nonlinear

Fracture

Plasticity

Material

Viscoplasticity

Geometric

Classification of solids

1D Elements 2D Elements 3D Elements

Trusses Plane Stress Brick Elements

Cables Plane Strain Tetrahedral Elements

Pipes Axisymmetric General Elements

Plate Bending

From Mr. Mizutani@ the University of Tokyo Shells with flat elements

95 96

Shells with curved elements

Application of FEM Application of FEM

Example 8: Elastic-plastic analysis Example 9: Multibody system

97 98

How can the FEM Help the Design Engineer? How can the FEM Help the Design Organization?

• The FEM offers many important advantages to the design engineer: • Simulation using the FEM also offers important business advantages to

the design organization:

• Easily applied to complex, irregular-shaped objects composed of

several different materials and having complex boundary conditions. • Reduced testing and redesign costs thereby shortening the product

development time.

• Applicable to steady-state, time dependent and eigenvalue • Identify issues in designs before tooling is committed.

problems.

• Refine components before dependencies to other components

• Applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. prohibit changes.

• One method can solve a wide variety of problems, including • Optimize performance before prototyping.

problems in solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, chemical reactions,

electromagnetics, biomechanics, heat transfer and acoustics, to name • Discover design problems before litigation.

a few.

• Allow more time for designers to use engineering judgment, and less

99 time “turning the crank.” 100

Discussion of Some Key Problems Advantages of the Finite Element Method

Advantage and disadvantage • The heart and power of the FEM.

Sources of Error in the FEM Can handle complex analysis types:

• Vibration

Stiffening and lower bound

• Transients

High-order element • Nonlinear

H-method vs p-method • Heat transfer

General software vs specific software • Fluids

Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation Can handle complex loading:

• Node-based loading (point loads).

• Element-based loading (pressure, thermal, inertial forces).

• Time or frequency dependent loading.

Can handle complex restraints:

• Indeterminate structures can be analyzed.

101 102

Advantages of the Finite Element Method Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method

Can handle bodies comprised of nonhomogeneous materials: A specific numerical result is obtained for a specific problem. A

• Every element in the model could be assigned a different set general closed-form solution, which would permit one to examine

of material properties. system response to changes in various parameters, is not produced.

Can handle bodies comprised of nonisotropic materials:

• Orthotropic The FEM is applied to an approximation of the mathematical model

• Anisotropic of a system (the source of so-called inherited errors.)

Special material effects are handled:

• Temperature dependent properties. Experience and judgment are needed in order to construct a good

finite element model.

• Plasticity

• Creep

A powerful computer and reliable FEM software are essential.

• Swelling

Special geometric effects can be modeled:

Input and output data may be large and tedious to prepare and

• Large displacements. interpret.

• Large rotations.

103 104

• Contact (gap) condition.

Disadvantages of the Finite Element Method Sources of Error in the FEM

Numerical problems: The three main sources of error in a typical FEM solution are

• Computers only carry a finite number of significant digits. discretization errors, formulation errors and numerical errors.

• Round off and error accumulation.

• Can help the situation by not attaching stiff (small) elements Discretization error results from transforming the physical system

to flexible (large) elements. (continuum) into a finite element model, and can be related to

Susceptible to user-introduced modeling errors: modeling the boundary shape, the boundary conditions, etc.

• Poor choice of element types.

• Distorted elements.

• Geometry not adequately modeled.

Certain effects not automatically included:

• Buckling

• Large deflections and rotations.

• Material nonlinearities .

• Other nonlinearities.

105 106

Formulation error results from the use of elements that don't precisely describe the Numerical error occurs as a result of numerical

behavior of the physical problem.

Elements which are used to model physical problems for which they are not suited are calculation procedures, and includes truncation errors and

sometimes referred to as ill-conditioned or mathematically unsuitable elements. round off errors.

For example a particular finite element might be formulated on the assumption that

displacements vary in a linear manner over the domain. Such an element will produce

no formulation error when it is used to model a linearly varying physical problem (linear

varying displacement field in this example), but would create a significant formulation

Numerical error is therefore a problem mainly concerning

error if it used to represent a quadratic or cubic varying displacement field. the FEM vendors and developers.

for example, by specifying a physical quantity, say

Young’s modulus, E, to an inadequate number of decimal

places.

107 108

Stiffening and lower bound High-order element

The finite element method (FEM) provides a lower bound Using a different set of shape functions of high-order polynomials will

in energy norm for the exact solution, i.e., the expect to reduce the computational effort and increase the accuracy

of the results. It can provide that an increase of polynomial degree is

approximation solution (displacement field) from FEM is combined with a proper mesh design.

smaller than actual case.

number of DOF to describe the continuum which has an

infinite number of DOF. This will made the stiffness of 2 nodes, linear function

system increase (stiffening), therefore, displacement will

become small for the same external force.

109 110

h-method p-method

The basis functions for each finite element can be refined and the The finite element mesh can be refined and the minimal order of

diameter of the largest element, hmax, allowed to approach zero. This (polynomial) basis functions, pmin, allowed to approach infinity.

mode is called h-convergence and its computer implementation the This mode is called p-convergence and its computer implementation

h-version or h-method of the finite element method. the p-version or p-method of the finite element method.

Defined in Ivo Babuska , Barna Szabo, On the rates of convergence of the finite element method, International Journal for Numerical Defined in Ivo Babuska , Barna Szabo, On the rates of convergence of the finite element method, International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Engineering, 18(3):323-341, 2005. Methods in Engineering, 18(3):323-341, 2005.

111 112

h-method vs p-method h-method vs p-method

Which method is better? No conclusion Really? From p-version FEM software Stresscheck

In the p-version of the finite element method the rate of

convergence cannot be slower than in the h-version.

Numerical oscillation problem would happen for p-version of the

finite element method.

For obvious practical reasons, finite element analyses should be

both efficient and reliable.

My personal view

For structural analysis, h-method is more popular. Two-order

element is a good application considering the efficiency and

Up to 8-order element???

reliability.

p-method seems to act against the original goal of FEM. From http://www.ada.co.jp/products/StressCheck/sc_pfem.html

113 114

My personal view:

It is very important to make the FEM program by oneself

when studying the FEM.

recommendable. The current software has been well-

developed and ready to handle all the problems

subroutines can be used.

program, just to maintain one specific part of the program

will be more focused and efficient. 115 User Subroutine in ABAQUS 116

Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation Future Trends in the FEM and Simulation

The FEM in particular, and simulation in general, are becoming Enhanced multiphysics capabilities are coming:

integrated with the entire product development process (rather than Coupling between numerous physical phenomena.

just another task in the product development process). » Ex: Fluid-structural interaction is the most common example.

A broader range of people are using the FEM. Statistical modeling of material properties, tolerances, and anticipated loads.

Sensitivity analyses.

Increased data sharing between analysis data sources (CAD, testing,

FEM software, ERM software.) Faster and more powerful computer hardware. Massively parallel processing.

» Ex: ADVENTURE PROJECT @ the University of Tokyo.

Improved GUIs, automeshers.

FEM and simulation software available freely.

Increased use of sophisticated shellscripts and wizards.

» Ex: OpenSees @ University of California, Berkeley .

» Ex: ADVENTURE PROJECT @ the University of Tokyo.

117 118

Suggested reference

in Engineering, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Kardestuncer, H., 1987. Finite Element Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Segerlind, L. J., 1984. Applied Finite Element Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, New

York.

Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R., 2002. Introduction to finite elements in engineering,

Prentice Hall, Third Edition.

R2. O. C. Zienkiewicz, R. L. Taylor and J. Z. Zhu, 2005. The Finite Element Method:

Its Basis and Fundamentals, Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, Sixth Edition.

Pan Zeng, 2008. Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis, Tsinghua University.

su@bridge.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

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