This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
job entails managing people, products, events, environments, and the like? Answer: Research simply means a search for facts ± answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Research is the organized and systematic inquiry or investigation which provides information for solving a problem or finding answers to a complex issue. Research in business: Often, organization members want to know everything about their products s e r v i c e s , programs, etc. Your research plans depend on what information you need to collect in order to make major decisions about a product, service, program, etc. Research provi des t h e n eeded i n f ormat i on t h at gu i des man agers t o make in f ormed d e c i s i o n s t o s u c c e s s f u l d e a l w i t h problems. The more focused you are about your resources, products, events and environments what you want to gain by your research, the more effective and efficient you can be in your research, the shorter the time it will take you and ultimately the less it will cost you. Question 2: How do you evolve research design for exploratory research? Briefly analyze. Answer: Research design for exploratory research: Research simply means a search for facts answers to questions and s o l u t i o n s t o problems. It is a purposive i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s a n o r g a n i z e d i n q u i r y . I t s e e k s t o f i n d explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. It is also known as formulating research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is illstructured and much lessf o c u s e d o n p r e - lessf o c u s e d o n p r e d e t e r m i n e d o b j e c t i v e s . I t u s u a l l y t a k e s t h e f o r m o f a p i l o t s t u d y . T h e purpos e of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher¶s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible thes t u d y . K a t z c o n c e p t u a l i z e s t w o l e v e l s o f e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s . ³ A t t h e fi rst l evel i s th edi scovery of t h e si gn ifi can t variabl e in th e si tu at i on , at a t t h e s e c o n d , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f relationships between variables. Question 3: Independent and dependent and extraneous variables in a research design: Answer: The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume differentq u a n t i t a t i v e v a l u e s , l i k e h e i g h t , w e i g h t , i n c o m e , e t c . Q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s a r e n o t quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the
p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f t h e a t t r i b u t e c o n s i d e r e d . Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as Äcontinuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called Änon-continuous variables. In statistical term, t h e y a r e a l s o known as Ädiscrete variable. For example, ageis a continuous variable, whereas the number of children is a non continues variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or e n d o g e n o u s v a r i a b l e , a n d t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t c a u s e t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e depend ent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is ad e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s l i k e o w n p r i c e , income and price of substitute. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between children¶s school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an Äexperimental error. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables.