MATERIAL: Glass/plastic as thin as human hair.
It is designed to guide light waves along the length of the fiber with the help of successive total internal reflection from side walls of the fiber.

It is the light guiding region called core with refractive index n1.

It is the region through which light ray is internally reflected because refractive index of the cladding material is always lower than the core. It reduces scattering losses and adds mechanical strength to the fiber.

It protects the core and cladding from moisture, dust, abrasion and also give mechanical strength to fiber. Optical fibers are either mode as a single fiber or a flexible bundle of cable : A bundle of fibers means numbers of fiber in a single jacket. Which is shown in fig.

µ Number of modes supported by given fiber depends on the ratio Where. ´The propogation of light along a waveguide can be describedin terms of a set of guided electromagnetic waves called the modes of given wave guide. Light rays can propogate two ways: 1. 3. Zigzag path Axial ray that travels along the axis of the fiber is called zero-order ray. TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER WITH RESPECT TO MODE: 1. Single mode step index fiber. Axial path 2.OPTICAL FIBER MODES: Modes are equivalent to number of paths of light. Multi mode graded index fiber. . 2. d=diameter of core =wavelength.µ OR ´The paths along which the waves are in phase inside the fiber called modes. Multi mode step index fiber.

It must be possible to make long.405 It is called cut off wave length of fiber.NORMALIZED FREQUENCY (V-NUMBER) OF FIBER: ´optical fiber may be characterized by one more parameter called vnumber or normalized frequency of fiber.µ Where. (3) V = 2. Nm = V2 (1) V < 2. There are three types of fibers. (2) V > 2. Nm = number of modes supported by any given fiber. thin flexible from the material and that have slightly different refractive indices for core & cladding. a=radius of core =free space wave leangth V-number or normalized freq is the parameter through which we can decide the number of modes supported by any given fiber. .405 Fiber can support more than one mode and is called multimode step index fiber. And cut off wave length For graded index fiber Nm= V2 TYPES OF OPTICAL FIBER WITH RESPECT TO MATERIAL: Materials which are used for optical fibers are transparent to optical frequencies. For step index fiber.405 fiber can support only one mode and is called single mode step index fiber.

When pure silica is dopped by B2O3 Or fluorine.458 at 850 nm (8500 A) to produce two similar materials that have slightly different refractive index for the core and cladding. We can change the refractive index of the glass by dopping other material for this basic material SiO2 is dopped by Germenia (Geo2) or pentoxide (). So this one dopped material is used as cladding and pure silica as core material. Basic material dopped B2O3 / fluorine (pure silica) =claddingmaterial APPLICATIONS: Very low losses so used for long distance communication . So that refractive index is increased and such material is used as core and pure silicaas cladding basic material (pure silica) dopped. Germenia (Geo2) OR pentoxide (P2O5) =core material. the refractive index is decresed.(1) Glass core cladded with glass. (2) Glass core cladded with plastic . (3) Plastic core cladded with another plastic. GLASS FIBER Sio2 is the basic material for make the glass which is easily available on earth. Sio2 has a refractive index of 1.

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