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A nnouncement is made with pride and

pleasure of the election of the

Honorable Harry S. Truman President
of the United States and Colonel, Field
Artillery Reserve, as Honorary
President of the United States Field
Artillery Association.

from our

Chief of Staff

T HE PRESIDENT of the United States has greatly honored the Field Artillery, and the
Army, by accepting the position of Honorary President of the Field Artillery Association.
Please accept my warm congratulations.

The Field Artillery had a tremendous job to do in World War II, and it performed
magnificently. The speed, accuracy, and devastating power of American artillery won
confidence and admiration from the troops it supported and inspired fear and respect in the
enemy. It played a major role in the incomparable team that smashed two of the greatest
military machines in history. There is no doubt that the Field Artillery Association contributed
substantially in building the professional standards and esprit de corps which resulted in the
outstanding performance of our artillerymen in battle.

The coming years will offer a renewed challenge to the Association, a challenge which I
know will be met in full and admirable fashion.

Chief of Staff

V ICTORY came in Europe one year

ago this month. Acutely aware of this
anniversary and of the great joy and

perhaps even greater disillusionment that
followed in the wale of complete military
victory, the FIELD ARTILLERY
JOURNAL—uncertain of the most fitting

note to strike on VE-Day's first birthday—
is content merely to republish this bit of
verse (by "Mailed Fist" in the January
1946 issue of the Journal of the Royal
Artillery) as a tribute to those who slugged
long and hard on the "forgotten front" in
"Contributes to the Good of Our Country"

CASSINO VOL. 36 MAY 1946 NO. 5

On the 8th of May, 1945
Upon the gaunt, scarred, rock-encrusted z Cover: The Honorable Harry S. Truman, President of the United States.
hill, z Frontispiece: A Greeting to Artillerymen from the Chief of Staff.
All that is left of that fair Monastery
The valley of the crystal flowing stream Editor's "Creed" ..................................................................................................................... 260
Skirting the shattered ruins of the town. Top Secret—Explosive Book ................................................................................................ 284

Infantry Division in Europe, by Maj. Gen. H. W. Blakeley, USA .......................................... 262
The river's banks were rent by force of
war, Let's Use Forward Observation, by Lt. Col. Ulrich G. Gibbons, FA.................................... 269
Thus order the shell-torn fields of green Dennis' Court-Martial, by Col. R. E. Anderson, FA .............................................................. 272
and gold Night Ride Through Krautland, by 1st Lt. M. M. Meisels, FA .............................................. 276
The vagrant Gari spreads her cooling Report on the United Nations, by Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. ................................................ 279
More on the Massacre at Malmedy, by Kenneth Parker ...................................................... 283
Restoring life, where once death seared
his way. Panama's Watermelon War, by Ralph Z. Kirkpatrick........................................................... 286
The Story of the Gun (Part VI—Conclusion), by Lt. A. W. Wilson, RA ............................... 289
Perimeters in Paragraphs, by Col. Conrad H. Lanza, Rtd. .................................................. 297
From Monte Trocchio, whence critwhile
Across Cassino on to Cairo's height, Air OP Causes Trouble .......................................................................................................... 271
A nightingale flew down into the plain, Artillery Conference at the Field Artillery School ................................................................ 273
And lit upon a flowering Judas tree VII Corps Artillery Battle Experiences .................................................................................. 293
Many Artillerymen Work in Washington............................................................................... 307

He sang, as twilight stole across the vale, OTHER FEATURES

Then of a sudden in one glad acclaim Of More Than Passing Interest ............................................................................................. 275
A wondrous choir of philomel took up his Pool Officer's Lament—a poem ............................................................................................ 287
For Heroism and Service ....................................................................................................... 288
To them had come the word, I know not
how, Letters to the Editor ............................................................................................................... 305
That, in the fullness of one year of strife, They Work for You ................................................................................................................. 309
Victory bad crowned the effort that was
born BOOKS ............................................................................................................................................ 311
And weaned upon the gallantry of men
Beside Cassino on the road to Rome.
Associate Editor Business Manager

Published monthly by The United States Field Artillery Association. Publication office:
3110 Elm Avenue, Baltimore, Md. Editorial and executive offices: 1218 Connecticut Avenue,
Washington 6, D. C. Address all communications to the Washington office. Entered as second
class matter August 20, 1929, at the post office at Baltimore, Md. Accepted for mailing at the
special rate of postage provided in Sec. 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, Copyright, 1946, by The
United States Field Artillery Association. Subscription rates: $3.00 a year; foreign, $3.50;
single copies, 35 cents; additional single copies to subscribers, 25 cents. The Field Artillery
Journal does not accept paid advertising. It does pay for original articles accepted, but
unsolicited manuscripts must be accompanied by return postage if they are to be returned.

THE SPECIFIC WAYS AND MEANS OF best men. Condemned, at one and the same time, is the
furthering the high objects of our Association abuse by any officer of the sobering responsibility of
(see bottom page 285) vary continuously with his position of leadership. The Army needs good
the passage of time. As Editor, I deem it not only my leaders and a good discipline—a discipline no
privilege but also, and more important, my duty boldly different fundamentally, from the good discipline of
to support editorially those policies that will, in my the home or the church or the efficient business
judgment, contribute most to the "good of our establishments throughout our land. Good leaders
country." A number of these are set forth below. These have good discipline. We'll have neither, if we
convictions are mine, and mine alone. Emphasized is sovietize the Army.
the fact that their being listed here will stand as no bar, Joint-mindedness. Every technique — and there are
whatsoever, to the publication by me of reasoned many—must be exploited to develop joint-minded air,
articles expressing contrary views. In fact, therein lies ground and naval officers. No other single factor is
the greatest value and strength of our JOURNAL — to more vital to the future security of our nation.
provide a meeting ground for the free expression of Essentially, this is a state of mind and not something to
ideas in the changing present. be accomplished merely by drawing up a new
Readers will note that my "creed" gives relatively organization chart. Unfortunately for all, joint-
minor emphasis to even the major problems mindedness suffered a setback by the recent head-on
confronting us as artillerymen. This is intentional. I am collision of the War and Navy Departments over the
convinced that, from a timing point of view, the merger.
improved and as-yet-unthought-of artillery techniques Forthright Articulateness. The Army has a
of an atomic age are "little things" relative to the "big bumbling record in the increasingly important field of
things" now pressing urgently upon us. Can we but public relations. Every leader knows that the American
straighten out the big things, the little ones will arrange soldier responds willingly and selflessly if he
themselves as a matter of course. understands what is being done and why it is being
THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL will continue to done. Our soldiers are from and of the American
welcome and to publish varying types of articles of people who will also "play ball" if they know what is
exclusively artillery interest. Also most welcome, being done and why it's being done. It is essential
however, are articles of broader perspective. therefore, that the Army and every soldier in it develop
Editorially, I shall continue to stress what I feel are the a more forthright—yes, even aggressive—
"big things." articulateness in our relationships with the American
Democratic Army. The fulfillment of the people. The United States Army is one of our oldest
democratic ideal within the Armed Forces of the and finest social institutions. For myself, I am most
United States, to the maximum degree consistent with proud to be a soldier—and am much more proud of the
ordinary horse-sense, is a charge and a trust weighing high ideals and distinguished history of our Army.
heavily upon every commissioned officer, regardless These sentiments we soldiers must pass on both to our
of the color of his uniform or the size or shape of his men and to our people. By no other positive means can
insignia. To accomplish this in our Army requires we protect the interests of national security against its
continuing and penetrating self-criticism. Much of enemies—the apathetic majority and the wishful
this is needed right now. The officer-enlisted man (and/or treacherous) thinking minority. Certain vicious
relationship, for example, may require re-examination. elements of the latter group are highly vocal and highly
Perhaps even the salute, too—fine custom and organized for un-American purpose.
privilege of soldiers, that most of us consider it to be. Tradition. I agree entirely with General Blakeley’s
Denounced flatly, however, are the "common pot" statement on page 268 that "battles are won by young
blatherings of certain disgruntled former service soldiers who have pride in their units and in
themselves." In the recent wartime years there have
been what may properly be labeled as an outrageous
disregard of the stimulating potency of tradition to branch "consciousness" as there was in the pre-war days
soldiers and soldiering. Muffed badly during the war, was the product of certain over-all circumstances (small
it is imperative that the loose ends now be gathered up isolated stations, inadequate appropriations; etc.) and not
and nourished carefully by every commander, high the logical derivative of a branch system. (I had been
and low. commissioned eleven years before I ever saw a
General Staff. The principle of the general staff— division.) The artillery never has pretended—and never
the brass, if you will—is absolutely sound. It must be will pretend—to be other than a supporting arm.
strengthened and improved. Kicked considerably during Officer Procurement. Plans for officer procurement
the war, circumstances beyond the control of the Army, for the post-war Army should include an expanded
and not the principle, were to blame. Although we had "Thomason Act" principle (for ROTC graduates and
to try to do so, we must not be confused by the National Guard candidates) and should retain the OCS
unalterable fact that general staff officers could not, and principle (for enlisted men). The War Department
cannot, be made in a few weeks or a few months. Take should beat down with solid logic (see Forthright
an example, related to the preceding point. A real Articulateness, above) what I consider to be the
general staff officer would never have permitted the 6th shallow thinking nonsense that no candidate is suitable
FA Bn (born in 1798 and having, perhaps, the most for commission if he has not served one year—or three
distinguished battle record of any American artillery months or three weeks or three years, for that matter—
unit) to fight World War II other than side by side with as an enlisted man.
the 5th and 7th FA Bns in the 1st Infantry Division, Integrated Guidance. No element was more decisive
where it fought in World War I. Again—and along the than artillery in winning the great land battles in World
same general line of thinking—when will we War II. It was the same story in World War I—and in
artillerymen be rid of this word group (suggestive, to every other war in modern times. Regardless of the
me, of field day at a boarding school) and go back to size or the shape of our weapons-to-come, we must not
regiment, which has a ring unmatched by any other forget these lessons of the past in planning for the
word in the military vocabulary? future. Hence, I repeat again my firm conviction that
Selection "Out" not "Up." The development and the over-riding current artillery requirement is the early
preservation of efficient and fearless leaders and establishment, both at home and abroad, of a suitably
leadership within the Army requires vigorous and integrated artillery guidance—give it any name you
vigorous procedures for selection out of the Service. will—appropriate to and consistent with artillery's
not promotion by selection up within the Service. great battle role. Impressive, as I have said before, are
Despite the obvious theoretical advantages, the related facts that (a) the Russians and the British
promotion by selection up is the quickest and surest had it in the war just won and will have it again, and
road to developing a corps of "yes" men. We have (b) the United States lacked it along with the Germans
too many already. No active officer would identify and the Japs.
himself with this type of editorial if his promotion One Artillery. The merger of the Field Artillery and
depended, in any way, upon not offending or the Coast Artillery Corps appears inevitable. This is
annoying a superior. sound. It is my earnest hope that the merger of the U.
S. Field Artillery and Coast Artillery Associations may
"Branchless" Army. Of doubtful soundness is the
follow promptly thereafter.
accelerating trend to the view that we should rip off
Repeated in closing, for the sake of emphasis, is the
our branch insignia and become "ground" soldiers.
fact that the listing here of my own strong convictions
There is a real meaning and a worthwhile caution in
will stand as no bar to the publication by me of
the adage, jack of all trades and master of none. A
reasoned articles expressing contrary views.
good combat team results, I think, when a good
artilleryman supports a good doughboy. Although I
would argue against it, perhaps we Regulars can
handle this "branchless" business. I believe, however,
that it is an unsound concept for the much larger—
hence, in this sense, more important—group, the Non- Colonel, Field Artillery
regular Components. Such unhealthy
O NE OF the most outstanding
artillerymen of World War
By Major General H. W. Blakeley, USA
II, General Blakeley's
distinguished career is a model,
worthy of emulation by young
officers who aspire to prepare
themselves for the heaviest and A critical analysis by a veteran commander of certain
most sobering responsibility an
officer can have thrust upon him— aspects of the infantry division, as organized and
the command of soldiers on the
field of battle. employed in Europe. He pulls no punches and strikes
Commissioned a second lieutenant hard for the powerful intangibles in soldiering.
of Field Artillery in 1917, General
Blakeley is a graduate of the Field
Artillery School, the Command and
General Staff School, and the Army
War College. He has had two tours
as an instructor at Fort Sill (one in

B OARDS OF officers are editor's warning is a good one.

Gunnery and one in Tactics) and has
been an instructor at the Command
and General Staff School. All the rest
investigating everything The tables should, of course, be as
of his service has been with troops— everywhere. The best minds in the Army sound as we can make them, but they are
actually with troops, not the are working on the technical and tactical only a framework. Neither in peace nor
constructive "duty with troops" of improvements that we should make in the in war will we have the exact number of
pre-war days.
light of our war experience and the men, or men with the exact
When the 5th Armored Division
was activated in 1941, General
potentialities of the atomic bomb and of qualifications, or the exact equipment
Blakeley was transferred to it from guided missiles. Obviously it would be prescribed in tables. Nor will a table fit
the 6th Field Artillery which he presumptuous for any one individual to all conditions. The details are not as
then commanded. After six months think he has the right answers to these important as we sometimes make them.
as commander of the 5th Armored
Division Artillery, he was promoted problems, but I do have some opinions In general, ours were good. In fact, they
to the grade of brigadier general based on service in the European Theater would have been better if they had been
and assigned to command Combat with the 4th Infantry Division, and my let alone.
Command A. After about two years excuse for airing them is a letter from the
as a tanker, he was shifted to the DIVISION STRUCTURE
4th Infantry Division as Division Editor of the JOURNAL asking for an
Artillery Commander, and went to article "on the World War II infantry Although I feel that certain
England with it in January, 1944. division—an article that avoids getting organizational changes should be made
He landed on Utah Beach on the
morning of D Day, and was the only
lost in a lot of T/O & E detail." The in our infantry division, I have no major
general officer to serve throughout
the European campaign with the
4th Infantry Division. He succeeded
to command of the division in +
December, 1944. The 4th Infantry
division was in action almost in Hurtgen Forest, and moved to
continuously from D-Day to VE- Luxembourg for a "rest" only to have
Day; it made the initial assault on the German attack that started the
Utah beach and had sustained 5,400
Battle of the Bulge hit it a few days
battle causalties by the time it
after it took over a "quiet" sector. It
entered Cherbourg three weeks
later; it was the center infantry held the south shoulder of the Bulge,
division in the Break-through at St. participated in the American
Lo; it (with the 2d French Armored counteroffensive, and pursued to the
Division and FFI forces) liberated Rhine, and, later nearly to the Austrian
Paris; it fought through the border. It had a total of 34,000
Siegfried Line twice; it spent a casualties, nearly 22,000 of them battle
bloody but successful month casualties.—Editor.


quarrel with the general division struc- visitors or students at Sill took these section of the 29th and personally asked
ture. improvements home, but they were not the chief of section which he preferred,
The infantry set-up in the infantry well applied in combat. The only the M-7 or the towed gun. Every one of
division is, I think, basically sound. notable job that I saw German artillery the twelve sergeants preferred the M-7.
Three regiments are about all that a do was several shoots by a battery of In November, 1945, I asked Lt. Col. Joel
division commander can supervise 210-mm howitzers, using map data F. Thomason, who had commanded the
adequately. A four-regiment corrected, on the town of Zweifall. 29th through most of its training, the
organization sounds well,—the division They were perfect. entire European campaign and its return
is "heavier," has more "staying power," For six months (from about 15 to the States, for his opinion as to the
"saves overhead," but in practice, as September 1944 to about 15 March six-gun battery and the self-propelled
experienced in Europe, there would have 1945) the weather earned honestly a mount. Incidentally, I know of no officer
been fewer divisions, all four regiments rating of the "worst imaginable." This with more practical experience in these
would have been committed on even handicapped observation, particularly air two subjects or who is a more competent
wider fronts than divisions did have, and and sound and flash. By use of much battalion commander. The following are
control would have been very difficult. ammunition, however, the artillery got extracts from his reply:
A brigade organization creates another results that were satisfactory, I believe, "I favor a six-gun battery for organic
echelon of command with resultant to the supported infantry except in the light artillery of an infantry division. The
delay. matter of countermortar fire. We made 29th Field Artillery Battalion operated
Within the infantry regiments, the an early start in educating both in combat with two six-gun batteries for
cannon company was a mistake. We artillerymen and infantrymen in getting approximately thirty days. During this
tried most of the solutions of the use of direction by mortar crater study. Later, period positions offered no problems
this misfit,—its field manual role (with a in September 1944, we had a board of and the battery commanders
light self-propelled howitzer, the officers and one attached battery work experienced no difficulty in control.
company would have been useful), as a with us on countermortar methods Since in combat we always used
fourth battery in the direct support light including short-base sound. In general, telephone communications between the
artillery battalion, and as a rifle the answer is to use all means of getting post of the executive and gun sections,
company. Changes now being made in information, get it to infantry battalion firing control by the executive was not
the infantry regiment organization take command post where the infantry impaired. Also when guns need
care of this and are along sound lines, battalion commander can decide whether maintenance, one gun can be called out
but of five combat experienced senior he'll go after the mortar or mortars with without seriously affecting the fire
infantrymen whom I asked for his men, or his weapons, or whether he power.
suggestions, four listed one additional wants the artillery, through the liaison "Since the greatest part of the fire
change—the re-establishment of officer with him, to get on the target. It power of an infantry division is in the
regimental bands. For reasons brought is not, in my opinion, a job for a separate artillery, an increase of two guns per
out at a later point in this discussion, I staff section. battery would greatly increase the fire
concur in this suggestion. SP Artillery. Our three organic light power of the division. With a plentiful
battalions (the 29th, 42d and 44th) and ammunition supply, lives of men would
one attached armored field artillery be saved. An increase of 50% in a
Having been an artilleryman for over battalion (the 65th) were equipped with battery's fire power can be made with
25 years and writing, as I am, for an self-propelled 105s (M-7) for the only an increase of approximately 15%
artillery journal, I'm sure that few will invasion. We had long training with in personnel and without placing any
object if I enthuse a bit over the part them and they were highly satisfactory. additional burden on communications,
played by American Artillery in the The 29th lost one whole firing battery on fire direction, etc., which would be the
historic battles in Europe. It did an the way in to Utah beach on D-Day same whether the firing batteries had
outstanding job. Not a few commanders when the LCT carrying it was sunk. four or six guns. An eighteen-gun
have observed the primary difference Four new M-7s were landed and issued battalion TOT would carry the same
between the American and German Ar-, to the battalion on, I think, D+3. suddenness as the twelve-gun battalion
mies the difference that spelled victory Because of the shortage of personnel and with 50% more power. Massing of an
for one and defeat for the other, was the other equipment, the battalion eighteen-gun battalion would offer no
relative quality of their field artillery. commander divided these guns between problem, whereas the massing of two
Ours was superior; theirs was his two remaining batteries and they battalions does offer a problem. The
inadequate. Two of the major functioned as six-gun batteries through many advantages and few disadvantages
developments in Germany between the major part of the Normandy indicate that we should change to six-
World War I and World War II were the campaign. In October, 1944, because of gun batteries.
simplification of lateral observation shortage of M-7s for the armored "The 29th Field Artillery Battalion
methods, and the development of fire divisions, we were required to change was organized with towed guns;
direction particularly in regard to the over one light battalion to truckdrawn however, we had SP guns (M-7) from
rapid massing of fires. The German 105s. The 29th was selected. About September 1942 until October 1944. Based
officers who were from time to time three weeks later I visited each gun on combat experience in Europe where
Fire Direction. Our fire direction
technique worked better in combat, I
think, than the most optimistic
artillerymen had expected. It was
common-place in slow-moving
situations like. Hurtgen Forest to put ten
or more battalions on a target promptly
and accurately on request. Invariably,
these were time-on-target shoots. The
time could of course, be done by
synchronizing clocks, but we much
preferred and normally used a party
hook-up. Each battalion reported the
mean time of flight of its batteries, the
division fire direction officer gave
"load" and, when all had reported
"ready," announced that he would count
in reverse beginning with, usually, a
number about 5 seconds greater than the
greatest time of flight down to the least
time of flight. Each battalion fire
direction officer gave fire when his time
of flight figure was reached. The time
Riflemen of the 4th Infantry Division work their way into a German town. lag from division artillery to gunner was
about equal in all units. The results were
roads and bridges offered no problems, I 10. It is imperative for artillery to be excellent. One corps artillery
favor SP artillery for direct support equipped with M-7 for amphibious commander (I think it was General
battalions for the following reasons: operation." Helmick of the V Corps) said that "a
spread of over three seconds in the
1. Better cross-country mobility and Whether four-gun or six-gun batteries
arrival of first volleys on a target is
excellent traction and flotation. are adopted, we should have two
inexcusable." Whoever said it, I agree.
2. Combat occupation of position and medium battalions organic in the
march order much faster, division artillery. In Europe, we always Conduct of Fire. There was a
ammunition, etc., readily available. had at least one medium battalion tendency for young and inexperienced
3. Ammunition carrying ability of M- attached and always needed at least field artillery officers to abandon all
7 and trailer facilitates the one. Every time a new battalion was methods of conduct of fire except the
stripping of a battalion to a small attached there was a period of so-called air-ground. This of course
compact fighting group for comparative inefficiency before we got passed the buck back to the fire
breakthrough tactics it into the team. During the two brief direction center where personnel were
(approximately 150 rds. per M-7 periods that our infantry was out of safer, more comfortable and, the
and trailer). A stripped battery is combat and not moving, our artillery observer hoped, more competent than
excellent for a rapidly moving went in at once to reinforce the fires of he. That he could not be sensing the
situation. other units, so there would have been direction, let alone the error, of the
4. Foxhole for squad can be rapidly no loss of the services of the second shot didn't lure him into some other
constructed under M-7. medium battalion had it been method. Our officers in the next war
5. Ammunition easily protected on divisional. will be equally inexperienced, and the
carriage and tarpaulin, up out of I have heard even more organic tendency to try to use one method in
mud. artillery being advocated, but there is all situations plus the remarkable
6. Howitzer better protected from no point in getting beyond the number success of the fire direction center
mud and dust. of battalions that one headquarters can method of control point to a
7. SP gun can rapidly move to handle efficiently. It is also important simplification of the observer's job,
nearby point of advantage in event to remember that the artillery does but one that puts more emphasis on
of tank threat. Also better for close damage with shells, not tubes. With getting (and how to get) brackets in
in fighting with .50 caliber MG three light and two medium battalions, deflection and range. Another "must"
mounted on carriage. all six-gun batteries, we would have is to get Army, Navy and Marine
8. Troops favor SP howitzer 100%. A enough tubes for the "normal Corps gunnery procedure as nearly
morale factor. situation" (admitting that that is a alike as conditions and equipment
9. AA protection on march and in vague phrase) in terms of time-on- permit.
position better with .50 cal. MG target hammer blows, frontage, or MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS
readily available. ammunition supply. With minor exceptions, the organic
facilities available to the division for

communications, maintenance and another mistake. The antitank problem attack and antitank roles should be
supply were satisfactory. They require is a twenty-four hour a day command organic within the infantry division.
hard work and constant supervision, problem. A commander needs the There should be no tank destroyer
whether in maneuvers or in war. twenty-four hour a day assistance of his organizations. The tank destroyer
In February, after our second trip staff, particularly of the 2 and 3 program fulfilled its purpose in devising
forward through Bastogne and St. Vith, sections, to handle it. The antitank means and methods of meeting tank
the roads from the rear almost ceased to sections, as set up just before D-Day, attacks but the tank destroyer doctrine
exist and we were twice supplied by were not large enough for continuous was based on three assumptions which
large air drops near Bleialf, Germany. service. In most division artillery were not necessarily true. These
We made one mistake in connection headquarters, the personnel went into assumptions were:
with the first dropping ground. It was the fire-direction center roster and did 1. Greater mobility of tank
selected by an Air Force liaison officer, very little antitank work except to make destroyers. (This is a variable as new
and our staff representatives approved. out reports required by the corps types of tanks and tank destroyers are
It was along a reasonably good road, antitank section. The corps sections, as developed. It may be true if tank
well forward but defiladed from enemy far as I observed them, absorbed some destroyers are kept light.)
ground observation. The drop was excellent artillery personnel who 2. Greater gun power. (A tank can
successful except that no one had naturally published long estimates and have as powerful armament as a tank
realized that the descending parachute reports which in general duplicated the destroyer.)
loads would take out all of the overhead G-2 and G-3 publications with special 3. Greater visibility. (As much can
telephone wires strung along the road. attention, of course, to enemy tanks and be seen from the open turret of a tank as
It sounds dumb, but it happened. our antitank and tank destroyer from a tank destroyer. When personnel
organizations. I don't remember any are forced down by enemy fire, more
Staff Rank. At the start of this
case in which they served a purpose can be seen through a tank periscope
Article, I said that our tables of
commensurate with the personnel and than can be seen from the floor of a tank
organization would have been better if
supplies used. Incidentally, we served destroyer.)
we had left them alone. One change
in seven different corps while we were
with which I disagree was the The tank destroyer units did a
in Europe.
promotion of division G-3s to colonel. magnificent job, considering that they
The tendency is for division TD and AAA. An organic AA were not only used as tank destroyers but
commanders, under combat pressure, to battalion with self-propelled, dual as tanks, field artillery, assault guns and
deal directly with G-3s (which is purpose weapons is desirable, and a cavalry. Both tanks and tank destroyers
correct), and to fail to get from and give group of two tank battalions for both were misused terribly on many occasions.
to the other G's complete information.
There is where the chief of staff should
keep watching that all phases of a
situation have been covered. He should
out-rank his assistants, and no raising
of the status of the G-3 is desirable.
Rank in corps and army staffs is
generally too high. The more rank a
staff officer has the more he is tempted
to command. The only justification I
see for full colonels on corps staffs in
nearly all positions for which lieutenant
colonels are provided in division staffs
is that they need to be officers with
more experience and their seniority
entitles them to higher rank. In practice,
this was far from what happened. Alert,
intelligent juniors got to be full
colonels without any command
experience worthy of the name. This
didn't add to the morale of lieutenant
colonels commanding battalions, or, for
that matter, of colonels commanding
infantry regiments.
Antitank Sections. The addition of an
antitank section to division and corps Troops of the 4th Infantry Division attempt to move forward and are pinned down
artillery headquarters was, I think, by German fire from within the town of Libin, Germany.

thought—long before this war came

about, during the war, and right now—
and a subject upon which reams have
been written. I make no claim to having
the full answers, but at least no petitions,
telegrams or advertisements of protest
came out of units of the 4th Infantry
Division. The Army did a great job in
Europe, but I cannot but believe that it
booted something vital somewhere along
the line. Hence, I set forth my strong
Three commanders of the 4th Infantry Division. Major General William O. Barton (left) commanded feelings on several thing that I believe
the Division for approximately two years, relinquishing command to General Blakeley (right) in are vital intangibles in soldiering.
December, 1944. Medal of Honor winner in World War I and former artillerymen, Major General
George P. Hayes (center) commanded the 10th Mountain Division in Italy, and relieved General
Blakeley as commander of the 4th Infantry Division in December, 1945. Road to Morale. The Army approach
to the morale or esprit problems
(whatever you prefer to call it) should be
The high rate of casualties among Barton, and I made every effort to on the basis that the Army's standards—
infantry officers and consequent rapid maintain those standards. The average mental, moral and physical—are high
promotion brought officers to the soldier is a better soldier and a happier and higher than the average in civilian
command of infantry battalions without one when he is in an outfit that has high life. Most young American will respond
there being time or opportunity to train standards. Naturally, he will gripe about to an honest presentation of such
them in the proper use of supporting extra work and "spit and polish," but let standards and an appeal to live up to
troops. They handled their infantry well. him get transferred to a sloppy outfit and them. That the soldier should know what
They had learned in the hard and he'll fight to get back to the outfit where he is fighting for, be treated justly, and
practical school of combat. They he felt pride in himself and his be as well fed, clothed and sheltered as
generally lacked, however, any adequate organization. The uniform, which I shall the military situation permits goes
picture of how to use supporting tanks, discuss later, did very little to help his without saying, but more than that is
and when a tank or tank destroyer unit pride. His equipment did, particularly required. The oft quoted definition of
was attached it often suffered after he saw some of the foreign morale, "When every man knows that he
unnecessary losses. The attachment was equipment. is the best soldier in the best squad in the
usually correct, but the infantry Accuracy, particularly in artillery best platoon in the best company in the
commander too often failed to organize training, should and did come before best regiment the best division of the
properly a base of fire and a speed, but we should establish standards best army of the best country in the
maneuvering force, or fire and of speed for all crew-served equipment. world, Mister that's morale," is sound.
movement, or overwatching — The Gunnery Department at Sill made The New York Times recently quoted the
whichever you prefer to call it. some excellent studies in 1929 when above definition, editorially, and
Major (now General) Devers was continued:
Training. Our training was adequate
Director of the Department. The results
and realistic, both in the United States "The application of that definition
were published in an article by 1st Lt.
and in England. As it turned out, we had suggests that an important factor in
(now Brig. Gen.) Edwin L. Siber in the satisfactory states of mind in the rank is
more training than was necessary in
May-June (1929) issue of THE FIELD pride of unit. That has been the ex-
protection against chemicals. If we
ARTILLERY JOURNAL. Similar but more perience, for example, of some of our
hadn't, we should have needed it in all
extensive studies with our present allies. The traditions of the Guard
probability, as soon as the Germans
equipment and methods should be regiments or some of the county
discovered our deficiency. We used very
initiated. regiments, in England and Scotland, for
little of the survey training that we had
VITAL INTANCIBLES IN example, of Princess Patricia's in Canada
spent so much time on, but it gave of the Burma Rifles, have contributed to
excellent background for the correct use SOLDIERING
maintaining the sort of esprit de corps
of maps. The one major shortcoming in I believe that our most serious error in that makes soldiers give a good account
training was the failure to get across the the United States Army in this war was of themselves even under unsatisfactory
importance of care of the feet in winter not doing enough to develop in our conditions.
and to emphasize sufficiently the young soldiers (officers included) pride "Because of our tendency to minimize
insidious way in which trench foot can in their units and, incidentally, in the importance of the armed services in
make a man a casualty before he is themselves. The most deeply felt esprit times of peace we are less rich in such
hardly aware of any trouble with his comes, of course, from success in traditions in this country. The notable
feet. combat, but success in combat also exceptions, such as the Marine Corps, the
Standards of training and discipline comes from high esprit. This is a First Division, or the Eighty-second
were high in our division under my tremendous subject; a subject to which Airborne—to choose at random—point to
predecessor, Maj. Gen. William O. many fine officers have given careful the importance of that pride factor

in the value of the troops. In an immense a U. S. or a military button. Unless he D-Day, either in Germany or the United
army, such as that which was assembled was a medico, there was nothing to States, to turn out troops for a ceremony
for this war, it is manifestly impossible to indicate his arm or service. Later, he in any one uniform. Men had battle
put every man into an outfit that has a could sometimes wear his shoulder patch jackets or blouses (coats) and at least
cherished name and a proud record. Most and sometimes he couldn't — an three kinds of field jackets. Officers had
of the soldiers served under number involved matter of ripping off and trousers of all shades from light grey to
combinations that were meaningless until sewing on. dark green, and (again at least) three
valor had been proved. But in our smaller
The uniform then, contributed little, in kinds of overcoats, not to mention
peacetime army it will be possible to carry
the European theater at least, to the perhaps ten kinds of raincoats. This
on the names and traditions of units whose
proved record is an honor to their country
soldier's pride in his unit. The need of weird mixture was not caused primarily
and an inspiration to their ranks. The concealing from the enemy the by supply shortage, but by failure to
Army authorities can do that." identification of units must be prescribe a uniform without "optional"
Unfortunately, under the hysterical considered, of course, but only at times. items. The final blow to pride in uniform
pressure which has resulted in a I believe that the soldier's combat was when items of it were issued to
disruptive demobilization, the Army uniform should include a national captured prisoners, and, if newspaper
authorities have not been able to do that. symbol (the U. S. or the American coat- accounts are to be believed, General
Some of the oldest and most of-arms), insignia of his arm or service Yamashita was hanged in the American
distinguished infantry regiments of the (such as the crossed cannons or colored uniform in which our soldiers had fought
Regular Army, regiments whose colors stripes, patches or piping) and a after having his Japanese uniform taken
bore battle streamers for battles of the distinctive insignia of his regiment or away as part of his disgrace.
Mexican War, the Civil War, the battalion. We have all of these, of
Spanish American War and World Wars course, with the peacetime uniform. We Entertainment. Prior to combat and in
I and II, have been inactivated after had none in combat. The unit insignia breaks in combat, we spent much time,
more than a century of continuous should be removable so that they can be money and energy on shows, dance
service. To say that they may be removed when secrecy is really music, and movies which did more to
reactivated some time in the future and necessary. It can be done as quickly as make the soldier homesick than to raise
that, therefore, no damage is done, is bumper marking on vehicles can be his fighting spirit and his self-respect as
unrealistic. A regiment is more than a painted over or covered. a soldier. I am not condemning
number. So little attention had been paid to entertainment, but it is not, as some tried
We recognized this before the war, of maintaining a uniform which had any to make it, the number one source of
course. In all good units, recruits were uniformity that it was impossible, after morale. In the early stages of the draft,
told of the history, traditions and special
distinctions of their outfits—often by the
commanding officer himself at a
formation in which the recruit was
shown the unit's color or standard with
the unit's coat-of-arms embroidered in it.
The meaning of the symbols was
explained to him. He probably wore
some part of the coat-of-arms on his
distinctive insignia and saw it on bugle
tabards and, in mounted outfits, on
saddle cloths. He also wore a U. S. band
the insignia of his arm or service on his
But when he was about to go over-
seas, to depart on his great adventure, all
his symbols that identified him as part of
his unit, his signs that he was one of a
special group, were ordered removed
from his uniform — even his shoulder
patch. As soon as he arrived in the
overseas theater he was surprised to be
told, in many cases, to put it on again,
but his regimental or battalion insignia
had been taken away from him. Then
came entrance into combat. Now he had
nothing in the way of insignia to mark "A strong believer in the value of ceremonies properly employed." General Blakeley attaches
him as a United States soldier—not even combat infantry regiment streamers to the colors of the 8th, 12th, and 22nd Infantry Regiments.

when the entertainment offered by some to the Germans. In some cases the energy, which could ill be spared from
traveling camp shows was of a type regiments of a division could not be fighting their divisions to confer with
which can only be called filthy, the mentioned after the division itself could. subordinate commanders, the staff judge
result on morale was depressing. It was hard to believe that the Germans advocate and division psychiatrist.
didn't know what regiments were in a Perhaps a deputy corps commander
Martial Music and Ceremonies. I am given division. General Patton's Third could act as reviewing authority.
a strong believer in the value of Army had a much more liberal policy in The press in America, as evidence by
ceremonies properly employed — reference to mention of units than did recent editorial comments on Army
meaning exactly performed, at the two other armies in which we served. justice, has no concept of the cost in
reasonable intervals of time, with troops Every combat soldier knows that the lives and shattered bodies of good
well and uniformly turned out, on most casual reference to even a division soldiers that was paid because of the few
suitable terrain, with good music and in a month-old States newspaper was worthless quitters who made other pay
with a maximum of spectators. A sloppy handed around by the men of that in blood for their selfish and self
ceremony is much worse than none. division until it was worn out. awarded trips to Paris, Brussels or
Ceremonies have equal value during similar spots where they lived as
intervals in combat and in peacetime Awards. The unfortunate effect of a criminals — even stealing and selling
garrisons in adding to the soldier's pride too liberal policy in regard to service the very food and gasoline that was
in himself and his unit. The division ribbons hardly needs discussion. going forward to the fighting soldiers.
band is an unsatisfactory source of Decorations and service medals There were, of course, border-line cases
music for such ceremonies. Martial awarded, as the British awarded them, where no medical or mental abnormality
music for the combat troops, not under such restrictions that a man is could be found, but the soldier
concerts at division headquarters, is naturally proud of them as an indication nevertheless lacked the stamina and
what military bands are for, and a of his valor, outstanding merit or long moral courage to keep going and simply
division band does not, and cannot, get and arduous service are of inestimable failed to advance or trumped up an
around enough. The 4th Infantry value. When, however, a man who was excuse to go back to an aid station and
Division had a splendid division band drafted in 1941, never wore chevrons but then hide somewhere until the fight was
overseas. It was normally at the rear kept out of trouble, and perhaps served not so hot. In cases of this type, it was
echelon of Division Headquarters, and the whole war in a supply depot near his my experience that courts and reviewing
did some guard duty there, helped with home town is entitled to four ribbons authorities were very lenient. In cases of
mail distribution, and occasionally got (good conduct, American defense, the other type, education of the press and
within hearing distance of a fighting American theater and World War II public seems to be indicated.
soldier. The same number of men victory) the pride that a combat soldier
divided among the three infantry takes in his ribbons is seriously reduced. Foremost Lesson. In summary, let me
regiments would have given each a band emphasize that these comments are
of about twenty pieces which would Military Justice. The grave problem based only on the experience of one
have been able to play a battalion along of handling of offenders against division in one theater. Experience con-
a road occasionally, or for a medal discipline, particularly deserters, in firmed that our training, organization
presentation ceremony. They would combat needs the best attention the and equipment were generally sound that
have helped solve the regimental CP Army can give it. A man who deserts not indicated changes were made promptly
guard problem when the going was only takes away his own services, but he — sometimes too promptly that we
tough. After VE-Day, we nearly wore adds to the burden of the remaining men failed to strike hard enough for the vital
the band out trucking it around our large of his unit who must do his work, his intangibles in soldiering. The next war
occupation area for reviews incident to guard duty, his patrol; he makes may be primarily one of atomic bombs
medal presentations and for a few retreat necessary military police to apprehend and guided missiles which may end the
parades. Back in this country, we him and guards and transportation to get war in a few days as Douhet thought the
organized field music (drums and him back to his unit; he takes officers airplane would. By their basic
bugles) in each infantry regiment and the and stenographers for the court, officers characteristics, however these weapons
division artillery. It was surprising how as defense counsels and judge advocates, can never be close support weapons, and
much they were used even in preference and worst of all, he often takes witnesses ground soldiers supported by ground
to the excellent division band. The and transportation from troops in combat weapons in all probability must
answer was, I think, not primarily a for at least a day, usually more when eventually fight their way in and occupy
matter of convenience or quality, but preparation of charges and conduct of the enemy country or, God forbid,
rather of pride in their own outfit's investigations are considered. A partial defend the continental United States
music. solution would be to set up general against the enemy who seeks to occupy
courts under corps control with officers after his strategic bombings. It will still
Unit Publicity. Restrictions in naming on them who had no other duties. This stand, as a foremost lesson of all military
units in the press and in broadcasts were would take some of the burden from history, that battles are won by young
unnecessarily enforced long after the division commanders who even in men who have pride in their units and in
unit's presence in the theater was known combat could not avoid taking time and themselves.
the target. Incidentally, he uses yards
Let's Use instead of mils and sensings instead of
commands, but those differences are
really incidental and superficial.
No End in Itself. Now the limitations
of the FO principle are very real, and
By Lt. Col. Ulrich G. Gibbons, FA criticism of the principle as applied to
distant targets is very sound, but
extension of that criticism to include
condemnation of the superficial
differences is illogical. To link
OUR initial combat reports of this war so, even though a simpler means is at bracketing methods indissolubly with S,
touched off a controversy which has lost hand. Here it is: r/R, and d, and to say that since we need
none of its intensity with consequent one we must also have the other, is false
campaigns — the merits and place of Safe and Sure. The basic principle of logic. Formal conduct of fire is only a
forward observation methods of fire conduct of fire is adjustment by means to an end—bracketing the
adjustment as compared with the older bracketing the target in successively target—and we must be careful not to
more conventional ones. Reports that up smaller brackets until effect is obtained. glorify it as an end in itself. The officer
to 95% of observed fires in combat were Accompanying this principle is the conducting fire in combat is beset with
adjusted by FO methods seemingly corollary that a positive bracket can be many distractions and hardships
attacked the basic principles of artillery established only by line shots (terrain (including imminent death) and if it is
adjustment. Add the fact that this new sensings excepted), which leads to the possible to simplify and speed his
method also attacked traditionalism, a necessity for factors—r/R, S, and d. The adjustment (bracketing) we should not
potent though none too logical force in method is somewht cumbersome and hesitate to do so.
all armies, and frequently the result was requires considerable mental gymnastics
automatic antagonism instead of realistic on the part of the officer firing, but it has Can Use Help. Forward observation
evaluation and criticism. The popular been the only sure method of securing methods (not principles) are a real help
illogic of unsound extension has been effect on a distant target. to the FO. By using yards (whether
employed to reach the conclusion that sensings or commands is immaterial) he
the unsoundness of the FO principle for The Book Says. FM 6-40 says that can dispense with remembering
all types of adjustment makes the use of forward observation methods should be elevation and c, because the FDC does
FO methods equally undesirable. The used if the officer firing is (1) so close to that work for him. To the FO in the
closed mind approach has produced the target that his factors (r/R and d) infantry lines, under mortar, artillery,
another fallacy, that proper principles of vary extremely from round to round, and and even aimed small arms fire, it seems
adjustment inexorably require formal (2) his observation of the target area is a very fair division of labor for the Bn
conduct of fire methods. This is so good that he can make accurate FDC or the battery executive (quiet and
traditionalism at its worst; it is arguing estimates of range and deflection errors. undisturbed in defilade thousands of
that because we have in the past arrived The underlying principle of this method yards behind the front) to give him some
at a desirable end by complex means (a is that the observer attempts primarily to help in mental gymnastics. He can
necessary evil) we should continue to do estimate how much his rounds are off concentrate completely on the target,

This picture was taken somewhere south

of Cherbourg in Normandy by LIFE
photographer. Frank Scherschel, early in
July, 1944. Major General H. W. Blakeley,
then Artillery Commander of the 4th
Infantry Division, is shown with Lt. Col.
Gibbons (center) and Major Bruce January,
a member of the First Army Artillery
Section. Graduating from West Point in
1939, Colonel Gibbons put on the ivy patch
of the 4th Infantry Division soon thereafter
and did not take it off until a few months
ago when he returned to West Point as an
instructor. In Europe. Colonel Gibbons
served as Division Artillery S-3 and as
battalion commander of a direct support


his adjustment is speeded up, and he a. When T is very large (800 mils or deflection change of one S requires
probably gains in accuracy. more) nearly all the actual range error is range change of 100 yards to keep the
apparent as deviation. See figure below: shot on the line.
No Conflict in Principles. True, if he
c. If a deflection change of 100
is to adjust on distant targets by
yards instead of one S is made, a
bracketing, he must use factors to keep
different, greater range change must be
himself on the line; every experienced
made. This range change is x. (See a,
shot does so. Using FO methods in
lateral fire, he announces compensating
d. If S is expressed in yards, there
deflection or range sensings after a line
are 100/S S's in a hundred yards'
shot to bring his next shot back to the
deflection change.
line and establish a certain bracket. He is
e. Similarly, the range change x
employing the principle of formal
required to compensate for a hundred
conduct of fire but using the mechanics
yard deflection change is 100/S (yds)
of FO methods because they make his
times 100 yards (100 yards being the
job easier. In all probability a high
range change for a one S deflection
precentage of the FO adjustments in
change) or x = 100 × 100/S (yds) =
combat were accomplished by just that As angle T increases, dx approaches the
10,000/S (yds)
method. The 95% figure mentioned in value of h, so that for practical purposes,
f. From the small T formula derived
the first paragraph does not reflect a when T is large the observer can get on
above: S (yds) = T/10
conflict so much in principles as in the line by determining dx (multiply
g. Therefore: x = 10,000/T/10 =
methods. deviation by small r) and sensing
accordingly in range.
Guesswork? The basic contention h. x above is expressed in yards.
b. When T is between 300 and 800
between FO and conduct of fire methods, To express it in hundreds of yards,
mils (the more normal case) the deviation
therefore, is not mils vs. yards, but divide by 100: x = 100,000/100T =
observed is only a small portion of the
bracketing vs. guessing. The important 1000/T
actual range error. Therefore a factor
consideration is, how does the officer To summarize the factors required:
must be derived. Call it x.
firing approach his problem? Is he going Axial: r to get on the line
In the figure-above, sin T = dx/h
to guess how far off his rounds are, or is Small T: r to get on the line; T/10 to
Solving for h, h = dx/sin T
he going to make certain by bracketing? stay on the line
Inspection of a table of natural
If we can establish in his mind the Large T: r to get on the line when T
functions of angles expressed in mils
necessity for the latter, the means he uses exceeds 800 mils; r and x to get
will reveal that between 0 and 800 mils
are immaterial. In fact, yards are better— on the line when T is less than
the sine of an angle very nearly equals
for him—so let the mils go. 800 mils: x to stay on the line.
1/1000 of the angle.
PROCEDURE Expressing this approximation in an Try It and See. It may be pointed out
To reduce this method to a science, we equation for angle T. that the above factors, based solely on
can derive the necessary factors in terms sin T = T/1000 T, eliminate one of the factors formerly
of yards. Substituting in the equation for h, required but often difficult for the
AXIAL FIRE h = dx/T/1000 = dx × 1000/T observer to obtain—large R. The
To get on the line: Use small r and the Let x represent the factor 1000/T, and present artillery observer who shoots
mil relation to determine deviation on we have the equation 90% of the fires is not one at an OP, but
yards, and sense accordingly in h = dx × x the observer who travels, eats, and lives
deflection. Or, in words—the sensing required to with the infantry. Traveling with the
SMALL T get on the line is obtained by multiplying infantry rifle company on the
1—To get on the line: Same as axial. the deviation observed (expressed in battlefield, he has no room for plotting
2—To stay on the line: Use S yards) by the factor x. It is to be noted scales. Even his map is an abbreviated
expressed in terms of yards. The factor that this factor x is the same one used affair which he can stick in his shirt to
is derived as follows: below to stay on the line. keep dry. Such a size map is usually all
1/10 T 2—To stay on the line: target area, or at best the artillery
S ( mils ) = a. Bracket the targest for deflection position area is folded underneath, so
To express S in yards, use the mil in multiples of a hundred yards. A that determination of large R is never
relation and large R compensating range change per hundred easy and sometimes impossible. (Try
yards' deflection change must be spreading out 5,000 yards of 1/25,000
1/10T derived. Call this factor x.
S ( yards ) = × R = T/10 map to determine R, with a burp gun
R b. By definition, S is that deflection spraying from the next patch of
LARGE T change required to keep a shot on the woods.) Moreover, the artillery observer
1—To get on the line: line when a hundred yard range change living with the infantry company has
is made. Stated conversely for large T, a good contact with the infantry but

much less contact with his artillery that portion of the target area. Q.E.D. In summary, the principle of
battalion. Consequently, he quite Derivation: bracketing the target still remains the basic
frequently shoots a battery the location d (mils) = 1/10T/r one in artillery adjustment. The
of which has changed since he last knew T = 10 dr cumbersome method of conduct of fire is
about it. Large R is a complete unknown dr is simply d expressed in yards, not a basic principle, however, but only a
to him. By eliminating the necessity for or, from figure above, dx means to accomplish bracketing.
it, we have simplified his problem. Acknowledging the limitations of the FO
T = 10 dx
Of the remaining factors—small r and adjustment principle, we can still apply the
T—the first presents no problem. The Now the d, above, is by definition the method advantageously to all types of fire
second, the observer can usually estimate deviation observed for a range bound of adjustment. Deriving an appropriate set of
or shoot in with sufficient accuracy to 100 yards. Therefore, if a range bound of factors, we end up with a technique which
make his factors work. Using the more than 100 yards is made, we must retains the basic principle and accuracy but
following procedure, he can determine his divide the deviation observed by the logically removes mental gymnastics from
T from the first two rounds fired in any range bound (as in 4, above) to secure the holocaust of the front line infantry area
given position of observer and guns: the value d for the equation. To express to the comparative peace and quiet of the
1. After the first round lands, sense the whole procedure simply, T equals 10 artillery position area. And the factors
for range only, using a multiple of 100 times the deviation observed for a 100- themselves are easier and more practicable
yards. yard range change (deviation being for the observer to determine.
2. When the second round lands, expressed in yards). We have now
measure the deviation between the two reduced all factors the observer needs AIR OP CAUSES TROUBLE
rounds. for adjustment to ones which he can
Extract from History of the German Air
3. Express this deviation in yards, determine solely by the use of his eyes
Force in Italy
using the mil relation and small r. and his field glasses. Large maps and
4. Multiplying this deviation in bothersome scales are eliminated. After As German troops on the ground were
yards by 10 and dividing by the range the initial target designation, he can keep finding the Allied air-controlled artillery
bound commanded (expressed in his attention concentrated where it extremely trying, Commander-in-Chief
hundreds of yards) gives the angle T in belongs—the target area. SW was continually urging offensive
action against the artillery spotters. The
GAF as consistently pointed out the
uselessness of shooting down such
aircraft, often at the expense of a fighter,
since they were immediately replaced.
Whereas the exact location of Allied
spotters around the bridgehead was
conveyed by telephone, from the
Commanding General's headquarters to
the relevant fighter unit, at least 25
minutes would elapse before a fighter
arrived on the scene, by which time the
spotter had either already completed his
mission or had moved off to another
area. Furthermore, it took an
experienced pilot to bring down these
spotters, which kept at between 300 and
2,000 feet. Avoiding as far as possible
the concentrated light AA which the
Allies put up, he had to approach at low
level so as to have the spotter silhouetted
against the sky, and open fire as soon as
he came within range of his quarry. No
maneuvering was possible, and there
was no question of a second chance.
On occasion advanced GAF mobile
fighter-control points sent out "spoof"
messages suggesting impending fighter
activity, which would cause the artillery
spotters to be recalled, or put them off
Artillery forward observers of the 4th Infantry Division call for and correct fire missions in a their stroke. Nevertheless 15 Me 109's
forward observation post in the Prum Valley. Germany.
were lost, with 7 pilots killed, for the
shooting down of 8 Allied spotters.
arranging a party that had all the A. Thirty-one years, sir.
DENNIS' COURT- earmarks of being safe. They would Q. Is the accused any relation to
MARTIAL borrow a boat from the Engineers and you?
cross the Hudson River to Constitution A. Yes sir, brother.
Island, taking with them great Q. Do you know if your brother can
—A Short Soldier Story quantities of beer. Or, better yet, swim?
Dennis decided, they would invite the A. No sir, I do not.
BY COL., R. E. ANDERSON, FA sergeant from Engineers to go along Q. You state that you have known
and let him get the boat. this man for 31 years and that you are
Most of this worked out as planned, his brother, and still you do not know if

I N THE days of prohibition, enlisted

men drank as much as the officers or
anyone else. They simply had to be
but the trip over by a group of sober
men in a boat was not the same as the
trip back by a group of men full of
he can swim?
A. Yes sir. That's correct, sir.
Q. What is your duty at West Point?
careful where and when they drank, beer! Corporal Shane became obsessed A. I am in charge of the Cadet
especially if they expected to drink with a sense of reincarnation, and that, Gymnasium.
enough to do them any good—enough coupled with an easily understood Q. Is there a swimming tank in the
so they could forget their troubles, do a association of ideas, persuaded him that gymnasium that you take care of?
little swashbuckling, singing, and the appropriate thing to do was to A. Yes sir.
perhaps a little clean fighting, without portray Washington Crossing the Q. What are the dimensions of this
getting caught and sent to the Delaware. As they neared the West tank?
guardhouse. Point shore, Shane gravely arose, and, A. It is a very fine tank, sir, about
The safest place for a beer party, as he started to cross his arms, fell fifty yards long and twenty yards wide
therefore, was off the post. At West noiselessly into the Hudson. The other Q. How deep is this tank?
Point, Dennis Maher, a very convivial men did not realize the unfortunate A. It varies from about two feet at
individual, was always ready for a denouement of Shane's tableau until the shallow end to fourteen feet at the
party of any kind. One Sunday almost too late. Shane was pulled from deep end.
the water, but in such bad shape that a Q. Did you ever see your brother in
pulmotor was needed in bringing him this tank?
Known affectionately as Marty by to. The entrance of the hospital crew A. Yes sir.
uncounted thousands of officers and
graduates, Sergeant Martin Maher has into the picture made an official matter Q. How long at a time have you seen
served at West Point for over fifty years. of the incident and the inevitable your brother in this tank?
He probably knows more Army officers investigation came along. A. Oh, up to three hours at a time
than any other person, in or out of the
Army. Retired in 1928 after more than The result was that Dennis, who was sir.
thirty years' service. Marty continued on the senior sergeant, was tried by court- Q. What part of the tank have you
thereafter as an employee of the Army martial on various charges, one of which seen your brother in?
Athletic Association, with duties
unchanged—namely, the custodian of was that he had made no effort to save a A. All parts of the tank, sir.
the cadet gymnasium and assistant fellow soldier from drowning. Q. Now, Sergeant Maher, you are
instructor in swimming. He is still very
much on the job, and—himself, the hero
At the trial, it developed that Dennis' willing to state that the tank is about
of a thousand anecdotes—Marty still defense against the latter part of the twenty yards by fifty yards and varies
holds all records for side-splitting yarns charge was that he could not do anything in depth from two feet to fourteen feet
about West Point, "me brothir Dinny,"
and every prominent graduate of the
toward rescuing the man because he and that you have seen your brother in
last half century. Yes, Marty Maher has could not swim. The Judge Advocate all parts of the tank for as long as three
become as much a part of the West was indignant at this line of defense and hours at a time, and are you still willing
Point tradition as Benny Havens or
Flirtation Walk.—Editor. felt that it was an easy matter to refute to state, under oath, that you do not
Dennis' statements by bringing Dennis' know if your brother can swim.
own brother, Marty, on the stand to A. Yes sir. That's correct, sir.
testify to the fact that Dennis could Q. Sergeant Maher, will you please
swim. The following is the testimony state to the Court how this can be
given by Sergeant Marty Maher, after he possible — how you can possibly justify
had been sworn: such a statement under oath?
Q. State your full name, rank, A. It's very simple, sir. You see,
organization and station. Dennis is not always a sergeant. He is
A. Martin Maher, Sergeant, Service quite often reduced to grade of private
Detachment, West Point, New York. and you see, sir, the only time I ever saw
Q. Do you know the accused? If so, Dennis in the tank was when it was
state who he is. empty and he, as a private, was
A. Yes sir. Sergeant Dennis Maher, scrubbing the bottom of it.
Service Detachment, West Point, New * * *
York. VERDICT: Not guilty.
Q. How long have you known the
afternoon Dennis was instrumental in accused?

Artillery Conference at the Field Artillery School included Colonel T.B. Hedekin, who
discussed "Rocket Development," and
Lieutenant Colonel G. G. Garton, who
C OMMITTEE studies
recommendations which will have
an important bearing on future
This "reporter" type account of
the recent Artillery Conference at
spoke on "Test of Guns and Carriages."
Both officers are from Army Ground
developments in artillery were the Field Artillery School will be Forces Board No. 1. Wednesday
completed at the Field Artillery School followed, in an early issue, by an afternoon's demonstrations included the
at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, on March 29th. objective appraisal of the purposes use of the V-T (proximity) fuze, and
Artillerymen from both hemispheres and accomplishments of the illustrated revised forward observer
(see cuts and roster of conferees Conference. Credit is due the procedure.
accompanying this article) attended the Public Relations Office at the Field Thursday morning's lecture program
two-week sessions of the Artillery Artillery School not only for the was led off by a discussion of
Conference, which was sponsored by contents of this article but also for electronics by Dr. W. A. McNair of the
Army Ground Force Headquarters.
the accompanying pictures.— Bell Telephone Laboratories. He was
Headed by General Jacob L. Devers,
Editor. followed by General Devers, Army
Commanding General, Army Ground Ground Force Commander, who
Forces, the conferees included over demonstration, including the highly greeted the conferees and outlined
twenty general officers and mobile 155-mm howitzer, the 155-mm certain current Army-wide
approximately one hundred gun, the 8-in howitzer and the 240-mm developments of interest to
representatives from Army installations howitzer. (See cut.) Neither the 8-in nor artillerymen. In the afternoon, the role
in all theaters, as well as foreign officers 240-mm self-propelled howitzers saw played by aircraft in artillery operations
and representatives of the Navy and combat service in World War II. was highlighted in several
Marine Corps. Wednesday morning's program demonstrations. Among other things,
The first week of the conference, opened with a lecture on "Jet and the Brodie device, by means of which
March 18-23, was devoted to field Rocket Propulsion: Guided Missiles" the famed artillery "grasshopper"
demonstrations of artillery materiel, by Dr. H. J. Stewart of the California planes can take off from the decks of
operational technique, and to scientific Institute of Technology. Later the same seagoing LSTs or from jungle areas
lectures and discussions. The second day Colonel J. P. Eckert discussed the without ground contact, was shown to
week, March 25-29, was devoted to general activities of the Field Artillery the visiting officers and its purpose,
committee study, summarizing results Service Test Section, Army Ground employment and installation were
and conclusions growing out of the Forces Board No. 1, which is located at discussed. (See page 201, THE FIELD
conferences and demonstrations. Fort Bragg, North Carolina. (See page ARTILLERY JOURNAL, April, 1946.)
The conference was opened Monday, 210, THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL, Other aerial applications to artillery
March 18, by Major General Louis E. April, 1946, for an article discussing which were demonstrated included:
Hibbs, commandant of the Field the organization of the three Army emergency resupply by liaison type
Artillery School, who observed that the Ground Forces Boards.) Other speakers aircraft;
gathering would be the source of
"valuable evaluations of combat
experience and recommendations which
Wire laying by helicopter was one of the
will have a great bearing on the new developments demonstrated to the
decisions made by the War Department Conferees. The latest self-propelled
on questions affecting organization and weapons were also displayed and fired.
equipment of field artillery in the post- Shown here, from front to rear, are the
self-propelled 240-mm and 8-inch
war Army."
howitzers and the 155-mm gun.
The first of a series of practical
demonstrations was conducted
Tuesday, March 19th, by the
Department of Gunnery, headed by
Colonel Lewis E. Griffing. Four
targets were designated, all of them
deep caves blasted out of solid granite
and similar in style to the Japanese
caves encountered by our troops in the
Pin-point shooting by forward
observer methods was employed to
close the mouths of the caves by
shattering the rock about the entrances.
The latest self-propelled artillery
weapons were used in this

Curtis C-46 transport planes and two

CG-4A gliders.
The carrier command also
demonstrated its technique of making
"snatch" pickup off the ground of a
glider bearing simulated wounded.
Friday morning television equipment
and its application for artillery purposes
was demonstrated. Conferees observed
activities on a screen in a closed room
while a plane transmitted objects and
shell bursts on the ground from the
target area. The use of radar in the
adjustment of artillery fire, location of
Major General Louis E. Hibbs (left), the Commandant of the School, greets General Jacob L. hostile artillery pieces and detection of
Devers, Army Ground Force Commander, and Major General Clarence R. Huebner, Assistant Chief
of Staff, G-3, Army Ground Forces, at Post Field. vehicular movement was also
demonstrated. Friday night the
confereees were shown illuminating
dropping of illuminating flares from simulated an attack designed to flares, illuminating shells and "artificial
liaison aircraft for night observation; neutralize hostile resistance, paving the moonlight" searchlights for night
wire laying by liaison aircraft and by way for the landing of a regimental observation. Saturday afternoon's
helicopter; air fire power, as shown by combat team. A total of 250 session featured discussion, display and
16 "P-51s" and 6 "A-26s" strafing, parachutists, members of a School firing of new types of weapons, small
rocket firing, precision bombing and Troops battalion from the Airborne arms, mortars, rockets, recoilless and
skip bombing. School at Fort Benning, participated in self-propelled.
In the concluding demonstration on the demonstration which brought to the The second and concluding week of
Thursday's program, aircraft gave the conferees the latest techniques employed the conference, March 25-29, was
artillery and infantry a "lift" in softening in such coordinated efforts. The Ninth devoted entirely to committee study,
up the resistance area for the main Troop Carrier Command from the presentations, round table discussions
ground attack in a demonstration of air- Greenville Army Air Base carried the and the preparation of final committee
ground force liaison. parachute and glider riflemen and reports on artillery organization,
A parachute rifle company, supported artillery pieces into the demonstration, equipment, new developments and
by two 75-mm field artillery sections, utilizing four Douglas C-47 and eleven techniques.

Group picture of the Conferees taken on the steps of McNair Hall.



Present for short periods during Conference Technique Committee
Gen. Jacob L. Devers Brig. Gen. James F. Brittingham (Chairman)
Maj. Gen. Elbridge G. Chapman Brig. Gen. Wm. N. Gillmore
Maj. Gen. R. L. Frederick (CAC School) Brig. Gen. Harlan N. Hartness
Maj. Gen. Clarence R. Huebner Col. Stanley Bacon
Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor Col. J. A. Bemis, USMC
Col. John A. Dabney
Col. Wm. C. Bullock
Col. Robert H. Van Volkenburgh Col. Rex E. Chandler
Col. Hugh Cort Happy Birthday. The 5th FA Bn,
Coordinating Committee Col. Theodore L. Futch oldest Army unit on active status,
Col. Haydon Y. Grubbs celebrated its 170th birthday on 1 March.
Brig. Gen. Edward S. Ott Organic to the 1st Infantry Division, the
Col. Alfred E. Kastner Col. Wm. C. Huggins
5th FA Bn is now in Germany.
Col. Cornelis de W. Lang Col. Russell L. Mabie
Mike and Ike. Optional at present, by
Col. Dale E. Means Col. James R. Pritchard 30 June 1948 officers and enlisted men
Unassigned to Committees Col. J. S. Theimer alike will wear the battle jacket and
Maj. Gen. Geo. P. Hays Capt. J. M. Taylor, USN slacks now worn by enlisted men.
Maj. Gen. Louis E. Hibbs Lt. Col. Paul Clark Insignia of rank, alone, will differentiate
Maj. Gen. Stafford LeR. Irwin officers from enlisted men.
Lt. Col. J. F. Eason
Brig. Gen. Chas. G. Helmick CAC School to Move. Orders have
Brig. Gen. Guy O. Kurtz Lt. Col. Frederick W. Hasselback
been issued for the movement of the
Col. Carlos C. Brewer Lt. Col. Walter E. Kraus
Coast Artillery School from Fort
Lt. Col. Joseph R. Reeves Monroe, Virginia, to Fort Winfield Scott,
Organization Committee Lt. Col. Claude L. Shepard California.
Brig. Gen. Chas. E. Hart (Chairman) Lt. Col. Lewis D. Vieman Down the Totem Pole. The field
Col. Robert H. Adams Lt. Col. D. M. Weller, USMC grade demotion program is in full swing,
Col. James F. Ammerman Major C. A. Ott with the first 500 colonels now being
Col. Harold T. Brotherton reduced. Officers are being demoted
Col. Kermit LeV. Davis Equipment Committee according to date of temporary rank,
Col. Wm. P. Ennis Brig. Gen. Wyburn D. Brown (Chairman) commencing with the most junior. Non-
Col. Robert F. Hallock regulars declining to accept the reduction
Col. Louis V. Hightower will be declared surplus and will be
Col. Lukas E. Hoska
Col. Ralph R. Mace separated from the Service. Regulars
Col. George M. Jones
Col. R. Ramey Col. R. J. Meyer declining the reduction revert at once to
Col. Norman E. Poinier their permanent rank.
Lt. Col. Wm. W. Beverley
Lt. Col. Robert F. Cassidy Col. Geo. D. Wahl Loved and Left Unhappy. At least
Lt. Col. Halstead C. Fowler 8,000 war brides and children of
Col. Wm. R. Woodward American servicemen are stranded
Lt. Col. J. N. Green Lt. Col. G. M. Brown overseas and cannot be brought to the
Lt. Col. Stacy W. Gooch
Lt. Col. Robert M. Burnett United States unless or until the husbands
Major James B. Green and/or fathers concerned make written
Major W. R. Orr Lt. Col. Emmette Y. Burton
request for transportation.
Lt. Col. Geo. G. Garton
Extension Courses. The FAS has
New Developments Committee Lt. Col. J. C. Rosborough
instituted a new Department of
Brig. Gen. Doyle O. Hickey (Chairman) Lt. Col. Alexander J. Stuart Extension Courses. Unlike pre-war
Col. W. S. Alexander Lt. Col. L. P. VanCourt days, the School will not only prepare
Col. Chas. C. Brown Major Harold M. Brown the courses but will also administer
Col. E. L. Brudick Capt. H. F. Goetz them. Three sub-courses have already
Col. John P. Eckert been prepared, and 43 more are
Capt. R. W. McCartney expected to be added within the next 18
Col. Bryan Evans
months. An enrollment of 11,000
Col. Louis T. Heath British Army
artillery extension students is
Col. Thomas B. Hedekin Maj. Gen. Otto M. Lund contemplated during the fiscal year
Col. Maurice K. Kurtz 1946-47. Initial courses are expected to
Col. G. Cole
Col. Walter T. O'Reilly be ready for students by 1 July.
Col. Peter S. Peca Col. Peter Gregson
Col. H. A. Maconochie Buzz Bomb Test. A number of
Col. Thomas L. Sherburne German V-2 rocket bombs are now
Col. Galen M. Taylor Brigadier Jack Parham
undergoing test by the Ordnance
Lt. Col. J. R. Brindley Lt. Col. P. Tower Department at White Sands, New
Lt. Col. D. T. Slaughter Mexico. Experimental firing will extend
Lt. Col. Robert H. Van Volkenburgh, Jr. Canadian Army
over a period of two months. No
Major R. H. Kabe Brigadier J. P. Morrison visitors, without prior clearance from
Major Harold V. Mackey Col. J. S. Ross Hq, AGF.
Capt. Donald R. Lyon Major J. W. McClennan
Night Ride Through Krautland
there may be some trouble getting across
Pletsch creek, but there should be a way.
Use your own judgment about going into

with Artillery Pointing the Way Pittsburgh; either go into straight up the
road or enter westward from the fields.
The executive offices 2 will
be in direct charge of the operation, and
By 1st Lt. Milton M. Meisels, FA the time for crossing the IP, which is the
main crossroads in Fliesteden, is 2030.
Are there any questions?’
T HE LONG heralded drive to Cologne
had gathered momentum. Duren had
been captured; the armor had shaken
followed by Baker and Dog Cos. Only
the tanks will make the attack while the
The assembled officers remained silent.
These men of the reconnaissance well
rest of the vehicles will remain in knew the perils of a night foray into
loose from the Ruhr river bridgehead, Fliesteden. Drivers will stay with their Krautland. With tanks, the division band
swiftly crossed the Erft Canal, and as the vehicles; the rest of the men will go might just as well come along too. The
shadows lengthened on 2 March 1945, dismounted. The route of advance will chances of moving undetected seemed
the tanks of the Third Armored Division be cross-country most of the way. Our remote with these asthmatic monsters
were snuggled up amongst the houses of mission is to cut through to Hackhausen, coughing and spitting all the time. And it
Fliesteden (see map, opposite page), a which will put us astride the Krauts' line was a well-known fact that tanks draw fire
cobblestoned hamlet about 15 kilometers of supply and cut off a large number of like syrup draws flies. Thus it was that
from Cologne. The enemy's line had them. Remember the mission, and try to there was not undue enthusiasm among the
been pierced in many places. His avoid getting into any unnecessary junior officers for this clandestine mission.
communications had been rendered skirmish with enemy forces which may
chaotic and the outlook from his point of Plenty of Ammo. Finally a question
appear in the vicinity of those towns
view was definitely unfavorable. was asked. "What about the artillery, sir?"
along the way.
"We have the 83d Armored Field
Perilous Mission. That was the "Everybody pick up his map and
Artillery Bn. in direct support. The
situation when the late Lt. Col. Prentice follow the planned route. The first
Battalion Commander3 tells me that
(Iron Mike) Yeomans1 called an officers' intermediate objective is Ref. Pt. 27,
there is plenty of ammo on hand. There
meeting in back of a barn just south of which lies about halfway between
will be a regular artillery observer
Fliesteden, around which the tanks and Brooklyn and Hoboken, where the
attached to each company, with a tank of
vehicles of his 83d Armored railroad and highway 1 converge. Able
his own. I want these observers to shoot,
Reconnaissance Battalion were Co. will take this point and Baker Co.
shoot, and shoot. We're going to have
deployed. Maps were quickly passed followed by Dog Co. will move out
strong artillery support."
around and the rotund and effervescent immediately from there towards Ref. Pt.
"What is going on around us,
Colonel Yeomans was obviously keenly 59, which is large farmhouse on
aware of the successes of the last few highway 2 about midway between
"The situation, as the papers like to
days and the importance of the mission Brooklyn and Boston. Able Co. will fall
say, is fluid. The Fourth Cavalry is on
he was about to assign to his outfit. into the rear of the column and Dog Co.
our left. They'll clean out the woods to
"Gentlemen, our mission tonight is to will head for Ref. Pt. 47, which is a
the north and work toward Chicago.
capture Pittsburgh, which you can see small estate called Mutzerath. From 47
Where their leading elements are at this
from your maps is only 3 kilometers Able Co. will again take the lead with
moment, I cannot say. On our right are
from the Rhine river." Ref. Pt. 63, the Hasselrath estate, as the
the big task forces of the Third Armored
The sound of the word Pittsburgh objective. Then Baker Co. will take the
Division which have Cologne as their
gave more than one officer a sudden lead all the way to Pittsburgh. Give the
objective. Our mission is really a
nostalgia, but a glance at the map woods to the north a wide berth and
reconnaissance in force to provide flank
showed that this was only the code name protection for the big drive on Cologne.
for Hackhausen, a small village by the A graduate of the University of If there are no further questions we'll
side of a forest about 8 kilometers deep Wisconsin, Lieutenant Meisels was call the meeting over and good luck to
in enemy territory. inducted into the Army as a Private in
you all."
June, 1942. He received his commission
Colonel Yeomans continued. "As far via the OCS route in January, 1943, The officers quickly folded up their
as we know the Krauts haven't got much trained with the 8th Armored Division in
notebooks, scanned their maps for a
out there. The towns of Stommeln, the United States, and went overseas as
moment, and strode off to relay the
a replacement officer in the summer of
Pulheim, and Sinnersdorf haven't been 1944. In combat, he served as a tank "poop" to their men.
taken yet, and there may or may not be forward observer in the 83d Armd FA Bn
strong garrisons in those places. The and was attached to the reconnaissance Snafu at IP. Twilight was fading into
elements of the 3d Armored Division
order of march will be Able Co., during its last two campaigns. darkness as the first tanks rumbled
Lieutenant Meisels was awarded the ominously down the main street of
Killed in action during the last days of the war Silver Star, the Bronze Star and the ———————
while leading the 83d Armd Rcn Bn on the approaches Purple Heart. 2
Lt. Col. (then Mator) William A. Bradley.
to Dessau. 3
Lt. Col. Robert Harvey


Fliesteden with the heavily-laden foot off into the darkness and consulting their from highway 2. Major Bradley knew
soldiers ambling along on both sides, pocket compasses. There was quite a exactly what he wanted for this leg of
with that singular American gait. It was difference of opinion as to the location the trip, and he ordered his observer to
at that moment that the words of Robert of Ref. Pt. 27, as compasses are throw some smoke and HE on Ref. Pt.
Burns, about the "well laid plans of notoriously untrustworthy in the vicinity 47 as the unit moved. The first round of
mice and men," were never more of tanks and the accuracy of our maps smoke revealed the small estate of
clearly illustrated. There was snafu at often left much to be desired. Mutzerath the observer then made small
the IP. Instead of turning left at the IP, "I'd like to know exactly where 27 is," shifts to keep the fire in that general area
as per directions, the column continued spoke Major Bradley, "as I don't want to while Baker Co. made for its objective.
straight ahead on the road to Cologne. drift too close to Hoboken." Upon approaching within several
It is not the purpose of this article to "I think I can show you exactly where hundred yards of Mutzerath the fire was
place the responsibility on anyone, but it is, sir." Speaking was 2nd Lt. James lifted and the outfit moved in, taking
it may be said to the credit of the men Nichols, highly-regarded observer of the several prisoners out of the basement.
that a jeep was dispatched forward, that 83d Field Artillery Battalion and The successful formula was then
the column was turned around, and that recently the recipient of a battlefield repeated. This time Lt. Wesley
the advance north on highway 3 was commission. "Let me throw a few McDonald, of the 83d FA Bn., adjusted
accomplished without the loss of too rounds of white phosphorous out there fire on Ref. Pt. 63, which was the
much time. on 27." Hasselrath estate, and the recon troops
At approximately Ref. Pt. 11 the "OK, Nick, let's see what you can do," drove in quickly behind the artillery to
column veered right towards, it was the Major replied. seize several more of the enemy without
hoped, Ref. Pt. 27. The night was as a struggle. From here Baker Co. again
Lt. Nichols hopped back into his tank
black as the bottom of a well, and the went to the front and the fires of the 83d
and within a matter of moments had
moon was not due to rise until early FA Bn. pointed the way to Ref. Pt. 75
contacted his FDC. The message was
morning. Dark heavy rain clouds hung like a beacon to a lost ship. Light
sent . . . "Fire Mission, Fire Mission.
low and the numerous fires which concentrations of artillery were kept
Request several rounds of William-Peter
herald the arrival of war blazed about continually falling into the edge of
on Ref. Pt. 27. Over."
the horizon. All was silent save the woods to the north, to screen the
clank of steel tracks against the driving In about a minute FDC replied . . . movement towards Ref. Pt. 75.
sprocket and the hum of motors which "On the way." A 105 howitzer grunted
in the rear. Heads followed the path Pounding Pittsburgh. Pletsch creek
the drivers were making a determined
made by the whine of the shell in the was crossed at approximately Ref. Pt.
effort to keep as low as humanly
sky. About 1,000 yards ahead there 89 and it did not prove to be the
possible. To the men walking single-
appeared a flash, followed by a large obstacle that it was feared it might be.
file on either side these noises were like
plume of luminous smoke, which rose A few rounds were pooped into the
the roar of breakers crashing on the
slowly and spread out at the base. Two Kurth estate, Ref. Pt. 33, and the outfit
more rounds fell in about the same moved in. Intelligence from the
Bolts click. Suddenly the column place and Lt. Nichols gave the cease prisoners taken revealed that there was
stopped and motors were automatically fire order. a large garrison in Pittsburgh, and
switched off. The turrets traversed left as "That's where we're going," ordered Major Bradley requested that that town
if pulled by a single string. Infantrymen Major Bradley. be hit heavily. Lt. Nichols established
lay down quietly on the turf and there an OP on the top floor of the Kurth
The tank motors hummed once again
was a click of bolts up and down the place and obliged by raining artillery
and the unit proceeded directly towards
line. From the left there could be heard on Pittsburgh for about a full hour.
the billowing smoke. Soon they reached
the sounds of moving men. There were a Then, after a particularly heavy
the railroad line at about the point where
few muffled shouts in an unfamiliar barrage, the tanks and men moved
it converged with highway 1 and
tongue. Some of the men whispered that straight up highway 3 into the town.
everyone realized that artillery had
they thought they could see something
proved an effective and practical On the Rhine. At about 0400 Lt.
out there. But that was doubtful as in
substitute for the compass. James Gasvotta, of the 83d Armd. Rcn.
such a state of excitement one easily
Reconnaissance by artillery fire became Bn., was given the mission of taking a
sees what is preying on the mind.
the motif for the rest of the night. small patrol to the Rhine. Covered by
Minutes passed and the distant sounds
receded into the darkness. Not a single Major Bradley's small task force artillery fire to the north, he reached
man succumbed to trigger-happiness, turned northward while Lt. Nichols that historic waterway and reported that
and that was well, considering the nature repeated his performance. The flash of none of the enemy were encountered.
of the mission. the first round outlined the farmhouse at The men either went to sleep or made
Ref. Pt. 59; and like beagle hounds after coffee.
Recon. by Fire. At the head of the picking up the scent, the tanks moved Colonel Yeomans sent his historic
column Major Bradley and several of the perceptibly faster. Baker Co. passed message, "We are on the Rhine . . .
junior officers were alternately staring through Able Co. at 59 and turned north Rodger, Over, and Out."
the fifteen judges of the International
Report On The United Nations Court of Justice, one of whom is Mr.
Green Hackworth, the distinguished
Legal Adviser of the Department of
By Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. State for so many years.
I should like to sketch briefly the
accomplishments of the General
Assembly. Here, working in six main
American soldiers are becoming increasingly aware of the committees with several ad hoc
vital importance of their keeping abreast of the rapid surge committees for specific problems, the
of events in the field of international relations. Assembly, by the democratic process of
ballot and debate, and functioning much

T HE faith placed in the United

Nations by the people of the 51
countries whose representatives signed
when the General Assembly of the
United Nations adopted without change
the draft resolution on the control of
as does our own Congress by
preparatory work in committees,
disposed of a large amount of important
the Charter at San Francisco has been atomic energy. business.
more than justified in London by the At the Assembly plenary session A major problem was the question of
accomplishments of the first meetings of which considered the resolution, securing more effective support from
the General Assembly, the Security Secretary Byrnes urged the nations to governments for the United Nations
Council and the Economic and Social "see that the world ceases to be an armed Relief and Rehabilitation Association.
Council. camp." He warned that "the problems On this issue the Assembly adopted a
This first gathering was primarily presented by the discovery of atomic resolution proposed by the distinguished
conceived as an organizational meeting energy and of other forces capable of Chairman of the House Foreign
at which the principles of the Charter mass destruction cannot be solved by Relations Committee, Representative
would be translated into the actualities any one nation. They are the common Sol Bloom. This resolution set up a
of a functioning international responsibility of all nations and each of subcommittee which would seek to
organization. us must do our part in meeting them." ensure that members of UNRRA which,
Actually we found ourselves The commission, composed of unlike the United States, have not
confronted with a two-fold problem: the representatives of the 11 members of the already taken action to do so, will meet
actual establishment of the organization Security Council and Canada, must set promptly the obligations they have
with the vast mass of procedures to work on this problem "with the assumed toward UNRRA. It would also
involved; and the discussion of utmost dispatch" and make encourage the admission to UNRRA of
substantive problems which cut across recommendations to the Security those members of the United Nations
the regular agenda to provide the first Council. Specific proposals they will who have not already joined UNRRA.
tests as to whether or not the United make concern: (A) Extending between A resolution jointly sponsored by the
Nations was a workable mechanism. all nations the exchange of basic five great powers and unanimously
The United Nations has met its scientific information for peaceful ends; adopted by the Assembly of the United
responsibilities in both respects. An (B) Control of atomic energy to the Nations recognized the threat of famine
organization has been created, and extent necessary to insure its use only in the world resulting from the failure of
constructive consideration given to the for peaceful purposes; (C) Elimination rice crops in the extreme East and wheat
urgent political and economic problems from national armaments of atomic crops elsewhere and called upon the
brought before its first meetings. weapons and of all other major weapons governments concerned to take
Discussion was vigorous and open. This adaptable to mass destruction; and (D)
was true not only of the General Effective safeguards by way of
Assembly but equally so of the Security inspection and other means to protect Messrs. Bevin and Stettinius at the Security
Council. There was much plain complying states against the hazards of Council Table.
speaking, and each nation expressed violations and evasions.
forcefully its point of view. The large It was natural that after the passage of
measure of agreement that was reached the atomic energy resolutions the center
can be judged by the many constructive of public interest turned to the dramatic
results achieved. problems which were placed on the
A great achievement, beyond mere agenda of the Security Council almost
terms of organization, was the from the first day that Council was
establishment by unanimous agreement established. In consequence, less
of the Commission to deal with the spectacular but nevertheless basic work
problems raised by the discovery of of the General Assembly and the
atomic energy. The Secretary of State, Economic and Social Council has often
with the collaboration of the statesmen been overlooked; to say nothing of the
of the other members of the Big Five important election jointly conducted by
and Canada, achieved this objective the Security Council and Assembly of

drastic action to meet the crisis. In

support of this resolution on the floor of
the Assembly I said: "The United States
supports the pending resolution
"It welcomes and supports the
proposal of the Food and Agriculture
Organization to call a conference on the
food crisis at the earliest possible
"The United States believes the
adoption of these measures will
demonstrate to the world the intention of
The American Delegation at the opening session of the General Assembly. (Photos
"Daily Sketch.") the members of the United Nations to
act together vigorously and promptly for
the survival and welfare of men and
women and children—of individual
human beings.
"That is the underlying purpose that
has brought us together in the United
"That is the overriding factor that cut
across every conflict of national interest
and every political question which has
been brought before this Assembly or
the Security Council."
I believe that the fact that the
Security Council dealt with the four
intricate international problems which
were given it to consider even before it
had completed its own organization,
including its rules of procedure, gave
the Council more strength in its infancy
than any of us had dared to hope it
The American Delegation to the United Nations Conference at London, left to right: Mr. John would acquire so soon. The discussions
Foster Dulles, Representative Sol Bloom, Senator Vandenberg, Mr. Stettinius, Secretary of were conducted with the utmost
State Byrnes, Senator Conally, Mrs. Roosevelt, Mr. Frank Walker, ex-Senator Townsend. frankness and in the presence of the
press and public. They were a severe
test for a newly-born organization.
Some of you may have been disturbed
by reports of conflicts from London.
There were sharp conflicts. This was to
be expected. Members pressed their
own views strongly and frankly. Mr.
Vyshinsky and Mr. Bevin, for example,
spoke on opposite sides of some of
these issues in the same terms as two
representatives of opposing parties
would expect to speak on the issues
that come up daily in Congress or a
state legislature.
I do not believe that open discussion
of differences of international interest
and viewpoint, always provided that
they are carried on in good faith, makes
for division and disunity. On the
contrary, to deal with disputes and
controversial situations is and will be the
Mr. Stettinius confers with the Russian Vice Commissar for Foreign Affairs Andrei Vyshinsky
principal business of the Council.
while Foreign Minister Bevin ponders his notes. The presentation of the different

views regarding Iran, Greece, Indonesia instrument but a matter of extreme on this motion, which received seven
and the Levant demonstrated, I believe, importance. Although the United States votes in favor. It was not adopted,
that these cases did not involve would not wish to limit the use of the however, because the Soviet Union,
immediate threats to peace and security. right of investigation, it should not be one of the five permanent members of
The "situation in northern Iran," as it lightly undertaken. Before an the Security Council, voted against it.
was termed, received a full hearing by investigation was started the Security Nevertheless, the two great powers
the Council from both parties to the Council should have reason to believe party to the dispute, France and the
dispute, the Soviet Union and Iran. The that continuance of the situation was United Kingdom, indicated that they
Council decided to leave the matter to likely to endanger international peace; would act in accordance with the
direct negotiations between these two an investigation should have a resolution, despite the fact that
governments, following an indication of constructive purpose, it should seek to technically it had failed of adoption. It
the desire of both Iran and the Soviet promote a just settlement and to avoid can be expected, accordingly, that
Union to undertake them. At the same the introduction of new complications. negotiations will be undertaken without
time they were requested to apprise the I went on to add that in neither of the delay having as their objective the
Council of the results achieved and the two aspects of the question before the prompt withdrawal of Anglo-French
Council expressed its right "at any time Council, namely the presence and forces from Syria and Lebanon.
to request information on the progress of activities of British troops in Indonesia The Economic and Social Council
the negotiations." or the relationship between the was elected by the General Assembly
In the case of Greece, the Soviet Netherlands Government and the and established eight principal
delegate, in expressing his Government's Indonesians, did an investigation seem commissions to carry out its manifold
belief that the presence of British troops justified. functions. The Economic and Social
in that peninsula was a threat to I concluded by saying that the Council Council will convoke a preparatory
international peace and security, called should note with satisfaction the conference next June to pave the way
upon the Council to require the statements made by the Netherlands for a world conference on trade and
immediate withdrawal of those forces representative as to the policy of his employment and is also convening a
from Greece. In rejecting this demand Government with respect to its relations United Nations conference to establish
the British Foreign Secretary called for with the Indonesian people, and an International Health Organization.
"a clean bill of health." For our part, expressed the hope that the negotiations Whenever matters relating to non-
early in the discussion I took the stand now in progress would be successful, self-governing territories were under
that in this case the Council could do that the results would be in harmony discussion in the General Assembly,
more to maintain international peace by with the principles of the Charter, and our delegation took an active part. The
refraining from direct intervention under that the legitimate aspirations of the Preparatory Commission had proposed,
the circumstances as explained by the Indonesians to self-government would with our support, that the General
British and Greek governments and by be realized. Assembly should adopt a resolution
not taking any formal action. This After full discussion the Security calling on the mandatory powers to take
approach was eventually accepted in the Council decided not to take any action in practicable steps, in concert with the
form of a statement by the President of the matter at the present time. other States directly concerned, toward
the Council, noting the declarations In the case of Syria and Lebanon, the conclusion of trusteeship
made by its members, a majority of after the Levantine delegates had stated agreements for the mandated territories.
whom had said that they did not believe their case and asked that the Security Each of the mandatory powers
the presence of British troops in Greece Council take steps to bring about the subsequently made a formal statement
constituted a threat to international immediate withdrawal of British and of policy before the General Assembly.
peace. The British Foreign Minister, for French troops, a solution was reached Australia, Belgium, France, New
his part, as also in the similar case of the by a method which may afford an Zealand, and the United Kingdom
Indonesian episode, consistently stressed important precedent for the future. The announced that they were prepared to
his Government's desire to withdraw its American Delegation's position was have the mandated territories under
troops. that we desired to see the withdrawal of their administration placed under the
Nevertheless, the delegate of the the forces of one United Nation from trusteeship system. The United
Ukraine called the attention of the the territory of another United Nation Kingdom, moreover, declared its
Security Council to the situation in as speedily as circumstances would intention to take steps in the near future
Indonesia and asked that a commission permit. Accordingly, I presented a for establishing Trans-Jordan as an
of investigation be sent to the resolution to the Security Council independent state. The Union of South
Netherlands East Indies to determine expressing its confidence that foreign Africa reserved its position concerning
whether or not the presence of British troops would be withdrawn from Syria Southwest Africa until the inhabitants
troops there also was a threat to and Lebanon as soon as practicable and of the territory could be consulted.
international peace and security. that without delay negotiations to this In view of these new circumstances,
I stated that in this Government's end would be undertaken by all the Mr. John Foster Dulles on behalf of
opinion the Security Council's power of parties concerned. The British and our delegation, in the first paper
investigation was not only a useful French delegates abstained from voting submitted to Committee 4, proposed that

the draft resolution on establishment of reminded the Members of their I should not wish to close this account
the trusteeship system should be obligations under Chapter XI of the of our stewardship in London without
expanded to welcome these declarations Charter, requested the Secretary-General paying tribute to the splendid
of intention and to include reference to to include in his annual report a cooperation, inspired with energy and
Chapter XI of the Charter, relating to all summary of the information transmitted intelligence, which was given the
non-self-governing territories. In the by members administering dependent Secretary of State and me by our fellow
resolution ultimately adopted by the territories, and expressed the expectation delegates: Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt,
General Assembly, largely as a result of that the realization of the objectives of Senators Connally and Vandenberg,
our leadership, the United Nations not Chapters XI, XII, and XIII of the Charter Representative Sol Bloom, Mr. John
only dealt with trusteeship matters but will make possible the attainment of the Foster Dulles, Mr. Frank Walker and
also expressed its keen awareness of the aspirations of non-self-governing Mr. John G. Townsend, Jr. I should like
problems and political aspirations of the peoples. also to add that the work of the
non-self-governing peoples not directly On the much discussed question of the Delegation in London was greatly aided
represented in the General Assembly, site of the United Nations headquarters, through the tact, experience and wide
an ad hoc committee of the General contacts of a hard-working group of
Assembly approved the recommendation Foreign Service officers who acted as
of the interim sub-committee which had political advisers to the Delegation.* I
visited the eastern United States at the am also indebted to the expert and
turn of the year and decided that the indefatigable team of State Department
home of the organization should be in officers who served as technical advisers
the Westchester-Fairfield area of New to the Delegates and, frequently working
York and Connecticut with the interim around the clock, did yeoman service.
headquarters in or near New York City. Such, in brief, is the story of the
It is my hope and belief that the United United Nations' meeting in London. If in
Nations will find in the free atmosphere certain cases absolute and sweeping
of our country that same amplitude of solutions were not found, it is because in
spirit and scope for growth which gave most cases and at most times absolute
the United States so rich a spiritual and sweeping solutions are neither
endowment. possible nor desirable. The relations of
states, like the relations of human
Central Hall, London. These are the
same United Nations flags that were beings, are a continuing process. They
used at San Francisco. cannot be crystallized or held up in test
Below: Left to right around the tubes like scientific exhibits. If I have
Council table: Foreign Minister Bevin,
Mr. Stettinius, Executive Secretary any conclusion to draw for the Foreign
Jobb, and the President of the Service, whose aims are identical with
Council, Mr. Makin, Minister for War of
those of the United Nations and whose
work lies so intimately in the field of
international organization, it is to restate
a truth I am sure is evident to Foreign
Service officers. It was natural and right
that in London there was a vigorous
interplay of national interest.
Nevertheless, I sensed in London, and I
was not alone in this feeling, an attitude
of responsibility and loyalty not only to
the national interest but also to the
international interest as expressed in the
purposes and activities of the United
*Editor's note: The following Foreign Service
officers were assigned to the Delegation:
Mr. Theodore C. Achilles
Mr. Charles E. Bohlen
Mr. Cabot Coville
Mr. Gerald Drew
Mr. Dorsey Fisher
Mr. William Fowlet
Mr. Raymond Hare
Mr. Rudolph E. Schoenfeld
Mr. Eric Wendelin
Mr. Llewellyn E. Thompson
Mr. George Wadsworth
More on the Massacre at Malmedy
By Kenneth C. Parker
marked "not a through road." He came
LT. LARY'S article about the In mid-July, 1944, Private to a marshy area in the valley, which
massacre at Malmedy (page 80, THE Kenneth Parker joined the 30th made further progress in this manner
FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL, February, Infantry Division as a replacement impossible. He made the wounded man
1946) really started a string of nostalgic in Company B of the 120th Infantry as comfortable as he could and went on
memories, despite the horrible just in time to participate in the alone for about 800 yards north up the
experiences there. heavy action of the St. Lo
side of the mountainous slope to our
On the map the scene of the massacre breakthrough and at Mortain which
nearest outpost. Willing hands got the
is designated Baugnez. I studied the map followed closely thereafter. Parker
remained with the 120th Infantry wounded man out of the wheelbarrow
of this area many times while writing up and to an aid station. Unfortunately,
the exploits of several officers and men and was a T/4 in the Headquarters
Company of the 1st Battalion when this heroic effort came to naught, for
of Company B, 120th Infantry, whose the wounded soldier suffered frozen
victory came. He adds some
60-man raiding party discovered the arms and legs as well as a chest wound,
interesting sidelights in this short
bodies on New Year's Eve. and died a few days later in a hospital
article (extracted from a letter to the
Incidentally, this road junction was Editor) to the story of the horrible in Spa.
known by everyone in the 1st Battalion massacre at Malmedy, which was Five Points was heavily shelled by the
as Five Points, the same name Lt. Lary told by Lt. Virgil P. Lary, Jr., in the Germans during our offensive from 13
gave to the area. In fact, our battalion February issue of The Field Artillery through 15 January, but despite the
executive officer described this spot as Journal. Readers will recall (see dangerous situation there a Negro
Five Points to Major General Leland S. "Artillery in the Ardennes" in our quartermaster group removed the bodies
Hobbs, 30th Infantry Division March issue) that the 30th Infantry of the massacred men during this
Commander, when he dropped in at our Division was playing a most vital period.*
CP at Airimont, one of the "small role in the decisive Battle of the On 17 January I said "goodbye" to
settlements" indicated on your map. Bulge at the time of the events the old Belgian, promised him that I'd
The situation at the time of the described here by Kenneth
be back some day and that I would
General's visit (either 14 or 15 January) Parker.—Editor.
look him up. Then I rode in an open
was far from social, for our regiment jeep down the winding mountain road
was experiencing extreme difficulties in infantryman near one of the three with its vistas of snow-covered hills
seizing Thirimont. General Hobbs re- machine gun nests in the woods about and pine trees, which were at once
buked the Major immediately by saying: 200 yards south of Five Points. beautiful and deadly, and passed
"Five Points? I don't know what you're Sgt. Herman Fisher, an assistant through Five Points on my way south
talking about. Be more explicit." squad leader with one of the raiding to Thirimont.
The first I heard of the massacre was platoons on New Year's Eve, later I gave the spot a good look, but as is
from a Belgian, an old man who had received the DSC for his heroism in usually the case it failed to match up
stayed behind to take care of the stone remaining behind, while the others with my preconceived "map" picture. It
and brick house in snow-covered withdrew, to guard a wounded buddy. belongs with many other previously
Airimont, where we lived during the At daybreak he treated the man's little-known dots on the map which wars
defense phase of the Battle of the wounds and began the laborious task of have spotlighted.
Bulge. He spoke French and German, evacuating him by dragging his body ———————
had served in the German army on the through the snow. He was spotted by *The negro group referred to was a platoon of a First
Russian Front in the first war, but was enemy snipers as he neared some of the Army graves registration unit, which was itself part of
a small task force consisting of Inspectors General
a great tooter for the Americans this buildings in Baugnez. For a time he personnel, 8 medical officers, the graves registration
time, and during our stay never failed sheltered himself and the wounded man platoon, and a company of engineers, which was
behind one of the vehicles that Lt. organized and directed personally by Colonel Rosser L.
to study apprehensively the maps in Hunter, the First Army Inspector General. The recovery
our copies of the Stars and Stripes. Lary's unit was forced to abandon. He of the bodies was one part of a thorough investigation
He told of the massacre by was unable to get assistance from any of this atrocity which was completed by Colonel
of the local inhabitants, since they Hunter and his assistants. Some 200 individuals—both
pantomiming "les Americains" with friendly and enemy—were interviewed; these included
their hands in the air, imitating the sound feared German reprisals. After all, they many prisoners of war from the 1st SS Panzer Division
of a machine gun, clutching his middle were living in a kind of No Man's Land who were apprehended by placing "stop orders" on
their names at all PW cages, both within and without
and pretending to fall forward. We got more accessible to the enemy than to us the First Army area. Upon completion and approval,
the idea all right. It cost us five good and certainly under German the report of the First Army Inspector General was
men (killed, wounded and missing) on 1 observation. He managed to borrow a forwarded to the War Crimes Commission and it is
gratifying to be able to report that the offending
January 1945 to go "down in the valley" wheelbarrow, put his charge in it, and individuals will soon face trial for this horrible
and see for ourselves and seize an enemy wheeled him downhill along the route crime.—Editor.


ELDOM WILL THE EDITORIAL PAGE OF this Knowledge Can Be Dangerous. Although Top Secret
JOURNAL devote itself to a book, best seller or otherwise. betrays certain conspicuous blind spots in his broad World
An exceptional book, Top Secret,* is the exceptional War II experience, Ralph Ingersoll knows a lot about the great
case. To give it less prominence would be unfair to our people and issues he discusses. These blind spots in his
readers. experience bother him not a whit, however, as he rushes
sensationally to certain more-than-doubtful conclusion
Author. Released from active duty last August as a
thereby proving again that even considerable knowledge can
lieutenant colonel, Ralph Ingersoll, the editor of Manhattan's
be a dangerous thing. He went to England with General
explosive PM, promptly sat himself down and wrote an
Devers in the spring of 1943, served as an American observer
explosive book. Written in an exhilarating and inimitable
in Field Marshal Montgomery's 21st Army Group
style, Top Secret is superb in those sections where Ingersoll is
Headquarters prior to and immediately after the Normand
content to remain the reporter; it founders miserably when
assault, whereupon he joined and remained with the G-3
Ingersoll attempts the role of military historian and judge of
(Plans) Section of General Omar Bradley's 12th Army Group
the great events and the great people he tosses about so
Headquarters. It may be observed in passing that if Ingersoll
blithely. Be it emphasized at the outset, however, that Top
were as objective in his thinking as such critical staff
Secret pays high tribute generally to American arms, and
assignments demand of their incumbents, Top Secret would be
particularly to the ground combat soldiers. Created by no
a great, and not merely an explosive, book.
individual "great genius," Ingersoll finds that "the invincibility
of American arms grew out of the whole American people— Doubtful Assumption and Pitfall. Top Secret has two
our of their brawn, their brain and, for better or worse, their inherent weaknesses—a doubtful initial assumption and self-
soul." made pitfall, into which Ingersoll plummets with arms
flailing. Albeit his covering remark on page 56 that he does
Unmatched Reporting. Ingersoll's "feel" of the collective
not seek to debate the relative merits of the American and
state of mind of the American forces in the European theater
British approaches to the overall strategic concept for the
at various stages of the operations is unmatched elsewhere in
defeat of the Axis in Europe, Top Secret screams, from cover
print. Outstanding are his interpretations of: the maddening
to cover, Ingersoll's inflexible bias that what is good
frustration experienced by "high level" American staff officers
politically for the British Empire is axiomatically bad for the
and commanders when they ran up against a unified British
United States, both politically and militarily. True in certain
determination not to go along with an American idea; the
instances—and disregarding here the significant factors that
exciting and dreadful inexorableness of the plan OVERLORD
contributed at the time to major strategic decision taken (of
(cross-channel assault) in the spring of 1944 in England—too
which, incidentally, Ingersoll shows no evidence of being
great a thing, as he so rightly observes, either for full
aware) the trend of events over the past year since VE-Day
comprehension of, or command by, any individual; the assault
gives added emphasis to the doubtful soundness of this
itself and the "cozy" character of the Normandy lodgement
assumption. From this questionable starting point Ingersoll
area before Saint Lo; the bitterness of the Falaise gap days and
leads the unwary reader straight through a fast-moving case to
the mad scramble thereafter on to the Siegfried Line; the
the dangerously explosive conclusion that throughout World
trying weeks of short supply and the much more trying weeks
War II a duped America was led by the British to a head-on
as our advance slowed, winter approached, and the fighting
collision with the Russians, certain to result in World War III.
degenerated into a disheartening slugging match, with
casualties mounting. Ralph Ingersoll is at his very best in Non-explosive in itself, but certainly unfortunate for the
these sections; more important, they can be read with every reputations of the individuals concerned and confusing to the
confidence that they give an unbiased picture. searcher for the truth, Ingersoll's self-created pitfall is not
——————— uncommon; he permits his great loyalty and respect for his
*Top Secret, by Ralph Ingersoll. 373 pp., index Harcourt Brace and Co. boss. General Bradley, to warp his objectivity to the point of
$3.00 minimizing the capabilities of subordinate commanders
1946 EDITORIAL 285
and damning wholesale all higher headquarters and * * * which had been decided, as all the world now knew, at
commanders. Thus, Ralph Ingersoll finds: (a) General Bastogne." Unworthy of detailed analysis and rebuttal, it is
Eisenhower a genial and incompetent "front" man and stooge sufficient to state that: first, the overwhelming weight of
for General Marshall, himself merely "mildly confused and qualified and informed military opinion disagrees with
irritated" during the critical years of 1942 and 1943; (b) Ingersoll on point (1); and second, points (2), (3), and (4)
Marshal Montgomery a complete villain (among many British are factually incorrect. Ingersoll is at his very worst in this
villains) as well as being very bad mannered and a very bad section. Apparently utterly ignorant of the facts bearing on
general, and (c) General Bradley utterly beyond reproach, as the north flank (the main German effort) of the battle, he
individual or commander. The truth isn’t quite that simple. does an inexcusable injustice not only to Generals
Eisenhower and Montgomery but also to many thousands of
Incompetents, Villain, and Hero. Ingersoll's brief but
American soldiers who died fighting the most brutal battle
shabby treatment of General Marshall is more than unjust.
of the war in Europe in one of the twenty divisions (Ingersoll
It may be, as Top Secret charges, that General Marshall
refers lightly in passing to "half a dozen") that fought in the
failed to slug hard enough for the power and prestige of the
First U. S. Army at one time or another during this battle.
Army Ground Forces during the free-swinging days of the
Less important but nonetheless regrettable is the fact that his
"battle of Washington" in 1942 and 1943. In fact, not a few
garbled treatment of this battle will serve to confuse
ground soldiers feel that, to a degree, our leadership sold us
countless uninformed readers who will gobble up this
"down the river." Be that as it may, objective history will
explosive book. Fortunately for its readers, the March issue
find (and so will Ralph Ingersoll if he ever reads the
of THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL carried a splendidly
minutes of the vital meetings of the Joint and Combined
objective article, "Artillery in the Ardennes," which
Chiefs of Staff) that, far from being "merely confused and
surveyed the Battle of the Bulge from the north (First Army)
irritated," General George Marshall stood out head and
shoulders above the other U. S. Chiefs of Staff as an
The hero of the book, General Omar Bradley, was
objective minded citizen-soldier and statesman.
probably the greatest American field commander in World
Top Secret builds a strong case against General
War II. Further, his military statute will grow with the
Eisenhowever, particularly for his alleged failure to divert at
passing years. For what it may be worth, however, this
least all the then available American means to Bradley's
writer ventures to suggest that a close study of all the facts
"winning team" in the early fall of 1944. Not competent
by military scholars of the future may find that, relatively
objectively to judge Ingersoll's heavy charges against
speaking, General Bradley was at his greatest as a corps or
General Eisenhower, this writer tends to discount them
army commander and not as an army group commander.
sharply, primarily because of his fantastic twisting of the
Great though he was, certainly only the naive will credit
relatively simple facts in the case of the Battle of the Bulge.
either him or his headquarters with the unreachable
Possibly his most vindictive attack on General Eisenhower,
perfection portrayed in Top Secret.
Ingersoll rests his case on the following: (1) that it was
militarily unsound to place the American First and Ninth Tongue-in-Cheek. Many artillerymen will, and should,
Armies temporarily under Montgomery's command; (2) that, read Top Secret. Explosive, rather than great, there's still
unsoundly, Montgomery reversed Bradley's plan for the much to be learned from it. The motivating thought here is
conduct of the battle; (3) that Montgomery hampered the to caution the reader to keep a level head and tongue-in-
conduct of the fight on the north flank; and (4) that, in any cheek, lest he be led far astray by Top Secret's unsound and
event, the north flank soon "ceased to be a factor in the battle unjustifiable conclusions. D. A.
The Field Artillery Journal is not a medium for the dissemination of
THE FIELD War Department doctrine or administrative directives. Contributors
alone are responsible for opinions expressed and conclusions reached
ARTILLERY in published articles. Consistent with the objects of our Association,
however, the Field Artillery Journal seeks to provide a meeting ground
JOURNAL for the free expression of artillery ideas in the changing present.


The 
The objects of the Association shall be the promotion of the efficiency President of the United States
of the Field Artillery by maintaining its best traditions; the publishing of LIEUTENANT GENERAL RAYMOND S. McLAIN, President
a Journal for disseminating professional knowledge and furnishing MAJOR GENERAL LOUIS E. HIBBS, Vice-President
information as to the field artillery's progress, development and best use COLONEL DEVERE ARMSTRONG. Secretary-Editor and Treasurer
in campaign; to cultivate, with the other arms, a common understanding EXECUTIVE COUNCIL
of the powers and limitations of each; to foster a feeling of Lt. Gen. Raymond S. McLain Brig. Gen. Edward S. Ott
interdependence among the different arms and of hearty cooperation by Maj. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey Colonel Jess Lerson
all; and to promote understanding between the regular and militia forces Maj. Gen. Frank E. Lowe Colonel Malcolm R. Cox
by a closer bond; all of which objects are worthy and contribute to the Brig. Gen. Harold R. Barker Lt. Col. Robert B. Neely
good of our country. Lieutenant Colonel F. Gorham Brigham, Jr.
Panama's Watermelon War
By Ralph Z. Kirkpatrick

F OR OVER three centuries (1523-

1855) the infamous transisthmian
Cruces Trail saw much tragedy and
overshadowed the details of the
"Watermelon War" that one must search
diplomatic documents to find it. But it
In the afternoon of April 15, 1856,
970 passengers from the SS Illinois
arrived at the new Panama City Station.
hardship. This, the oldest of American was front page news at the time! The They were en route to San Francisco
roads, went back to jungle when the American and New Granadan (Panama from New York, and had expected to
Panama Railroad began operations. In was then a province of New Granada, embark directly on the SS John H.
sentiment, at least, it is now back in later called Colombia) ministers Stephens. However, the tide was out
service, for in April 1943 the Public withdrew from Bogota and Washington, and although their ship was in plain
Roads Administration opened a a real war nearly ensued, and eventually sight of the depot the ship could not
modern interocean highway in the New Granada paid a property damage dock for a few hours. So the
Canal Zone. settlement of $400,000 to the United passengers, with usual tourist curiosity,
States. This was a large sum in those idled about the station, nearby market,
Old vs. New. But how the old and new
days. cantinas, and the cheap hotels that had
differ! The 55 miles of Chagres River-
sprung up in that area.
Cruces Trail was a grueling 5-day
endurance test. One traveled in open
Melon and Knife. A colored fruit
river boats, and over a rough
vendor and a drunken American
cobblestone (and usually very muddy)
quarreled over a ten-cent slice of
Spanish road, alternately under a blazing
watermelon. A knife was drawn and a
sun and torrential rains. The wayside
wild pistol shot killed an innocent
inns were terrible. On the Trail one
bystander. In the ensuing excitement
walked or bestrode a scrawny mule or
the intoxicated American disappeared,
pony. There was no other way, be the
but the affair seemed to have touched
traveler bishop or goldseeker, soldier or
off what almost appeared to be an
gentle lady, adventurer or business man.
organized mobilization. A church bell
By contrast, the new route is a scenic,
sounded a general alarm and shortly a
all-land, two and one-half hour ride over
mob was attacking every American in
a deluxe four lane concrete highway of
sight with machetes, knives, guns, clubs
minimum grades and compensated
or anything handy. The railroad
curves, eventually to be a spur of the
company, with some difficulty,
3,300 miles of PanAmerican Highway
managed to get a messenger through
connecting Texas and Panama City.
the rioters, asking help from the Chief
Although later retarded to the original
of Police and Governor. Soon those
construction pace, work on this road was
officials arrived, together with many
being rushed, early in World War II, and
police armed with rifles; by this time
it then appeared that military traffic
most of the passengers were in the
would soon be running between the
depot, and two armed men were firing
United States and the Canal Zone. With
at the mob from an upstairs window;
this in mind, radical overhaul of road
with no more investigation than what
rules was made in the Zone and
their eyes took in as they hurried to the
Republic of Panama. They dropped their
scene of battle, the police joined the
long-used left hand turn and otherwise
rioters. Governor Fabrega looked on
modernized things. Once so-somnolent
Panama is now very internationally
cooperative. There followed a veritable "night of
horror," as it is called in Panama's
Lost in History. Not always was this histories. The unarmed passengers were
true. When Panama Railroad traffic kicked, hacked and plundered. Baggage,
superseded the Cruces Trail, the change express and mailsacks were broken
begot local resentments that developed open and looted. Some mobsters, too
into an international incident. well known to risk identification, wore
Historically, the gathering clouds of Atlantic and Pacific Steamship Company's black masks while tearing loose rails,
Civil War in the United States had so handbill of the 1850's. sacking cars, and looting both railroad

and private property. Letters, bills and Yet many of the Americans treated them
documents were strewn about but the as slaves. POOL OFFICER'S
company's safe withstood attack. The new railroad's operation had
Nearby, the railroad's tender Taboga caused a definite depression among LAMENT
was looted of arms and its supplies. The Panama's laboring class. Hundreds of With a mind full of symbols I arrived
porters, muleteers and boatmen had lost at the pool
depot, though fired, mercifully failed to 'Cause I was a "grad" of the
burn — therein many women and employments they and their forefathers Leavenworth school!
children were crouching among the had had for centuries. In other words With nary a plan as to what I would
seats. In their defenselessness and terror economic, racial and nationalistic hurts do,
many Americans ran out of town and had been accumulating and the explosive I thought I was set for what might
hatreds of the ignorant peons and ensue.
into the jungle where they spent the
night. Others leaped into the bay and officials were ignited by an insignificant
swam either to the Taboga or to the quarrel. The attack on the innocent The pool was well filled, to my honest
Stephens. At dawn, when the mob's fury passengers of the SS Illinois was the surprise.
result. I gaped at its set-up its smoothness, its
had abated somewhat, more responsible size.
citizens slowly took control of affairs. It Eye to Future. Must we anticipate There were eagles and oak-leaves—so
was several days, however, before the such untoward incidents later when polished and grand—
hawking, without molestation from the through traffic is an every day matter
Their owners all ready to meet each
police, of looted articles ceased on the demand.
across America's 3,300-mile Pan-
streets. Complete peace and quiet American Highway from Texas to
followed the arrival of American naval Panama City? Will not the traditions, With a circumspect glance at the other
vessels. About 20 Americans had been men near,
economics and nationalisms of those My heart flip-flopped in a frenzy of
killed and perhaps 100 wounded. An seven Latin-American republics be fear.
official investigation followed. similarily upset by the presence of all It's as plain as the nose on your face to
types of foreign travelers? see
Cause and Effect. Perhaps the There won't be assignments for new
explanations made by Foreign Secretary The sure answer is likely the Spanish
guys like me.
Lino de Pombo to Secretary of State goodhumored, quien sabe (Who can
Wm. L. Marcy about the affair say?). Undeniably the American tourist,
albeit unintentionally, says and does The management here at the center is
accurately state the basic resentments fine.
and jealousies that had been mounting wrong things too often when he is away Everything hews to that straight,
and came to a focus on the innocent from home. But he is rather well known narrow line.
railroad passengers: now in Latin America; mostly he amuses Our quarters are snappy,—there's
more than he offends. The native usually even a bar
". . . travelers thronged our territory . . These "comforts from home" are 'way
shrugs it off with a tolerant thought
. California made flattering appeals to above par.
"another crazy Amercano" but he doesn't
emigration . . . multitudes of adventurers
say it aloud. This is true mostly because
. . . called for employment and But for almost a month I've been one
now the expression the El Coloso del
renumeration of our native sons. of the "sitters"
Norte is more often translated "Our Big
". . . to get the railroad we gave lands (I'm getting that ailment the vets call
Northern Colleague" rather than "The "the jitters")
and help with waning success and Big Northern Bully"; that latter meaning I'm tired of seeing the doctors each
advantages . . . smoke from locomotives was the current one in the pre-Civil War day,
. . . noises of trains . . . yells of days of filibustering. Which I've been a-doin' to speed time
passengers . . . exhibitions of wealth . . . From the standpoint of the economics away.
. immoral, ignorant, quarrelsome, and nationalism of the seven Latin
intemperate men, without God other American countries involved there is no My 66-1 says a whole lot of things,
than gold, nor law other than force . . . . conflict. Each of them have been But what is it worth if the praise never
filibusters . . . disgraces to civilization . . enthusiastic participants in the brings
. look with contempt upon Spanish An assignment of value to keep me
construction that is now so nearly alert?
people especially if they have African finished. It has been a matter of (How long can I pose as both brilliant
blood. . . only thoughts are of intercountry cooperation and they are and pert?)
annexation. . . . . ." using the completed portions now, with
Certainly the presence of aggressive satisfaction. Of course they anticipate If I am not needed to finish this war,
and overdirect American goldseeker and better markets for their products and rich Please make me a "cit" and I'll ask for
filibuster transitiers had given cause for harvests in sales to the passing parade no more.
resentment and distrust to the natives. when through traffic starts. The fact that I've set this lament into
Again slavery was then at high tide in What a sensible and satisfactory rhyme
Ought to prove beyond doubt I've had
the United States. Colored men in the contrast to the interconflicting too much of T-I-M-E
Carribean and Central American areas conditions that caused Panama City's Colonel John Lemp, F.A.
had been freedmen for over a generation. Watermelon War of 1856.
For Heroism and Service
BATTLE HONORS' high courage in the face of tremendous odds service while serving as Deputy Director,
The 42d FIELD ARTILLERY demonstrated by the personnel of the Office of Strategic Services, from January
BATTALION is cited for outstanding battalion, as well as the outstanding success 1943 to September 1945, he was responsible
performance of duty in action during the achieved, reflect the highest credit on the for the supervision and coordination of the
German counteroffensive 16 to 25 December armed forces of the United States. Secret Intelligence, Counterespionage
1944. The 42d Field Artillery Battalion, DISTINGUISHED SERVICE CROSS Intelligence, Research and Analysis, Foreign
functioning in its normal role of direct 1st Lt. ALBERT L. KESSLER, FA, 65th Nationalities, and Censorship and
support of the 12th Infantry Regiment, was Armored Field Artillery Battalion, 2d Documentation Branches. Through
responsible for furnishing fire support in its Armored Division, U. S. Army, for exceptional foresight, initiative, and
zone of action across a 10-mile front. When, extraordinary heroism in connection with perseverance, he welded the functions of
on 16 December, the Germans in military operations. On 23 November 1944, these units into a single effective, coordinated
overwhelming strength launched their Lt. Kessler demonstrated extraordinary intelligence service capable of meeting the
fanatical attack aimed at the city of courage as a forward observer for an 8″ needs of the armed services and other
Luxembourg, thereby threatening Radio howitzer battalion. Throughout the night, in government agencies which required
Luxembourg, Headquarters Twelfth United order to destroy enemy positions, Lt. Kessler intelligence as a basis for policy-making
States Army Group, and tremendous supply called for and adjusted fire which landed near decisions. He developed innumerable and
establishments, the 42d Field Artillery his position which was well within the known varied intelligence activities and carried out
Battalion was faced with demands which, safety limits from the center of impact. their fulfillment to the lasting benefit of the
except for superior technical ability and Although his observation post was within one Allied forces.
undaunted courage, could never have been hundred yards of the enemy lines, his OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO
met. The full strength, highly trained, and persistent devotion to duty and total disregard DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL
completely equipped 212 Volk Grenadier for personal safety was largely responsible Maj. Gen. JOHN P. LUCAS
Division attacking in the Combat Team 12 for the destruction of the heavily defended Maj. Gen. STANLEY E. REINHART
area threatened momentarily to engulf the town. The extraordinary heroism and Brig. Gen. JOHN M. LENTZ
isolated towns which the understrength, courageous actions of Lt. Kessler reflect great SILVER STAR
battle-weary infantry manned as strong credit upon himself and are in keeping with Maj. Gen. JOHN MILLIKIN
points. Penetration up to 4 kilometers in the highest traditions of the military service. LEGION OF MERIT
depth was made by infiltration groups as Entered military service from New Jersey. Maj. Gen. RALPH McT. PENNELL
large as a battalion in strength and threatened DISTINGUISHED SERVICE MEDAL Brig. Gen. WILLIAM A. BARRON, Jr
Brig. Gen. JOHN M. EAGER
to overrun the command posts and battery Maj. Gen. ARCHIBALD V. ARNOLD, for
positions of the 42d Field Artillery Battalion. exceptionally meritorious and distinguished Brig. Gen. KENNETH P. LORD
Accurate artillery fire in great volume and of service in the performance of duties of great Brig. Gen. WILLIAM SPENCE
all calibers up to 210-mm fell ceaselessly on responsibility during the period October 1944 Col. JOHN W. ANSLOW
the battalion command post and howitzer to July 1945. Col. HERMAN J. CRIGGER
positions and swept all roads in the sector Brig. Gen. WILLIAM A. CAMPBELL, for Col. IVAN J. DYEKMAN
over which reconnaissance parties, wire exceptionally meritorious service as Acting Col. LEWIS S. GRIFFING
crews, and supply vehicles were forced to Assistant Commandant, Command and Col. FALKNER HEARD
operate. Despite these apparently General Staff School, from August 1944 to Col. DONALD C. McDONALD
insurmountable obstacles, the 42d Field September 1945. Under his far-sighted and Col. HENSON L. ROBINSON
Artillery Battalion accomplished its mission inspiring leadership, accurate instruction was Col. JOHN A. SITZ
in an outstanding manner. Fighting without given to more than 6,000 potential general Col. GEORGE STALLWITZ
rest 24 hours a day, the battalion delivered staff officers by the augmented faculty he Lt. Col. RALPH R. BUSH
fire in support of the hard-pressed infantry, organized and trained, imparting up-to-date Lt. Col. LEO B. CRABBS
and, on occasion, its own defense. Observed information essential for the efficient Lt. Col. OTTO H. HEGEMANN
fire wrought havoc on the attacking Germans. performance of combat, operational and Lt. Col. JOHN T. HONEYCUTT
Ceaseless, unobserved fire interdicted their administrative staffs. His supervision of the Lt. Col. ALAN F. S. MACKENZIE
supply routes, river crossings, and approaches training given numerous officers of our Latin Lt. Col. ARNOLD W. SIGLER
to our lines. From skillfully chosen positions, American allies at the School helped in Major GERALD L. BENSON
fire from the battalion's howitzers and those important measure to further hemispheric Major DOUGLAS GORMAN, Jr.
of reinforcing and attached units were massed solidarity. In addition, he planned and Capt. ANTHONY E. BALLOCH, RA
with highly successful effect everywhere on supervised the courses presented to Army- Capt. DAVID R. HAGEN
the wide front. The heroic defense of Combat Navy Staff College classes and Philippine Capt. LEE P. McCARTER
Team 12 was completely successful in Army classes. Responsible for the
protecting vital installations and terrain effectiveness of all instruction given at the OAK LEAF CLUSTER TO
against a fanatical attack in overwhelming School, he performed his duties with LEGION OF MERIT
strength. The superb fire support furnished by outstanding devotion and with the aim of Col. DEVERE ARMSTRONG
the 42d Field Artillery Battalion was a improving educational techniques and standards. Col. JAMES K. WILSON
decisive factor in determining the results of Brig. Gen. JOHN MAGRUDER, for
the action. The superior technical ability and exceptionally meritorious and distinguished
By Lt. A. W. Wilson, RA

Part VI: Conclusion


MOUNTAIN ARTILLERY methods of "laying out the line" was to plant the aiming
For some reason the re-equipping of this branch of the posts of the directing gun in the line indicated by the post
artillery gave some difficulty. At the end of the Boer war the or posts planted by the battery commander. Gunners from
mountain batteries were still armed with the 2.5 R.M.L. screw the other guns would then go forward carrying lengths of
gun. It was unthinkable that such obsolete equipment should cord, which corresponded to the distances from the aiming
still be in use in the 20th century, and as the guns in any case posts on their flank, plant their own front aiming posts,
were fast wearing out, a 10-pr. was rather hastily approved in then their second posts in rear. The guns were then brought
1901. Due mainly to the fact that the carriage of this gun was
of the old rigid type, it failed to give satisfaction. A new
carriage was designed on the lines of the 13 and 18-prs., and a
12½-lb. shell substituted for a 10-lb. shell. The whole
equipment was then given the title of "2.75″ B.L." and was
approved in 1911.
For many years India had been demanding a mountain
howitzer as well as a mountain gun, and because of this fresh
experiments were made. New conditions were formulated in
1912 and the resulting design later to be known as the 3.7 Q.F.
how, was under trial at the outbreak of war in 1914.
Following the realization that guns would henceforward
be required to fire from
behind cover, there was much
speculation as to the form the into action in the line of their own aiming posts and under
new sights would take. It will cover; thus they were parallel. In order to engage targets,
be remembered that the an observation post officer would observe the fall of shot
"gunners' are" of the Boer from a crest and order right and left movements of the guns
War had given place to the as required.
"goniometric sight" or "lining In 1902 various appliances were tried. Finally a director on
plane" but this had fallen far the lines of the lining plane and a field plotter (an instrument
short of requirements. A for solving triangles) were made into a workable system, and
telescopic sight was the "fishing tackle" of the early days disappeared. Nearly eight
demanded and finally the years passed before the first director to be fitted with a
Goerz pattern of panoramic compass had been approved. This was the director No. I; old
sight was approved after trials gunners will remember its unwieldiness.
lasting through 1907-8-9. AMMUNITION
They were ready for issue in The equipment committee had insisted upon "fixed"
1913 under the title of "dial ammunition for the new field guns because it afforded the
sight No. 7." greatest rapidity of loading and firing, while at the same
DIRECTORS time minimizing the number of men in the detachment. The
As the layer could no longer see his target, it was necessary combination of the charge and shell in one piece also
that some means should be devised in order to get all guns in a obviated all chance of the omission of either part in supply.
battery pointing in the same direction. This, together with the Fixed ammunition was impossible for howitzers, however,
introduction of indirect sights on guns, had been one of the owing to the variable charges used. There were good reasons
first results of the South African war, and in those days the for retaining "bare" charges for mountain and heavy


guns: the saving of weight was of great importance in both conservative authorities were not thus to be lightly swayed.
types, while the loss of rapidity of fire was not of great They compromised with 4-ft. 8-inch wheels and retained the
consequence for heavy artillery and in the case of mountain 5-ft. wheels for heavy guns only.
was discounted by the chance of a dented case's causing Axletree seats on the field guns were abolished during this
difficulty in loading. period because it was found that there was too large
An important lesson from the Boer war had been the great proportion of weight on the gun wheels. The gun layer now
superiority of shrapnel, as a man-killing projectile, over had seats on the limber, and a wagon containing the remainder
common shell which, already given up for field guns with the of the detachment now always accompanied the gun.
introduction of the 15-pr. B.L., was out of date and Following the introduction of pole draught in 1895, but with
disappeared from the service shortly after. Not only did the retention of the horse collar, experience with difficulties in
shrapnel replace common shell in this sphere but it also collar fitting, and the superiority of mule harness in India, was
sounded the death knell of case shot, which had been in the showing that a new harness was require to replace the collar.
service since the birth of the gun. Shrapnel with the fuze set at In 1904 harness breast,
zero did all that case shot could do, which by 1919 was used pole draught R.A., was
only for the lighter equipments on fixed mountings. With the adopted.
disappearance of common shell, case shot, and grape (which
went out with the smooth bores), and a disinclination to
consider H.E. for field guns, the ambition of "one shell and One of the features of
one fuze" was well on the way to being achieved. the South African war
With shrapnel the only projectile for field guns, the had been the use of
principal projectile for mountain and heavy guns, and coming balloons for
into use with howitzers (these three latter types also firing observation, and in the
H.E.), the provision of the best possible time fuze was a following years there
matter of utmost importance. Conditions had for some time were spasmodic trials at
been growing increasingly difficult, but the introduction of the practice camps to
No. 80 series of fuze appeared to provide a satisfactory ascertain their real
answer to the problem. During the next few years all kinds of value in this respect
modifications were carried out and in 1912 a Mk. IV of the and, in particular, how
time and percussion fuze was adopted. they might be attacked.
Ranges had increased considerably and progressed from But when in 1908 the
year to year. Field guns accomplished 2,000 yards in 1899, "dirigible" made its
2,300 in 1900, 2,600 in 1901, 3,200 in 1902, 3,600 in 1903, appearance, and in 1909 M. Blériot had flown the channel in a
and (on Salisbury Plain) 4,000 in 1904. Pointing out the target heavier-than-air machine, it was plain that the aeroplane could
became an art in itself and the clock-code was introduced as not be neglected. With its speed of 70 to 80 miles an hour, its
the best means of effecting this hitherto difficult procedure. attack would be a very different preposition from that of a
In 1903 Trawsfynydd was established as a practice camp captive balloon or kite.
and together with Salisbury Plain, Okehampton, and Trials with various experimental antiaircraft equipment
Shoeburyness gave the gunner every opportunity of practicing were made in 1911, but these failed to produce anything
his new-found science. suitable. The few aeroplanes which had been used in the
maneuvers of 1910 had been regarded by the troops and
OTHER CHANGES spectators as interesting curiosities, but by 1912 the
To make full use of the up-to-date guns and knowledge we cooperation between the new Royal Flying Corps and
artillery made it quite clear that the development of the new
arm must be of vital interest to the artillery. The possibility
of observation from the air must affect both gunnery and
tactics, while the designing of a weapon capable of engaging
an aeroplane presented problems in gun design of great
In 1909 at the Frankfort Exhibition, Krupp and Ehrhardt
had exhibited a large selection of guns designed for use
against dirigibles and expected to be effective against
Harness breast, pole draught, R.A., 13 & 18-prs. Team of 6 horses. aeroplanes also. The heavier sort were mounted on platforms
drawn by trucks, and the lighter on swift motor cars on which
now possessed, some minor changes were brought about in the guns might chase and shoot down their quarry. There were
standard equipment. Five foot wheels had been a standard that tracer shell and sensitive fuzes, but the method of hitting such
had not been departed from for many years and we had elusive objects had not yet been investigated, although the
scoffed at the continental practice of reducing wheels to a provision of an aerial target was being discussed by the
minimum diameter. The Erhardt guns with their 4-ft. 6-inch Aeronautical Society.
wheels had, however, proved both mobile and stable, but the Perhaps the provision of a suitable target for practice was

the chief cause of the slow progress being made, for up to the years of comparative peace little was done to improve
1914 there had been no practice against targets approximating the armament of artillery. The methods of construction of
in the remotest degree to the height and speed of the pieces had, however, undergone a complete change; the old
aeroplane; the tendency was to regard the difficulty of hitting "wire-wound" system was replaced by a method known as
such a target as insuperable, and to make no attempt to tackle "auto-frettage," where the strength in the piece was
it. It is significant that before the provided by internal and external stresses applied to a
Great War of 1914-18 no nation single piece of forged steel. As there could be no question
had equipped a field army with of re-armament most effort was spent in reorganization;
A.A. artillery, although much thus in 1924 the distinction between R.H.A. and R.F.A. on
work had been done. One of our the one hand and R.G.A. on the other was abolished, and
first A.A. guns was a converted the Royal Artillery became one Regiment which included
13-pr. R.H.A. gun mounted on a artillery of the territorial army. In 1938 the existing two
truck; this together with an branches came into being, field artillery forming one and
adapted "pom pom" (a relic of antiaircraft, antitank and coast defense artillery the other.
the Boer war) represented our The term "brigade" in the field artillery was replaced by
A.A. artillery until 1914, then a "regiment," each regiment consisting of two twelve-gun
special 3″ A.A. gun was batteries, three troops in each battery, in place of the old
introduced. By the use of four batteries of six guns each. Today the field regiment
improved sights, rangefinders, consists of three batteries, two troops in each, with four
and a sensitive fuze to act on guns to each troop.
fabric, it did splendid work for Meanwhile the draught horse was giving place to the
the remainder of the war.
Although the field artillery was fully prepared for a mobile
campaign "with a clearly defined role of supporting infantry
action by fire when and where required," its mobility became
unnecessary when opposing forces settled down to stabilized
trench warfare. Counterbattery work and the destruction of
enemy strong points demanded long range guns and heavy
howitzers, and as already mentioned these weapons were
added in due course to the army artillery. A feature of the
artillery support of an infantry attack was the barrage (first
used, it will be remembered, in 1813), originally lifted from
trench to trench as our infantry arrived but now in the form of
a creeping barrage on a timed program. Fire power alone was
given primary consideration, and perhaps explains why the
18-pr. gun was in greater demand than the 13-pr.
The introduction of chemical warfare set the artillery yet
another problem and enemy batteries were soon being
neutralized by the use of gas and smoke shells fired from field
pieces. The old belief that "the use of smoke for blinding the gasoline-driven engine and year by year batteries were
enemy is a cuttlefish policy, too fanciful for our consideration" mechanized. At first battery staffs were mounted and the guns
had suffered the fate it deserved. Tanks in the attack had to be towed by "dragons" (tracked vehicles) which also carried the
protected by covering fire; close support was still required for gun detachment. Later the "dragons" (the term is a contraction
the infantry; and the rapid progress made in aircraft design of "drag-gun") were replaced by six-wheel vehicles, and
made necessary an entirely new technique for engaging them, trucks replaced the horses of the staff.
thereby creating a new branch of the artillery, a branch which
has lived up to all the old traditions of the gunners.
The 18-pr., 4.5 how., 60-pr. and 6-inch how, served us well
throughout the war; and very heavy artillery (notably the 14-
inch gun, 12-inch gun, 12-inch how., 9.2-inch how, and 15-
inch how.) performed invaluable service in harassing enemy
concentrations well in the rear. These heavy guns and the 60-
pr. and 6-inch how, were manned by the Royal Garrison
Artillery, while the adapted 13-pr. and 3-inch guns were
manned by Anti-Aircraft batteries.
It was to be expected that the disarmament following the
end of the Great War would be on a very large scale, and in

piece of the 18-pr. was re-bored to take a 25-pr. shell. Other

new designs (unfortunately mainly in blueprint form until the
war) were the 5.5-inch gun-how, and the 4.5-inch gun-how,
for medium regiments, and the 7.2-inch gun-how, for heavy
regiments to replace the 9.2 how.
With the coming of the tank yet another problem for
artillery had been set, and a gun with a high velocity armor
piercing shot and large traverse was demanded. The 2-pr. Q.F.
antitank gun issued to newly-formed antitank units appeared
to fulfill all requirements, but with tanks becoming more and
more heavily armed the 2-pr. was handed over to the infantry
and replaced in the artillery by a 6-pr. antitank gun and, later,
by a 17-pr. A.T. gun.
The great progress made in aircraft design had out moded
the old 3-inch and converted 13-pr. A.A. guns which while
proving good enough against the slow, low-flying "crates" of
the last war, could not be expected to provide the answer to
modern, high-flying, fast machines. New designs and
improved appliances resulted in A.A. guns with tremendous
muzzle velocity which could engage aircraft at any height, and
the increasing danger of night-bombing met by the
introduction of radio-location and more powerful searchlights.
Rubber tires were introduced and the old 4-ft. 8-inch wooden The "arte of shooting in greate peeces of ordinance" had
wheels were seen no more. indeed become the "science of artillery."
By 1939 the transformation was complete and the only links THE LAST WAR
with a horse-drawn past were a ceremonial R.H.A. battery in When once again the country was in danger, the work on
London and a few units on foreign service. There is no doubt the new equipment, so long delayed, began in earnest—but
that many gunners, while appreciating the advantages of the few batteries had been re-armed when the war started. In ever
new mode of transport, looked with regret on the passing of increasing numbers the new equipment was issued to the
the draught horse, "that faithful friend and servant of the swelling ranks of the artillery until finally the change-over
Royal Artillery since its formation." was complete. Our first successes in this war were heralded by
The experiences of the war had shown that still greater the crash of hundreds of new guns of all calibers and by the
firepower would be necessary in field equipments, but without fine work of the A.A. and coast defense gunners in the Battle
robbing it of its mobility. By 1934 a 25-pr. gun-howitzer had of Britain. In such actions the quality of material, however
been designed to replace the 18-pr. and 4.5 howitzer. It was important as a factor in victory, transcended by the devotion
intended that this equipment should fire H.E. shells by means to duty and self-sacrifice of men—as it will be, always.
of variable charges and at last the sublime faith in shrapnel as What of the future? The inventive genius of a modern world
the best man-killing projectile was changed to an almost equal may devise means whereby artillery becomes outmoded. But
faith in high-explosives. even if that is realized, nothing can ever diminish the glorious
The 25-pr. was shelved for a number of years, due no doubt history belonging to the gunner and to the weapon which
to our policy of disarmament, but a compromise was effected bears the proud title of "Ultima ratio regum"—the last
by adapting the 18-pr. Mk. IV to an 18-25-pr. That is, the argument of Kings.
VII Corps Artillery Battle Experiences
GROUND OBSERVERS and inside the buildings. White
CONFERENCE Brig. Gen. Williston B. Palmer, the phosphorus was included frequently,
The following VII Corps Artillery VII Corps Artillery Commander both because the Germans hated it and
units, including a total of 56 ground throughout the entire campaign on the also to start fires.
observers, were represented: Continent, conducted a series of seven
Hq Btry, VII Corps Arty conferences, between 23 May and 6 CONCLUSIONS
June 1945, to discuss battle experiences 1. Good ricochet conditions were
18th FA Bn (105 H) and to record — while still fresh in
802d FA Bn (105H) mind—the outstanding lessons learned. very seldom found.
951st FA Bn (155 H) In general, the conferees were the 2. Most observers felt that time fire
87th FA Bn (105 H SP) captains and lieutenants who had done is generally too difficult to adjust;
183d FA Bn (155 H) the actual fighting. The seven consequently, they consider it of little
conferences were as follows: Ground
188th FA Bn (155 H) value. (Being from corps artillery units,
Observers; Air Observers; Group and
195th FA Bn (8″ H) Battalion S-3s; Group and Battalion S- these observers were mostly dependent
660th FA Bn (8″ H) 2s; Battalion and Battery Motor on mechanical fuze M67. However, even
957th FA Bn (155 H) Officers; and Battalion and Group the 105-mm observers seemed leery of
980th FA Bn (155 G) Communication Officers. time fire.)
981st FA Bn (155 G) Unfortunately, redeployment orders for
the VII Corps prevented the holding of 3. Time fuze M67 is too erratic to
991st FA Bn (155 G SP) a culminating conference of battalion be of much value.
TARGETS AND TYPE AMMUNITION commanders, as had been intended. 4. The V-T fuze is very good and
Included in this issue are the reports
Tanks and SP Guns. High explosive entails no difficulties of adjustment. The
on the first two conferences: Ground
shell, fuze quick, was favored by 155- Observers and Air Observers. The observers generally felt that it could
mm units as being more likely to knock reports of the remaining conferences have been used more. Experienced
out the tank without a direct hit. A near will be published in later issues.— observers agreed that, when fired above
miss with delay fuze will not harm a
Editor. a woods, the V-T fuze bursts too high to
tank. For direct fire, use T-105 fuze or be effective on the ground beneath the
delay fuze. trees. When used in conjunction with
No observer present had seen HEAT and heavier calibers were used with massed fires of several battalions, it
ammunition fired. success. Delay fuze was used in appears to give too many early bursts by
White phosphorus is very effective in adjustment, to get incidental effective sympathetic detonation.
frightening tank crews, but it does very hits. For direct fire, T-105 fuze with 5. M51A3 fuze fired with delay
little actual damage and forms a screen supercharge was used. One observer action from 155-mm howitzer was found
under cover of which the tank can reported having used base ejection to give a high percentage of duds.
withdraw. smoke to mask a pillbox while the 6. The French and British
If hostile tanks are well out and infantry, receiving no injuries from the projectiles which were issued to 155-mm
friendly fighter bombers are in the smoke shells, moved in on the pillbox. and 8″ howitzer units were not
vicinity, fire red smoke to draw the Machine Guns, Mortars, etc. High satisfactory because of excessive
aircraft to that area. explosive with air bursts was used dispersion.
generally. In one case, delay fuze was 7. From a forward observer's
Infantry. a. In the open: Observers
used with intent to shake the mortars off standpoint, the highest charge possible
favored adjustment with fuze quick, and
of their base plates. should be used because it gives least
fire for effect with time or V-T fuze.
Time fire frequently was not used Vehicles. Use fuze quick for dispersion.
because of the additional time required adjustment and for effect against tires INITIAL DATA
to adjust. The impression was that and personnel. When the vehicles have
stopped, they can be destroyed by Initial data were usually from the map.
neither time fire nor the V-T fuze had Coordinates were estimated to the
been used to full advantage. precision methods or additional fire for
effect. nearest 100 yards, and tied in if possible
b. In woods: In general, fuze quick by announcing a terrain feature
gives tree bursts with excellent effect. Observation Posts. Fuze depends on appearing on the map. When small shifts
When the enemy is dug in, fuze delay in the type of shelter. Often enemy OPs are were made, initial data were usually
woods is more effective because of its well dug in, indicating delay fuze. Air given from the last concentration fired.
deeper penetration. bursts are sometimes required. When no map was available, an
Pill Boxes and Strong Towns. TOT's on towns should estimated compass and range were used.
Emplacements. 105-mm howitzer include all types of fuze (air, quick, and If the battery location was not known, a
ammunition was ineffective. 155-mm delay) to catch the enemy on the streets town shown on a road map could be

used as a reference point for the initial results were not conclusive. Excessive commander and the liaison office
data. (Even in Europe, observers once in dispersion of high angle fire was planning with an infantry battalion
a while had no map, usually because reported by several. commander, was insufficient at all stage
they had advanced beyond the limits of The chart, below, is a compilation of prior to reaching the battlefield. FO must
the sheets available.) written estimates prepared by observers work with the infantry company
BATTERY SHEAF during the conference; figures are not commander in planning defensive fire.
reliable statistics. Planning of defensive fires must start at
For light artillery, a sheaf of 100 yards
PREARRANGED FIRES all levels simultaneously; there is no
was believed ideal and was found in
time to develop them successively from
nearly all cases to be well aligned. These observers recommend clean
company up to division.
For medium artillery, a sheaf of 200 breaks of several minutes in long
Whenever possible, data for defensive
yards was believed too wide for the preparations, to entice the enemy out of
fires should be verified by actual
average target. A width of 150 yards was their holes expecting the attack. Then
adjustment on several of them,
suggested by most observers. start preparation again and catch them
especially those which are close to our
Additional exactness is needed in exposed.
own troops.
sensing the sheaf. A suggested standard These observers do not favor rolling
message from observer to FDC is (for barrages. Used at request of infantry in FORWARD OBSERVER EQUIPMENT
example): Converge on # 3 to 50 yards. one case to protect open flanks of It was agreed that the following
ADJUSTMENT OF TIME FIRE advancing unit, the observer considered equipment should be taken by the for-
this firing wasted. Observers consider a ward observer:
Most forward observers used the
plan of successive concentrations to
standard sensings: graze, mixed, air and
protect attacking troops much better than Offensive mission
high air. They recommend a change of
a rolling barrage. 1—¼-Ton truck
Up 10 to follow at FDC from an initial
Training in the planning of defensive 1—610 Radio (with Armor, 510)
graze sensing. They think that positive
fires after the day's fighting, with the FO 1—609 Radio (with Armor, 509)
height sensings should be given by the
planning with an infantry company 2—536 Radios
observer (for example, Air 50 yards).
Adjustment. Most observers favored Distance of Target from Observer:
adjustment by one gun. A minority Based on estimated
favored one platoon. In special cases, Weapon Maximum Minimum Average No. of missions
such as a counterattack, the battery 105 H 6,000 25 500-800 380
should be used. 105 H (SP) 7,000 50 700-800 1870
Fire for effect. The most important 155 H 14,000 50 1000-2000 2680
consideration is the proximity of the 155 G (SP) 12,000 400 4000 190
target to our own troops. If the target is 155 G 14,000 300 3000-7000 400
within 150 yards, only the adjusting 8″ H 15,000 1000 2500-5000 60
battery should be fired for effect. For
Distance of Guns from Observer:
targets between 150 and 300 yards, the
rest of the battalion may be brought in. Based on estimated
For targets beyond 300 yards, other Weapon Maximum Minimum Average No. of missions
battalions may be used for effect. 105 H 8,000 1500 4000-5000 380
Observers generally agreed that the 105 H (SP) 6,000 100 3000-4000 1870
spread of battalion and large 155 H 14,000 4000 8000 2680
concentrations made these restrictions 155 G (SP) 10,000 0 (direct fire) 7000-8000 190
necessary to avoid likelihood of hitting 155 G 12,000 0 (direct fire) 8000-12000 400
our own troops. 8″ H 10,000 5000 60
CONDUCT OF FIRE Relative locations of Observer—Gun—Target
All missions were processed through Weapon Extreme Average
the battalion fire direction center, except 105 H Lateral on Flank Axial and Small T
when a battery was separated from 105 H (SP) Target between O and G Small T and Large T
battalion control. 155 H Lateral Small T
Forward observer sensings were 155 G (SP) Axial and Small T
invariably used by all observers. They 155 G Lateral Axial and Small T
feel that a sound understanding of the 8″ H Axial and Small T
principles of lateral observation
increases the efficiency of an observer. (Remark: Conclusion is that fire is usually requested by an observer near the
High angle fire has been used very target, in an "axial" position, who—50% of the time, at least—is not a member of
little by these particular observers and the battalion which fires.)

1—Remote control set PLANE AND EQUIPMENT solution but some remedial suggestions
1—Set extra radio batteries Plexiglass or a better grade of pyrolin were:
1—Power telephone should be installed to improve all-around 1. Keep all planes working with a
1—Mile W-130 wire visibility. One piece should be used in particular combat command on one
1—Pr field glasses the left side rather than the present three strip.
1—Coordinate square sections. 2. Keep the strip close to combat
1—M2 compass Every officer used field glasses on command headquarters.
1—Flashlight many of his air observation missions. A 3. When the combat command pulls
1—Watch with sweep second hand special field glass, light and compact, out during the night, arrange for a
Defensive mission with 8-power lens and a wider field of platoon of light tanks to remain behind
Same as offensive, adding: vision, is needed for air observers. and protect the landing strip until the
1—BC Scope The observer very seldom faced to the planes and ground crews can move up in
1—Small plotting board and plotting rear. The general opinion was that the morning.
equipment observers should face to the rear only Aircraft Warning. The enemy aircraft
OBSERVER'S "HEARTFELT where enemy aircraft are particularly warning system often did not work
GRIEVANCES" active. All observers want an adjustable satisfactorily for separate battalions.
When a Corps Artillery observer seat. Suggested remedies:
picked up an important target, such as a All observers wanted an 1. The mobile AAA battery
tank holding up our infantry, it was often intercommunication system between accompanying each corps artillery
almost impossible to obtain a clearance pilot and observer. Many had battalion receives all aircraft warnings.
to fire on it (Observer to Bn to Gp to Div improvised their own in the L-4 airplane. The AAA battery should notify its FA
Arty to 105 Bn and return). The most serious defect in the air battalion FDC immediately, and the
S-3's lacked confidence in their sections was lack of messing FDC immediately relay the warning to
observers. Examples: not firing arrangements. The section is rarely the air observers over SCR-608 net.
requested amounts of ammunition for convenient to a unit kitchen. T/O & E 2. Any corps, division, group or
effect; not clearing fires in doubtful should furnish a cook, a cooking unit, battalion FDC which receives an air
areas. and mess equipment for 10 men. warning message should immediately
All captains and lieutenants in the The general opinion was that, while broadcast the warning over the SCR-193
battalion should take their turn as transportation currently available gets net to all FDC's for further relay as in 1,
forward observers, and the FDC staff the air section around, the habitual above.
should come up and see the battle the serious overloading would be avoided by It was learned the hard way that
way the observers see it, so they can substituting a 1½-ton personnel carrier German flak fired at Air OP's. The best
visualize it at the FDC. for the ¾-ton weapons carrier. counter-flak measures were to avoid
In hard continuous fighting, 72 hours Spare parts supply was usually known flak areas, and to use varied
is the maximum time an experienced satisfactory. A suggested list of evasive patterns when attacked.
forward observer can be expected to additional spare parts to be carried by
operate effectively, and 48 hours is the the air section follows:
maximum for a green observer. Carburetor Shock struts Radio. The SCR-619 had not been
Piston rings Spark plugs available to any unit present at the
PILOTS AND AIR OBSERVERS Propeller Tail wheel conference.
CONFERENCE Observers agreed that the SCR-610
The following VII Corps Artillery HAZARDS OF FLYING
has been satisfactory. An important
units, including a total of 44 pilots and Forty of the 99 major accidents in the advantage is its interchangeability with
air observers, were included: VII Corps during combat occurred any other 610 set. The best place for the
Hq Btry, VII Corps Arty either in takeoffs or in landings. The SCR-610 is on the shelf in rear of the
Hq Btry, 142d FA Gp first consideration in selecting a field observer. The trailing antenna should not
Hq Btry, 188th FA Gp should be suitability for takeoffs and be used with the SCR-610 as it has
Hq Btry, 224th FA Gp landings. The second consideration definite directional characteristics. The
18th FA Bn (105 H) should be exposure of the field to recommended settings on the SCR-610
87th FA Bn (105 H SP) enemy artillery fire. In a stable set for each battalion Air OP are
183d FA Bn (155 H) situation, the base field should be battalion "common channel" and air
188th FA Bn (155 H) 10,000 yards from our front lines, with channel of next higher headquarters.
195th FA Bn (8″ H) a strip farther forward. Observers also recommended that the
660th FA Bn (8″ H) Safeguarding Planes. Pilots and FA group combine its air and command
802d FA Bn (105 H) observers commented on the difficulty channels, as observers get much useful
951st FA Bn (155 H) of safeguarding planes on landing strips information by listening in on the
957th FA Bn (155 H) when operating with armored combat normal command traffic.
980th FA Bn (155 G) commands in a rapidly moving action. T17 Microphones and P23 earphones
981st FA Bn (155 G) No general agreement was reached on a are preferred to the present ear plugs
991st FA Bn (155 G SP)

and throat microphone; the latter in fact Adjustment. All observers agree that: that all FDC's in the corps can notify
were never used. The gun-target line must be known. If their planes.
Present radio procedure is satisfactory, not determined otherwise, it must be
Zone of Operation. No agreement was
but proper priority in many cases was shot in.
reached on the best zone or area in
not given to fire missions. The target must be bracketed when
which to operate an Air OP. It was
Wire. Wire should always be adjusting. A yardstick on the ground,
generally agreed that in a stable situation
maintained between the (group or such as two crossroads a known distance
with good visibility the plane should
separate battalion) FDC and airstrip. In a apart, is very helpful and was usually
stay 2000 to 3000 yards behind the front
fast moving situation, a field should be easy to find in the European Theater.
line. When enemy resistance seemed
selected where good communication can The use of an auxiliary target to get
disorganized or feeble, many observers
be maintained with the battalion. surprise was not successful because the
frequently went well into enemy
MAPS AND PHOTOS shift could not be fixed accurately
territory for reconnaissance or for a
The best all-around map is the scale enough.
detailed search of a specific area. The
1/50,000. It is the best compromise In snow, delay fuze is helpful in
average patrolling altitude is 1500 feet,
between amount of area covered and spotting bursts.
but altitudes up to 4500 feet are favored
detail shown, and also gives a very good Fire for Effect. Average area covered by some observers if visibility is good.
duplication of the view from the plane. by one battalion was 300 yards by 300 Some feel that there is more danger from
The 1/25,000 map was used frequently yards. flak and enemy aircraft at such higher
in a stable, limited area. Amount of fire for effect given by S-3 altitudes; others disgree. In support of a
No type of photograph was considered was felt generally to be sufficient. tank breakthrough, altitudes as low as
really necessary. Gridded obliques were Observers noted that a smoke screen 300 feet must sometimes be flown.
rarely used. Ungridded obliques were with 155-mm howitzer was difficult to Depending on visibility, which was
preferred for briefing. Some observers maintain due to the larger number of extremely variable, the distance from
thought that a 1/25,000 gridded, colored duds from the M67 fuze. plane to target on the majority of
photo map would be very helpful in all
Time Fire. Air observers rarely used missions was between 3500 and 5000
except fast-moving situations.
time fire except for time registrations. yard. The maximum distance was 15,000
TARGETS yards on a day of exceptional visibility.
Most targets were picked up by seeing Accurate sensings on height of burst are
a flash or movement. German impossible; air or graze are the only Daily Missions. On their primary
camouflage and camouflage discipline possible sensings. All grazes with M67 mission of flying for the artillery, the
were both excellent, and targets were fuzes are lost. present Air OP section (2 aircraft) can
difficult to find except by prolonged handle 4 two-hour missions per day
GENERAL Reconnaissance flights, flying for
study of suspected areas. Many targets
were picked up by observing the Situation Map. Each division and infantry commanders, messenger
reactions of friendly troops. In some group air officer should keep an accurate service etc., simply reduce the flying
cases communication with friendly up-to-date situation map at the air strip time for field artillery. The maximum
forward observers was helpful. German with the following information: flying time of a pilot and observer
dummy gun positions were not seen at Front lines. should not exceed 5 hours in the air per
all, except when flash pots were used in Plan of operation of supported troops. day and this rate cannot be continued
conjunction with them. Enemy flak All FA battalion position areas. for more than 5 or 6 days. Observers
installations were often spotted when Known enemy installations. feel that 2 two-hour patrols per day are
they fired at our fighter bombers. Areas in which flak has been received. much better than 4 one-hour patrols
Targets were taken under fire in the In the best combat divisions, this was because the former permit more
following order of frequency: done; in green divisions, it was not done. detailed study of the terrain and more
Artillery in position continuous attention.
Hazard—V-T Fuze. The present VII
Registrations Corps method for warning Air OP's of Regularly Assigned Observer. All
Tanks and vehicles V-T fire (V-T, LEFT ZONE, UNTIL pilots and observers felt strongly that
Moving foot troops 1305) is satisfactory except that two trained air observers should be
GUNNERY warnings were rarely given in time. regularly assigned to each air section.
Registration. For a registration, give Observers recommend: Some units had detailed many officers
the observer an area in which to select a Broadcast the warning at least 10 haphazardly as air observers; these
registration point rather than designate a minutes prior to the firing, and include observers saw nothing. No observer had
specific point from the ground which both starting and ending time for the received reasonably adequate training
may be unsuitable from the air. fire. (Example: V-T, LEFT ZONE, 1235 before working as an observer in
Center-of-impact was obtained by UNTIL 1305.) combat. Training should include
firing 2 groups of 3 rounds, after Broadcast the warning over the SCR- intensive work on map reading and
splitting a 100-yard range bracket. 193 (Corps Artillery Officer's net) so aerial orientation; also Air OP firing.

By Col. Conrad H. Lanza, FA, Ret.
EUROPE AND THE MIDDLE EAST (19 Feb to 18 Mar 46)
SPAIN Trouble Brews. Some of the followers retirement of leading generals, who they
Deep-seated Trouble. Spain is a new of the Left, particularly the Communists, believed might become sympathetic to a
danger spot, and a possible future theater believed that the legal ways of revolution. The generals took alarm and
of operations. establishing the new regime were much got into communication with the civilian
The cause of disturbance dates back too slow. As early as the date of the leaders of the Right. It was decided that
many years, but did not become acute elections, they undertook the use of if they hesitated, they were doomed
until 1936. Without going deeply into force, and seized certain estates and anyway, and that they might as well take
thehistorical background, the present parceled them out, without waiting for a chance and fight it out. The generals
problem stems from the elections held in the expected law. For the most part the agreed to direct the revolution.
Spain on 16 February 1936. It is alleged landlords fled, but a few were murdered. At that time General Francisco Franco
that these were the last free elections in The lands of certain Catholic orders was the second senior general and was in
Spain, and that consequently the were seized and the orders driven out, command of the Canary Islands. His
individuals then elected should be with considerable bloodshed. single superior was killed in an air
recognized to this day. Officially deploring such haste and accident a few days after hostilities
Left In. In those elections, some violence, the Left Government took no commenced. Thereupon Franco assumed
9,408,550 ballots were cast. The Left effective measures against them. Finding command, and has held it ever since. A
parties (consisting of communists, that immunity might be expected, the very bloody war resulted. It came close
anarchists, and several "kinds" of disorders grew; it appeared that if they to ruining Spain, and caused an immense
republicans) polled 4,356,599 votes, or wanted land, they had better take it amount of destruction. It ended in
slightly under 50% of the total. The left before someone else did. Still holding a January, 1939, with the complete victory
had united on a common ticket. Thus in considerable number of places in the of the Right.
Catalonia, all Left parties voted for an Parliament, the Right raised numerous All-for-All. The last campaign was
anarchist ticket; in communist territory, objections to the course of events. Left against the Anarchists, who held
all united for the communist candidate, adherents then began to kill off the more Catalonia. Spain is the only country in
etc. The Right parties (which included pronounced Right opponents, on the the world which has a real Anarchist
certain republicans, anarchists, agrarians ground that they were obstructing Party. The members are opposed to all
and others) failed to unite. Each national improvements. Beginning in government, and consider a communist
component put up a separate ticket, and June, some Right members of Parliament type of government worse than any
they lost the election. Under the Spanish were killed by the state police, which was other. They carried their ideas to absurd
electoral law the Left gained 278 votes of course controlled by a Left minister. conclusions. For example, in 1936 the
of Parliament, against 205 for the Right. This led to the revolution, which broke in original anarchist troops were organized
Right Out. The Left then proceeded to mid-July, 1936. into companies. Each company had a
oust the President of the Republic, which Army Right In. The Spanish Army captain and a lieutenant, detailed by
the Parliament had a right to do. This had long been active politically. Like roster for a 24-hour tour of duty.
was accomplished on 6 April 1936, and most military men, the Spanish military Except for routine matters, the captain
a few weeks later a new president was leadership was essentially conservative, could issue no orders. He could propose
installed. The entire government was and the majority (but by no means all) an attack, or other military maneuver,
now legally in the hands of the Left. belonged to one of the Right parties. but had to submit his plan to the entire
The objective of the Left was to divide Well aware of this, and remembering company for debate and decision.
up the great landed estates among the that in the past the Army had been Nobody was bound by the decision.
peasants, to revise taxation, to raise the instrumental in previous overthrows of Everyone was free to join an attack or
educational standards, and to bring about the Government, the Left Government stay out. As might have been expected,
other social reforms. Necessarily, it took feared that this might happen again, and this unusual system of military
time to draw up the laws, discuss them were looking for a revolution headed by command led to disaster, and it
and then pass them. Only a beginning the Army. They were unable to discover
had been made by summer time. anything, but as a precaution ordered the

was later somewhat modified. However, Anarchists. They went to France as that intended to overthrow Franco. All this of
the Anarchists, although bitter fighters, was the only place they could reach. course is tentative and contingent upon
never were efficient as an organization. When World War II broke, hundreds of future events which may or may not
They were completely defeated when thousands of them were destitute in the occur. The mere fact that it is being
Franco finally got around to them. concentration camps in southern France. planned for, however, is an indication of
Axis Testing Ground. In the 2½ years Many of these volunteered for service in the seriousness of the situation.
of civil war, certain foreign nations the French Army, and others took an The past history of Spain indicates
intervened. The United States did not; it active part later in the French that the country will unite against a
abstained from aiding either side. Italy Underground, during the German foreign invader, no matter what the
and Germany aided Franco, while occupation. cause Don Juan, the head of the
France and Russia helped the Spanish At the end of World War II the French Spanish Monarchical Party, made a
Left. Italian participation equalled about Underground had a preponderant strong protest against the Allies on 8
two divisions, plus technical troops and influence in the new French March for attempting to interfere in
services. The members were volunteers, Government, which has been very Spanish internal affairs. Don Juan has
but the Italian government was in strong sympathetic to the old Spanish Lefts. been strongly anti-Franco, has refused
sympathy with Franco's cause, and Thus the execution of some former Lefts to work with him, and is an exile from
helped him as much as it could. This by the present Spanish Government in his own country. As a rule, Spaniards
writer was a witness to the fraternization February, 1946, for alleged crimes, have preferred to fight out their own
of Spanish and Italian troops during the raised much animosity in France where quarrels.
civil war. the same men were heroes of the There is a want of reliable information
The German participation amounted Underground. as to whether the people of Spain prefer
perhaps to some 6,000 men, organized Spain and the Victors. According to the present government of Franco or
into a Legion. Germany was also in our State Department releases, Franco would rather have some other. No
sympathy with Franco, but the main idea discussed an alliance with Germany serious opposition to Franco has
of their military support was to test during World War II. Nothing came of appeared for a considerable time.
weapons and tactics. Thus the air force this, but it resulted in Franco's Whether this is due to fear, as alleged by
developed the support of the infantry government incurring the displeasure of some or to desire as claimed by others,
assault, and tank maneuver on the the United Nations. In February, the remains to be determined.
battlefield was perfected. Important United States and Great Britain joined
lessons were learned, some of which IRAN
with France in discussions. It was
were discussed in THE FIELD ARTILLERY decided to issue a joint declaration Russian and British troops occupied
JOURNAL in 1939. inviting the Spanish people to end the Iran during the summer of 1941,
French participation was allegedly regime of General Franco peacefully and presumably to prevent a German
unofficial. However, the French thereby place Spain in a position of invasion. A new government was
government made artillery, planes and respect with the United Nations. This established, with which a treaty was
other military supplies available to declaration was issued on 4 March. In signed in January 1942, in which the
individuals who saw to it that they got to the meantime, France closed its Spanish Russians and British undertook to
Spain, for use by the Left. frontier. Spain thereupon increased its occupy only so much of Iran as was
Russian participation was partly by the border guard by Moorish troops necessary for the war against Germany,
supply of munitions, and partly by a few transferred from Morocco. The situation at the conclusion of which they agreed to
combat units not belonging to the thus brought about may, or may not, lead withdraw after six months. That date
Russian Army. The most important to a new violence. The border situation, arrived on March 1946.
Russian contribution was a headquarters itself, is conducive to "incidents" which Useful Revolt. In November, 1945 a
unit, which had much to do with can be dangerous, regardless of whether "revolt" broke out in the Iran province
supervising the Left's fighting forces. To they be intentional, unintentional, of Azerbaijan, occupied by Russian
prevent Russian officers and men from provoked by government order, or troops. The latter prevented the
becoming contaminated by contact with induced by unauthorized acts of suppression of the "revolt" and as a
the western nations, their contingents individuals. consequence an Azerbaijan government
were detailed by roster, with tours According to British intelligence which demanded autonomy but not
usually limited to not exceeding six reports, the Russian Army whose CP is severance from Iran, was organized and
months. There are no reports as to the at Vienna has opened a new additional established. (The inhabitants of
efficiency of this system of command. It CP close by, whose mission it is to Azerbaijan speak a Turkish language,
lost, although not necessarily for that prepare plans for possible Russian incidentally, and differ also in customs
reason. intervention in Spain. Assuming that and religion from the remainder of Iran
Bad Feeling Persists. The Spanish there will be incidents and that the which is Persian. A large part of
war resulted in continuous bad feeling of French Government may find itself at Azerbaijan had been conquered by
a most intense nature. Many members of war with Spain, perhaps Russia Russia prior to the commencement of the
the Left escaped to France. These anticipates being invited to associate present century, and is now one of the
included Republicans, Communists and herself with France in an invasion constituent republics of the Soviet Union

and adjoins Iran Azerbaijan.) The Iran reports the total Russian strength announced that its forces will cooperate
available evidence indicates that the in Iran as being approximately 60,000; with the British.
"revolt" in Azerbaijan was due to this includes the troops recently arrived. As this account closes, Iran has filed
Russian influence. Reason—a desire for This corresponds to a corps of 3 an official complaint with the UNO
oil concessions, which Iran had refused divisions. The headquarters is at Tabriz, regarding Russian troops remaining
and which the autonomous state is which has rail connections with the within Iran territory contrary to the
willing to grant. It would not be Armenian Soviet Republic. The three provisions of the treaty of January,
unnatural to unite Russian and Iranian divisions have occupied a triangular 1942.
Azerbaijans into a single state, as it used formation: one division in the Khoi RUSSIA
to be. Whether the people desire this or sector, covering the high road to General Situation. There has been no
not is unknown. Russian occupation of Erzurum, which goes around the north major change during the past month.
Azerbaijan would be advantageous in side of Lake Urmia in Turkey; a second Russia's political activity continues to be
case of war with Turkey. division is in the Miyandua sector at the aggressive in all directions—through
The new Azerbaijan Government has south end of Lake Urmia with outposts Manchuria and Iran to western Europe.
raised some troops. During February along the line Mehabad to Saqqiz; the It is so directed that if checked in some
they cleared the Caspian coast, after third division went to the Mianeh sector places advances are made in others.
minor fighting, from the Russian covering the main road from Tabriz to
Russia's great advantage is that she
boundary southwards to include Tehran. A line of small posts has been
sponsors communism, whose adherents
Karganrud. A demonstration was then established across country between
exist everywhere. Often a small
made against Pahlevi and Resht, Miyandua and Mianeh.
minority, they are well organized and
important Caspian Sea towns, which are An advance Russian force (observed
directed and aid Russia materially.
essentially Persian. This movement was by air by Americans) is at Kazvin, with
Experience indicates that communists
not pushed. outpost at Karaj. Air observation
usually favor Russia's cause, rather than
In the latter part of February, Iranian revealed about a dozen tanks and
that of their own country, apparently
forces based on Hamadan advanced armored cars, and 6 planes. Iran reports
under the mistaken belief that living
towards Takistan. The local Iranian about 3,000 troops present.
conditions are materially better in Russia
governor reported having armed 60,000 A separate Russian force was holding
than elsewhere. In general, the reverse is
tribesmen to aid in this operation, which Shahrud and Samnan in northeast Iran.
the case. The fact that the Russian
accomplished nothing. It is doubtful that The force at Samnan has been at least
people, brought by the war into contact
the governor had 60,000 sets of arms to partly dispersed, since trucks at that
with western civilization, have found out
issue, or anything remotely resembling place were seen some time ago by an
for themselves that their standard of life
this. There may have been 60,000 American who noted their numbers.
is inferior to that of other countries is a
tribesmen in the area, who already had Those same trucks, identified by their
Russian weakness. Russians have lost
some assortment of arms. numbers, were last reported at Karaj.
some confidence in their own
Deadline Delayed. As 2 March The Russian disposition indicates a
approached, the British complied with defensive line through Miyandua-
their treaty provisions and withdrew Mianeh-Karganrud. In front of this is a Even under the doubtful assumption
their troops, who marched across the screen through Kazvin. The purpose of a that the people would stand for it, the
boundary into Iraq. Russia did not screen is to cover troop movements, and economic conditions in Russia are such
withdraw. Instead, she regrouped her this screen seems to have accomplished that a major war could be continued only
forces. Since that date there have been its mission, as there are no reliable for a short time after existing stocks of
many reports as to Russian troop reports as to what is happening behind it. war supplies are exhausted. Large but
movements, of which the majority Of course nothing may have happened, undetermined quantities of supplies were
cannot be verified. and there may be no Russian troops captured from Germany; certainly there
New Russian troops have arrived in other than those mentioned above. is ample for a minor campaign.
Azerbaijan. These came from the Reactions. The entire Turkish border A regrouping of Russian forces in
railhead at Astara. Astara is just north of from the Black Sea to Iraq Europe has been announced. The bulk
the boundary on the Caspian Sea in (approximately 400 miles) is now of the forces is reported as on the
Russian Azerbaijan. On 7 March the covered by Russian troops. This has Danube or south thereof. This was
new troops moved thence by road to caused unrest in Turkey. discussed in this column a month ago.
Tabriz, about 200 miles away, which Iran reports its own army as As was pointed out, this movement may
was reached on 10 March. The Russian concentrated near Tehran. This consists be influenced by a desire to quarter
movements were reported by Iran as of 2 infantry and 1 cavalry divisions, troops in countries having relatively
made by night, and therefore difficult to plus some corps troops, and services. large food supplies. However, they are
observe. From Tabriz there has been a Their efficiency is unknown. there.
deployment. The Russian division at Miyandua is On 11 March, Russia offered to supply
Russian Dispositions. As of 18 in contact with Kurdistan tribes. 500,000 tons of wheat and barley to
March, when this account closes, best According reports from Iraq, which is France, provided that nation furnished
information concerning this Russian watching closely, no movement has been
force is as follows. noted among the Kurds. Iraq has

necessary transportation from Black Sea 50,000 upwards. Underground units may remain within British territory, and
ports. Russians have been on short attack critical points, such as RR employment for them will be found as
rations, and just how Russia saved this junctions, post officers, banks, etc. In the discharged veterans.
amount of grain is unknown. resultant fighting an unspecified number Political Squeeze-Out. Russia steadily
Russia has had perhaps four million of villages are reported to have been increasing her hold on occupied states.
troops subsisted in the Balkans, and has burned down. The aim is to have but a single political
thereby saved feeding those. Through Austria and Hungary. At the end of party which must be communist. Any
the UNRRA she has received substantial February, Russia demanded cession of a other political party is charged with
quantities of food from the United large number of farms, complete with being "undemocratic and dangerous to
States. According to UNRRA reports for tools, animals, etc. As the Austrian and the state — consequently due for
February, 36,200 tons of food were Hungarian governments demurred, the elimination. The idea is to have an
shipped that month to the Ukraine and Russians took the farms they wanted "election" for but a single ticket.
White Russia; and 104,600 more tons to during the ensuing two weeks. In In Russian Germany, a union of the
Poland. Some 78,700 tons were shipped Austria, the total acreage amounted to communist and socialist parties is re-
to Czecho-Slovakia, who thereupon over 104,000 acres — a large amount for ported. If true, this will be the largest
furnished Russia an unstated quantity of a small state. The acreage taken in political party in Germany. A similar
its own food products. With this help Hungary has not been ascertained. union is under way in Poland, where
and strict rationing, Russian may have The Russian explanation is that the "elections" are due. The government
saved grain for France. Why it was land was wanted to raise food for desires to have but one ticket in the field,
offered to France, rather than placed in Russian soldiers. Russian farmers are but has not yet quite succeeded
the UNRRA pool for general distribution occupying the farms. Local labor has suppressing the Labor and Peasant
to starved areas, hasn't been explained. been retained, and at an increased wage. Parties.
The Baltic States. New coast It is noted that the distribution of farms Similar steps are under way in
fortifications are reported by Swedish forms a belt, suitable for strong points Bulgaria. An official American note
sources at Paldiski (in Estonia) and on and OPs, all the way from the boundary demanding recognition of other than the
Dagoe and Osel Islands at the entrance of Czechoslovakia to Yugoslavia. They Communist Party has been rejected by
of the Gulf of Riga. Work is being done include some rocky hills and forest land. Russia in a sharp note.
by Estonian labor battalions composed The owners of the seized farms were In Yugoslavia, the pro-Tito
of men believed to be anti-Russian. instructed to reimburse themselves by propaganda is very active and Russian
Finnish reports are that the seizing farms owned by Germans who directed. Opposition is openly
Underground is active throughout the are to be expelled. The Germans had suppressed where recognized. There is a
Baltic states, and is concentrating on been expecting that fate. They disposed strong anti-Tito movement but it is not
assassinating Russian officers. in advance of all movable property, and able to operate openly.
Intercourse between the Baltic states and sowed nothing. Consequently these Little progress has been made in
Sweden and Finland is prohibited. farms are not in a position to produce drafting peace treaties with Romania,
Poland. The Underground movement this year. Bulgaria, Hungary and Austria.
is increasing. According to reports of Allied Polish Troops. Those in British American correspondents agree that the
American correspondents, the 18th service are to be demobilized. They delay is due to Russian non-cooperation,
Polish Division, operating in the include the II Polish Corps in Italy of appparently because Russia prefers to
Bialystok sector, has been reinforced by over 100,000 men, and a force in Great maintain the present status of occupied
an additional Polish division and one Britain about half that size. Russia had states rather than to recognize their in-
Russian division. Two Polish divisions, asked that this be done, charging that dependence and the ensuing obligation
rated as 2nd class, are operating south of these Poles were responsible for the of foreign troops to withdraw. As
the Pinsk marshes. There is no reliable operations of the Polish Underground. occupied states, the small countries are
information as to the strength of the The demobilized men will be returned to at the disposition of the occupying
Underground—estimates vary from Poland if they so desire. Otherwise they Power whose will is law.

THE FAR EAST (19 Feb to 18 Mar 46)

SITUATION QUIETS IN S.E.A. existing situation pending negotiations military activity is reported from
There has been a notable decrease in between the Dutch and Javanese Celebes but as yet this is unimportant.
military operations. None have been authorities for a permanent peace. New centers of hostilities have
reported from Burma and Malaya. Operations in Sumatra are equally at a developed in Bali and Timor, which
Operations in the Netherlands Indies standstill. It is understood that the have not yet reached the stage of active
have been limited to minor warfare. In outcome of the negotiations in Java will campaigns.
Java the occupying British forces have set the pattern for other form.
restricted themselves to maintaining the Netherlands territory. Increased

In Indo-China France has announced in. Buitenzorg and Bandoeng are and Soerabaja. More desertions of
completion of peace agreements both supplied by armed convoys with air Japanese to Javanese were reported, and
with China, which has been occupying cover at required intervals. The other explained on the ground that the
that area north from Latitude 16°, and stations are on the sea, and supply Japanese were restive in view of the
with the native Viet Nam Party. The presents no problem. nonarrival of Allied troops to accept
latter agreement has not been released At the beginning of the period, the their surrender and to return them to
for publication and its terms are partly Javanese had captured the water supply their own country.
known. Some fighting continues in this plant for Bandoeng. The British The arrival of Dutch troops caused a
area. thereupon started an operation to recover new complication. The Dutch issued
The Southeast Asia Command, with it. After reporting 5 days of fighting, their own money, to replace Japanese
LP at Singapore, is arranging to reduce against enemy road blocks, the British currency still in circulation. There was
the activities solely to British territory. appear to have accomplished their general objection to this change and a
On 1 March, Indo-China was detached mission. On 22 February, the Javanese refusal to accept the new money. This
from control by the SEA, and turned resumed the offensive. The British unforeseen complication intensified the
over to France as an independent commander now decided that the bad feeling between the Dutch and
command, less matters relating to Japanese were surreptitiously aiding the Javanese. However, Sir Archibald Kerr
removal of Japanese troops, about Javanese, and relieved them from further continued his mediation efforts and his
which SEA retains control. duty, reporting to Batavia that they were conferences.
It has been officially announced that awaiting transportation back to Japan. Sumatra. The British 26th India
British troops from India are all to be The Javanese attacks were by night and Division holds Medan, Padang and
relieved from duty in the Netherlands showed good leadership. Palembang against minor opposition
Indies as soon as practicable, and in any The Netherlands representatives from irregular Sumatra forces. About
case by not later than July. The British renewed their efforts to come to an 10,000 Japanese have surrendered and
divisions in that area are mostly India agreement with the Javanese on 26 are awaiting transportation to Japan.
troops, and largely Moslem. Java is February. Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, About 60,000 Japanese are under arms,
practically wholly Moslem, and there British Ambassador, acted as mediator. operating under orders of the British
has been some fraternization and He appears to have endeavored to induce SEA Command. They are not engaged
sympathy between the India and the Javanese to accept the offer of local in active operations against the
Javanese troops. Some desertions to the self government but under the Dutch Sumatrans.
Javanese have occurred. High ranking crown. The natives have an administration
Moslems in India have publicly According to British intelligence service which functions. A definite
protested against the employment of reports, based on POW statements, the government is in process of
Moslem troops against their co- Japanese at and near Bandoeng, in part organization. The east side Sultans who
religionists. Troops thus relieved are now went over to the Javanese with arms previously governed extensive areas
being replaced by Dutch troops, who and motor transportation. have been induced to resign, except for
have heretofore been held near On 28 February, the British the Sultan of Dili who appears to have
Singapore, or were training in Holland. announced that they intended to taken refuge within British lines at
NETHERLANDS INDIES withdraw their India troops. At the same Medan. This is in line with precedence
Java. At the beginning of the period, time Dutch troops commenced to land in of events in Java, where the Sultans
two Swiss Red Cross officials completed Batavia to relieve the British. The (only two in Java) joined the anti-Dutch
an inspection tour of concentration Javanese were naturally pleased with the forces.
camps held by the Javanese. They British withdrawal, but displeased with Sumatra is in liaison with Java, and
reported that they had visited camps at the arrival of the Dutch. The Javanese will probably be guided by events
50 places, had been given free access to charged that the British had remained in there. The population density of
wherever they wished to go, and Java for no other purpose than to secure Sumatra is materially less than in Java.
opportunities to talk with the prisoners and hold beachheads until the Dutch In area it is 3½ times larger, and its
of war. They rated the conditions of the could organize and complete population is now estimated as about
camps as being good, with satisfactory mobilization. The Dutch arrived in 9,000,000 as against 45,000,000 in
subsistence standards. They found a British ships. Java. As a result the military situation
marked defect in medical supplies, and In view of a crisis, the Javanese in Sumatra is different. It has large
recommended the Allies furnish this by Government resigned and a new uninhabited areas. without established
dropping medical stores. Total number government was formed. There were means of communication, which
of POWs inspected (either white or changes in the cabinet, but Dr. Sutan afford hiding places for guerrillas.
partly white) was 35,000, which includes Sjahrir retained the position of Premier, The conquest of this great island was
women and children. and assumed that of Minister of Foreign only completed by the Dutch shortly
The Japanese 16th Army in Java is Affairs as additional duty. Dr. Soekarno before World War I and large native
reported as having 70,000 troops. The remains President. elements never have willingly
British occupying forces are under Lieut. On 4 March, minor fighting was accepted Dutch authority. It would
General Sir Montague G. N. Stopford. reported at Buitenzorg, Bandoeng and
British troops are encircled and hemmed Semarang. This soon spread to Batavia

seem quite possible for the Sumatrans to New Guined. The United States base in Korea, and 1,500 air miles from
maintain a long guerrilla warfare should at Hollandia has been closed, and the Japan.
peace efforts fail. property sold to the Dutch for about POWs Work and Study. Large
Celebes. Uprisings by natives, first $8,000,000. This includes the wharves numbers of Japanese POWs are
reported as not serious during February, and port base, the headquarters, various working on the Chita base. Unverified
now appear to be increasing. A British barracks and quarters, utility reports state that there are between
liaison detachment visited Manado on machinery, etc. The Dutch have 100,000 and 200,000 Japs so employed
the north coast, and found the native announced that they do not intend to Over 60,000 other Jap POWs are
troops in control. These had confined continue this base, but will remove its reported working on bases at Port
about 200 whites, but agreed to allow facilities to Batavia. Arthur and Dairen; 55,000 Japanese
their evacuation, which the British Morotai. This former U. S. base has POWs are reported as in training near
arranged for. In addition to Manado, been turned over to the Dutch. Harbin, taking courses in Communism
native troops hold Gorontalo, and in CHINA Jap POWs totaled over 500,000, so at
general are controlling the north There have been no military least 200,000 are unaccounted for.
peninsula. operations of importance other than in None have been repatriated to Japan.
A separate force of native troops, Manchuria, which is the present center About a million civilian Japanese are
charged by the Dutch as organized and of activity. in Manchuria. American suggestion for
led by Japanese, is holding the area their repatriation to Japan, along with the
The Russian Occupation. Except for
around the head of the Gulf of Bone on POWs, have been ignored.
Port Arthur and Dairen, the Russian
the south side of Celebes. Its advanced The Russians have removed all
occupation was to have ended by 2
posts are about 75 miles north from movable machinery and stores from
February 1946. However, it hasn't
Makassar, on the southwest coast. That Manchuria. Some has appeared at the
ended. At least not for key points.
town is held by British troops, with Chita base. The Manchuria industries
According to Chinese Communist development comprised 90% of the
which are some Dutch troops. The latter reports, the Russians have evacuated the
have had contact with the natives, with Chinese heavy production, and the loss
provinces roughly east of the South of this is bound to handicap China. Of
indecisive results. Japanese troops are Manchuria RR from Port Arthur to
still on Celebes, and none have yet been nearly 1,000 industrial establishment in
Harbin. The 2nd Ukraine Army Group is Mukden, which had 2,000,000 people,
reported as surrendered. holding the railroads and key points. only 20 are now working, and these on
Halmahera. Dutch reports are that the This is the same Army Group which unessential articles such as cigarettes
Japanese garrison has joined the natives. took part in the capture of Vienna, and it and vodka.
A Dutch force which had relieved is a first class attack unit. The Russians are changing the gauge
American troops at Morotai sent a The Russian advance CP appears to be of Manchuria RRs, less the South
detachment to Galela, Halmahera, which at Chanchun (formerly Hsinking, capital Manchuria RR, to the Russian standard.
is just across the strait from Morotai, but of Manchukuo). The services and The Russian garrison at Port Arthur
results are unreported. supplies are being centered at Chita, and Dairen, which they were authories to
Bali. This island has had a Japanese where an extensive military base is retain, is reported by Chinese source as 1
garrison of about 3,700 men, who have under construction. From this base the corps of 2 divisions, with a total strength
retained their arms. On 2 March, a Chinese Eastern RR extends to Harbin of some 40,000 men. Mukden had been
British Naval Force escorted 2,000 and on to Vladivostok. The old Trans- nearly evacuated by 15 March but there
Dutch troops and landed them. The Siberian RR runs from Chita around the have been no reports of evacuations
British had orders not to support the north boundary of Manchuria, affording north of that city.
Dutch against the Balinese, but only an alternate line to Vladivostok. There is On 11 March, an American consul
against Japanese. Previously advised by a connection to a parallel railroad was convoyed to Dairen under an escort
radio, the Japanese offered no (recently completed) further north which of warships. The Russians made no
resistance. On the contrary, they had terminates at Sovetskaya Gavan on the opposition to his arrival, and have
constructed a wharf to facilitate Allied Pacific opposite south Sakhalin. This recognized him as Consul. The Chinese
landing. The Dutch commander newer railroad has cross connections Russian Treaty specified that Dairen was
established his CP at Denpasar on the with the Chinese Eastern RR. From to be an open commercial port. To date
south coast. Chita there is a double track railroad no other foreigners, nor even Chinese
The Balinese have refused to deal with west to Moscow. officials, have been admitted.
the Dutch. A boycott has started which Road connections from Chita extend According to Russian reports banditry
extends to all dealings and social eastward into Manchuria, and southward has appeared throughout Manchuria.
intercourse. However, no resistance has into Russian controlled Mongolia. This used to be normal price to Japanese
developed. Chita is about 900 air miles from occupation, but the Japanese came near
Timor. Dutch troops have landed on Peiping, nearest point where foreign to wiping it out. It is also reported that
this island. No resistance was met, but fields exist at present. It is about the small numbers of Japanese troops who
unrest is reported as being shown by the same flying distance from Mukden; failed to surrender are holding out in the
natives. about 1,200 miles from American bases hills and mountains of east Manchuria.
Largest body

is estimated as 7,000 men and is located of supplies are being furnished; endeavors by argument to induce
southeast of Mukden. transportation is being placed at the Chinese commands (either Kuomintang
The Communist Position. disposal of the Chinese; and the Chinese or Communist) in the field to cease
Headquarters continue to be in Yenan, Theater Command, under Lt. Gen. hostilities with each other and agree to
but may move elsewhere. A liaison Albert C. Wedemeyer, is directing unite. The boards supervise and if
detachment and secondary CP is Chinese operations. necessary aid in the issuance of
maintained at Chungking. Officially, The present main mission is to occupy necessary orders.
peace exists with the ancient enemy— Manchuria. Since mid-January, large These boards have had some success,
the Kuomintang. Chinese forces (Kuomintang) have been but not yet at critical points. Up to the
A considerable number of Communist southwest of Mukden waiting for the close of this account, they had not
troops are in Manchuria, who claim to Russians to get out. Since 15 March, succeeded in arranging for the
hold all areas (outside of Russia) less when the Russians withdrew, Mukden amalgamation of Kuomintang and
Mukden and the corridor from there to has been occupied. Communist troops at Mukden. Mukden
Tientsin. Their total strength as reported The Chinese base is at Hulutao where is closely bordered on the east side by
by themselves is 300,000 men, divided Americans are aiding in maintaining Communist forces. Minor fighting has
between their 4th and 8th armies. This efficiency. Incoming troops, occurred.
number admittedly invades irregular replacements and supplies arrive by sea. The Kuomintang is assembling large
levies; the combat value is much below Kuomintang Remarks
what the strength returns might indicate. Armies Divisions
These troops appear to have gotten along 1st Commenced to debark at Chinwangtao on 11
well with the Russians, who they claim March
requipped them with Japanese captured 5th Near Mukden
6th 22nd, 207th and 1 At Mukden
arms. This too needs confirmation.
The Communist general commanding 13th (armored) Near Mukden
their 4th Army has been a POW of the 52nd 2nd and 25th At Mukden. 1 more division en route to join.
Kuomintang since last year. He was 71st Sailed from Shanghai on 12 March for
released on 4 March and returned to Chinwangtao.
duty, in exchange for the Kuomintang 92nd (airborne) 2 divs only Vicinity Peiping These two armies constitute
General previously in command at The railroad to Tientsin is operating and American equipped and trained forces in
Peiping, who had been captured by the partly under protection of the 1st Marine the Mukden area, presumably in
communists and also now released. Division as far as Peiping. preparation for future operations. This
Minor fighting between Communists The problem is to take over the force includes the following, in which
and Kuomintang forces has occurred remainder of Manchuria, as and if the Chinese "armies" should be rated as
around the Mukden area, and in Mukden Russians withdraw. It is also desired to corps, as they rarely have over three
itself following the Russian withdrawal. arrange this without having hostilities divisions. The TO strength of divisions
It does not appear to have been serious, with the Communist forces, known to be is about 14,000 and the combat strength
and no change in lines has been considerable throughout Manchuria. 11,000.
reported. The Communists hold the port of When all the above troops have
The Communist C-in-C for Manchuria Yingkow; the Russians Dairen. Neither arrived, there will be 18 divisions about
is General Chu Teh, whose CP was at will permit the Kuomintang to use either Mukden, and four more in Army
Fushun, close to Mukden. His troops place. Hulutao is inferior to either Reserve in Peiping. Including service
kept the coal mines there open, and Yingkow or Dairen for base purposes, and supply troops, the entire force will
furnished coal for operating the SM RR and is used only because nothing better number some 400,000 men. If the
under Russian control. is available. The initiation of a campaign Communists will join the Kuomintang,
The Kuomintang Position. The to secure a more desirable base is being there will be at least 500,000 Chinese
headquarters are in Chungking, now far avoided, with a view to arriving at a troops in Manchuria. It is announced that
distant from main theaters of operation. peaceful settlement. Lt. Gen. Wedemeyer will visit this force
Generalissimo Chiang Kaishek remains This plan is being carried out under during the last half of March.
in command. Theoretically and American supervision. A special The Realities. Russia considered
according to a signed pact of 10 January Headquarters Command has been set up Manchukuo under Japanese control as a
1946, the Kuomintang is to unite with at Peiping under an American officer. threat. The Japanese strength varied
the Communists, and any other He has two chief assistants—one between 250,000 and 500,000 men at
recognized political party, to establish a Kuomintang and one Communist. The various times. Russia felt it necessary to
unified China. The Kuomining and chief of staff is also American and so is keep about the same number of troops in
Communist armies are to be the operating staff for the most part. east Siberia. The Japanese were
consolidated, and reduced from three This special command details boards formidable not only from their numbers
millions on paper to about a fifth of that of one American, one Kuomintang and and position, but because they had made
strength. one Communist officer. Such a board, Manchukuo nearly self-supporting for
The American Government is actively with interpreters and clerical assistants, military supplies.
aiding the Kuomintang. Large quantities is sent to points of contact, and

As the result of forty years of JAPAN American check-and-balance system of

experience, Russia has desired to executive, legislative and judicial
The occupation of Japan and the
remove the former menace to eastern systems, each independent but checking
reorganization of its government and
Siberia, and have a weak Manchuria, on each of the others. The throne is
economic conditions are proceeding in a
which would not require large Russian retained, but is reduced to a ceremonial
remarkably smooth manner. There has
forces constantly on the watch. Her aim position with no independent authority.
been no opposition from the Japanese
was to establish bases at Port Arthur, War is abolished, and Japan is forbidden
and little protest. Outward appearances
which has been granted, and lines of to have military forces of any nature,
indicate complete acknowledgment and
communication thereto. It is evident that because war is futile, and should be
acquiescence in the wishes of the
if Manchuria (which has replaced replaced by justice, tolerance and
Manchukuo) is now to be garrisoned by understanding of mankind.
a large and efficient Chinese army, using British forces are now occupying
south Honshu. They number about a It seems probable that the new
American equipment and control, Constitution will be accepted. Whether
Russian access to Port Arthur could be corps of 2 divisions. With service and
supply contingents, total strength is the Japanese will really believe in it,
cut at any time, and the general situation especially as to its statements on war, is
as to east Siberia would not have around 45,000 men. They are of
course a part of the command of another question. Being disarmed, there
changed. is nothing they can do about it.
In view of this situation Russia is General MacArthur. The British
commander is Lieut. General John On 14 March, the Supreme
showing reluctance to abandoning
Northcutt, Australian Army. His CP is Command turned over to the Japanese
Manchuria. She has admittedly
at Kure. Government 3,500 tons of flour
destroyed, or transported to east Siberia,
The new Far Eastern Commission was belonging to the Commissary. This
the vast industries which the Japanese
organized at Washington on 26 flour was surplus, due to reduction of
had established throughout their
February. This commission was American forces over the number
Manchukuo. This action will greatly aid
envisaged in the Moscow Conference originally contemplated. Bread from
the Russian armies in east Siberia, and
which ended on 26 December last, and this flour is to be sold at an official
correspondingly handicap the Chinese in
was apparently set up on Russian price, which was markedly below the
Manchuria. According to Chinese
demand. On it are the representatives of black market price currently in use.
reports it is estimated that it will take
five years to rebuild the demolished eleven nations. The Commission has The action of the military authorities
plants, assuming, of course, that the authority to investigate whatever it is due to the worsening of the food
United States undertakes that mission. In pleases regarding the Far East, and to situation in Japan. Large numbers of
the meantime, China has no heavy make appropriate recommendations. The Japanese are being repatriated to their
industries. major Powers, as usual, retain an home country, which was already over-
In case of war within five years the individual veto right. Consequently the populated and unable to subsist its own
Chinese armies would have to be Commission's recommendations can people. The repatriation includes civilian
supplied by the United States from have no executive effect, unless all Japanese as well as military personnel
American depots. major Powers are in agreement. This throughout the Far East. The repatriated
For the present the Russian Army prevents the Commission from reversing people are brought back in an indigent
Group in the Far East is undergoing any action which General MacArthur condition, since they have not been
regrouping according to some plan may have taken. allowed to bring property other than
issued during the last half of January. On 1 March, the Supreme Command personal hand baggage. The movement
Nothing is known of the plan except as it undertook to control imports and exports is a reversal of the usual trend of
has developed. From this it appears that of Japan. No outside private traders are migrations of people from dense to less
a garrison has been established at Port authorized for the present. The RFC has densely peopled areas. It establishes at
Arthur and Dairen, estimated by the set up a United States Commercial once a problem of how to feed these
Chinese as exceeding a corps. This Company which will handle the exports, people (estimated as about six millions)
would indicate preparation for a possible which will be mostly silk at first and for and how to find living space and work
siege. Before evacuating Mukden large which there is a considerable demand. for them.
quantities of stores were shipped to Port The funds accruing to Japan from such The food situation is further
Arthur, which action corresponds with sales will be used to purchase such influenced by a prohibition against
making Port Arthur self dependent. articles as may from time to time be Japanese fishing boats operating in
Temporarily Port Arthur is being authorized. Most of these purchases are other than home waters. This prevents
supplied by sea from Vladivostok. expected to be in the United States; the fish products previously obtained in
Main Russian forces have withdrawn War Department will procure what is large quantities from waters now
to Changchun or beyond, but their required. assigned to Russia, from waters
actual deployment is unknown. As The Supreme Command published a adjacent to Alaska, and from the high
previously noted, the depots and centers proposed new Constitution for Japan on seas, from supplying the Japanese
of supply have gone across the border 6 March. This is to be voted on at a market as had been customary in pre-
into Siberia. future date. It somewhat resembles the war days.
However, West Point, despite its
virtues, and they are many, has in my
opinion one great over-riding fault. It
manages to impart to all its graduates a
greatly distorted sense of values. It
graduates a majority of men who firmly
believe that advancement in rank and
numerous decorations are the ultimate in
success. It engenders the thinking that a
product of the USMA is automatically
and unquestionably a superior officer
Inadvertent Insinuation Proud and militant mouthpiece for
and gentleman to any other officer who
Dear Editor: the Field Artillery and Field
does not share his background. One of
There seems to be more than Artillerymen and their magnificent
the several results of this creed is the
considerable doubt as to the justification combat record in World War II, THE
condonation of the military and social
of the complaint contained in the article FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL would be the
sins of its graduates and the ruthless
“Forgotten Men" in the March issue of last agency on earth to infer that senior
punishment of others for sins of the
THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL. It is, in artillery commanders, in general, shirked
same or lesser gravity.
effect, a reflection on many senior their sobering duties and responsibilities
artillery commanders for not looking to subordinates in the matter of awards. This arrogance and intolerance, which
after their officers and men. Ill-advised or otherwise, the letter was unfortunately pervades so many West
published in forthright openmindedness Pointers, is the main reason why the
While at Fort Sill attending the recent
with an accompanying remark which average man who served in the Army
Artillery Conference, I received a
read in part: "* * * Data are not refused to consider embracing the
message from Brig. Gen. W. B. Palmer,
available to the Editor either to profession of the soldier. (Italics by the
who commanded the VII Corps Artillery
substantiate or to disprove the Editor.)
in Europe, who expressed himself quite
strongly on the subject. General Palmer allegations made in this letter. It is This current political uproar about
stated that twelve colonels and lieutenant considered a specific case in point, democratizing the services is mainly
colonels of VII Corps Artillery and the however, of the need both in and out of nonsense. The system, as set up, is
AAA Group Commander have been combat for the 'suitably integrated basically sound. It is the abuse of
awarded the Legion of Merit on his artillery guidance'" which—again in privileges granted an officer that
recommendation. honest conviction—is deemed essential. brought this widespread condemnation
Colonel James R. Winn, who is now Expressing the motivating thought in of the whole, so-called "caste." No
with my Section and who served in Hq. reverse language, the artillery might one, least of all the enlisted man,
XIX Corps Artillery in the ETO, informs have done an even better job in World wants common recreational facilities,
me that three group commanders with War II.—ED. messing or living quarters for men and
XIX Corps Artillery were awarded the officers alike. What the average
Legion of Merit in addition to several thinking enlisted man and junior
Broad Men of Character? officer does want is to be treated as a
other awards. Also nine battalion
Dear Editor: man, and not as some fundamentally
commanders were recommended near
It is with some hesitation that I inferior being. They want equality in
the end of the war, but the number
approach this subject for obvious the basic necessities of life, such as
actually awarded is not known.
reasons. However, although only a food, shelter, heat and plumbing
I am confident that the other corps junior officer in the recent war, I feel facilities. They do not want to see
commanders who served in the First U. that remarks and constructive criticism admirals' lawns being sprinkled when
S. Army in Europe did not neglect this from all levels are needed to obtain a their own washing water is rationed.
important duty. clear overall picture of the problems They do not want generals' planes
If the complaint is not justifiable from now facing West Point and the Army as bringing in private loads of liquor
the point of view of the entire Army, it a whole. Also, as a reserve officer, I when they have been told that airmail
might be well to point out that all have a vital interest in the Army and the is slow because of the lack of air
commanders were not guilty of Field Artillery in particular. transport. Such abuses are the real
neglecting to recognize the merit of their General Taylor's article "West Point reasons for poor morale, soldier
group commanders. Many senior Looks Ahead" in the March issue was a demonstrations and the present wave
artillery officers spent considerable time fine article expressing, in the limited of bitter criticism.
and energy in obtaining awards for space provided, the fundamental aims of
deserving officers and men. These No one can dispute the Regular Army
a West Point education. If the outlined officer's technical efficiency in his
commanders are fully justified, in my program is carried out, there can be no
opinion, in taking offense at the article. profession. He is, for the most part,
doubt but that the USMA will provide capable, courageous and conscientious.
BRIG. GEN CHAS. E. HART, U.S.A., many capable officers to help fulfill the But it seems that all too many
First Army Artillery Officer very great task now ahead of the Army. overstress the unimportant, the minor
Fort Bragg, N. C. things; as is evidenced by the colonel in

the March JOURNAL deploring the fact early 1942, and from which the experience. The soldiers had sufficient
that group commanders had not received following is quoted: experience and knowledge of the facts to
as many Legions of Merit as had AGF realize the requirements of military
"When war comes to the United
officers. (See "Inadvertent Insinuation," necessity. Many of them had seen only
States, the men in uniform . . . go off to
above.—Ed.) too close at hand the high price that must
fight that war. The military strategy . . .
Thus, I feel most strongly that the be paid when public opinion dictates
is determined, and should be
USMA should teach tolerance along military policy devoid of realistic con-
determined, by the generals and
with pride; breadth of understanding as sideration of the requirements of sound
admirals. But . . . the military policy . . .
well as of knowledge; realization of their military strategy.
is determined by the members of
grave responsibility to their men in Despite the fact that no unit serve
Congress and by the President of the
addition to the worship of duty, honor longer or more arduously than the one to
United States, who in a democracy are
and country. Then West Point cannot fail which it was my privilege to belong
responsive to the will of the people . . .
but "to produce broad men of character, there was never anything but good
These two allies — military strategy and
capable of leading other men to victory healthy griping among the men of that
military policy — are united but unique.
in battle." command. And probably as much of that
They are independent but inter-related.
LAWRENCE JOHNSON, JR., griping was directed against the apparent
In some instances, the military policy is
Philadelphia, Pa. 1st Lt., F. A., Res. situation back home as against the Army
influenced by the experience and advice
Searing hot is the charge that as a of the generals and admirals. In many — a public opinion which countenanced
group West Pointers are arrogant and instances, the military strategy is mass violence, labor strife, and the
intolerant. These things are not taught at dependent on the military policy which, clamoring of special interest groups for
West Point. Graduates that manifest in turn, is dependent on public opinion." special privilege. Moreover, the majority
these traits—and, in honesty, I cannot of soldiers participating in overseas
deny that we have them in our midst— In the light of the above, let us demonstration were comparatively
are a disgrace to the uniform they wear examine some of the facts which Mr. recent arrivals who had more
and a dishonor to the high ideals of Andrews has so blithely ignored. opportunity to be so indoctrinated than
selfless leadership connoted by the very Under the pressure of public opinion the veterans with long combat records.
term, officer and gentleman.—ED. the War Department was forced to The demonstrations of soldiers
announce a rotation policy. My unit was against the demobilization slowdown
in the Pacific. When, after VE-Day, the have their roots in the practices and
Applies Correction
War Department was forced by public preachings which have prevailed
Dear Editor: opinion to announce a demobilization outside the Army. The idea that one
Have just learned that my renewal program, the subsequent publicity can get anything if one howls long and
check has bounced. Enclosed a money accorded demobilization plans by loud enough rather than working for it
order for $3.00. agencies outside the Army only resulted is foreign to the Armed Forces, The
Honest WILLIAM ——— in a serious blow to the morale of troops attempt to cast the blame for
New Philadelphia, Ohio required by military necessity to remain demobilization demonstrations on the
overseas, even though many of them had War Department or the officers of the
more than enough points for discharge. Army reflects such ignorance of fact
Reader Response It was impossible to take a man off the or careless thinking that I can only
Dear Editor: firing line when no trained replacement justify its publication in THE FIELD
As an officer who served forty-three was available simply because that man ARTILLERY JOURNAL on the grounds
months overseas with the 37th Infantry had a certain number of points. that the Editor desired a reader
Division and who spent almost a year as With VJ-Day the clamor of public response.
Division Artillery I & E officer, I am opinion became so insistent that military MAJOR ARCHIBALD M. RODGERS, FA
unable to refrain from taking issue with policy lost all sight of the requirements Ada, Ohio
the comments of Marshall Andrews as of military strategy. In formulating its
reprinted in the February JOURNAL. demobilization policy the War
With unsurpassed disregard for truth Department considered the requirements Never Missed
or logic, Mr. Andrews levels a most of military strategy; to have done less Dear Editor:
unjust criticism against the War would have been gross inefficiency and Just a note to report a change in my
Department and the officers of our neglect of duty. But public opinion made address. Incidentally, I never missed an
Army. His underlying fallacy should be no such concession to rational processes issue of the JOURNAL while I was
apparent to anyone who has read or of thought or consideration of all the overseas. Many thanks for the fine ser-
heard one of the earliest orientation factors involved. And this public opinion vice and for a magazine no Field
lectures presented to our World War II was most loudly expostulated by civilian Artilleryman can afford to do without.
soldiers. I refer to Orientation Course organizations and individuals like Mr. THOMAS H. KINGSLEY, JR.
Lecture No. 13, presented to all units in Andrews rather than by the soldiers with Kansas City, Mo.
the longest service or most combat
Cassidy, Robert F.
Roster of Field Artillery officers on duty in Washington, as of 20 March HQ AGF
1946 Clark, Paul, Jr.
COLONELS A N Staff Colg Riley, Hugh W. HQ AGF
Albert, Russell F. Ginsburgh, A. Robert Mil Int Sv Clark, William R.
WD Manpower Bd O Sec War Routheau, Edward A. WD Decor Board
Alexander, William Goessling, Ward C. New Develop Div Coffin, Robert E.
HQ AGF Fld Agency WDMB Seaman, Jonathan O. Mil Int Sv
Allen, William H., Jr. Gossett, Herman H. F HQ AGF Compton, Thomas C.
O AC Staff OPD Fld Agency WDMB Shepherd, William E. ASF Procure Div
Anding, James G. Hagood, Johnson, Jr. WD Decor Board Condon, Edward V.
HQ AGF O AC Staff G-2 Tate, Clifford H. Nat Guard Bur
Armstrong, Devere P. Hann, John R. Fld Agency WDMB Conly, Robert S., Jr.
HQ AGF Nat Guard Bur Taylor, James US Mil Mis Iran A
Barnes, Verdi B. Harris, William A. Fld Agency WDMB Couch, Joseph R.
HQ AGF J Security Cntl Terrell, Ralph P. 9901 TU Pat Det
Barth, George B. Heath, Louis T. ASF Distrib Div Cramer, Charles W.
9901 TU Pat Det HQ AGF Thurber, Philip L. HQ MDW War Dept
Bassich, Cyril Heyduck, Lawrence E. Fld Agency WDMB Davis, Charles J.
9901 TU Pat Det WD Ret Adv Bd Troxel, Orlando C. AGF Mil Per Div
Berry, John A., Jr. Huggins, William C. A N Staff Colg Dawalt, Kenneth F.
HQ AGF Navy Dept D C Tucker, Beverley S. Civ Aff Div
Beynon, James L. Jones, Edmund H. 9300 TU O C Ord Duffy, John J.
HQ AGF HQ SS System Warden, John B. Leg Lia Div
Black, Frederick H. Klepinger, Walter J. US Strgic B Surv Easton, John W.
HQ AGF HQ AGF Waterman, Bernard S. M I Foreign Sv
Blair, William P. Kopcsak, Peter J. ASF Plan Div Feuquay, Joseph B.
HQ AGF HQ AGF Weyrauch, Paul R. ASF Distrib Div
Chamberlain, John L. Kosch, Lewis F. HQ AGF Folda, Jaraslav, Jr.
Bur of Pub Rel HQ SS System Whalen, Horace K. HQ AGF
Connor, Voirs B. Kotick, Ottmar F. O AC Staff G-1 Green, Alphonse A.
US Rep MSTC UNO A-N Petr Board Woodrow, Fitz W. McM. Mil Int Sv
Cooper, Ralph C. Lang, Cornelis DeW. W. War Ship Adm Griffin, William W.
HQ AGF HQ AGF Yocum, Howard R. Det M I S
Cox, Macolm R. Lee, Frederick S. US Strgic B Surv Harris, Townes M.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS Hartman, Charles D., Jr.
Coyne, Christopher C. Magee, Mervyn M.
HQ AGF Aboosh, Norman D. Mil Int Sv
O AC Staff OPD
Crosby, Robert H. McIntyre, Osgood C. HQ AGF Hayden, John C.
ASF Dsitrib Div Ballf, Harry A. HQ AGF
Fld Agency WDMB
Cureton, William H. Mesick, John ASF Mil Per Div Healy, Timothy J.
HQ AGF Ballf, Harold P. ASF Distrib Div
Danforth, George L. Miller, Frank P. HQ MDW War Dept Holloway, C. C., Jr.
Leg Lia Div Barco, Ernest T., Jr. Info Ed Div
Fld Agency WDMB
Daniel, Maurice W. Murray, Charles R. HQ AGF Horstman, Sanford W.
ASF Mil Per Div Baya, George E. A N Staff Colg
Day,Breckenridge A. Myrick, William S. O AC Staff G-1 Huncilman, Harry A.
9829 TU Eng Sch Beiser, John J. ASF Plan Div
Donnelly, Charles H. Nicholas, Charles P. OCS Off Tng Gp Huneycutt, Robert E.
Central Int Gp Benson, Dean M. HQ AGF
Joint C Staff
Duehring, George C. Oakes, John C. HQ AGF Jones, W. Eugene
HQ AGF Black, Asa C. HQ AGF
Civ Aff Div
Echols, Marion P. O'Reilly, Walter T. HQ AGF Knight, Richard A.
New Develop Div Bland, Theododoric C. 9901 TU Pat Det
Eckhardt, George S. Park, Richard, Jr. Jt Braz US M Cn Lange, Herman W.
Mil Int Sv Brewer, John W. HQ AGF
O U Sec War
Edwards, Sheffield Parker, Theodore W. ASF Mob Div Lewis, Geoffrey W.
O AC Staff Opd Brownfield, Albert R. Civ Aff Div
Enslow, Philip H. Patterson, James C. HQ AGF Lovell, Richard R.
Fld Agency WDMB Brown, Gerald F. A-N Petr Board
Erskine, David G. Porter, Harry C. HQ AGF Mann, Theophilus M.
HQ AAF Bruce, Thomas R., Jr. O U Sec War
HQ AGF Fld Agency WDMB
Evans, Bryan Poteet, Daniel P. Mays, Reavus C.
AGO Buster, William R. B.
HQ AGF O AC Staff Opd SW Disab Rev Bd
Exton, Hugh M. Potter, M. Milton
J Security Cntl Byrne, John D. McKee, Richard L.
O Sec War HQ AGF ASF Mob Div
Eyerly, William J. Rathbone, John V.
E Res ROTC A Cantrell, Charles McKeague, John M.
O AC Staff G-1 HQ AGF
Reichle, Paul A. 9220 TU O C TC
Finn, Russell T. Cantrell, James L.
HQ AGF Miller, Henry L.
Revie, Charles R. O AC Staff Opd
Furuholmen, Bjarne Carmichael, Roderick Mil Int Sv
Moon, Gordon A., 2d Mil Int Sv Mitchell, William P. Mil Int Sv
HQ AGF Bloom, Albert W. 9901 TU Pat Det Downer, Joseph P.
Morgan, Rudolph HQ AAF Moore, Bidwell Stf Comm Br OCS
M I Foreign Sv Brown, Horace M., Jr. Mil Int Sv Easter, James M.
Mynderse, Jacob F. O AC Staff G-4 Moore, Waldo W. M I Foreign Sv
Mil Int Sv Brown, Harry B. Mil Int Sv Embrey, Lemuel J.
Offer, Robert D. Stf Comm Br OCS Murphy, Manford R. 9901 TU Pat Det
ASF Plan Div Buchanan, Dale E. HQ AGF Ermentrout, Robert A.
Paul, Frank C. Mil Int Sv Myers, Elmer F. ASF Mil Per Div
HQ AGF Caldwell, Ross R. HQ AGF Gage, William M.
Peavy, Herbert L. ASF Require Div Peterson, Charles D. 9901 TU Pat Det
OCS Off Tng Gp Carter, George F. A-N Petr Board Galbraith, Joseph M.
Peeke, Charles M. O AC Staff Opd Resist, J. Robert HQ AGF
HQ AGF Caulder, Bruce B. M I Foreign Sv Guthrie, John R.
Pixton, Allan G. HQ AGF Riser, George M. M I Foreign Sv
O AC Staff Opd Clapp, Edwin G., Jr. ASF Mil Per Div Hamilton, William H.
Pope, Phillip H. ASF Sch Div Rutledge, Angus V.
Stf Comm Br OCS
O AC Staff Opd Cocklin, Robert F. M I Foreign Sv
Preston, Walter J. HQ, AGF Slover, Robert H. Henselman, Roger C.
9901 TU Pat Det Curry, Ivan M. Hist Div OCS Mil Int Sv
Ratliff, Frank G. HQ AGF Smith, Leo J. Hjortsberg, Elmer R.
OCS Off Tng Gp Czerniuk, Edward J. HQ AGF US Strgic B Surv
Richey, Thurber G. US MM Hungary Smith, William H. Horlander, Deryl
HQ AGF Davis, Steve G. Mil Int Sv 2501 Su Sep Pt
Rue, Charles H. O AC Staff G-1 Solf, Waldemar A. Hurley, Edward P.
ASF Mil Per Div Day, Daniel E. HQ AGF HQ AAF
Salisbury, Lloyd R. Bur of Pub Rel Speed, Hugh B. Hutcheson, Joseph C.
O AC Staff G-I De Saussure, E. H., Jr. Mil Int Sv Civ Aff Div
Siegert, Carl W. HQ AGF Squier, Rober W. King, Walter R.
HQ AGF Dickerman, Wilson K. ASF Mil Per Div Bur of Pub Rel
Smith, James P. Jt Braz US M Cn Stanford, Frederick C. Knerly, Stephen J.
HQ AGF Downs, Lemuel C. O AC Staff Opd US MM Hungary
Snyder, Arthur HQ AGF Stevick, Donald J. Lovering, Richard S.
Leg Lia Div Edmonds, James E. ASF Intel Div 9901 TU Pat Det
Stephan, Audley H. F. Bur of Pub Rel Swain, Charles R., Jr. Maling, Robert C.
Budget Div Fite, James B. Civ Aff Div HQ AGF
Stone, Jack HQ AGF Thomas, Paul K. McWhinney, William W.
HQ AGF Flanders, C. L., Jr. ASF Distrib Div
Jt Braz US M Cn
Stuart, Clarence E. Mil Int Sv Thomson, Harry K.
OCS Off Tng Gp Fournier, Maurice C. O AC Staff G-4 Miller, Joseph C. K.
Sundin, Alvar B. Mil Int Sv Ucherek, Stephen C. WD Decor Board
HQ AGF Fries, Mills M. ASF Trp Tng Div Moore, Joseph C., Jr.
Tilghman, Mayo T. ASF Distrib Div Van De Velde, Louis R. A-N Petr Board
Fld Agency WDMB Hall, Paul S. 9829 TU Eng Sch Morton, Paul S.
Walters, William B. M I Foreign Sv Vestal, Van Rensselaer 9901 TU Pat Det
2571 Su Pat Det Hammonds, George S. HQ SS System Mulden, George F., Jr.
Warner, Gordon G. ASF Intern Div Ware, Lawrence R. 9901 TU Pat Det
HQ AGF Hammonds, George S. US Strgic B Surv Nowell, John C., Jr.
Weisberg, Benjamin O Foreign Lio Com Williams, David F. Civ Aff Div
US Strgic B Surv Harding, John E. 9901 TU Pat Det O'Hara, Lewis B.
Wetherill, Roderick ASF Distrib Div Wilson, Franklin E.
ASF Mil Per Div
HQ AGF Harvey, Harold E. HQ AAF
White, Robert C. HQ AGF Wilson, Eugene A. Oppenhimer, John S.
ASF Storage Div Howerton, William A. HQ AGF 2501 Su HQ MDW
Wilkins, Jesse T. ASF Sp Sv Div Winter, Walter E. Phelps, Charles P.
Nat Guard Bur Hubbard, Allan F. 9901 TU Pat Det Mil Int Sv
Wood, Thomas C., Jr. M I Foreign Sv Young, George F. Putnam, Joseph F.
ASF Mob Div Johnson, William C. ASF Mil Per Div ASF Mob Div
Woods, Charles H., Jr. Nat Guard Bur CAPTAINS Ross, William F.
9901 TU Pat Det Killian, John J. M I Foreign Sv
Bur of Pub Rel Beveridge, Theodore M. Rothenberger, William
Knight, Owen B. ASF Mil Per Div
Aikman, Oliver S. Mil Int Sv Birkeland, Paul M.
ASF Maint Div M I Foreign Sv Saul, Francis W.
Kramers, John T. 9901 TU Pat Det
Allen, Raymond W., Jr. Civ Aff Div Brewster, Charles F.
HQ AGF HQ MDW War Dept Skinner, Earl M.
Land, Leroy C. 9901 TU Pat Det
Amell, Joseph L., Jr. New Develop Div Burke, Thomas J., Jr.
Mil Int Sv ASF Mil Per Div Smith, Griswold K.
Lillard, Ross N.
Archer, Herman N. ASF Distrib Div Colley, Frank H. HQ AGF
9901 TU Pat Det Lynch, Richard P. Hist Div OCS Stabler, Warwick B.
Asinof, Coleman D. ASF Distrib Div Cook, Richard H. Mil Int Sv
O Forgn Lio Com Miller, Harold E. ASF Sch Div Thompson, John D.
Barker, James W., 2d ASF Intel Div Davenport, David C. ASF Mil Per Div
Trueheart, William C.
Washburn, William H. L. Major Robert F. Cocklin joined the
Waxer, Joseph as Associate Editor early in March.
PMGO Recently returned
Webb, John M.
Mil Int Sv from the Pacific
Whitworth, Thomas C. Theater, Major
ASF Mil Per Div Cocklin served
Wightman, Henry L. with the 93rd
M I Foreign Sv Infantry Division
Wood, John S., Jr. from January,
M I Foreign Sv 1944, until his
Booher, Larry A. United States late
Bur of Pub Rel in December,
Bookhout, Richard J. 1945. He
US Strgic B Surv
participated in the Bougainville, Bismark
Collins, Ross L.
Mil Int Sv Archipelago, New Guinea and Philippine
Dunn, William T. Islands campaigns, and served for a time
ASF Mil Per Div as the Acting G-4 of the 93d Infantry
Contemporary Goodman, Arthur L.
9901 TU Pat Det
Division. A graduate of the OCS at Fort
Sill in June of 1942, Major Cocklin has
Hay, Henry C., Jr. been on active duty since March, 1941.
Foreign Joint C Staff
Hayes, John S.
Prior to entering the Service, Major
Cocklin attended the University of
9901 TU Pat Det Nebraska where, among numerous other
Governments Henchey, William J., Jr.
9901 TU Pat Det
activities, he engaged in journalistic
By work. Although both call San Francisco
Kindwall, Nils A.
Det M I S home, Major and Mrs. Cocklin are now
HERMAN BEUKEMA Kohn, Arnold residing in Washington.
Colonel, United States Army 2541 SU Sta Com Master Sergeant Vito Tassono has
Lehman, Orin A. completed over thirty-two years of
WILLIAM M. GEER 9901 TU Pat Det consecutive service in and for the Field
Major, United States Army Manton, William J. Artillery. When he
Mil Int Sv retires—which
and ASSOCIATES Marchionne, Anthony W. will be soon — he
ASF Intel Div
Department of Economics, Government and
McLay, Andrew L. may do so with the
History, United States Military Acodemy
Info Ed Div warm satisfaction
Miller, Robert C. of having well

T HIS important, timely study is a

prerequisite to the full understanding
of today's confused international scene.
ASF Intel Div
Mischker, Erwin J.
ASF Intel Div
achieved the high
of the
Only four years ago seven foreign Mulliken, David F. Army. And
nations could boast the classification of Mil Int Sv certainly, the
Nicholson, Sterling J. Army has every reason to be most proud
"great power." Today only the Soviet 9901 TU Pat Det
Union and the British Commonwealth of Sgt. Tassono—fine American soldier
O'Neill, Clifford L. that he is.
retain this status. Here is unfolded the 9901 TU Pat Det
Born in Italy in 1892, Sgt. Tassono
pattern of development which has Ripley, Paul H.
9901 TU Pat Det came to the United States when he was
brought these seven countries to their 16 years old, and enlisted in Battery E of
present political positions—as well as Ruttan, Melven
9901 TU Pat Det the 6th Field Artillery (then at Fort
their historical origins, philosophical Slater, Claude K. Riley) in 1913. He served continuously
bases and constitutional structures. ASF Intel Div with the 6th Field Artillery (including its
World stability efforts of recent years Tracy, Ollie L. distinguished combat service in Europe
are particularly emphasized, from the ASF Sch Div in World War I) until 1923, when he was
Atlantic Charter to the United Nations Turner, Emmett L. transferred for duty in the Office of the
Organization. With maps and O AC Staff Opd Chief of Field Artillery. He remained in
illustrations. $3.50 Wilhelm, Warren that Office until it was inactivated in
9901 TU Pat Det 1942, when he joined the staff of THE
9901 TU Pat Det JOURNAL Sgt. Tassono is in charge of
1218 Connecticut Avenue
Fellow, Roger H. the circulation department.
Washington 6, D. C. Det M I S
A Report to the Public on the Full
Meaning of the Atomic Bomb

Edited by DEXTER MASTERS, Editor of Science Illustrated and KATHARINE

WAY, Nuclear Physicist, of the University of Chicago

Presented by the editors of Science Illustrated

To give the American public an authoritative, over-all analysis of the
immediate and long-range problems created by the atomic bomb, we
have persuaded some of the outstanding scientists associated with the
project, as well as top authorities from the political and military fields,
to collaborate on this book. This remarkable document presents a
rounded discussion of the full meaning and dimensions of the bomb's
threat to world survival, bringing together in one book, for the first
time, an informed discussion of all the ramifications of the subject.
Introduction by ARTHUR COMPTON, Nobel Prize Winner
Foreword by NIELS BOHR, Nobel Prize Winner
Nobel Prize Winner LEO SZILARD
Nobel Prize Winner Nobel Prize Winner
and The Federation of American (Atomic) Scientists.

In order to make ONE WORLD OR NONE

available to the widest possible market, we are
issuing it in a paper binding for . . . $ 00
The bulk of the proceeds from this book will go to
the Federation of American (Atomic) Scientists for
use in furthering public understanding of the facts of
atomic energy and their implications for society.


1218 Connecticut Avenue
Washington 6, D. C.

Military . . .

Top Secret
Ralph Ingersoll $3.00

My Three Years With Eisenhower

Capt. Harry C. Butcher, USNR

The Case Against the Admirals

William Bradford Huie $2.50

Hard Pounding
Lt. Col. G. D. W. Court, RA $2.50

Landing Operations
Dr. Alfred Vagts $5.00

Fighting Divisions
CWO Kahn - S/Sgt. McLenmore
World War II
R. W. Shugg - Maj. H. A. DeWeerd
Col. S. L. A. Marshall $3.00

Useful Round-up The second part of the book contains

three chapters. One proposes Fiction . . .
the Public on the Full Meaning of the international inspections to prevent the The King's General
Atomic Bomb. Edited by Dexter manufacture of the bomb; one discusses Daphne du Mautier $2.75

Masters and Katharine Way. By 17 present and past international The Arch of Triumph
individual authors and the Federation organizations that might control the Erich Maria Remarque $3.00
of American (Atomic) Scientists. bomb. The last suggests rather Red Canvas
Whittlesey House, New York, 1946. 75 inconclusively that internationalization Marcel Wallenstein $2.75
pages. $1.00. of atomic information and military
By Richard Cordon McCloskey forces might solve the problem.
Shining through the whole book is
Of the 17 contributors to this book, the unquestioned sincerity of the Non-Fiction . . .
five are Nobel Prize winners, and all are authors. Shining with equal force is the
One World or None
leaders in nuclear physics. They deal in fact that none of the authors have any A Symposium $1.00
a masterful way with the physicial workable suggestions for solving the
aspects of the bomb. atomic bomb problem. They pose all The U. S. and Britain
Crane Brinton $2.50
The first eleven chapters discuss specific the questions, but give no answers.
aspects of the atomic bomb problem. Ten They discuss at length the horror of the The Egg and I
of the chapters are written by scientists Betty McDonald $2.75
bomb—few of us have to read the book
who worked on the bomb. All of them to appreciate that—but do nothing to
agree that the inconceivable distructiveness ameliorate the tension under which we
of the bomb makes it the greatest weapon are living.
for peace that the world has ever known on U . S . F i e l d Ar t i l l e r y As s n .
If you want to know what the bomb
the ground that it is too terrible to use. The can do and—approximately—how it 1218 Connecticut Ave., N. W.
one military contributor to the book agrees does it, this is a very useful round-up of
with the scientists but from the opposite Washington 6, D. C.
expert opinion. If you want to know
viewpoint. He hails it as the savior of the what we should do with the bomb and
world because the nation which uses it will how we should do it, you will have to
win any war, hands down. seek elsewhere for the answer.

"Angry" Book air-naval battles of World War II but

THE CASE AGAINST THE ADMIRALS. was unheeded; that he was "fired out of
Edited by William Bradford Huie. 216 the service"; that he was eventually
pages; index. E. P. Dutton & taken back during the war not for his
Company, Inc. $2.50. ability but as a means to stifle his and
By John R. Cuneo Mr. Huie's) writings on air power after
other underhanded attempts by the Navy
At the moment of writing there is a to silence him—such as getting him
temporary lull in the vocal and ink fired from the Sperry Company and
warfare being publically waged by the threatening his publisher—failed. There
armed services over the question of seems to be reason for Mr. Huie's wrath
unification. Here is an angry attempt to and his chapters on the subject are the
destroy the truce, to arouse the public best in the book.
against the naval objections to For the most part the book is
unification and to win the battle for a primarily part of the attack by army
united armed service. airmen on the navy and is more of an
Mr. Huie's qualifications for writing argument for an independent air force
this book are based principally on the than for a unified command. It repeats
knowledge he acquired through an a great deal of the earlier The Fight for
by association with General Hugh Knerr of Air Power and in common with most
WILLIAM BRADFORD the AAF during which he was the air-power literature its style is high-
HUIE general's literary ghost and finally his pitched. Readers who know that the
Written from the Army Air Force collaborator in writing the book The fight on air power has not always been
"side of the arena," this book sets up Fight for Air Power (1942). To a lesser a conflict between angels (the airmen)
the following devastating charges extent his knowledge come from his and devils (the ground commands)
against the Navy high command. experiences as a historian of the Seabees may find it hard to stay with the book
9 Failed to act on the Martin-
concerning whom he wrote two well- to the end.
Bellinger report of August 20, 1941, received books. The book does not pretend to be a
which described in detail the The "admirals" accused by Mr. Huie balanced estimate of the situation and
planned Jap attack on Pearl are those in charge of the Navy hence its one-sided claims cannot be
Department—usually anonymous "Old criticized on that account. It is frankly
9 Engaged in fratricidal struggle to School Ties" although at times Admirals
prevent General MacArthur's the excited, rhetorical charge of a
appointment as Supreme Leahy and King come in for personal prosecutor to a lay jury.
Commander in the Pacific. attacks. This reactionary clique of
9 Hailed as great naval encounters admirals is charged with obstructing the Modern Boswell
the magnificent air victories at development of long-range MY THREE YEARS WITH
Midway and Coral Sea—when the bombardment aviation prior to and EISENHOWER. By Captain Harry C.
big naval guns fired not a single
shot at an enemy vessel. during the war, with being partially Butcher, USNR. 912 pp.; illustrated.
9 Hid the results of the test
responsible for the dual organization Simon and Schuster. $5.00.
bombing in 1937 of the battleship which at times during the war resulted in
Utah in an attempt to block the a fractricidal struggle for power and a To one unfamiliar with the European
development of heavy wasteful duplication of means, with theater of operations, this personal
bombardment aviation.
having a caste system which engendered diary of Captain Butcher makes
9 Maintains an un-American caste bitterness among the civilians inducted delightful reading. Tracing the day by
system that rates "normal and
customary procedures" above into the Navy and with refusing to day events, both social and military, of
intelligence. recognize the implications of air power the Supreme Commander in Europe, he
9 Opposed and opposes in the atomic age. As each of these unfolds the story of the days when
consolidation of our armed forces subjects could fill a separate volume, the General Eisenhower was actually
out of a desire to maintain its own discussion is necessarily brief. However, carving himself a sizable niche in
prestige and command position.
this sketchiness cannot help but make history.
"The book's attack on the Navy higher-ups
some of the claims of the author Starting on July 8, 1942, this book
is deadly and devastating. It will be
surprising indeed if it doesn't have unconvincing. faithfully records the actions,
repercussions on Capitol Hill, where so far It is, I have stated, an "angry" book. impressions and beliefs of a man who
the Navy brass has been able to prevent This arises from the fact that its most was destined to handle the largest
legislation uniting all forces under one original and interesting sections deal military organization ever to be
command." with Mr. Huie's hero, General Knerr. assembled on the face of this earth.
—Chicago Sun
The author's wrath is engendered by the From the first toddling steps of the
U. S. Field Artillery Assn. failure of the armed services to American forces in Europe, through the
1218 Connecticut Avenue recognize this man's value. Mr. Huie molding of the mighty allied SHEAF,
Washington 6, D. C. claims that General Knerr foretold the to the ultimate

victory of the allies, this diary gives the Pub. Rels. Off., FAS: 273, 274 heroine in that she is a cripple unable to
Daily Sketch: 279, 280, 282
reader an insight into many of the NY Herald Tribune and Irena Lorentowicz: 319 walk. Her handsome "King's General"
hitherto "TOP SECRET" phases that set Nice Cup of Tea — proud, embittered, cruel and
our course in the European war. The domineering, finds his only peace when
very subject matter of the book makes THE KING'S GENERAL. By Daphne du with her in the bleak Cornish-coast
it one that will be read by anyone who Maurier. 371 pp. Doubleday Co. castle which hid its grisly secret so long
has the slightest interest in the military. $2.75. and so well.
More than that, however, it will appeal By Susie-Lane Armstrong Ably bridged is the 300 years' gap since
to the many of us poor humans who George M. Cohan once observed the clash between His Majesty and
love to peek into the so-called private about a play in which he starred on Parliament; hence the reader is scarcely
lives of the famous. Broadway, "Well — it's a nice cup of aware of moving in another era of secret
Since this reviewer was busily tea." Much the same can be said of this passages, night-riding couriers and ships
engaged in another part of the world novel, for it lacks the full-bodied flavor in full sail. This vivid background of
during the period covered by the book, of the author's Rebecca and the action, however, tends to submerge the
he is not prepared to vouch for the stimulating tang of her Jamaica Inn. personalities themselves until so late in
authenticity of the statements contained Nevertheless, it's a satisfying brew for the book that we take their leave wishing
therein. Being recorded day by day, it several evenings' entertainment. Honor we had grown to know them better in the
cannot help but be an accurate record of Harris gives us the story—an unusual beginning.
the course of the world-shaking events
in that theater together with the
"bossman's" approach to the problems
he faced. As such, even the most
authoritative critic will find scant room
for criticism of the chronicle which
Captain Butcher has prepared.
Far from being the dry, staid, official
type of document, this book is written in
a very personable style with sufficient
"human" angles interspersed with the
historical data to make an easily
digestible seven-course biographical
The reader is held in positive awe of
the casualness with which the great
men of our time parade before him. We
breakfast with Marshall, lunch with the
King and sup with the Prime Minister.
Sandwiched in our day are constant
meetings with the world leaders of our
time. We are carried from London to
Gibraltar, thence to Africa, to Sicily,
Italy and then back to London to start
the great invasion of the Continent.
Each new scheme and each new Illustrated with maps, $3.00
operation brings to light the
innumerable problems to be solved,
questions to be answered and ruffled Sensational story of inside Allied High Command politics—a now-it-can-
personalities to be smoothed over. be-told account of personalities, conflict and strategy.
Butcher wrote it, Eisenhower lived it;
this interesting book is truly "a READ THE EDITORIAL ON PAGES 284-285—THEN
backstage account of the movements of
the most important actors in the greatest
drama ever played." R. F. C.
(If not listed, unsigned illustrations are
from authors, by the Journal staff, or from 1218 CONNECTICUT AVENUE WASHINGTON 6, D. C.
special sources. References are to pages.)
Signal Corps: 258, 264, 265, 266, 267, 271

Rational Thinking
Reves. 293 pp. Harpers. $2.00. "A major book . . .
Here's Mr. Reves has written a book that
gives us a basically sound argument on
unquestionably one
of the really good
the fundamentals of what it takes to
the make peace a reality. He has dealt with
novels of the war;
possibly it is the
the subject matter in a straightforward,
book clear manner that stimulates thinking on
the problems with which we are faced
—From a front-page review in the
today. New York Times Book Review
His discussions of the faults and
failures of the various types of society
Walter Winchell prevalent in the world yesterday and
today gives us an insight into many James Aldridge's
heretofore unnoticed causes of the recent
urges you
to read
world-wide conflict.
He points out with startling clarity that
the present United Nations Charter is not
insurance of peace unless the peoples of
the world are willing to go the extra mile
to live the peace for which we are all
Anatomy of Peace will be hailed a
service by the thousands of puzzled
men and women today who are
haunted by the question of "Where do
by Emery Reves we go from here." It should be read by
every thinking person throughout the
‹ world.
R. E. C.
Model Book
"If you want to find out
BASTOGNE: The Story of the First
where you stand in this crisis Eight Days in Which the 101st By the author of
and what wars are all about Airborne Division Was Closed Within SIGNED WITH THEIR
and why we have them and the Ring of German Forces. By Col. S. HONOUR
L. A. Marshall, assisted by Capt. John
how we might avoid wars, "Not since Hemingway has the
G. Westover and Lt. A. Joseph raw material of war been lifted
then read a sensational new Webber. 216 pp.; illustrated; maps. so faithfully and so completely
best seller, THE Infantry Journal Press. $3.00. to the level of art."—David
Dempsey, N.Y. Times Book
ANATOMY OF PEACE, By Maj Gen. H. W. Blakeley, USA Review
written in plain talk. . . . He This book is recommended without "Mr. Aldridge has a sharp eye
for significant detail, a good ear
debunks almost all the things reservation to everyone who participated for soldier talk . . . His chapters .
most of us discuss daily. in the historic eight days referred to in . . taken together, make a
Read it and then convince the title, to army officers who are striking panorama that runs all
writing unit histories, and to anyone who the way from Finland and
your neighbor who believes likes a straightforward story of a military Norway, through Africa and
Italy, to New Guinea and the
the propaganda instead of action. It is in many respects a model banks of the Oder."—Orville
the facts." book. Its background is remarkable. Prescott, N. Y. Times
$2.00 Colonel Marshall, official historian of
‹ the European Theater of Operations, was $2.50
on the ground at Bastogne with trained
U. S. Field Artillery Assn. assistants while the battle was still in The Field Artillery Journal
progress. Between December 31, 1944, 1218 Connecticut Avenue
1218 Connecticut Avenue and January 25, 1945, interviews were Washington 6, D. C.
Washington 6, D. C. conducted with individual American
officers and with whole groups of

officers and enlisted men. Official of the armed forces." Hard Pounding is
records were available to an unusual a big step toward accomplishing the
degree. Nearly a year later, in November
and December, 1945, the author
author's aim. It is unfortunate that this
handbook was not produced at an earlier FIGHTING
conducted a series of conferences with date in the war, in order that it might
the three senior German generals most
directly concerned in the Bastogne
have been available for study by those
elements of our combat forces who were
By CWO E. J. Kahn, Jr. and
opinion. Rarely has such a combination engaged in anti-tank warfare. The book,
T/Sgt. Henry McLemore
of military and historical ability and of as a whole, is in the nature of a notebook
first hand knowledge of both sides of the reflecting the experiences of the author
operation gone into a book. and of his research into the matter
There are many sketches showing in discussed.
considerable detail all of the main In his initial chapters Colonel Court
actions in the vicinity of Bastogne traces the development of the
during the period covered. Some twenty philosophy of tank and anti-tank
reproductions of photographs, and warfare in a unique and interesting
several drawings made by Tech. Sgt. way. Many questions are raised and
Olin Dows during the seige will bring answers are offered with the obvious
back memories to anyone who fought intent of stimulating thought and
in the ETO in the winter of 1944-45. discussion on the matter. This part of
One section is devoted to notes on the the book is well worth the attention of
text. One of the few unfavorable all armored and artillery personnel. The first book to tell the stories of
comments possible on this book is to say Unfortunately the latter part of the every Army division — infantry,
armored, cavalry, mountain,
that this is an unfortunate arrangement, book, which is devoted to organization, airborne—in World War II. Besides
in that notes of interest to most readers is not strictly applicable in view of the histories the book contains the
and notes which are merely references to recent trend in the doctrine of our official patches of all
divisions in color.
authority for statements in the text are armored forces toward the development
not separated.
U. S. Field Artillery Assn.
of a fighter tank for tank destroyer 1218 Conn. Ave. Washington 6, D. C.
purposes. However, the principles
Antitank Warfare involved are still applicable.
HARD POUNDING by Lt. Col. G. D. W.
Court, MC, RA. 137 pp; index;
photographs; U.S. Field Artillery
Association $2.50
By Col. Peter C. Hains, III, Cav
Although Colonel Court and I served
in the Tunisian Theater together, the
privilege of making his acquaintance by LT.-COL. G. D. W. COURT, R. A.
was deferred until the fall of 1943 when
we served together at the Tank
Destroyer Center, Camp Hood, Texas.
From the very beginning we found our HERE IS A DEFINITIVE BOOK ON
sympathies and experiences in combat TANK KILLING — THE TACTICS AND
with respect to anti-tank warfare were
closely allied. Colonel Court furnished TECHNIQUE OF ANTITANK
valuable assistance to the Tank
Destroyer Center in analyzing and
WARFARE. $2.50
criticizing our methods, doctrine, and
procedure from a constructive
As the author points out in his preface, Published by
"there exists definite gaps in the written
material already produced, in various U. S. FIELD ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION
forms, covering the employment of anti- 1218 CONNECTICUT AVE., N. W., WASHINGTON 6, D. C.
tank guns of all calibers. My aim, then,
was to make some attempt to fill those
gaps in a constructive manner, not solely
for the anti-tanker, but for all members

The matter of towed versus self-

propelled anti-tank weapons is one of
opinion. Experience in the European
theaters leads the United States Army to
favor the self-propelled types. Colonel
Court's views should be given wide
consideration, however, as they are
pertinent to many other theaters of
operation and types of combat.
Military men will do well to read and
consider Hard Pounding, as it is a clear,
simple, exposition of the problems of
destroying mechanized combat machines
by anti-tank warfare.

Between Great and Good

RED CANVAS. By Marcel Wallenstien.
304 pp. Creative Age Press. $2.75.
By Major James V. Shea, AC "The love story of
Tod is an American pin-up artist; little Anya and her
Desna his titian-haired wife; and Paula is
an English government girl. The setting
huge captain is told
is war-torn London in the preinvasion with such delicacy
days, moving for its finale into liberated
Paris. The plot reverberates through and grace that one
bombings, boudoirs, battles and black easily understands
It would seem that with all thse why the whole
ingredients, Red Canvas couldn't escape
being a great novel. However, something
battalion fell in love
is missing—that special touch that spells with Anya. No one
the difference between great and just
good. It is good reading.
can read Days and
Tod, separated from his lovely wife Nights without a lift
just prior to the outbreak of hostilities
in Europe, receives an urgent message of the spirit and
from her requesting his return. He is some little accretion
unable to get back to her until he
receives a job with OWI as an of pride in being a
While waiting for an opportunity to
get into Paris, he meets Paula in London. —New York Times
Her characteristically British calm Book Review
soothes his troubled heart and he finds
solace in her arms until, torn between —————
This is one of a spate of superb
two loves, he accepts an invitation to reviews (there have been no adverse
accompany the invasion of the continent. ones) which have greeted the
In his rush to get to Desna in occupied publication of this major novel from
Paris, Tod leaves the Army to join forces the Soviet Union. Days and Nights is
with the FFI. After several hair-raising the epic story of the Battle of
ORDER NOW episodes in which he sees several of his Stalingrad, told by Russia's hero-
friends killed and kills his first Boche, reporter-poet, Konstantine Simonov.
he reaches his wife. (A Book-of-the-Month Club selection.)
Their hectic stay together entangles —————
U. S. FIELD ARTILLERY ASS'N. them in black market investigations and The Field Artillery Journal
1218 Conn. Ave., Wash. 6, D. C. ends in an abrupt and final parting.
1218 Connecticut Avenue
Mr. Wallenstein concludes his yarn in
a very satisfactory manner, with all Washington 6, D. C.
concerned getting their just deserts.

short stories, novels and plays. With this overwhelmed by the first 502 pages,
Repeated here is your book, he has established himself as one which are devoted to pre-World War I
of Russia's foremost non-political days. Regrettable, incidentally, are
Association's earnest writers. R. F. C. certain factual as well as obviously
request for copies of unit Completely Unique typographical errors that crept into the
histories of divisional LANDING OPERATIONS. Strategy, chapter on the Normandy landings, the
greatest in world history.
and non-divisional Psychology, Tactics, Politics, from
But this monumental work — and
Antiquity to 1945. By Dr. Alfred
artillery units in World Vagts. 831 pp.; index; illustrated. such it is—cannot be judged as a mere
War II. Military Service Publishing Company. detailed history of specific landing
$5.00. operations. Transcending these details is
Dr. Vagts' scholarly analysis of the
Stalingrad Saga In a sense, this book exceeds even its psycho-political and other related
sweeping title and sub-title. It includes factors, viewed objectively in their ever-
DAYS AND NIGHTS. By Konstatine not only landings from the sea, but also changing time setting, that combined in
Siminov; translated by Joseph Barnes, landings from the air, and in addition World War II to achieve a "new
421 pp. Simon and Schuster. $2.75. goes into the question of command. It is synthesis" among the sea, air and ground
divided into four parts: The Overall forces. Unlike World War I (a "war of
Most of us book readers have been a
Picture, Ancient and Medieval missed opportunities"), Dr. Vagts
little dubious about the books written by
Operations, 17th and 18th Centuries, and concludes that World War II experience,
Russians that have come out of Russia in
The Age of Steam. including the advent and use of the atom
the past few decades. Most of them
The author was German born, and bomb, "in combined and landing
could not avoid weaving their political
served in the German Infantry from operations has provided the incitement
thread throughout the pattern of their
1914 to 1918. He is now an American for officers and civilians to consider, if
history. Konstatine Siminov, in this new
citizen and a prolific writer on military not to demand, the unification of
novel, has successfully evaded that
subjects. services in the United States."
Of continuing interest to some military Completely unique, Landing
He brings us the simple story of a scholars and certainly a contribution to Operations constitutes a major
young Red Army officer and the Russian the history of warfare, the average contribution to the world's library of
nurse with whom he falls in love. The soldier with an interest or experience in military art.
siege of Stalingrad would scarcely be landing operations may be somewhat D. A.
selected by most of us for the setting of a
beautiful romance. However, in Days
and Nights, the author has skillfully
brought into play all the emotional
nuissance that any reader could ask by
A work of permanent and outstanding distinction by an
combining the grisly tale of the Russian
defense of that city with the heart- authoritative military historian
warming tale of the romance of this DR. ALFRED VAGTS
officer and his nurse.
We go with Capt. Saburov and his WORLD WAR II produced the greatest series of
battalion to take up the defense of landing operations the world has ever seen. Their
Stalingrad, and, in the course of the magnitude and the diversity of the landings in the
Pacific, Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa
seventy days and nights that follow, we
tend to create the impression that this type of military
seize and hold three apartment houses, enterprise is something new, particularly since in
do away with a traitor in our midst and modern times and until World War II we had been
despite the horrible casualties inflicted shown only a small German action in the Baltic and
on us, successfully repel the German abortive attempts at Gallipoli. However, as with so
attempts to wrest our position from us. much else in war, there is nothing much that is new in
The captain, when wounded, is cared for principle; the only really new participating element in
in the home of his nurse and the landing operations are paratroops, and these merely
resulting account of their romance contribute another element to the basic pattern of
amphibious operations.
beautifully unfolds as the tide of battle Doctor VAGTS covers the entire history of landing operations in this
swings into our favor. monumental work, from the earliest recorded ventures of the Greeks to 1945.
The author, Konstatine Siminov, is He analyzes all phases of the tremendous problem, and correlates the
one of Russia's outstanding war lessons provided by remote records with the history-making operations of the
correspondents and has written many war waged by the Allies and the Axis.
Numerous illustrations and maps $5.00

Surrender Without Shame Honor and the just acquittal of one of

GENERAL WAINWRIGHT'S STORY. By America's most gallant soldiers.

General Jonathan M. Wainwright. No tale of Japanese mistreatment of
Edited by Robert Considine. American prisoners of war has been
Doubleday and Co. $3.00. more forcefully told. The American
commanding general tended goats,

MONEY! "Bataan" and "Corregidor" were the

greatest defeat for American arms in
history. Accompanying the tale of this
sharpened razor blades and was struck
by Japanese enlisted personnel for not
bowing with proper respect. The
defeat is a grim and pitiless story of
starvation, privation and utter hu-
gallantry and heroism by our vastly
miliation that was forced upon this
outnumbered defenders.
group should arouse readers whose
As the commanding general of the U. memories have been dulled by the
S. forces in this engagement, General complete about-face the Japanese
Order Wainwright unfolds a heart-breaking people have taken in defeat.
reminder of our complete
In the final chapters of the book
Your Books unpreparedness for war in those years,
and the price that he and his men had to
General Wainwright, witnessing the
surrender of Yamashita, tells the
From Your pay for it.
The heroism of the American and
American general in charge that he
hopes that Yamashita will receive the
Filipino soldiers who fought in this
Association campaign overshadows that in other
courtesy due his rank in the matter of
personal accommodations, housing and
phases of the war because every one of food. Wainright is thus revealed as a
——— them knew that they were without hope good soldier, a good loser and, in the
of reenforcement or supply. For five end a great winner—an outstanding
months these men laid down their individual tribute to the way of life for
10% discount on orders from lives, inching back grudgingly, which we fought. R. F. C.
$2.50 to $10.00. inflicting terrible losses on the enemy
before additional resistance became Sidewalk to Greatness
15% discount on orders of hopeless.
$10.00 or more. AL SMITH, AMERICAN—Frank
Starting at the very beginning of the
Graham—G. P. Putnam's Sons [$2.50]
war in the Philippines, General
——— Wainwright leads us through the many From the sidewalks of New York to
heart-breaking events that heralded the the Governor's mansion in Albany from
ultimate defeat. He takes the reader a clerk in a Fulton St. fish-market to the
ORDER ANY BOOK through his months of confinement and Democratic nominee for President of the
IN PRINT in true fiction manner brings the reader United States; Al Smith American is a
out of his imprisonment to witness the fine biography of a great American.
THIS COUPON FOR YOUR unconditional surrender of the Japanese Born in the shadows of the Brooklyn
CONVENIENCE commander who defeated him, back Bridge, Al Smith's rise to fame reads
home to the Congressional Medal of like a novel from the pen of Horatio
Alger. Forced to support his family at an
early age, the "Happy Warriior” did not
have the advantages of much formal
education. However, his mother did
instill in him the faith in God and
country that gave him the courage to
face hardships squarely and enable him
to raise himself to be a useful citizen and
public servant.
Frank Graham introduces us to the
myriad of friends, politicans and the
wonderful family that helped mold the
career of the man in the Brown Derby.
Simply told, the life of Al Smith will
appeal to readers of all ages, regardless
of their political or religion beliefs, as a
true chronicle of the American way of
life. D. A.

May Is
Children's Book Month
Good reading habits can't start
too early and we're lucky to live
in an age when juvenile books
seem to have reached the peak
of perfection—both in story
content and eye-appeal. For
"doubting Thomases" whose
homes are besieged with comics,
we offer this page as proof.
Culling books both old and new,
we hope we've helped the
youngsters, through their
parents, to find that reading can
be fun. Timely too are we, for
Children's National Book Week
is a May highlight.

Tried and True

W. Burgess. Illustrated by Harrison
Cady. Little, Brown Co. $1.75.
Again Peter Rabbit lipperty-lips out of
the Briar Patch to check up on such good
neighbors as Prickly Porky, grandfather
Frog and Jerry Muskrat, who explain
their habits to their inquisitive friend as
in On the Green Meadow. Mr. Burgess
celebrates in this second book of an
excellent modern series with twenty-
eight new nature stories. Mr. Cady's
abundance of pictures will charm THE VOYAGES OF DR. DOOLITTLE yearlings and Man-o-War in his
children who absorb an astonishing — stories and pictures by Hugh magnificent prime—so fine a parade of
amount of accurate and scientific Lofting. Frederick A. Stokes Co. pictures that it heaps riches to find that
information through these lovable tales. $2.50. the story itself lives up to its splendid
(Ages 5-9) setting. (Ages 6-10)
WHEN WE WERE VERY YOUNG, NOW Although awarded the John Newberdy
Medal for "The most distinguished THE ROOSTER CROWS. By Maud and
WE ARE SIX, WINNIE THE POOH, Miska Petersham. Macmillan Co.
THE HOUSE AT POOH CORNER. By contribution to American literature for
children in 1922," children had already $2.00. (Primary)
A. A. Milne. E. P. Dutton. $1.00 each.
(Ageless) placed this delightful doctor high on their A treasure chest of American rhymes
approved list, where he still remains. and jingles that makes an inspiring
No primary series would be complete More recent adventures include Dr. discovery for the young patriot—
without a deep bow to Mr. Milne, whose Doolittle's Caravan, Garden and Zoo, beautifully compiled and illustrated.
Christopher Robin will always stay each with drawings as quaint and amusing ARTIE AND THE PRINCESS. Story and
young. His When We Were Very Young as the doctor himself. (Ages 6-10) pictures by Marjorie Torrey. Howell,
and Now We Are Six are books of Choice and Charming Sosking. $2.00.
rhymes no child should miss, and adults SALUTE. Story and pictures by C. W.
will enjoy reading aloud. Rolliking story The cutest green-scaled baby dragon
Anderson. Macmillan Co. $2.00. that ever fluttered a long eyelash and a
books are his Winnie the Pooh and The
House at Pooh Corner. Stiff-legged colts, soft-muzzled gauzy wing through a story book of fun
and songs. Spurred by his prim princess
playmate, he learns to fly and to "smoke
and fume" as any proper dragon should.
(Ages 5-9)
292d BORROWED 7th F.A.
Obsn. Bn.
Sixth Army Officer's
DOE Mess
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