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How to train your child to think like a genius By Megan Wong
www.gamesforfunkids.com

Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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How to train your child to think like a genius
Table of contents Introduction What is child development? Motor Development Gross Motor Development Fine Motor Development Perpetual Motor Development The Importance of Motor Development Activities to help develop Motor skills Learning Theory – Howard Gardner Multi Intelligences Cognitive Development Stages of cognitive development Theory of Cognitive Development – Jean Piaget 10 essential skills to help develop cognitive development Social Development Stages of social development Emotional Growth Erik Erikson on stages of emotional growth Creative Growth The different process to develop creative thinking DISCLAIMER AND/OR LEGAL NOTICES Page

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Introduction- What is child development?
Early childhood education is an exciting, fun and rewarding field. Early childhood is the period of life from infancy through age eight and there have been many programs and philosophies educating on how best to bring out the natural talents and gifts in children during this stage. This e-book is written to equip teachers, parents and child care providers on the different aspects of child development and has fun, enjoyable activities and tips to help children explore, develop and tap into their individual gifts, talents, creativity and develop their thinking and learning skills. One important factor which teachers, parents and child care providers must always remember is to inject FUN whenever possible in their teaching as fun learning is effective learning. Child development refers to how a child becomes able to do more complex things as they get older. When we talk about normal development, we are talking about developing skills like: 1. Motor skills Gross motor skills where children use their large muscles to sit, stand, walk, run, etc., keeping balance, and changing positions. Fine motor skills is the child's ability to use small muscles, specifically their hands and fingers, to pick up small objects, hold a spoon, turn pages in a book, or use a crayon to draw, to eat, to write. 2. Cognitive development This is the children's ability and growth of skills to learn, solve problems, understand and interact with the world around them through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. 3. Social development This is the stage where the children learn what behavior is acceptable and expected in an environment, the ability to interact with others, including helping themselves and self-control, having relationships with family, friends and teachers. 4. Emotional growth This is the child's ability to deal with, manage, express and control their emotional states, including anger, sadness, excitement, anxiety and joy. 5. Creative growth Creativity is the mental ability to think creatively and using one's own imagination to create new ideas, to be original, reform old ideas, develops a new business idea, composes a piece of music, paints a new painting or designs something new and innovative.

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Motor Development
What is motor development? Growth and movement are two of the most notable features of young children and basic motor skills develop in the early childhood years and lays the foundation for movement and motor proficiency and if they are not developed during their early years, these motor skills will often remain unlearned. Motor development is a sequential stages of change in motor behavior based on the interaction of the following maturation prior experiences new motor activities The following chart shows the sequential order of motor development during the early years. The ages shown are averages and it is normal for these to vary by a month or two in either direction. 2 months – able to lift head up on his own 3 months – can roll over 4 months – can sit propped up without falling over 6 months – is able to sit up without support 7 months – begins to stand while holding on to things for support 9 months – can begin to walk, still using support 10 months – is able to momentarily stand on her own without support 11 months – can stand alone with more confidence 12 months – begin walking alone without support 14 months – can walk backward without support 17 months – can walk up steps with little or no support 18 – 24 months – able to manipulate objects with feet while walking, such as kicking a ball 3 years – can walk up/downstairs independently, running 3 – 5 years – jumping on two feet and hopping on one foot Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

5 4 years – walk up/downstairs with continuous movement 5 years and up – running much faster 5 – 6 years – skipping 5 – 8 years – roller-skating/bicycling Motor development follows a directional pattern as large muscles develop before the smaller muscles which explains why most preschoolers are more apt at running than using scissors for cutting. Parents can better foster children's motor development when they understand their temperament and know what skills are suitable for their age. Temperament plays an important role in motivating and stimulating interest in children to learn and practice motor skills. Some children are "motor driven" and want to try everything while others are "motor cautious" and need time to watch others before trying things themselves. Gross Motor Development Gross motor skills involve use of large muscle movements. Children use large muscle groups to crawl, creep, roll, skip and run. Parents can pick activities which involve balancing, agility, coordination, flexibility, strength, speed and endurance to enhance their current skills and foster the development of emerging skills. Fine Motor Development This involves the small muscle movements of children hands and fingers in coordination with their eyes and activities require dexterity, precision and manipulative skills. Playing with toys, sewing, writing are activities that uses small muscles while learning to reach, grasp, hold, push and spin refine these fine motor skills. Perpetual Motor Development Perception means the ability to know or to interpret information from the environment and motor involves responding to it with movement. Perceptual motor development means a child's ability to receive, interpret and respond successfully to sensory information. The basic categories of perpetual motor development are : Gross motor activities (locomotor) Moving the body from one place to another – rolling, crawling, walking, skipping, jumping & landing, hopping, running, leaping, galloping and dodging Vestibular activities Spinning, balancing, dancing, skipping, jumping Visual motor activities (Manipulative) Involves more eye-hand and foot-eye coordination like catching, throwing, kicking. Temporal awareness helps the children to predict time like dancing to a rhythmic beat. Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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Auditory motor activities Auditory awareness includes the ability to understand and carry out verbal instructions and to differentiate among a variety of sounds and helps children process information about language. Singing, rhymes and chants are such activities. Lateralization activities The child is able to perform bilateral (simultaneous or parallel), unilateral (one side of the body) movements and cross lateral (simultaneous movement of different limbs on opposite sides of the body like crawling) movements. Spatial awareness This is a sense of the child's body relationship to space and knowing what their body parts can do. Spatial awareness gives children the skills in drawing, doing puzzles, mazes. Children who has a well-developed spatial intelligence are the artists as they think in pictures and images which makes them imaginative and creative. Why is motor development important? There has been research conducted that demonstrates that improved perceptual motor development can positively affect a child’s academic performance. It can also enhances the children's ability to find solutions to a problem respond appropriately at their own age and development level learning how to work with others learn to share learning to express themselves be creative has self-confidence develop strong muscles refine motor skills practice divergent thinking – having fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration are important thinking tools for success in reading and language arts.

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7 Activities to develop motor skills Gross Motor Development Throw or kicking a ball into a box. The game of hopscotch is a good gross motor skill activity. Swimming activities like jumping up and down in shallow water pools. Using a slide is a fun and good gross motor skills as they learn to climb up and down the ladder and they have fun sliding down. It teaches the child to put one foot in front of the other when they climb. Learning to skip is an essential gross motor skill preschoolers need to learn. This is an activity that needs to be learned by rote and practiced on a flat, smooth surface. Most children learn to skip by age five.

This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius! Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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Fine Motor Development Shape sorter is a good game to develop fine motor skills Building a tower of blocks – start with two blocks progressing to six blocks Putting puzzles together – big non-interlocking puzzles are recommended Dot-to-dot drawings of pictures, objects, shapes, numbers, letters Match shapes, color, or pictures to a page and paste them within the outlines Tracing and coloring Create a card to practice writing or tracing skills, cutting and pasting

This is an activity extracted from “Brain Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius!

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9 Learning Theory Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct multi intelligences. According to this theory, we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains."

The below model is a simple grid illustrating the seven Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence type Linguistic Logical-Mathematical Musical Bodily-Kinesthetic Spatial-Visual Interpersonal Intra personal Capability and perception Words, spoken or written Logic, reasoning, numbers Music, hearing, sound, rhythm Bodily movement and physiology Images, vision and spatial judgment Interaction with others Self-awareness, self-motivated

Howard Gardner in his further research suggested additional intelligences. Intelligence type Naturalist Spiritual/Existential Moral Capability and perception Nature and the environment Religion, life, death, and ultimate realities) Ethics, humanity, value of life

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Suggested activities to develop bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. 1. Play the game of Simple Simon Says (can help to develop the linguistic intelligence) 2. Children use their bodies to form alphabets (can help to develop the linguistic intelligence) 3. Children dancing to a rhythmic music (can help to develop the musical intelligence)

This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius!

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Cognitive Development
What is cognitive development? This is the infant's and children's ability and growth of skills to learn, solve problems, understand and interact with the world around them through the interaction of genetic and learned factors. Among the areas of cognitive development are information processing, intelligence, reasoning, language development, and memory. The below grid depicts the stages of cognitive development in children. Cognitive development Age Activity One month Watches person when spoken to. Two months Smiles at familiar person talking. Begins to follow moving person with eyes. Four months Shows interest in bottle, breast, familiar toy, or new surroundings. Five months Smiles at own image in mirror. Looks for fallen objects. Six months May stick out tongue in imitation. Laughs at peekaboo game. Vocalizes at mirror image. May act shy around strangers. Seven months Responds to own name. Tries to establish contact with a person by cough or other noise. Eight months Reaches for toys out of reach. Responds to "no." Nine months Shows likes and dislikes. May try to prevent face-washing or other activity that is disliked. Shows excitement and interest in foods or toys that are well-liked. Ten months Starts to understand some words. Waves bye-bye. Holds out arm or leg for dressing. Eleven months Repeats performance that is laughed at. Likes repetitive play. Shows interest in books. Twelve months May understand some "where is...?" questions. May kiss on request. Fifteen months Asks for objects by pointing. Starting to feed self. Negativism begins. Eighteen months Points to familiar objects when asked "where is...?" Mimics familiar adult activities. Know some body parts. Obeys two or three simple orders. Two years Names a few familiar objects. Draws with crayons. Obeys found simple orders. Participates in parallel play. Two-and-a-half Names several common objects. Begins to take interest in sex organs. Gives full years names. Helps to put things away. Peak of negativism. Three years Constantly asks questions. May count to 10. Begins to draw specific objects. Dresses and undresses doll. Participates in cooperative play. Talks about things that have happened. Four years May make up silly words and stories. Beginning to draw pictures that represent familiar things. Pretends to read and write. May recognize a few common words, such as own name.

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12 Cognitive development Age Activity Five years Can recognize and reproduce many shapes, letters, and numbers. Tells long stories. Begins to understand the difference between real events and makebelieve ones. Asks meaning of words. SOURCE: Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, 5 th ed. and Child Development Institute, http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com. Parents can enhance their child's intellectual development through environmental factors. They can provide stimulating learning materials and experiences from an early age, read to and talk with their children, and help children explore the world around them. As children mature, parents can both challenge and support the child's talents. Although a supportive environment in early childhood provides a clear advantage for children, it is possible to make up for early losses in cognitive development if a supportive environment is provided at some later period, in contrast to early disruptions in physical development, which are often irreversible. Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget was one of the most influential and exciting researchers in the area of child developmental and psychology during the 20th century. There are two major aspects to his theory - the process of coming to know and the stages children move through as they gradually acquire this ability. He developed a new method for studying thought processes, rather than relying on standardized tests, he adapted a method of question and response called “le methode clinique” which is basically a technique where the adult asks questions, then adapts their teaching style and further inquiries based on the children's natural ways of thinking. Piaget identified four stages in cognitive development : 1. Sensorimotor stage (Zero to two years) This has 6 stages and intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. Infants gain knowledge of the world from the physical actions they perform on it. Knowledge is limited here but developing as it is based on understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences such as seeing and hearing with physical and motor skills. Some symbolic (language) abilities are developed at the end of this stage. 2. Pre-operational stage (Two to six or seven years) During this stage, the child learns to use and to represent objects by images, words, and drawings. Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed. The child is able to form stable concepts as well as mental reasoning and believes in magic and fantasy. Thinking is still egocentric, illogical and non-reversible and the the child has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. 3. Concrete operational stage (Seven to twelve years) During this stage is characterized by the appropriate use of logic and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Important processes during this stage are : Seriation - the ability to sort objects in a logical series according to size, shape, or any other characteristic. Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

13 Transitivity - the ability to recognize logical relationships among things in a serial order, and perform 'transitive inferences' (for example, If Mary is shorter than Jane, and Jane is shorter than Ann, then Mary must be shorter than Ann). Classification – the ability to name and identify sets of objects according to appearance, size or other characteristic, including the idea that one set of objects can include another. Decentering – the ability to find a solution to a problem. Reversibility – the ability to understand that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state such as 2 + 4=6 and 6 - 4=2 Conservation – the ability to understand quantity, length or number of items is unrelated to the arrangement or appearance of the object or items. Egocentric thought diminishes. 4. Formal operational stage (12 years to adulthood) is the final of the periods of cognitive development in Piaget's theory. In this stage, intelligence is demonstrated where individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think abstractly, reason logically, handle proportions, algebraic, manipulation and draw conclusions from the information available, as well as apply all these processes to hypothetical situations. Many pre-school and primary programs are modeled on Piaget's theory. Discovery learning and supporting the developing interests of the child are two primary instructional techniques. It is recommended that parents and teachers challenge the child's abilities, but NOT present material or information that is too far beyond the child's level. It is also recommended that parents use a wide variety of concrete experiences to help the child learn. It has been widely known that play is essential for all children’s healthy development and learning across all ages, domains, and cultures because when children play, it provides the following: Enables children to make sense of their world Develops social and cultural understandings Allows children to express their thoughts and feelings Fosters flexible and divergent thinking Provides opportunities to meet and solve real problems Develops language and literacy skills and concepts

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14 Suggested activities to develop cognitive development in children. 1. Jean Piaget's theory is two-fold first- learning is a process of discovery, of finding out and guiding what the child needs to know to solve a particular problem and second - knowledge results from active thought, from making mental connections among objects and from constructing a meaningful reality for understanding. Parents can encourage their children's thinking when they ask questions and parents must remember to teach effectively, you must ask more often than to tell the answer. Using why, what, where, how, when, what if to start a question is a fun and effective tool to use to harness children's (whatever their age) natural curiosity to develop their thinking and cognitive skills. When parents teach and guide their children on how to take charge of their own thinking when they discover new subjects, parents are actually empowering them to understand with clarity and the “inside out” of the concepts and ideas. Phrases which parents can use to help their children learn and think What would happen if...? How can you find out? Can you think of another way to find the solution? What is happening? How would you feel if.........? What do you think the problem is about? What else can you use? What comes next? Tell me how you found the solution? These phrases help the children : To think through subjects for themselves To establish links or relationships between what they already know and new topics Have the confidence to explore topics in their own creative way, using their own ideas.

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This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius!

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16 2. Classification is the ability to group like objects based on their characteristic – shape, color, size,etc. Playing with your children on classification games increases their logical thinking skills and reinforces maths vocabulary. Have four to five pairs of toy animals and scatter them on the table. Ask the child to sort or classify the toy animals which are the same. Ask them why they think they are the same. What makes each pair of toys different from the other pair. Have the child cut out pictures from magazines or newspapers and let them think through the classification process and decide what categories they want to use. They can sort into transport, people, nature or animal groups.

This is an activity extracted from “Math Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius!

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17 3. Seriation is the ability to sort objects in a logical series according to size, shape, or any other characteristic. Most Montessori materials are of this concept where children build pyramid towers in the order from largest piece to smallest as it is being built. Parents can also use graduated measuring cups and spoons and following a sequence – from big to the smallest size. Parents can also use ribbons, ropes and ask the child to place from shortest to longest then reverse from longest to shortest. Parents can gather about 4 to 5 animal toys of different size and ask child to place toy from biggest to smallest size. 4. Numbers Parents can help their children understand the concept of number by letting them have direct experience with materials and objects. Parents can play this game with their children. Hold four apples, give three apples to your child. Mary, you have three apples and I give you one more. How many do you have now? Children under five need songs, rhymes and finger plays that include numbers – One little, two little, three little Indians. Once children can understand numbers, they are ready to use mathematical terms and other forms of expression and mathematical knowledge is now being seen as an emergent understanding of concepts.

This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius! Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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5. Symbols A symbol represents something else and to symbolize means learning to use one object to represent something else. Parents can describe the sun by asking questions. “It is round, yellow, stays in the sky, very bright and very hot. What is it?”

6. Spatial relationships Fitting things together, take things apart ,rearrange things and navigation are activities which develops spatial skills in children. Children with well developed spatial skills are very creative, dramatic, artistic and musical. Parents can encourage their child to play with puzzles, constructing Lego, complete mazes, play chess and play dough to create anything.

7. Time Understanding time can be a Herculean task for children. Parents can play speed games with their children. Ask the children to run as fast as they can and walk as slow as they can. Ask them how they felt? Explain to them what objects are fast like a rocket- that is super-fast or a turtle – that is super-slow. Parents can help their children understand the concept of time by going through with them their daily routine. At 7 in the morning, you wake up and by 9 in the morning you are in the school. We always go to the park to play on Sunday because we are all at home.

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This is an activity extracted from “Brain Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius!

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20 8. Decentering is the ability to find a solution to a problem. This can be best illustrated by this example. You give your child a puzzle which seems very alien to them. To solve the puzzle, the child has to understand it and to do that, they would explore parts of the puzzle, switch their thinking in response to their discoveries, utilize all their previous knowledge and rotating their thoughts until they understood the puzzle better. Then they proceed to solve the puzzle. The ability to do all of this and at a great speed is what makes great thinkers. Parents can play the game of riddles “What is it?”. Riddles engage children in a great deal of thinking activity and it is fun. 9. Reversibility is the ability to understand that numbers or objects can be changed, then returned to their original state such as 2 + 4=6 and 6 – 4=2. Parents can use toys to play this game. Place 3 animal toys in a group and 2 animal toys in another group. Ask child what happens if these two groups are put together. Once the child understands this concept, parents can reverse this game by having 5 animal toys in a group, 3 animal toys in another group. Ask child how many more animal toys do you need to make up 5?

This is an activity extracted from “Math Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius! Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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10. Language development
Language is the ability to express oneself. Language is both :receptive – listening, understanding, responding and expressive – articulation, vocabulary, grammar and graphic language. Receptive Language Receptive language is a child's ability to understand spoken, written or visual communication or when they learn to listen and understand the language that is presented to them. It is what they hear and with this skill children are able to understand directions, answer questions and to follow a sequence of events. They develop some mental pictures as they listen. Parents can develop receptive language by Giving clear and brief directions. “Please sit near the table.” instead of “Please sit over there.” Encourage the child to ask questions and answer appropriately. Rephrasing the child's last sentence into a question “You drank what? Give instructions in a sequence. “Brush your teeth, then rinse with this cup of water. Then wipe your face”. Parents can also ask their children what they think they should do next. Encourage your children to think out loud. “What do you think will happen to the snowman after winter?” Parents are encouraged to use poetry and nursery rhymes as they are fun and enrich a child's vocabulary through their short, simple texts. Rhymes stay with us as they are passed from one generation to another. Nursery rhymes have a musical quality incorporating language rhythm, patterns and rhymes in every verse which fascinates children to develop their language. Listen and pay attention when your child is talking with you and not to rush them. Expressive Language Expressive language is the ability of the child to communicate with others through language and the child can express language through speech, sign language, pointing to words and pictures on a book, gestures. Expressive language in the early years includes words – children's first words are often “ma-ma or pa-pa.” grammar – parents can help their children by communicating with them in simple sentences as they are listening to learn elaboration – as the child's language develop, their language expand through description, narration, explanation and communication.

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The chart below shows a child's typical language development but parents must remember that every child is unique and vary quite considerably with regards to the rate at which they reach the various speech and language “milestones”. Parents should not feel alarmed if their children is not behaving at the ages stated. This chart only serves as a yardstick to monitor your child's progress and if parents feel that their child seems to be behind in language development, it is advisable to discuss it with your child's physician. This page contains an article about speech and language development. Cite it as: Bowen, C. (1998). Ages and Stages: Developmental milestones for receptive and expressive
language development. Retrieved from http://www.speech-language-therapy.com/devel2.htm on (date).

Receptive Language Learning to Listen, and to Understand Language Birth Language learning starts at birth. Even new babies are aware of the sounds in the environment. They listen to the speech of those close to them, and startle or cry if there is an unexpected noise. Loud noises wake them, and they become "still" in response to new sounds. 0-3 months Astoundingly, between 0-3 months babies learn to turn to you when you speak, and smile when they hear your voice. In fact, they seem to recognise your familiar voice, and will quieten at the sound of it if they are crying. Tiny babies under three months will also stop their activity and attend closely to the sound of an unfamiliar voice. They will often respond to comforting tones whether the voice is familiar or not. 4-6 months Then, some time between 4 to 6 months babies respond to the word "no". They are also responsive to changes in your tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech. For example, they can be fascinated by toys that make sounds, enjoy music and rhythm, and look in an interested or apprehensive way for the source of all sorts of new sounds such as the toaster, birdsong, the clip-clop of horses' hooves or the whirr of machines. 7-12 months The 7 to 12 months period is exciting and fun as the baby now obviously listens when spoken to, turns and looks at your face when called by name, and discovers the fun of games like: "round and round the garden", "peep-oh", "I see" and "pat-a-cake" (These simple games and finger plays will have regional names and variants). It is in this period that you realise that he or she recognises the names of familiar objects ("Daddy", "car", "eyes", "phone", "key") and begins to respond to requests ("Give it to Granny") and questions ("More juice?"). 1-2 years Now your child points to pictures in a book when you name them, and can point to a few body parts when asked. He or she can also follow simple commands ("Push the bus!") and understand simple questions ("Where's the bunny?"). Your toddler now likes listening to simple stories and enjoys it when you sing songs or say rhymes. This is a stage in which they will want the same story, rhyme or game repeated many times.

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2-3 years By now your toddler will understand two stage commands ("Get your socks and put them in the basket") and understand contrasting concepts or meanings like hot / cold, stop / go, in / on and nice / yucky. He or she notices sounds like the telephone or doorbell ringing and may point or become excited, get you to answer, or attempt to answer themselves. 3-4 years Your three or four year old understands simple "Who?", "What?" and "Where?" questions, and can hear you when you call from another room. This is an age where hearing difficulties may become evident. If you are in doubt about your child's hearing, see a clinical audiologist. 4-5 years Children in this age range enjoy stories and can answer simple questions about them. He or she hears and understands nearly everything that is said to them at home or at pre-school or day care. Your child's ability to hear properly all the time should not be in doubt. If you are in doubt about your child's hearing, see a clinical audiologist. If you are in doubt about language comprehension, see a speechlanguage pathologist. Expressive Language Learning to Speak, and to Use Language Birth Newborn babies make sounds that let others know that they are experiencing pleasure or pain. 0-3 Months Your baby smiles at you when you come into view. He or she repeats the same sound a lot and "coos and goos" when content. Cries "differentiate". That means, the baby uses a different cry for different situations. For example, one cry says "I'm hungry" and another says "I have a pain". 4-6 months Gurgling sounds or "vocal play" occur while you are playing with your baby or when they are occupying themselves happily. Babbling really gets going in this age range, and your baby will sometimes sound as though he or she is "talking". This "speech-like" babbling includes many sounds including the bilabial (two lip) sounds "p", "b" and "m". The baby can tell you, using sounds or gestures that they want something, or want you to do something. They can make very "urgent" noises to prompt you into action. 7-12 months The sound of your baby's babbling changes. This is because it now includes more consonants, as well as long and short vowels. He or she uses speech or other sounds (i.e., other than crying) in order to get your attention and hold on to it. And your baby's first words (probably not spoken very clearly) have appeared! ("MaMa", "Doggie", "Night Night", "Bye Bye") 1-2 years Now your baby is accumulating more words as each month passes. he or she will even ask 2-word questions like "Where ball?" "What's that?" "More chippies?" "What that?", and combine two words in other ways to make the sentence types ("Birdie go", "No doggie", "More push"). Words are becoming clearer as more initial consonants are used in words. Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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2-3 years Your two or three year old's vocabulary is exploding! He or she seems to have a word for almost everything. Utterances are usually one, two or three words long and family members can usually understand them. Your toddler may ask for, or draw your attention to something by naming it ("Elephant") or one of its attributes ("Big!") or by commenting ("Wow!"). 3-4 years Sentences are becoming longer as your child can combine four or more words. They talk about things that have happened away from home, and are interested in talking about pre-school, friends, outings and interesting experiences. Speech is usually fluent and clear and "other people" can understand what your child is saying most of the time. If stuttering occurs, see a speech-language pathologist. Stuttering is not a normal part of learning to talk, and neither is persistent hoarseness. 4-5 years Your child speaks clearly and fluently in an easy-to-listen-to voice. He or she can construct long and detailed sentences ("We went to the zoo but we had to come home early because Josie wasn't feeling well"). He or she can tell a long and involved story sticking to the topic, and using "adult-like" grammar. Most sounds are pronounced correctly, though he or she may be lisping as a four year old, or, at five, still have difficulty with "r", "v" and "th". Your child can communicate easily with familiar adults and with other children. They may tell fantastic "tall stories" and engage strangers in conversation when you are out together.

Suggested activities to develop language in children Play is how children learn. It is the natural way for them to explore, to become creative, to learn to make up and tell stories and to develop social skills. Play also helps children learn to solve problems— for example, if her wagon tips over, a child must figure out how to get it upright again. When they stack up blocks, children learn about colors, numbers, geometry, shapes and balance. Playing with others helps children build their interpersonal skills. 1. Parents can use books with large prints and colorful pictures for poems, fingerplays and songs and read or sing to your child every day. 2. Create your own menu with your child – what is for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Decorate your menu with pictures or better still ask the child to draw them. 3. Play “ I spy with my eagle eye, something beginning with “a”. This is a great and fun game as it develops observation, awareness and language. 4. Encourage your child to imitate your actions like clapping you hands, stomp your feet, and playing finger games such as pat-a-cake, peek-a-boo, and the itsy-bitsy-spider. 5. Parents can while shopping for groceries, tell your child that you are making spaghetti for lunch and ask them what they think you need to buy, how many you need. Discuss the size (large or small), shape (long, round, square), and weight (heavy or light) of the packages. 6. When parents are cooking in the kitchen, ask the child to help out by finding the kitchen utensils (make sure they are safe to handle) and what they are used for.

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This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius! Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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Social development
This is the stage where the children learn what behavior is acceptable and expected in an environment. Some children do not learn social skills easily and some of them may require repeated instruction and reinforcement of learning. It is also possible for children to have well-developed social skills in one area but not in another. For example, they may be able to work co-operatively on a group project, but lack the self-confidence to approach a group of children in the playground. In the early years, children are taught How to participate – learn how to get involved in a group, approach another child How to interact – learning to share and cooperate, taking turns or waiting for your turn, follow rules, communicate their needs and ideas How to deal with difference – learning to include others, helping, offers help or suggestions, give praises when someone has done well How to manage conflict – learn how to manage aggression, disagreements and problem solving

Ages and stages of social development The following grid shows social skills development appropriate to various ages and parents must bear in mind that all children are unique and might not behave as stated in this grid and social skills develop over time.

Age

Social behaviors

2

Social awareness is very limited. They like to play alone but are closely observing and copying adults and other children. Direct interaction is minimal, apart from squabbles over toys! They start to have some interaction - playing alongside with other children. Beginning to learn how to share materials, equipment, other children, friends, teachers and ideas. How to take and wait for their turns. Beginning to learn to handle physical aggression. Children start to learn to co-operate as they play in groups. 'Special' friendships begin to form, having a group identity (Ms Mary's group) Learning how to play fairly and abide by rules. Learns how to take part as a team and not as an individual. Begins to learn to be assertive and to ask others to stop if they are being disturbed.

3

4-5

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27 Learning how to solve conflicts in ways other than retreat or force. Learns how to be helpful to other children with tasks and information or by modeling behavior.. Interactive skills and how to sustain a relationship Learns to communicate in verbal and nonverbal ways, when to talk and listen Conversation skills developing: how to listen to others and take turns talking etc. Negotiation skills: including others in decision-making, learning to decide together and make suggestions rather than boss others around. Learns ways to manage socially awkward and difficult situations.

6-8

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Emotional growth
Emotional growth is the child's ability to deal with, manage, express and control their emotional states, including anger, sadness, excitement, anxiety and joy. Erik Erikson was a Danish-American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on social development of human beings and he explains the stages of emotional growth in children. Infancy stage ( 0 – 1 year) The infant depends on their parents for basic essential needs like food and comfort. Parents are encouraged to show warmth, love, care and affection to enforce the feeling of trust reliability and dependability to their child. Toddler stage (2 – 3 years) During this stage they start to explore their surroundings. The parents' patience and encouragement helps foster autonomy in the child and a sense of being able to manage problems of their own. Restrictive parents are more likely to instill the child with a sense of doubt and reluctance to attempt new challenges and if they do not empower the child to perform tasks within their capability, the children may not develop the self-confidence about their ability to handle problems. Pre-school ( 4- 6 years) During this stage, the child learns to do tasks on their own and develop their leadership and independence skills. Activities sought out by a child in this stage may include risk-taking behaviors, such as crossing a street on his or her own or riding a bike without a helmet; both examples involving self-limits. If the child develops a sense of frustration or hopelessness when not able to achieve their goals, they may exhibit negative behaviors like aggressiveness, rudeness such as yelling, throwing objects or fighting with other children. Parents are encouraged to support their children's efforts, guiding them to make realistic and appropriate choices but if parents discourage the pursuit of independent activities or dismiss them as silly and bothersome, children may develop guilt about their needs and desires.

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29

Creative growth
Creativity is the mental ability to think creatively and using one's own imagination to create new ideas, to be original, reform old ideas, develops a new business idea, composes a piece of music, paints a new painting or designs something new and innovative. Children are bubbling with creativity and parents can help their children develop this natural gift by exposing and given opportunities to explore through appropriate activities and games. This process of creative thinking opens up the children's mind to the possibility of creating something new and original 1. Critical thinking Improves thinking skills of children by training them how to think and not what to think (refer to chapter on suggested activities to develop cognitive development). Encourage your children to play chess as it is a brilliant game for developing thinking skills. 2. Flexibility and fluency skills Parents are encouraged to develop these two skills in their children. Flexibility is the ability to switch from one idea to another and fluency skill is the ability to create many ideas. “ How many uses can you find for a brick?” is one method parents can use to train their children. 3. Imagination. Imagination and creativity are the steps that progress your children to become better thinkers. Children who are imaginative and creative are efficient solvers of problems, are budding innovators and creative thinkers.

Activities parents can play with their child to develop their imagination hand puppets and pretend toys that help your children to tell stories, make-believe, role-play. read story books, nursery rhymes, poetry to your children. develop their musical intelligence by learning to play some musical instruments teach your child how to cook or prepare simple meals – preparing sandwich for lunch. ask your child to design a better school bag. Ask them to think of 3 things they like and dislike about their school bag and design a new kind of bag they or their friends would like to use and carry. Parents can guide them by asking questions like what color, shape and special features their design would have. Probe them to remember what complaints and comments their friends had when they were carrying their school bags.

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30 4. Willingness to take risks and explore new ways of thinking Parents can empower their children to be open to thinking differently or seeing things differently is an essential tool to imagination and creativity.

Parents can use this activity and ask the child how many squares can they see? There are 5 squares altogether. Progress to more complex patterns. Encouraging your child to think about problems in different ways is fun and they get to see different relationships and connections when they are allowed to shift and rotate their thinking.

This is an activity extracted from “English Power is Fun” Series. CLICK HERE to find out how “Mind Power is Fun” Series can help your child think like a genius! Train Your Child to Think Like a Genius. CLICK HERE NOW! www.gamesforfunkids.com

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DISCLAIMER AND/OR LEGAL NOTICES The information presented herein represents the views of the author as of the date of publication. The author reserves the rights to alter and update her opinions based on the changing and new conditions. This report is for informational purposes only and the authors do not accept any responsibilities for any liabilities resulting from the use of this information. While every attempt has been made to verify the information provided here, the authors and their affiliates cannot assume any responsibility for errors, inaccuracies or omissions. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. It is the complete responsibility of the reader to ensure they are adhering to all local, regional and national laws.

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