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## SCIA GROUP NV Customer Service Department 2006

In this workbook, several exercises are given concerning the modelling of structures
in SCIA-ESA PT.

Using the knowledge of the SCIA Business Centre ‘Basic Training’, the user should
be capable of inputting these structures.

In addition to the basic principles, each exercise illustrates some new concepts like
Activities, Cross-links, Flexible Line Supports, Arbitrary Profiles,…
background information on these topics.

## • Project E: Retaining Wall p.11

After completing an exercise, the project can be expanded by the user with more
advanced modules like Steel Code Check, Theoretical Reinforcement Calculations,

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Project A: Steel Arched Bridge
In this project, a steel (S355) arched bridge needs to be modeled. The default
geometric manipulations (copy, multi-copy, move UCS,…) are sufficient here to
quickly model the structure.

3D-view:

Side-view:

## Top-view of the bridge floor:

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Close-up of the bridge floor:

## Section of the bridge floor:

The bridge is modelled using non-standard cross-sections which must be added to the
project library. The hollow sections can be found in the category, the
I-sections in the category.

## - Lower Main Girder: O(600, 40, 1000, 40)

- Upper Main Girder: O(620, 30, 620, 30)
- Diagonal: O(350, 15, 680, 15)
- Arc: O(800, 30, 1000, 30)
- Tendons: Tube(400, 20)
- Longitudinal Beam: Iw(800, 20, 250, 30)
- Transverse Beam: Iw(700, 20, 250, 25)
- Diagonal in Floor: Iw(300, 12, 250, 12)
- Diagonal in Arc: O(400, 15, 600, 15)

It is advised to use the symmetry of the structure for easy modelling. The connection
between the Longitudinal and Transverse floor beams can be modelled using the
option

## When many members have been inputted, using Activities

will make the model easier to handle.

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Project B: 2D Tunnel
In this project, a 2D tunnel needs to be modelled which is supported by a pile
foundation. All structural elements are manufactured in concrete C30/37.

Since the tunnel is modelled in 2D, all cross-sections can be given a width of 1m.

## The upper side of the tunnel can be inputted as an

The supports at the pile bases have a rigidity of 50 MN/m in the direction of the pile.

## Sand Layer 2: rigidity x = 10 MN/m² rigidity z = 20 MN/m²

In which x specifies the direction parallel to the pile and z the direction
perpendicular to the pile.

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- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Trapezoidal Soil Pressure on the walls: 24 kN/m
- LC 3: Train at the left side
- LC 4: Train at the right side

## LC 3: Train at the left side

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Project C: Trough Bridge
In this project, a concrete (C30/37) trough bridge needs to be modelled using 2D
elements. The trough bridge is supported by piles which can be modelled as flexible
nodal supports.

The bridge will be loaded by a water pressure on the bottom side and the sidewalls.
This water pressure can be modelled using free loads.

3D-view:

Top-view:

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Side-view:

The nodal supports representing the piles have the following characteristics in the
global directions:

## Z: 55 MN/m Rz: Fixed

- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Uniform Water Pressure on the bottom side of the plate: 25 kN/m²
- LC 3: Trapezoidal Water Pressure on the side walls: 18 kN/m²
- LC 4: Water Pressure on the side of the plate: 15,05 kN/m & 5,27 kNm/m

## LC 2: Uniform Water Pressure on the bottom side of the plate: 25 kN/m²

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LC 3: Trapezoidal Water Pressure on the side of the plate: 18 kN/m²

LC 4: Water pressure on the side of the plate: 15,05 kN/m & 5,27 kNm/m

These three load cases can be put in the same Load group with relation ‘Together’ to
make sure they are applied at the same time in the code combinations.

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Project D: Slanting Bridge
In this project, a slanting bridge needs to be modelled using 2D elements. The bridge
is manufactured in concrete C30/37. At different locations on the bridge floor, the

Side-view

Top-view:

The bridge floor can be inputted as one 2D element with two sub regions. The two
sub regions can be given a variable thickness.

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- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Train above wall
- LC 3: Train in the middle of the bridge floor
- LC 4: Train at the end of the bridge

## LC4: Train at the end of the bridge

The easiest way is to model the train load once and to make two copies in order to
obtain the two other load cases.

calculated on each position of the bridge floor.

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Project E: Retaining Wall
In this project, a concrete (C25/30) retaining wall needs to be modelled. The wall is
supported by a subsoil and loaded by a vertical and horizontal soil pressure.

During a Linear analysis, the horizontal load will cause tensile stresses in the subsoil.
To avoid this, a Non-Linear calculation can be executed in which the subsoil is only
taken into account in compression.

3D-view:

## The subsoil is taken from the System Database as type Sand/Clean/Moderate.

The System Database provides the C1z parameter, for the horizontal components 10%
of the vertical is used to avoid the structure sliding away.

## This gives the following characteristics:

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- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Soil Pressure

The soil pressure on the bottom plate is inputted as a uniform surface load of 72
kN/m². On the wall a trapezoidal free load is inputted of 28,8 kN/m².