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SCIA Business Training Centre

Exercises Basic Training

SCIA GROUP NV Customer Service Department 2006


In this workbook, several exercises are given concerning the modelling of structures
in SCIA-ESA PT.

Using the knowledge of the SCIA Business Centre ‘Basic Training’, the user should
be capable of inputting these structures.

In addition to the basic principles, each exercise illustrates some new concepts like
Activities, Cross-links, Flexible Line Supports, Arbitrary Profiles,…
It is advised to use the online Help functionality of SCIA-ESA PT to get more
background information on these topics.

The following projects will be looked upon:

• Project A: Steel Arched Bridge p.2

• Project B: 2D Tunnel p.4

• Project C: Trough Bridge p.6

• Project D: Slanting Bridge p.9

• Project E: Retaining Wall p.11

After completing an exercise, the project can be expanded by the user with more
advanced modules like Steel Code Check, Theoretical Reinforcement Calculations,
Earthquake Loading,…

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Project A: Steel Arched Bridge
In this project, a steel (S355) arched bridge needs to be modeled. The default
geometric manipulations (copy, multi-copy, move UCS,…) are sufficient here to
quickly model the structure.

3D-view:

Side-view:

Top-view of the bridge floor:

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Close-up of the bridge floor:

Section of the bridge floor:

The bridge is modelled using non-standard cross-sections which must be added to the
project library. The hollow sections can be found in the category, the
I-sections in the category.

- Lower Main Girder: O(600, 40, 1000, 40)


- Upper Main Girder: O(620, 30, 620, 30)
- Diagonal: O(350, 15, 680, 15)
- Arc: O(800, 30, 1000, 30)
- Tendons: Tube(400, 20)
- Longitudinal Beam: Iw(800, 20, 250, 30)
- Transverse Beam: Iw(700, 20, 250, 25)
- Diagonal in Floor: Iw(300, 12, 250, 12)
- Diagonal in Arc: O(400, 15, 600, 15)

It is advised to use the symmetry of the structure for easy modelling. The connection
between the Longitudinal and Transverse floor beams can be modelled using the
option

When many members have been inputted, using Activities


will make the model easier to handle.

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Project B: 2D Tunnel
In this project, a 2D tunnel needs to be modelled which is supported by a pile
foundation. All structural elements are manufactured in concrete C30/37.

Since the tunnel is modelled in 2D, all cross-sections can be given a width of 1m.

The upper side of the tunnel can be inputted as an

The supports at the pile bases have a rigidity of 50 MN/m in the direction of the pile.

The Sand Layers have the following characteristics:

Sand Layer 1: rigidity x = 5 MN/m² rigidity z = 10 MN/m²

Sand Layer 2: rigidity x = 10 MN/m² rigidity z = 20 MN/m²

In which x specifies the direction parallel to the pile and z the direction
perpendicular to the pile.

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The 2D Tunnel is loaded by the following load cases:

- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Trapezoidal Soil Pressure on the walls: 24 kN/m
- LC 3: Train at the left side
- LC 4: Train at the right side

Load cases 2 and 3 are illustrated on the following figures:

LC 2: Trapezoidal Soil Pressure on the walls: 24 kN/m

LC 3: Train at the left side

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Project C: Trough Bridge
In this project, a concrete (C30/37) trough bridge needs to be modelled using 2D
elements. The trough bridge is supported by piles which can be modelled as flexible
nodal supports.

The bridge will be loaded by a water pressure on the bottom side and the sidewalls.
This water pressure can be modelled using free loads.

3D-view:

Top-view:

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Side-view:

The nodal supports representing the piles have the following characteristics in the
global directions:

X: 5,5 MN/m Rx Free

Y: 5,5 MN/m Ry: Free

Z: 55 MN/m Rz: Fixed

The trough bridge is loaded by the following load cases:

- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Uniform Water Pressure on the bottom side of the plate: 25 kN/m²
- LC 3: Trapezoidal Water Pressure on the side walls: 18 kN/m²
- LC 4: Water Pressure on the side of the plate: 15,05 kN/m & 5,27 kNm/m

Load cases 2, 3 and 4 are illustrated on the following figures:

LC 2: Uniform Water Pressure on the bottom side of the plate: 25 kN/m²

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LC 3: Trapezoidal Water Pressure on the side of the plate: 18 kN/m²

LC 4: Water pressure on the side of the plate: 15,05 kN/m & 5,27 kNm/m

These three load cases can be put in the same Load group with relation ‘Together’ to
make sure they are applied at the same time in the code combinations.

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Project D: Slanting Bridge
In this project, a slanting bridge needs to be modelled using 2D elements. The bridge
is manufactured in concrete C30/37. At different locations on the bridge floor, the
structure is loaded by a trainload modelled as a load system of free point loads.

Side-view

Top-view:

The bridge floor can be inputted as one 2D element with two sub regions. The two
sub regions can be given a variable thickness.

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The slanting bridge is loaded by the following load cases:

- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Train above wall
- LC 3: Train in the middle of the bridge floor
- LC 4: Train at the end of the bridge

Load cases 2, 3 and 4 are illustrated on the following figures:

LC2: Train above wall

LC3: Train in the middle of the bridge floor

LC4: Train at the end of the bridge

The easiest way is to model the train load once and to make two copies in order to
obtain the two other load cases.

Using the Advanced module Mobile Loads, the train load can automatically be
calculated on each position of the bridge floor.

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Project E: Retaining Wall
In this project, a concrete (C25/30) retaining wall needs to be modelled. The wall is
supported by a subsoil and loaded by a vertical and horizontal soil pressure.

During a Linear analysis, the horizontal load will cause tensile stresses in the subsoil.
To avoid this, a Non-Linear calculation can be executed in which the subsoil is only
taken into account in compression.

3D-view:

The subsoil is taken from the System Database as type Sand/Clean/Moderate.

The System Database provides the C1z parameter, for the horizontal components 10%
of the vertical is used to avoid the structure sliding away.

This gives the following characteristics:

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The retaining wall is loaded by the following load cases:

- LC 1: Self-Weight
- LC 2: Soil Pressure

The soil pressure on the bottom plate is inputted as a uniform surface load of 72
kN/m². On the wall a trapezoidal free load is inputted of 28,8 kN/m².
This loading is illustrated on the following figure:

LC 2: Soil Pressure

The contact stresses of a linear calculation can be compared with the results from a
non-linear analysis using the functionality Nonlinearity – Support Nonlinearity.

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