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Study Habits Tutorial and Review Center

UPCAT Review Session 2


Earth Science 1
Module # 1

This module covers the topics of Earth Science 1 (ES1) that deals with
the forces that shapes the lithosphere, the solid part of the earth, and the
forces that govern changes or phenomena that occurs in the hydrosphere
brought about by the movement of the earth and other celestial bodies like
the moon.

For our purposes this module includes: Concepts Revisited where


important concepts and details of the ES1 topics are discussed through the
use of concept outlining, illustrations and concept maps; Self-check where the students’
understanding of the subjects presented are assessed independently that may suggest them to
further review the topics or move on to the next modules to be given; Featured Exercises where
advance and detailed exercises or questions to practice the students’ critical thinking and
analysis; Words to Ponder where suggested sets of terms or concepts are given that may need
further clarification as for their relationships, similarities and differences; and the UP Cut where
tips and friendly student reminders about UPCAT and UP.

Concepts Revisited

I. The Solid Earth (Lithosphere)

A. Rock vs. Mineral vs. Soil

1. Mineral
➢ is a naturally occurring inorganic solid that possesses a definite
chemical structure

1. Rock
➢ is an aggregate or combination of one or more minerals

1. Soil
➢ is made up of tiny bits of rocks and organic materials from plants and
animals

 Properties of Minerals
○ Crystal form
○ Odor
○ Luster (quality of light reflected from the surface of the mineral:
metallic, glassy. Pearly, dull)
○ Color
○ Streak (the color of the powder obtained by rubbing a mineral across a
hard, rough surface of a file or unglazed porcelain called streak plate)
○ Cleavage (splitting of a mineral along the smooth surfaces or cleavage
plane)
○ Fracture
○ Hardness (resistance to scratching)
Table 1. Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness

Relative Scale Mineral Hardness of Some Common


Objects

10 Diamond

9 Corundum

8 Topaz

7 Quartz

6 K feldspar 5.5 glass, pocketknife

5 Apatite

4 Fluorite 3.5 copper penny

3 Calcite 2.5 fingernail

2 Gypsum

1 Talc

Things to remember in interpreting the Mohs Scale of Mineral Hardness:

1. The mineral or object with a scale of 10 is the hardest while those with a scale of 1 is
the softest.
2. The object or mineral can only scratch those object or mineral below it.

 Rock Types

1. Igneous Rocks
➢ formed when magma or lava solidified
a. Extrusive Rocks – rocks that are formed from solidified lava; fine
crystalline rocks
○ “Quick” solidification – obsidian (glassy), pumice (fine pores,
floats on water)
○ Slow solidification – basalt (dark colored), felsites
a. Intrusive Rocks – formed from solidified magma; coarsely crystalline
rocks
○ Granite, gabbros
1. Sedimentary Rocks
➢ consists of materials that once were part of older rocks or of plants and
animals
➢ categorized based on the type of material in which they are formed
a. Detrital or Clastic Rocks – rock fragments due to weathering
○ silt → siltstone; clay→ shale; cement grains of sand → sandstone
○ conglomerate, breccias
a. Chemical Rocks – formed from deposit of minerals that were once
dissolved in water
○ Limestone, coal
a. Organic Rocks – formed from the remains of organisms.
○ Fossiliferous limestone, chalky limestone
1. Metamorphic Rocks
➢ a rock that has changed its appearance and sometimes its mineral
composition
➢ formed due to subjection of heat and pressure (metamorphism)
➢ examples of rock transformations:
○ granite → gneiss
○ limestone → marble
○ quart grains in sandstone → quartzite
○ soft shale and clay → slate
○ impure sandstone and felsites → schist

 Rock Cycle
➢ Weathering – the breaking down of rocks brought about by either physical or
chemical means
➢ Erosion – the process by which rock fragments and sediments are carried
along by such agents
➢ Deposition – the process by which rock fragments and sediments carried by
agents of erosion are dropped or deposited in other places
➢ Compacting – the process by which rock fragments and other materials that
accumulated (usually at the bottom of a thick column of water), get
cemented together and harden into rock
➢ Metamorphism – a change in constitution of rock brought about by pressure,
heat and chemical reaction resulting in a more compact and highly crystalline
condition of the rock
➢ Melting
➢ Cooling and solidifying

B. Earthquakes and Earth’s Interior

1. Earthquake
➢ Shaking of the ground caused by the breaking and shifting of the subterranean
rock under immense pressure
➢ Seismology
➢ Seismograph – an instrument that records earthquake waves
 Earthquake Waves
1. Surface Waves/ Long (L) Waves
➢ Travel along the earth’s outer layer
1. Body Waves
➢Travel through the earth’s interior
○ Primary (P) waves – “push-pull
waves”;
can travel through solids, liquids
and gases;
temporarily changes the volume of
the intervening material
○ Secondary (S) waves – shake the
particle at their right angle to their
direction of travel;
cannot travel through fluids;
temporarily change the shape of
the material that transmits them

Order of Arrival: P, S, L waves


Note: Seismic waves travel at different speeds in materials of different densities.
The changes in the speed of earthquake waves indicate
that the earth is composed of different materials. These also indicate the thickness
of each layer of the earth.

 Intensity and Magnitude


1. Magnitude – an index of the quakes energy at its source; Richter Scale
2. Intensity – measures the strength of shaking produced by an earthquake at a
particular location; Mercalli Intensity Scale

 Causes of Earthquakes

 Effects of Earthquakes

2. Earth’s interior

 Plate Tectonics
➢Continental drift Theory by Alfred
Wegener
- the present
seven continents originated from a
big landmass called Pangea
- Proofs: fit of
South America and Africa

fossil
evidences

rock structures

ancient climate
Criticism: Inability to provide an acceptable mechanism for the movement of
continents

➢Plate Tectonic Theory

- lithosphere
consists of plates that are in motion
relative to each other
- Types of plate
boundaries:
○ Convergence – plates move together
○ Divergence – plates move apart
○ Transform fault – plates slide past each other

 Volcanism
➢3 General Eruptive Patterns and
Characteristic Forms of Volcanoes:
○ Shield
○ Cinder
○ Composite

 Geologic Time

Relative Dating Principles


➢Law of Superposition
➢Principle of Original Horizontality
➢Principle of Cross-Cutting
Relationships

II. Hydrosphere:

Tides: daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface

– caused by the gravitational attraction of the moon, and to a lesser extent, by the sun

Spring tides Neap tides

Unusually high and low tides Daily tidal range

New moon and full moon First and third quarters of the moon

The sun and the moon are aligned The gravitational force of the sun and the
moon are at right angles
Self-Check

1. Human populations in specific locations, locations where there is extensive tectonic activity,
should take extensive precautions to minimize loss of: ___________________ and properties.
A) diamonds
B) lives
C) emeralds
D) money
E) wealth
2. Older crust tends to be ________________, and therefore is denser than younger crust.
A) hotter
B) higher
C) faster
D) younger
E) cooler
3. Of the three known boundaries, the "East-Pacific" Ridge or Rise, is considered to be a
_______________________ boundary.
A) intermediate
B) convergent
C) transform
D) deep
E) divergent
4. The Mariana Trench was most likely created by the
A) divergence of the Eurasian and Philippine Plates
B) convergence of the Pacific and Philippine Plates
C) sliding of the Pacific Plate past the North American Plate
D) movement of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii Hot Spot
E) divergence of the Pacific and Antarctic Plates
5. Which part of Earth’s interior is inferred to have convection currents that cause tectonic plates to
move?
A) crust
B) outer core
C) asthenosphere
D) inner core
E) rigid mantle
6. Primary (P) Seismic Waves can pass through ____________________________.
A) liquids only
B) solids only
C) gases only
D) solids, gases, and liquids
E) crust and core only
7. Of the 3 seismic waves, the _____-Waves are the fastest.
A) R
B) Q
C) P
D) S
E) L
8. Secondary (S) Seismic Waves can pass through ____________________________.
A) gases only
B) solids only
C) liquids only
D) solids, gases, and liquids
E) crust and core only
9. P-Waves are also said to be ____________-____________ waves.
A) east-west
B) side-side
C) up-down
D) north-south
E) push-pull

10. To find the epicenter of an earthquake, at least _____ seismic stations are needed.
A) 2
B) 1
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
11. The closest seismic station to the epicenter of an earthquake will record P-Waves
___________________.
A) third
B) second
C) first
D) fourth
E) fifth
12. A tsunami forms when the epicenter of an earthquake is on the _____________________ floor.
A) convergent
B) desert
C) crusty
D) volcanic
E) oceanic

13. Lasers are sometimes used to detect movements along faults. LASER is an acronym for:
____________________________________.
A) Light Amplification by Simplified Emission of Radiation
B) Light Altercation by Stenographic Emission of Radiation
C) Lunar Amplification by Simplistic Emission of Radiation
D) Local Altercation by Super Emission of Radiation
E) Lunar Amplification by Simplified Emission of Radiation

14. The Ring of Fire is located...


A) around the Pacific Plate
B) around the Atlantic Plate
C) around the San Andreas' Fault
D) around the Convergent zone
E) around the Aztec Plate

15.The Hawaiian Islands are in the Ring of Fire. The Hawaiian Islands were formed by
A) active calderas, result of a subduction zone
B) active mountains, result of the Aztec plate
C) active volcanoes, result of a hot spot
D) active mantle, result of radioactive crust
E) active subduction zone, result of a divergent boundary

1. The famous meteorologist who helped bring forth the theory of Continental Drift was
A) Charles Darwin
B) Albert Einstein
C) Alfred Wegener
D) Charles Bronson
E) Alfred Hitchcock

3. Geographically, the east coast of South America seems to fit the __________________________.
A) west coast of Africa
B) east coast of Africa
C) west coast of India
D) east coast of India
E) north coast of Australia

8. Minerals, Petroleum, and Gems are best found in ___________________________ zones.


A) transcending
B) divergent
C) transform
D) convergent
E) volcanic
9. Continental Drift Theory asserts that our continents have been ______________________ for millions
of years!
A) rising
B) growing
C) moving
D) subducting
E) dying
14. Between the 3 known types of plate boundaries, the ________________________ zone is most
dangerous to human life.
A) transform
B) convergent
C) divergent
D) oceanic
E) continental
15. Between the 3 known types of plate boundaries, the ________________________ zone is most
known for producing precious metals.
A) convergent
B) transform
C) divergent
D) oceanic
E) continental

Featured Problems

1. What does Mt. Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helen's, and Redoubt Volcano of Alaska have in common?
A) All three are mountains
B) All three are on the Ring of Fire
C) All three are safe to visit
D) All three are on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
E) All three are on top of divergent zones

2. Diamonds are known to be formed in the Earth's


A) outer core
B) surface
C) inner core
D) mantle
E) biosphere

3. Why does the oceanic crust sink beneath the continental crust at a subduction boundary?
A) The oceanic crust has a lighter density.
B) The oceanic crust is pulled downward by Earth’s magnetic field.
C) The continental crust has a more magnetic composition.
D) The oceanic crust is hotter.
E) The oceanic crust has a greater density.

4. The two types of crust are _________________________ and _________________________.


A) oceanic, volcanic
B) oceanic, land
C) land, pangaea
D) continental, volcanic
E) oceanic, continental

5. At mid-ocean ridges, new ____________________________ crust is created.


A) continental
B) oceanic
C) volcanic
D) convergent
E) transform
6. Seafloor spreading is a process that creates new ________________________ crust.
A) convergent
B) continental
C) volcanic
D) oceanic
E) transform
7. Between oceanic and continental crusts, the ___________________ crust is denser.
A) oceanic
B) continental
C) convergent
D) divergent
E) transform

8. In seafloor spreading, the further the ocean floor is away from the mid-ocean ridge, the
_____________________ that floor will be.
A) younger
B) newer
C) rockier
D) older
E) prettier
Words to Ponder

Here is a checklist of must know words. It includes a word or a set of words in each
item that you must be familiar with. Using a scratch paper try to illustrate or write
the relationship, similarities and differences of the words in each set.

1. Heat and temperature


2. Rock, mineral, soil, gem, crystal, precious stone
3. Quartz, gold
4. Diamond and graphite
5. Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
6. Rock cycle
7. Extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks
8. Weathering, erosion, deposition, compacting, metamorphism
9. Humus, soil, loam, silt, clay, sand, alluvial soil
10.Topsoil , subsoil, bedrock
11.Deforestation, reforestation, reforestation
12.Terracing, contouring, rip rapping, dike
13.Covercropping, crop rotation, strip cropping
14.Crust, mantle, inner and outer core
15.Geologist, seismologist, petrologist
16.Geology, seismology, petrology
17.Seismograph
18.Earthquake, tectonics, plates, tsunamis
19.Granite, basalt
20.Iron, nickel
21.Theory of Plate Tectonics, Theory of Continental Drift
22.Diastrophism, volcanism, gradation
23.Folding, faulting
24.Anticline, syncline
25.Water currents, upwelling, surface currents,
26.El Niño, La Niña
27.Acid rain
28.Fish kill, red tide, algal bloom, water pollution

Note: You really need to be familiarized with these concepts. Remember these are
very basic but must not be over-looked. Don’t get the wrong impression that only
the definition matters. Remember that what we want here is for you to be
familiarized with these concepts through practice because most of the items in the
Science part of UPCAT are application so it really matters if you really understand
the concept.
UP Cut

Tips in reviewing for the Science Part of UPCAT


1. Do NOT Cram!
- As early as now, read, review and revisit all the science concepts you have
tackled during your first three years in high school. Good students review at least three
months before the exam. Take note: review is different from scanning your notes and
books because when you review you allot hours (not just an hour).

2. Learn to Study Effectively and Efficiently


- Most students thought that when they review for longer hours of time they can do better
in an exam. This can be partly true. Sometimes, the things that they read don’t really go to their
long term memory. Why?

Here are a few reasons why not all that we studied became a part of our long term memory:

1. You just read it. Remember you must understand it and be able to relate to it in order to
learn it.
2. Too many distractions. You might be reviewing in a too noisy place.
3. It hasn’t really been processed.
4. Lack of focus.
5. Too tired to study.

How to study effectively and efficiently:

1. Focus.
2. Take down notes.
3. Review in a quiet place that is conducive for learning.
4. Don’t study when you’re too tired. Take some break, rest and sleep.
5. Move away from distractions.

Self-check

Answer key:

1. B
2. E
3. E
4. B
5. E
6. D
7. C
8. B
9. E
10.C
11.C
12.E
13.A
14.A
15.C
16.C
17.A
18.D
19.C
20.A
21.A

Featured Problem

Answer Key:

1. B
2. D
3. E
4. E
5. B
6. D
7. A
8. D