# Possible C3 questions from past papers P1—P3

Source of the original question is given in brackets, e.g. [P2 January 2001 Question 1]; a question which has been edited is indicated with an asterisk, e.g. [P3 January 2003 Question 8*].

1.

The function f, defined for x ∈ ℝ, x > 0, is such that f ′ (x) = x2 – 2 + (a) Find the value of f ″ (x) at x = 4. (b) Given that f(3) = 0, find f(x). (c) Prove that f is an increasing function.

1 . x2

(3) (4) (3)

[P1 June 2001 Question 5]

2.

The curve C has equation y = 2e x + 3 x 2 + 2. The point A with coordinates (0, 4) lies on C. Find the equation of the tangent to C at A. (5)

[P2 June 2001 Question 1]

3.

**The root of the equation f(x) = 0, where
**

f ( x ) = x + ln 2 x − 4

is to be estimated using the iterative formula x n +1 = 4 − ln 2 x n , with x0 = 2.4. (a) Showing your values of x1, x2, x3,…, obtain the value, to 3 decimal places, of the root. (4) (b) By considering the change of sign of f(x) in a suitable interval, justify the accuracy of your answer to part (a). (2)

[P2 June 2001 Question 2]

4.

(i) Prove, by counter-example, that the statement “ sec( A + B ) ≡ sec A + sec B, for all A and B ” is false. (ii) Prove that (2)

ta nθ + co tθ ≡ 2 c o se c θ , θ ≠ 2

nπ , n ∈ ℤ. 2

(5)

[P2 June 2001 Question 4]

1

2

(4) (d) Calculate. (2) The temperature T °C. the times when the temperature is predicted to be 12 °C. ( x −1)( x +1)
x 1 − . x > 1.
(a) Express 2 cos θ + 5 sin θ in the form R cos (θ − α ).
The function f is given by
f :x
1 . x
(2)
(4)
[P2 June 2001 Question 7]
6. 2
(3)
(b) Find the maximum and minimum values of 2 cos θ + 5 sin θ and the smallest possible value of θ for which the maximum occurs.5. x > 0. x −1 x + 1
2
(a) Show that f(x) =
(3)
(b) Find the range of f. where R > 0 and 0 < α < Give the values of R and α to 3 significant figures.
π .
2 . of an unheated building is modelled using the equation
π t + 5 sin 12 π t . 0 ≤ t < 24 . (6)
[P2 June 2001 Question 9]
3
. 12
T = 15 + 2 cos
where t hours is the number of hours after 1200. The function g is given by g: x (c) Solve gf(x) = 70. to the nearest half hour. (c) Calculate the maximum temperature predicted by this model and the value of t when this maximum occurs.

showing the coordinates of the points where the graph cuts the axes. n ∈ ℤ.
(a) Prove that
1 − cos 2θ ≡ tan θ . → 2x . (6)
[P2 January 2002 Question 3]
8.
The function f is defined by f : x – a x ∈ℝ. showing the coordinates of the points where the graph cuts the axes. (a) Sketch the graph of y = f(x). giving exact answers in terms of π . 2(1 – cos 2θ ) = tan θ . 0<θ <π . (2) (b) On a separate diagram. (6)
[P2 January 2002 Question 6]
4
. 2
(4) 2(1 – cos 2θ ) = tan θ . find the two possible values of a. sketch the graph of y = f(2x). 2
(3)
(b) Solve. (2) (c) Given that a solution of the equation f(x) =
1 x is x = 4.7. 0<θ <π . θ sin 2θ
≠
nπ . where a is a positive constant.

15. (2)
[P2 January 2002 Question 7]
5
. (4)
The x-coordinate of B is approximately 2. Give the value of x3 to 4 decimal places. where f(x) = 0. (3)
(c) Using xn + 1 = ln 4xn . with x0 = 2.5ex – x2. (a) Find an equation of the tangent to C at A. (b) Show that a possible form for g(x) is g(x) = 4x. The curve C cuts the y-axis at A and there is a minimum at the point B. A more exact estimate is to be made of this coordinate using iterations xn + 1 = ln g(xn). x2 and x3. calculate x1 .9. y
Figure 2 C
A
O
•
B
x
Figure 2 shows part of the curve C with equation y = f(x).15.

(d) Find the range of f 1(x). (a) Prove that f(x) =
f(x) = x −1 − ( x −1)( 2 x +1) .
(4)
[P3 January 2002 Question 2]
12. x + 2x x −4
2
(7)
[P2 June 2002 Question 2]
6
.
Use the derivatives of sin x and cos x to prove that the derivative of tan x is sec2 x. x > 1.
4 .
Express
3 x −4 + 2 as a single fraction in its simplest form.
− −
(1)
[P2 January 2002 Question 8]
11. 2 x +1
2
6
(4) (2) (3)
(b) Find the range of f. (c) Find f 1(x).10.

3. y
Figure 1
O
k
x
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the curve with equation y = f(x). 0. Given that f(k) = 0. (b) Find f ′ (x). giving your answer in the form a + ln b.1 < k < 3. (ii) Find the exact y-coordinate of P. that 3.1 ≤ x ≤ 3. where f(x) = 10 + ln (3x) − 2 ex .2. by calculation. (c) (i) Find an equation of this tangent. (a) show. The tangent to the graph at x = 1 intersects the y-axis at the point P.13. (5) (2) (3)
1
[P2 June 2002 Question 6]
7
.

(a) Express 1. At the point P(ln 2. indicating clearly the coordinates of any point at which the graph intersects the coordinate axes. (d) find an expression for gf(x).
− −
(1) (2)
(c) Sketch the graph of f 1. 2). x ∈ ℝ. giving your values of R and α to 3 decimal places where appropriate. b and c are constants to be found. x ≥ 1. (2) (5)
[P2 June 2002 Question 8]
15. (4)
1
(b) Express 3 sin x cos x + 4 cos2 x in the form a cos 2x + b sin 2x + c. (4) Given that g(x) = | x − 4| .14.
The curve C with equation y = p + qex. (a) Find the value of p and the value of q.
f(x) = x2 − 2x − 3. The normal to C at P crosses the x-axis at L and the y-axis at M. (b) Write down the domain and range of f 1. deduce the maximum value of 3 sin x cos x + 4 cos2 x. (a) Find the range of f. where R > 0 and 0 < α < 2 π . where O is the origin. the gradient is 5.5 sin 2x + 2 cos 2x in the form R sin (2x + α ). p + 2q) on C. (2) (c) Hence. passes through the point (0. where p and q are constants. (2)
[P2 November 2002 Question 3]
17. (5)
[P2 November 2002 Question 1]
y +3
y +1
16.8. is approximately 53. (e) Solve gf(x)= 8. where a. (b) Show that the area of ∆ OLM.
Express ( y +1)( y + 2) − ( y + 2)( y + 3) as a single fraction in its simplest form. using your answer to part (a). (5) (5)
[P2 November 2002 Question 5]
8
. x ∈ ℝ.

to 2 decimal places. 1. 1 The iterative formula xn + 1 = − 2 (3 – xn)] is used to solve the equation x + 2e x − 3 = 0. (e) Show that. (c) Show that − < α < 0. (b) Show that x = α is a root of the equation x + 2e x − 3 = 0. The x-coordinate of the point of intersection of the graph is α . α = − 0. ln[ (d) Starting with x0 = − find the values of x1 and x2.18. 2
(2)
(3) (2)
1
−
9
.58. (a) Copy Fig. (2) (2)
[P2 November 2002 Question 6]
−
−
1 – 1 Show the coordinates x .
Figure 1 y
O
x
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the curve with equation y = e x − 1. 1 and on the same axes sketch the graph of y = of the points where the graph meets the axes.

19. in terms of k. (d) Sketch the graph of the inverse function g 1 and state its domain. ff(k). x −9
x
x + 12
(6)
[P2 January 2003 Question 1]
10
. x −3
(a) Prove that f 1(x) = f(x) for all x ∈ ℝ. x ≠ 3. defined over the domain − ≤ x ≤ 2.
−
(3) (3)
(3)
[P2 November 2002 Question 8]
20. (b) Hence find. (e) Sketch the graph of the function h and state its range.
The function f is defined by f: x ↦
−
3 x −1 . Figure 3 y 6
(3) (2)
2
− 2
− O 1
2
x
− 5 Figure 3 shows a sketch of the one-one function g. x ≠ 3. where x ≠ 3. x ∈ ℝ. 2 (c) Find the value of fg(− 2). The function h is defined by h: x ↦ 2g(x – 1).
Express ( x +1)( x + 3) + 2 as a single fraction in its simplest form.

sketch the graph of y =
1 . showing the exact value of p.
(3)
[P2 January 2003 Question 6]
23. Hence write 3
down. (a) Sketch the graph of y = ln 3x. (b) Show that x = q is a solution of the equation x2 + ln 3x = 0. an approximation for q.21. (b) Show that the equation sec x + √3 cosec x = 4 can be written in the form sin x + √3 cos x = 2 sin 2x. the value of x for which x + 1− 1 = 0. 0). 2x (d) Find.
(4)
(3)
(1)
[P2 January 2003 Question 7*]
11
. (2) (b) On the same axes. (c) Show that the equation in part (b) can be rearranged in the form x = (d) Use the iteration formula xn + 1 =
1 3 1 3
(2)
4)
e−x
2
.
(a) Express sin x + √3 cos x in the form R sin (x + α ).
(2)
e − xn . 2x (1) (3)
[P2 January 2003 Question 3]
22. x3 and x4. (c) Deduce from parts (a) and (b) that sec x + √3 cosec x = 4 can be written in the form sin 2x – sin (x + 60°) = 0. graph meets the coordinate axes. x
(1)
(c) Explain how your graphs show that there is only one solution of the equation x + a− 1 = 0. to find x1.
(a) Sketch the graph of y = + a a > 0.
The curve with equation y = ln 3x crosses the x-axis at the point P (p. The normal to the curve at the point Q. using algebra. with x0 =
2
1 . with x-coordinate q. to 3 decimal places. where R > 0 and 0 < α < 90°. passes through the origin. x2. showing the coordinates of the points where the 2x .

x ≥ 0. x2 + x
(2) (4)
[P2 June 2003 Question 1]
(b) Find the value of x for which log2 (x2 + 4x + 3) – log2 (x2 + x) = 4. (d) Find the value of d. (ii) the range of f. in terms of c or d. c) and (d. 0). Given that f is defined by (c) state (i) the value of c.
−
(2) (3)
Indicate clearly on each sketch the coordinates.
−
(3) (3)
25. The function g is defined by g : x → log2 x. of any point where the curve meets the coordinate axes. The curve meets the coordinate axes at the points (0.
26.
(a) Simplify
x 2 + 4x + 3 . x ∈ ℝ. x ≥ 1.24. y (0.
The functions f and g are defined by 12
. 0)
x
Figure 3 shows a sketch of the curve with equation y = f(x). In separate diagrams sketch the curve with equation (a) y = f 1(x). (b) y = 3f(2x). (3)
[P2 January 2003 Question 8
f : x → 3(2 x ) − 1. giving your answer to 3 decimal places. (e) Find fg(x). x ∈ ℝ. x ≥ 0. c)
Figure 3
O
(d. giving your answer in its simplest form.

(a) Find the range of f. 1). where λ is a constant. (b) Given that gf(2) = 16. 1) 3
− 1
O
A(2. show a sketch of the curve with equation (a) y = f(x + 1).f: x x2 – 2x + 3. x ∈ ℝ. (3) (3)
[P2 June 2003 Question 2]
27. − ≤ x ≤ 3. y
Figure 1
B(
4 . g: x λ x2 + 1.
[P2 June 2003 Question 4]
(3) (3) (4)
13
. 0 ≤ x ≤ 4. The curve touches 1 the x. 0) and has a maximum at the point B(
4 . (b) y = | f(x)| . 0)
3
x
Figure 1 shows a sketch of the curve with equation y = f(x). x ∈ ℝ. (ii) meets the x-axis. crosses the x-axis at the point A(2. marking on each sketch the coordinates of points at which the curve (i) has a turning point. find the value of λ . (c) y = f(| x| ). 3
In separate diagrams.axis at the origin O.

(d) Taking x0 = 4. giving your answer to 3 decimal places. on the same set of axes.
(a) Sketch. x − 3 x + 4 x − 21
(3)
[P2 November 2003 Question 1]
30. (4)
[P2 June 2003 Question 5]
− −
(3)
(2)
29. x3 and x4.
Prove that
1 − tan 2 θ ≡ cos 2θ . write down the values of x1. x − 3 x + 4 x − 21
(3)
(b) Hence solve
2 13 + 2 =1. x ≥ 0.] Given that f(x) = e x + √x – 2.
(a) Express as a fraction in its simplest form
2 13 + 2 . the graphs of y = 2 – e x and y = √x. 1 + tan 2 θ
(4)
[P2 November 2003 Question 5*]
14
. and hence find an approximation to the solution of f(x) = 0. (1) (c) show that the solution of f(x) = 0 lies between x = 3 and x = 4. x2. [It is not necessary to find the coordinates of any points of intersection with the axes.28. (b) explain how your graphs show that the equation f(x) = 0 has only one solution. The iterative formula xn + 1 = (2 – e − xn )2 is used to solve the equation f(x) = 0.

2 – 3 = 0. the coordinates of the point at which the graphs of f and g intersect. the equation fg(x) = 3a.
(b) Show that the y-coordinate of P may be expressed in the form k – k ln k. x ∈ ℝ. (c) Find an equation for the normal to C at Q.
The curve C has equation y = f(x). (5) (b) Use algebra to find. x
(4)
(4)
[P2 November 2003 Question 8]
15
. sketch the graphs of f and g.
(a) On the same diagram. (d) Show that the x-coordinate of R (i) satisfies the equation 6 ln x + x + (ii) lies between 0. where k is a constant to be found. where a is a positive constant. where f(x) = 3 ln x + The point P is a stationary point on C.13 and 0.31.
g: x 4x + a. x
x > 0. in terms of a. (2) The point Q on C has x-coordinate 1. (d) Solve.14. x ∈ ℝ. (3) (c) Find an expression for fg(x).
The functions f and g are defined by f: x | x – a | + a. for x in terms of a. (4)
1 . (3)
[P2 November 2003 Question 7]
(2)
32. showing clearly the coordinates of any points at which your graphs meet the axes. The normal to C at Q meets C again at the point R. (a) Calculate the x-coordinate of P.

x ∈ ℝ.33. For x ≥ 0. (c) Write down the domain of f –1. (c) use algebra to find the values of x for which f(x) = 45. (4)
[P2 January 2004 Question 4]
(2)
35. in terms of a.
The function f is even and has domain ℝ. x > 0.
34. sketch the curve with equation y = f(x). x ≠ –2. the value of f(2a) and the value of f(–2a). Given that a = 3. (d) Find the exact x-coordinate of B. (b) Show that
dy 1 = . (ii) deduce that ln x = y ln a. showing the coordinates of all the points at which the curve meets the axes. f(x) = x2 – 4ax.
Given that y = loga x. (a) (i) express x in terms of a and y. The tangent to C at A crosses the x-axis at the point B. dx x ln a
(1) (1) (2)
The curve C has equation y = log10 x. Using the result in part (b). The point A on C has x-coordinate 10. where a is a positive constant. x > 0. (a) In the space below. x +2
3 as a single fraction.
The function f is given by f : x 2 + (a) Express 2 +
3 . (3) (b) Find. (2)
[P2 January 2004 Question 5]
(4)
16
. where a is a positive constant. x +2
(1) (3) (1)
[P2 January 2004 Question 1]
(b) Find an expression for f –1(x). (c) find an equation for the tangent to C at A.

(ii) Solve 8 cot θ – 3 tan θ = 2. giving your answer to 1 decimal place. x ≠ 2
(4)
[P2 June 2004 Question 2]
17
. for 0 < θ < 90°. for 0 < θ < 90°.
(i) Given that sin x = of sec 2x.
Express as a single fraction in its simplest form
x 2 −8 x + 5 1 x2 − 9
×
2 x 2 +6 x ( x −5) 2
. n ∈Z . giving your answer to 1 decimal place.
nπ .
(i) (a) Express (12 cos θ – 5 sin θ ) in the form R cos (θ + α ). (4) (b) Hence solve the equation 12 cos θ – 5 sin θ = 4. where R > 0 and 0 < α < 90°. (5)
[P2 January 2004 Question 8]
(3)
37.36. (4)
[P2 June 2004 Question 1]
38. use an appropriate double angle formula to find the exact value 5
(4) (ii) Prove that cot 2x + cosec 2x ≡ cot x.
3 .

70. (a) Show that f(x) = 0 can be rearranged as x=
4 x +1 x +1 . Justify your answer.
x≠ − 1. (2)
The iterative formula xn + 1 =
4 x n +1 x +1 is used to find an approximation to α .
f(x) = x3 + x2 − 4x − 1. (2)
[P2 June 2004 Question 5]
4 x n +1 x +1 does not n
18
. The equation f(x) = 0 has only one positive root. x3 and x4. prove that α = 1. α . n
(b) Taking x1 = 1. correct to 2 decimal places. to 2 decimal places. (3) (c) By choosing values of x in a suitable interval.39. (3) (d) Write down a value of x1 for which the iteration formula xn + 1 = produce a valid value for x2. the values of x2. find.

f(x) = x +
ex . giving the values of
e x + 5
x
to 2 decimal places. (b) Find an equation for the tangent to C at A. (3) (b) Write down the domain of f 1 and the range of f 1.
19
. (d) Sketch the graph of y = g(x).
x ∈ ℝ. with equation y = f(x). (3) (e) Find the exact coordinates of all the points at which the graph of y = g(x) meets the coordinate axes. (a) Find f ′ (x). 5
x ∈ ℝ.40. the value of x for which f(x) = 3.5
2
(2)
[P2 June 2004 Question 7*]
41. (3) (c) Complete the table. (2) The function g is given by g: x ↦ ln | 3x − 6| .45
0.
x ≠ 2. (2) (c) Find.91
1
1. to 3 significant figures. (3)
[P2 June 2004 Question 8]
− − −
x ∈ ℝ. (a) Find f 1(x).
The function f is given by f: x ↦ ln (3x − 6). crosses the y-axis at the point A. (2)
The curve C.
x
ex x + 5
0 0.
x > 2.5 0.

Integration of xp.
20
. Integration of xn. Definition of a function.1 1. Domain and range of functions. Inverse functions.2 6. Second order derivatives.
p
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
4.Qn
1.2 Algebraic differentiation of x .
[P1 June 2001 Question 5]
Old Specification Reference
6.3 1. p≠ − 1. Composition of functions.2 5.2 Differentiation of xn. Domain and range of functions. Increasing and decreasing functions. [and related sums and differences].3 6. where p is rational. Increasing and decreasing functions Definition of a function. where p is rational.2 7. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. Composition of functions.

y = f(ax) and combinations of these transformations. Definition of a function. Differentiation of sin x. The modulus function.3
1. tan x] and their sums and differences.1
1.sin x.3
5. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Definition of a function. Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B). Inverse functions. ln x and their sums and differences. Differentiation of [ex.1 Applications of differentiation to tangents and normals to a curve.2
6. Composition of functions. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. ln x and their sums and differences.
[P2 January 2002 Question 3]
2.
[P2 June 2001 Question 9]
4.3 4.2 Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Inverse functions. Differentiation of ex. y = f(x + a). Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B). Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B).2
10. Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B). Inverse functions [and their graphs].1
4. of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)]. tan x and their 4. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).
[P2 January 2002 Question 6]
2. cos x. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x).
[P2 June 2001 Question 1]
Old Specification Reference
6.
[P2 January 2002 Question 7]
4.
[P2 January 2002 Question 8]
2. Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B). cos x.1
1. y = f(x + a). cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).1 5. Definition of a function. Differentiation of ex. ln x]. Domain and range of functions.2 Differentiation of ex. ln x [sin x.3
7.3 2.3 6.
[P2 June 2001 Question 7]
2. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B).3 4. [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)]. Composition of functions.] tangents and normals.
[P2 June 2001 Question 4]
4. Composition of functions. Composition of functions. Definition of a function.] tangents and normals.5
1. of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x).Qn
2. y = f(x) + a.
[P2 June 2001 Question 2]
8.11
8.
3.
[P3 January 2002
4. Domain and range of functions. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods. y = f(ax). Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods.2
4.3
The modulus function.3
2. Differentiation of ex. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).2 6. Domain and range of functions.3
2.2
11. y = f(x) + a. tan x
9. tan x] and their sums and differences.1
21
.
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
4. Domain and range of functions. ln x [sin x. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).1 8. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).1 5.

Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous Definition of a function. ln x [sin x.] tangents and normals.3
17.
[P2 June 2002 Question 8]
2. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).2 6.
12.2
1. The modulus function.1
sums and differences.1
8.2
1.1 8.1 1. Differentiation of ex. Graphs of functions. The function ex and its graph Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous.1 5. products and quotients. Domain and range of functions.1 4.1 2.2
2. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). Composition of functions. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods. 16. tan x] and their sums and differences. Sketching curves defined by simple equations.3 4. ln x and their sums and differences.
[P2 November 2002 Question 5]
4.
8. products and quotients.1 and their sums and differences.] tangents and normals. Composition of functions. cos x. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Applications of differentiation to [gradients.
[P2 November 2002 Question 6]
2.9
22
.Qn
Question 2]
Old Specification Reference
[P2 June 2002 Question 2] [P2 June 2002 Question 6]
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
1.1 1. Definition of a function. Inverse functions Graphs of functions and their inverses. Sketching curves defined by simple 3.2
5. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling.1
18. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Differentiation of ex. cos x. Sketching curves defined by simple equations. The modulus function. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Inverse functions [and their graphs].
[P2 November 2002 Question 1] [P2 November 2002 Question 3]
1. of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α )
5.3
15. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling. tan x] and their sums and differences. Graphs of functions and their inverses. The function ln x and its graph Differentiation of ex.
[P2 November 2002 Question 8]
2.2 4. [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)]. 13.1 6.9
1. ln x [sin x.
1. Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B). Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling.1
14.1
Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous. ln x and their sums and differences. Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B). Sketching curves defined by simple equations.2
19.1
1.1
1.3 5. Graphs of functions.3 5. Domain and range of functions.3 3. The function ex and its graph Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods.1 The function ln x and its graph Differentiation of ex. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling.1 4.

Domain and range of functions. cosecant and cotangent and of arcsin.5
1.3
2.
[P2 January 2003 Question 1] [P2 January 2003 Question 3]
1.10
22. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods. The laws of logarithms. 21. cosine and tangent.3 2.1 1.1 Definition of a function. Knowledge of secant.3 1. Sketching curves defined by simple equations.
[P2 January 2003 Question 8]
2. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods Knowledge of secant. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Graphs of functions. Domain and range of functions. The modulus function.2 6. Their relationships to sine. Sketching curves defined by simple equations. Graphs of functions and their inverses.6 2. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling.2 5. Graphs of functions.9
5. Combinations of the[se]
20. Domain and range of functions. Their relationships to sine.
[P2 January 2003 Question 6]
4. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations.1 5.2
2.9
2. arccos and arctan. Domain and range of functions. Graphs of functions and their inverses.4
1. ln x and their sums and differences. The laws of logarithms. Composition of functions.2 4. Inverse functions Knowledge of the effect of simple 3.3 1.2
1.1 8.3
24. arccos and arctan. cosine and tangent.3 5. tan x] and their sums and differences. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. The modulus function. Composition of functions. The function ln x and its graph Differentiation of ex.
[P2 January 2003 Question 7]
4. The solution of equations of the form ax = b. Composition of functions.Qn
Old Specification Reference
equations. cosecant and cotangent and of arcsin.1 2.1
5. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).2 The function ln x and its graph Differentiation of ex. The solution of equations of the form ax = b. [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)].2
23. Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B).1
2.1
4. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). Understanding of their graphs and appropriate restricted domains. Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equations.2 Definition of a function. Inverse functions. cos x. Understanding of their graphs and appropriate restricted domains.] tangents and normals.
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
1. of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). sketching curves defined by simple equations. Sketching curves defined by simple equations. Composition of functions. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling. Definition of a function.5 5.2
1. Definition of a function. 2. ln x [sin x. Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equations.4
23
. Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Inverse functions. Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B).

The modulus function Combinations transformations of the[se]
26. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations.
[P2 November 2003 Question 1] [P2 November 2003 Question 5]
1. y = f(x + a).4
28. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).10
5.1 5. Domain and range of functions.1 1.1
5. Graphs of functions and their inverses.
[P2 June 2003 Question 4]
2.1
27. Composition of functions.1 4. The function ex and its graph Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods.1 2. y = f(x) + a. Domain and range of functions.3
2. y = f(ax) and combinations of these transformations.3
Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B). of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). sketching curves defined by simple equations. Sketching curves defined by simple equations.2
4. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Knowledge and use of 1 + tan2 θ ≡ sec2 θ. Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous.5 1. The laws of logarithms. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods.2 1.2
1.1
3.4
1. y = f(x + a). The modulus function Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x). sin θ Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B).9
Graphs of functions.
[P2 June 2003 Question 1]
5.1 8.
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
transformations. Definition of a function.3 1.5
1. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). Composition of functions. Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equations. cos θ cot θ ≡ .
[P2 June 2003 Question 2]
2. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations. y = f(ax) and combinations of these transformations.2
The laws of logarithms Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Definition of a function. 1 + cot2 θ ≡ cosec2 θ.Qn
Old Specification Reference
transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x).1
8.
2.
25.2
1.
[P2 June 2003 Question 5]
2. Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equatons. y = f(x) + a.2
29. [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)]. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Knowledge and use of 2 2 sec θ = 1 + tan θ and cosec2 θ = 1 + cot2 θ . and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α )
24
.3 2. The function ex and its graph. Inverse functions.2
5. 30.

Domain and range of functions.10 Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equatons. Definition of a function.1
The laws of logarithms Differentiation of ex. Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Knowledge and use of double angle
36.5
1. Composition of functions. Composition of functions. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations.1 8. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. ln x [sin x.5 6. Graphs of functions. y = f(x + a).2
35. y = f(x + a). y = f(x) + a.11
1. y = f(x + a).3 4. Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous. y = f(ax). Applications of differentiation to [gradients. Differentiation of ex. Differentiation of ex. Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x).
[P2 January 2004 Question 4]
2.3
Definition of a function. tan x] and their sums and differences.3 5.
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
1.
[P2 November 2003 Question 7]
Old Specification Reference
2.Qn
31. Domain and range of functions. y = f(x) + a.2 4. ln x and their sums and differences.5
1. Composition of functions. Domain and range of functions. ln x [sin x.
[P2 November 2003 Question 8]
1. Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x). y = f(ax). y = f(x + a). Inverse functions.4 2.
2. tan x] and their sums and differences. cos x.2 4.2
34.2
1. Combinations transformations of the[se]
2. The laws of logarithms. cos x.9
2. Composition of functions. Inverse functions [and their graphs]. y = f(ax) and combinations of these transformations. Composition of functions.] tangents and normals.4 Geometric interpretation of algebraic solution of equations.3
32.] tangents and normals. Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x). Location of the roots of f(x) = 0 by considering changes of sign of f(x) in an interval of x in which f(x) is continuous.1
1. Domain and range of functions. Inverse functions. The laws of logarithms.3 5. y = f(ax) and combinations of these transformations.1 The laws of logarithms. y = f(x) + a. Differentiation of ex.
[P2 January 2004 Question 8]
4. Sketching curves defined by simple equations. Inverse functions The modulus function. sketching curves defined by simple equations. Use of intersection points of graphs of functions to solve equations.
[P2 January 2004 Question 5]
4.3
25
.
[P2 January 2004 Question 1]
2.5 6. Domain and range of functions.1
1.1 Definition of a function. Definition of a function. Knowledge and use of formulae for 5. Composition of functions. Graphs of functions and their inverses.2
Definition of a function.1
5. y = f(x) + a. Definition of a function. Knowledge of the effect of simple transformations on the graph of y = f(x) as represented by y = af(x).1 5. ln x and their sums and differences.1 2. Domain and range of functions.11
2. Inverse functions
33. The modulus function 1.

Inverse functions and their graphs. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods.2 4.1
1. Domain and range of functions. cosecant and cotangent and of arcsin. Understanding of their graphs and appropriate restricted domains.
37.1 2. arccos and arctan.1 Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Knowledge of secant. cosine and tangent. ln x [sin x.1 1.2
40. Definition of a function.3
26
. The laws of logarithms Differentiation of ex. Definition of a function. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). of double angle formulae and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ). Understanding of their graphs and appropriate restricted domains.2
5. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B). ln x and their sums and differences.1
5.1 4. and of expressions for a cos θ + b sin θ in the equivalent forms of r cos (θ ± α ) or r sin (θ ± α ) 1. Graphs of functions. Knowledge and use of double angle formulae for sin (A ± B). The modulus function. Approximate solutions of equations using simple iterative methods. Simplification of rational expressions including factorising and cancelling Knowledge of secant. The laws of logarithms Differentiation of ex. The modulus function. 38. sketching curves defined by simple equations.1
4.9
41. Their relationships to sine. arccos and arctan. cos x. cosine and tangent. Their relationships to sine. Inverse functions. tan x] and their sums and differences.5 6. Graphs of functions and their inverses. Domain and range of functions.2
2. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).2
2.
C1/C2/C3 Specification Reference
formulae for sin (A ± B).
[P2 June 2004 Question 5]
8. Composition of functions. Knowledge and use of formulae for sin (A ± B). cosecant and cotangent and of arcsin.3
1.
[P2 June 2004 Question 7]
5. [including recurrence relations of the form xn + 1 = f(xn)]. Sketching curves defined by simple equations.3
2.Qn
Old Specification Reference
sin (A ± B).
[P2 June 2004 Question 1] [P2 June 2004 Question 2]
1. Composition of functions. cos (A ± B) and tan (A ± B).
[P2 June 2004 Question 8]
2.3
39.