# UNIT – III

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 2 MARKS
1. What is a Generator polynomial? Give some standard generator polynomials. 2. What are Convolutional Codes? How are they different from block Codes? 3. What are Code Tree, Code Trellis and State diagrams for Convolutional encoders? 4. Define Hamming distance and Hamming Weight. MAY/JUNE 2007 5. Show that c= { 000, 001, 101 }is not a linear code. MAY/JUNE 2007 6. What is meant by Systematic and non Systematic Codes? 7. What is meant by Linear block Codes? 8. What is meant by Cyclic Codes? 9. Define Syndrome 10. What are the properties of Linear Block Codes? 11. What are the properties of Cyclic Codes? 12. What are the properties of Syndrome? 13. When is a code said to be linear? NOV/DEC 2006 14. What is the essence of Huffman coding? NOV/DEC 2006 15. State two properties of syndrome (used in linear block codes). NOV/DEC 2007 16. What do you mean by code rate and constraint length in convolutional code? NOV/DEC 2007 17. Define Syndrome in error correction coding. APRIL/MAY 2008, NOV/DEC 2008 18. Why Cyclic codes are extremely well suited for error detection? APRIL/MAY 2008 19. Give the error correcting capability of a linear block code.NOV/DEC 2008

8 MARKS
1. a) b) c) d) e) Define linear block code. How to find the parity check matrix? Give the syndrome decoding algorithm. Design a linear block code with dmin ≥ 3 for some block length n = 2m-1. Consider a hamming code C which is determined by the parity check matrix.
1  H = 1 0  1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 1 

(2) (4) (4) (6)

i) Show that the two vectors C1 = (0010011) and C2 = (0001111) are

MAY/JUNE 2007 6. iv) What is the length and the dimension K of the code.HT only depends on error vector e. Find all the Code word of this Code. Determine the syndrome polynomial s(x) for this received word. 5.3) systematic linear block code. Find its corresponding message vector m and express m in polynomial m(x). Determine Syndrome Polynomial S(x) and error polynomial e(x). Show that the syndrome s = r. Consider the (7. For a (6.4) Code defined by generator polynomial g(x)=1+x+x3 the codeword 0111001 is sent over a noisy Channel producing a received word 0101001 that has a single error. How can this be used to correct a single bit error in an arbitrary position.3)block code is given below. The generator matrix for a (6.Decode this received word by finding the location of the error and the transmitted data bits. Considering (7.4) Hamming code defined by the generator polynomial g(x)=1+x+x3 The codeword 1000101 is sent over a noisy channel producing the received word 0000101 that has a single error.c6 are formed from the following equations MAY/JUNE 2007 C4 = d1+d3 C5 = d1+d2+d3 C6 = d1+d2 i) Write down the generator matrix ii) Construct all possible codewords iii) Suppose that the received word is 01011. the three parity check bits c4.codewords of C and calculate the hamming distance between them. How is syndrome calculated in cyclic codes? NOV/DEC 2006 .Let data d=(1010) . Why can the minimum Hamming distance dmin not be larger than three? 2. NOV/DEC 2006 7. 4. iii) Calculate the syndromes for all possible error vectors e with Hamming weight < = 1 and list them in a table.c5. Find the corresponding systematic codeword. Consider a (7.4) cyclic code with generator polynomial g(x) = 1+x+x3 . 1  G = 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0      3. ii) Assume that a codeword C was transmitted and that a vector r = c + e is received.

1) and g2(x)=(1.1). A convolutional encoder has a single shift register with 2 stages. If it is in error correct the error.8.Determine if the codeword is correct.The generator sequences of the encoder are as follows g1(x)=(1. Consider the (7.Determine the codeword for 011 111 101 The message 0010. NOV/DEC 2008 12. APRIL/MAY 2008 11. 3 modulo-2 adders and an output multiplexer. Construct the generator matrix for the code and also construct encoder and decoder for the code. NOV/DEC 2007 9. and also explain the working principle of the encoder. NOV/DEC 2008 .4) code by using an extra parity check.0.Draw (i) the block diagram of the encoder. (ii) state diagram.4) Hamming code can be converted into a double error detecting and single error correcting (8.0) and g3(x)=(1. Suppose the codeword 1100010 is received.1. The connection from the shift registers to modulo-2 adders are described by the following equations: g1(x) = 1+x g2(x) = x Determine the output codeword for the input message 1110. NOV/DEC 2007 10.4) Hamming code with P = 1 1 0. Construct a Convolutional encoder for the following specifications: Rate efficiency = ½. Constraint length = 4. Explain cyclic codes with its generator polynomial and parity check polynomial.1. The SEC (7.