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A Technical seminar report




Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of degree of





Cheeryal, Keesara, R.R.District


1 Introduction
2 Transmission System

3 How gps works

4 Basic principle and relay design

4.1 Basic principle

4.2 Relay design

5 Fault generated transients and associated protection techniques

6 Characteristics of high frequency current signals

7 Modeling and simulation



This is a new technique for the protection of

transmission systems by using the global

positioning system (GPS) and fault generated

transients. In this scheme the relay contains a

fault transient detection system together with a

communication unit, which is connected to the 1. INTRODUCTION

power line through the high voltage coupling A century has passed since
capacitors of the CVT. Relays are installed at the application of the first electro
chemical over current relays in power
each bus bar in a transmission network. These
system protection. The majority of
detect the fault generated high frequency protection principles where developed
voltage transient signals and record the time with in the first three decades of
century .a rough guide to there
instant corresponding to when the initial
development is shown in fig1
traveling wave generated by the fault arrives at

the bus bar. The decision to trip is based on the

components as they propagate through the

system. extensive simulation studies of the

technique were carried out to examine the

response to different power system and fault

condition. The communication unit is used to

transmit and receive coded digital signals of the

local information to and from the associated Distance protection has played an
relays in the system. At each substation , the important role in power line protection
since it was first introduced in the early
relay determine the location of the fault by
part of the century. it has many advantages
comparing the GPS time stay measured locally over the power line protection techniques
with those received from the adjacent and can be adopted for fault location and
back up protection. however , like other
substations, extensive simulation studies
power frequency based protection
presented here demonstrate feasibility of the techniques it suffers from limitation due to
scheme power system frequency wave form , fault
path resistance , line loading and source
parameter variations. In particular , the
response speed of the relay cannot meet the increase the speed of relay response .in
reqirements when very high speed fault the late 70’s this led to the
clearance is required . development of “ultra high speed
protection “ based on the use of
With the continuous development of
traveling waves and super imposed
modern technology, protection relays have
components these relays offered the
advanced with the development of
advantage of fast response ,
electromechanical, semiconductor,
directionality , and where not affected
integrated circuits and microprocessor
by power swing and CT saturation.
technologies. Al tough decades of research
However many distinct advantages of
have been put in to the continued
the conventional protection techniques
development and perfection of the relay
where not retained for eg. Inherent
technology , many of the basic relaying
back up protection.
principles of protection have not been
changed and are still playing a dominant In recent years, there is a
role today. the introduction of computer growing interest in the use of fault
technology have been an important generated transients for protection
milestone in the history of power system purposes and extensive research work
protection .since the concept was first has been conducted to develop new
raised in the late 60’s relay technology has relaying principles and techniques
gone through rapid development. digital based on there detection.. this led to
techniques for transmission line protection the new concept of “transient based
have been quickly developed and have protection “(TBP). Among these the
included various digital and numeric “positional protection” offers
impedance algorithm for distance attractive solutions for power line
protection. protection.

Modern development for This technique is based on the

power system network , the demand detection of fault generated high
for fast fault clearance to improve frequency transient signals and
system stability and the need for determine the actual portion of the
alternative protection principles have fault on the line by measuring the
resulted in the search for methods to traveling time of the high frequency
transient voltage or current signals transient program(EMPT) software
along the line . in contrast to the has been used to simulate a model
conventional traveling wave based EHV transmission system in order to
protection techniques, this technique examine the response of the
concentrates on the fault generated protection scheme to a variety of
signals during arcing and their different system and fault condition.
associated high frequency signals. Results demonstrate that the proposed
With this approach not only the close technique offer a very fast relay
in faults can be detected , but also the response and high accuracy in fault
problem of low fault inception angle , location. It has also been shown that
voltage zero faults is effectively the scheme is immune to power
overcome since the faults arc signals frequency phenomena which can
vary little with the inception angle. effect established types of relaying.

The positional protection uses

its associated GPS scheme to
determine the instant when it detects
the fault generated high frequency
transient signals and uses the power
line communication system to 2. TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

communicate this information to the GENERATION TRANSMISSION DISTRIBUTION

relays at the other substations. By
comparing the arrival time of the
transient at different points in the
network , relay is able to identify
where the fault is on the system and
pin point its location . the system can
also respond to the high frequency
transient generated by switch gear Electric power transmission, a process in
operation, which provides an the delivery of electricity to consumers, is the
immediate opportunity for bulk transfer of electrical power. Typically,
comprehensive self testing and power transmission is between the power plant
calibration checking. Electro magnetic and a substation near a populated
area.Electricity distribution is the delivery from
the substation to the consumers.Electric power
transmission allows distant energy sources (such
as hydroelectric power plants) to be connected GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a
to consumers in population centers, and may very precise orbit and transmit signal
allow exploitation of low-grade fuel resources information to earth. GPS receivers take this
that would otherwise be too costly to transport information and use triangulation to calculate
to generating facilities. Due to the large amount the user's exact location. Essentially, the GPS
of power involved, transmission normally takes receiver compares the time a signal was
place at high voltage (110 kV or above). transmitted by a satellite with the time it was
Electricity is usually transmitted over long received. The time difference tells the GPS
distance through overhead power transmission receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with
lines. Underground power transmission is used distance measurements from a few more
only in densely populated areas due to its high satellites, the receiver can determine the user's
cost of installation and maintenance, and position and display it on the unit's electronic
because the high reactive power produces large map. By knowing the distance from another
charging currents and difficulties in voltage satellite, the possible positions of the location
management.A power transmission system is are narrowed down to two points (Two
sometimes referred to colloquially as a "grid"; intersecting circles have two points in
however, for reasons of economy, the network common). A GPS receiver must be locked on to
is not a mathematical grid.Redundant paths and the signal of at least three satellites to calculate
lines are provided so that power can be routed a 2D position (latitude and longitude) and track
from any power plant to any load center, movement. With four or more satellites in view,
through a variety of routes, based on the the receiver can determine the user's 3D
economics of the transmission path and the cost position (latitude, longitude and altitude). Once
of power. Much analysis is done by the user's position has been determined, the
transmission companies to determine the GPS unit can calculate other information, such
maximum reliable capacity of each line, which, as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance t
due to system stability considerations, may be 4. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND RELAY
less than the physical or thermal limit of the DESIGN
A short circuit fault on a high frequency signals are generated at
power transmission line generates the fault point and travel outward from
voltages and current signals over a that point along the network
wide frequency range. These signals conductors. In time they will reach the
propagate away from the fault point in monitored bus bar and be detected by
both directions along the transmission the relays connected to them. each
system with velocity close to the speed relay record the arrival instant of the
of light. It has been long recognized signal generated by the fault.
that the actual faulted position could The relays then code this
be determined on line if the transient time information with details of their
signals could time tagged at key points identification.. and transmit this to
on the power system network. The their neighbouring relays. All relays
global positioning system , with its are continuously ready to receive the
ability to provide synchronization with coded massages send by other devices.
an accuracy of microsecond over the Data protocols are used to avoid
wide area, provides an ideal tool for conflict between information sent by
performing this time tagging of the different devices along the same line.
receipt of fault generated transients. following an event , the relays
compare the fault transient arrival time
4.1 Basic Principle recorded at its sight with those send by
other relays .from this they determine
The basic principle of the
whether the fault is with in the
technique can be demonstrated by
protected zone. appropriate tripping
referring to the 400Kv, EHV
instructions are then send to the
transmission network, shown in figure.
relevant local circuit breakers. The
Relays are installed at the bus bars
actual location where the fault occurs
P,Q,R and S and are responsible for
can be clearly identified at each relay
the protection of the network . for this
location by this method.
paper , the study has been
concentrated on the protection of the
network PQR and tripping of the
breakers associated with that network,
recording the time tag obtained from
the GPS clock.

The transmitter circuit sends

this time tag corresponding to the
instant when the transient is captured,
to the receivers of the other relays
installed involved in the network

Previous research has

investigated the use of digital filters to
detect the high frequency signals
generated by the fault and had shown
that the accuracy of fault location was
a function of the sampling rate used to
digitalize the measured signal. the
4.2 Relay Design
accuracy was directly related to the
A simplified block diagram of
sampling rate and higher the sampling
the relay unit is shown in fig.. the
rate , the more accurate the
transient detector uni5t is connected to
measurement. in this system it was
the line using three phase CVTs . these
therefore proposed to use continuous
are able to detect the fault generated
sampling. Ie an analog system and a
high frequency voltage signals. The
pass band filter tuned to operate
communication unit, containing a
between 40 and 80 KHz. The
transmitter and a receiver circuits ,
protection technique is therefore
also uses the CVTs together with a
divorced from the power system
hybrid unit to separate the transmitted
and received transmitted signal.

The transient detector is

responsible for detecting the fault
The communication link used
generated fast transient signals and
in the scheme modeled and shown in
fig. Used power line carrier
techniques. Although this has several than one which concentrates on
advantages , other communication specific units of plant. This provides
system could be used, such as pilot several technical advantages over
wire , optical fibre or microwave. conventional relaying.

The decision to trip the local

breaker depends on the comparison 5. FAULT GENERATED TRANSIENTS
between the times measured by the AND ASSOSIATED PROTECTION
GPS system at that location and those TECHNIQUES
measured by other relays. Unlike the
A comparison of different protection
convectional protection scheme ,
techniques in the frequency domain is
shown in fig . a power system fault
indicates a variety of additional transient
components in additional components
contain extensive information about the
fault and are spread through out the
spectrum ranging from Dc to may kilohertz
and even mega hertz.

In conventional protection
where each relay associates with one scheme , the high frequency signals
circuit breaker on that line section, the are considered to be noise and filtered
proposed relaying scheme will be out and as a result, considerable
responsible for protection of several research has been spent on the
lines connected to the bus bar where it designing of the filters , protection
is installed. For eg as shown in fig the schemes based on detection of fault
relay at bus bar “R” responsible for generated transient, such as the “ ultra
the protection of both line section , high speed protection ” schemes are
connected to the busbar, by controlling generally limited by the band width of
both circuit breakers CB-RP and CB- transducers used.
RQ. Therefore the technique offers a
network protection scheme rather than
devices and their associated
algorithms. The high frequency
current signal are directly extracted
from the CT out puts . although
conventional iron cored CT’s
alternate the high frequency signals,
their characteristics are such that
sufficient signals can be detected for
relaying measurement and several
researches are studying there use for
high frequency relaying. Following
initial analogue filtering, fast signal
processing algorithms are then applied
to the measured signals for fault
It is accepted however that
the fault generated high frequency
transient components contain a wealth
of information about the fault type, 6. CHARECTERSTICS OF HIGH
location , its directions and duration . FREQUENCY CURRENT SIGNALS.
the use of these high frequency
The theoretical aspects of the
transient signals enables the realization
characteristics of the propagation of high
of new protection principles that could
frequency signals on transmission lines
not be implemented using only power
have been well documented.
frequency signals . this has led to the
development of the “transient based 6.1 Detection of fault position and
protection “ and the “ transient fault generated current transients
identification” shown in fig 2. When a fault occurs on a
transmission line , wide band voltages
The transient based protection and current signals propagate away
technique operate by extracting the from the fault point along the power
fault generated high frequency signals conductors. In time, these signals
through specially designed detection reach discontinuities on the
transmission line and some of the
signals is reflected back towards the signals associated with the fault
fault point. The characteristics of generated current transients. A
these waves are dependent on several simplified block diagram of the
factors including , the fault position detector arrangement is shown in the
on the line , fault path resistance and figure . the circuit comprises of an
the characteristics impedance of the analogue input circuit for signal
power conductors .this propagation conditioning and a digital circuit for
can be shown graphically. determining the transients. Particular
emphasis has been placed on the
Here relays are located at all
development of digital circuit.
of the substations in the power system
and independently monitor the power The detector is designed to
system. The frequency range of interrogate signals in the range of
interest for monitoring these fault frequencies from 40-80KHz. analog
generated high frequency signals is circuit acts as a band pass filter which
between 40-80 KHz and the signal extracts the band of fault generated
processing is designed as to determine transient current signal from the line.
the arrival of high frequency transient as a result , the response of the scheme
characteristics of those generated by a is not affected by the power frequency
fault. at these frequencies , bus bars short circuit band at the busbar or the
are dominated by their capacitive presise configration of the source side
elements , and as a result, the networks.
incoming high frequency current 6.3 Signal Processing Unit
signal is both inverted and reflected . a
Model transformation is
resistive fault in their frequency range
employed to decouple the signal in to
will also reflect a current wave of the
their respective aerial modes. The
opposite polarity.
signal mixing circuit receive the
6.2 Fault current transient detector signal from the 3 phase CTs and
The proposed scheme uses a continue these to form mode2 and
specially designed transient current mode3 signals. There are filters to
detector fed from the primary CTs . remove any spurious noise. The
This extracts are high frequency
outputs of the analog circuit are then
passed to the digital circuit.

The sampling frequency of

the analog to digital A/D converter is 1
Mz and the speed of propagation of
the high frequency transient is similar
to the speed of light. The digital
The response of the complete
processing includes filters sequence
system was evaluated by modeling the
recording, amplitude comparison,
transmission line system together with
counters and decision logic.
the relays in the scheme using the
EMTP simulation program. EMTP is a
general purpose computer program for
simulating high speed transient effects
in electric power systems. The EMTP
program features an extremely wide
variety of modeling capabilities
encompassing electromagnetic and
electro mechanical oscillations ranging
in duration from micro seconds. Its
main application includes switching
and lightning surge analysis, insulation
co-ordinations, shaft torsional
oscillations ferro resonance and
HVDC converter control and

7. MODELLING AND SIMULATION The EMTP simulation studies include

7.1 System Modeling 1. Simulation of line and

transformer energization, load
rejection and fault clearing
which are done to help
determine the required Fig 3(b) shows the
transformer , circuit breaker and corresponding transient voltage
other equipment characteristics. signals captured by the relays at P,Q
and R. it can be seen that the
2. Additional simulations
magnitude of the captured transient
used to develop recommended
signal decreases with increasing
procedure for line and
distance between the relay and the
transformer energization.
fault point. Upon detecting the arrival
3. Comparison of several
of the transient signal , each relay time
recorded waveforms with the
tag the signal and details of the time
result of EMTP simulation of
are send to other relay locations.
same events.
The time taken for the
7.2 Simulation Studies
communication will depend on the
The configuration of a communication system used. in this
transmission line network used in the study a high speed communication
studies is shown in the fig. The line system has been modeled. the time
lengths , source capacities and fault taken for the communication is the
position studies are shown 9in fig. CB- system overload, which will be added
PQ, CB-PR,CB-RQ are circuit to the processing time required in the
breakers responsible for isolating the decision making unit.
different line sections.
Determining which is the
Fig 3(a) shows the primary faulted section is reduced to a
system voltage at the bus bars comparison of time tags recorded
experienced during “a” earth fault at when the fault transients where
the point F1 in the expected , the detected at the relaying points through
seviarity of the fault depends on the out the network .each relay compares
impedance of the line connecting the the time instant of the first wave to
busbar and the fault point. It is evident arrive at the location with those
that the high frequency components recorded at the other location. .a time
are produced at the faulted and difference smaller than the time taken
unfaulted phases. to travel through the corresponding
line length indicates that the fault is
with in the corresponding section .the
actual fault location can be determined
with an accuracy of with in 300
meters using the difference between
time measurements taken at the end of
the faulted line.

The relationship between the tag times and

determining which feeder is faulted and
hence which breaker need to be tripped is
given by

Tp-Tq < Lpq/V

Tp - arrival time of the

transient wave as bus bar P

Tq - arrival time of the

transient wave as bus bar Q
Lpq - length of the line and therefore the fault is onside the
between busbar P and Q area considered in the study.

V - wave velocity on the Tp - Tq = Lpq/V

line. Tp - Tr = Lpr/V
From the response shown in The relays therefore restrain
fig indicates that the fault occurs on the circuit breakers associated with
the line section PQ. Since this a sections PQR from tripping.
TEED feeder , the trip decision will be
made up by the relays at locations P,Q
and R respectively and subsequently
these relays trip their associated circuit
breakers, as shown in fig 5(b). for this
fault , the relays at P and R are able to
discriminate between the TEED feeder
PQR and line PQR and line PR by
considering their response and that
from the relay at Q.
The relay installed at bus bar
The distance we to the
fault is calculated at both terminals ‘S’ will detect the time tag the fault
generated transient wave together with
line section between bus bar P and Q.
the time tag data and the measured the time tag data received from the
relay at bus bar ‘P’ section is SP and
fault location are given in the table1.
The tripping signals shown assume a trip the corresponding breaker. The
relay located on the bus bar P will
high speed communication system.
respond in a similar manner.
Fig 4 shows the
Fig 5 shows the relay
corresponding responses for an ‘a’
phase to ground fault occurring at the response for a ‘b’ phase to ground
fault occurring near a voltage zero at
point F2 in fig. In this case , the time
difference between Tp and Tq , Tp and point F3. as expected although the
magnitude of the transient signal has
Tr correspond to the wave travel time
from P to Q and P to R respectively, been reduced as compared to those
shown in fig 3 & 4 , relays able to communication system.
make correct decision based on the
signals detected . details of the relays
response is shown in table 1.

Again although the

magnitude of the signal s captured are
relatively lower due to increase in
fault path resistance , the result
clearly shows that the scheme is still
able to operate.

Fig 6 shows an ‘a’ to ‘b’

fault at point F5 on the TEED feeder
PQR . the high frequency transients
are readily detected at the relay
location and summary of results are
shown in table 1.

Switching operations at any

substation will also generate high frequency
transients, which will be detected by the relays.
However the time difference between the time
tags will correspond to the transient time along
the feeders and the protection will diagnose
that the disturbance is not on the protected
feeders . the response of the system to those of
the system to these switching operations offers
the opportunity for a comprehensive self-
testing of the fault detection GPS and the
The GPS clock has an transient signals. In the complete
accuracy of 1 microseconds roughly scheme , the direction a fault as
corresponds to an accuracy in fault determined at a bus bar also be
location of 300 meters. This assumes transmitted to the adjacent relays
that the transients travel at the speed of using the communication link.
light in vacuum, where as their speed
will be less along the power

A new technique for the

protection of a transmission line
network is presented in this paper. this
uses a dedicated fault detector to
extract the fault generated high
frequency voltage transient signal and
GPS system to time tag these signals.
The traveling time of the transient
high frequency signal from the point
of fault to the adjacent substation is
used to determine the fault positions.

Simulations studies have

been carried out the operation of the
Error in the time tagging to
system when applied to an EHV
introduce an uncertainity for faults
transmission network containing both
occurring close to a bus bar . to for a
plain and TEED feeders. Results show
complete protection scheme which
that the proposed scheme is able to
covers, faults on any part of the
identify the faulted section of a
transmission line system, the technique
transmission network and issue the trip
need to be complemented by a high
command to the circuit breaker
speed directional relaying technique .
associated with the faulted section.
such relays could be provided by
The protection is inherently high speed
measuring either current or voltage,
but is dictated by the data Protective relays application
communication system used. guide: ALSTOM T & D protection and

Studies show that the control ltd

proposed technique is able to offer a

high accuracy in fault location. Since
the accuracy of fault location is
proportional to digital sampling was
chosen, ie an analog fault detector.

Unlike traditional protection

schemes , this technique offers a new
concept in network protection. The
protection inherently monitors the
network to which it is connected and is
not limited to individual units of plant.


o Zhiqian Q Bo Weller, Tom

Lomas and Miles A, Redfern “Positional
Protection of Transmission system Using
global Positioning System” IEEE Trans.
On Power delivery, vol 15 no 4 oct 2000

o Z Q Bo G Weller F.T Dai

and M A redfern “Positional technique for
power transmission lines” in IPEC 99
proceedings of the international power
engg conference