Advantages of food preservation 1- Preparation of food is more easier & rapid than before.
2- Transportation of food from one country to another is facilitated by preservation. 3- The diet is more balanced & more varied. 4- Some seasonal food become available through the year round. Causes of spoilage 1- Microbial spoilage. 2- Chemical spoilage (autolysis). 3- Mechanical deterioration. Principles of food preservation  Prevention or delay of the microbial spoilage of food :a) Hindering the growth & multiplication of M.Os. [bacteriostatic method] → by chilling, freezing, smoking, curing (addition of chemicals as antibiotics). (b) Killing of existing M.O. [bactericidal method] → by using high temperature & radiation.  Prevention or delay of chemical spoilage of food :a) Delayment of enzymatic spoilage of food → by Blanching. b) Delayment of pure chemical reaction → Addition of antioxidants to food suspected to be deteriorated or spoiled by oxidation.  Prevention of mechanical deterioration of food by removal of the cause. Types of food preservation [A] According to addition of chemical substance :(1) Physical → High temperature, low temperature & radiation. (2) Chemical → Curing, smoking, salting & addition of antibiotics. [B] According to mode o action :(1) Bactericidal → High temperature & radiation. (2) Bacteriostatic → Other methods of preservation except high temperature & radiation. N.B. Methods used to prevent microbial spoilage of food also used to retard enzymatic spoilage of food (except radiation which affect only M.O. but not affect enzymes).
Microbial Growth Curve
A → Log phase (phase of adaptation in which there is no growth. B → (+ve) Acceleration phase → Rate of growth is accelerated. C → Logarithmic phase of growth → Rate of growth is most rapid & constant. D → (–ve) Acceleration phase → Rate of growth is decreased. E → Maximum stationary phase → Rate of growth is constant. F → Decline phase [Accelerated death phase] → Number of M.Os. decrease. G → Death phase → Number of M.Os. greatly decreased. Generation Time → It is the time elapsed between formation of mother cell to daughter cell. The longest → in A & B [Lag phase]. The shortest → in C [Logarithmic phase of growth]. So prevent logarithmic phase of growth for reduction of contamination (to decrease number of cells resulted from divided mother cell). * It is important in food preservation to avoid addition of actively growing M.Os. during their logarithmic phase of growth through :(1) Addition of as few as possible of food spoilage M.Os. through reduction of contamination i.e. Microbial load in food should be minimum through reduction of contamination. (2) Avoid addition of actively growing M.Os. during their logarithmic phase of growth (longer generation time) to reduce contamination. (3) Creation of one or more of unfavourable conditions for growth & multiple of M.Os. → Unfavourable PH, oxidation reduction potential, moisture or temperature (below minimum or above maximum). (4) Killing of existing M.Os. by use of bactericidal methods of food preservation [high temperature & radiation].
Some food that not preserved by high temperature is packaged in cans made from glass (as jams) due to acidity. N. barrel.Commonly used cans are made from mild steel.Conductive to * Sealing of can should be from outside not in contact with the content of the can. with side sealing done firstly then end sealing.Prevent oxidation of food by O2. * Shape of can → Cuboidal.B. fins. remove scales. -.Not easily broken.  Blanching :-
. lined in the internal layer by zinc oxide or tin (amount of zinc oxide or tin shouldn't exceed 1. cylindrical. 2.
 Preparation of food :* Remove tendons & excessive fat.5% of total weight of can) & free from lead impurities. (b) Pickling → make a brine solution & put meat as slices in it or inject meat with it. then rubbing to the product. * Curing may be : (a) Dry curing → mix NaCl + source of nitrite in dry state.B.
Preservation by high temperature [Canning]
* Canning → Preservation of meat by high temperature & putting it in permanently sealed container to prevent recontamination after preservation. * Aim of pickling → prevent dripping in can & prevent shrinkage of meat. 3.Mild steel is preferable than glass due to :1. Each can has one side seal & 2 end seals (upper & lower). K nitrate. One or more of methods of preservation could be used together for preservation of food. then washing. Heat transported inside the product by 2 ways :→ Convection & conduction. 2. head & tail.  Pickling :* Cured meat → meat to which NaCl & a source of nitrite is added (Na nitrate. * Type of cans used :1.N. * Mode of action → Coagulation of protein by high temperature leading to microbial enzyme. nitrous acid). * In fish. flattened.
Canned bacon & loaf of
. (b) Mechanical exhausting → through vacuumization. (b) Mechanical → by automatic machinery.g. (d) Initial number of existing M. * e. -.Os. odour & taste). * Heat process is done by steam under pressure.  Filling :* There are 2 types of filling : (a) Manual → not used now.From the standpoint of food poisoning.* Heating of meat to temperature of 88-93 ْ C in hot water to destroy enzymes.O. So it is better to increase time factor than temperature to avoid physical deterioration of meat (change of colour. * Should be acidified to PH below * Durability :4. * Heated to about 80-90 ْ C. * Commercial canners → Commercially canned food in which some thermophils still present but not significant as they can't grow. the most resistant M. * There are 2 types of exhausting : (a) Steam exhausting → passing of can through steam heat chamber. which can resist high temperature [Clostridium botulinum type A] could be destroyed at 121 ْ C for 20 minutes.  Processing :* It is a very specialized technique where the can are kept in metal baskets & heat processed in closed retorts (as autoclave). at 21 ْ C → 4 years * Should be kept refrigerated in freezer & not shelf stored. 1 lb can Boiled beef at 121 ْ C for 45 minutes Corned beef at 121 ْ C for 55 minutes Corned beef hash at 121 ْ C for 60 minutes * Classification of canned food : (A) According to heat used in processing : Commercially sterilized canned food Pasteurized canned meat product * Suitable for shelf store. (b) Type of food. * e. * The heat used differs according to : (a) Size of can.5 (because Cl.g. botulinum can't at 37 ْ C → 2 years grow at PH 4.  Exhausting :* Removal of air from the can free space before sealing. (c) Environmental condition. Canned beef.5).
can't grow due to low PH).6 – 4.6 – 6. -.O. Lemon & * e.The presence of spoilage or public health hazard M.Commercially sterilized canned food as beef is low acid canned food.5 – 3.  Incubation test :* Samples of cans are divided into 2 halves : 1st half → Incubation at 55 ْ C for 4 days 2nd half → Incubation at 37 ْ C for 10 days (long period for mesophils)
.5 * PH → 3.luncheon meat. This type is known as pasteurized canned meat product.O.The most resistant M. M. [Clostridium botulinum] couldn't grow at PH below 4.g.5 & heat process must be enough to increase temperature to 50 ْ C to deal with psychrotrophic & some of existing mesophilic M.Os.  Outside lacquering :* Insulating media applied to the outside of tin to prevent external corrosion of cans (any hydroscopic material may adhere to body of can.Os. Orange & tomato * e. is of low significance in very acid canned food.Pork → Lower PH below 4. Psychrotrophs Mesophils Thermophils Temperature 5 – 15 ْ C 25 – 35 ْ C 45 – 55 ْ C  Cooling :* Cans are cooled to a temperature of 38-40 ْ C through showers (sprays) on cans in baskets or through immersion in water tanks (some retorts contain showers). -. can be classified to :M.5 & heating at 80-90 ْ C. * According to temperature. -.Os. absorb water & cause corrosion of cans). * Water is preferred to be chlorinated. * Durability :6 months → on shelf (experimental) 1 year → in refrigerator at 4 ْ C (B) According to PH of food : Very acid Medium acid Low acid canned food canned food canned food * PH → 2. fish & egg pineapples -.g.8 * e.5 * PH → 4.g.Os (other types of M.  Washing :* By water containing detergents or best to contain fatty alcohol (to remove greasy material). Meat.
(2) Rust : * If outside rusting (rust was not pitted inside the can) → the can released for human consumption immediately. * Acid act on tin (zinc oxide) resulting in electric couple with the release of hydrogen ions which cause swelling. * Some changes could be occur at the end of storage period such as : 1. but after 12 months of storage it is more practically impossible to slightly separate between physical & chemical changes (due to hydrolysis of fat & protein destruction). -.Hydrolysis of fat & severe corrosion of the can especially in humid condition.The product remain acceptable for 12 months in refrigerator.Stability of canned food
 Canned beef & gravy :* Durability → 4 years at 21 ْ C / 2 years at 37 ْ C. * Chemical changes are more common than physical changes in the form of hydrolysis of fat & loss of riboflavin. imperfection of tinning & lacquering of interior of can. * If the rust was pitted inside the tin → the can should be totally condemned. (3) Leakage → differs according to the cause. * This condition is enhanced by :-
. * Physical changes are more common than chemical changes.
Spoilage of canned food
[A] Physical (mechanical) spoilage :(1) Distortion of some cans. (2) Hydrogen swell : * Occur in food containing high organic acids due to high temperature.  Canned hamburger :* Has the same durability of canned beef.Swelling of some cans & analysis they found that 40 % is hydrogen.Physical deterioration is rapid between 16 – 18 months of storage. 2.  Canned bacon :* Durability → 6 months at 37 ْ C / 12 months in refrigerator (at 4 ْ C). [B] Chemical spoilage :(1) Hydrolysis of fat & loss of riboflavin. -.
[C] Microbial spoilage :* There are 3 types of spore-forming M. 2.Infection through leakage (more common)→ large number & different kinds of M.Gas producing aerobic → growing at optimum temperature of 37 ْ C. E. -.High storage temperature.High content of organic matter. Proteus. * Splitting of protein by high temperature in combination with growth of Clostridium nigrificans (sulfur stinker) lead to liberation of H2S. liver. 2. 3.Os.1. * The condition is rarely to occur in canned vegetables & unknown in canned meat but can be occurred in canned sardines. * True flat sours → Bacillus circulans.Poor exhausting. * Occur mainly in acid food (canned food). present. * More common in canned fish. 2.Presence of sulfur compounds. coli. 4. * Method of swelling detection → by opening the can → release of odourless inflammable gas (hydrogen gas). Salmonella. kidney & tongue. present (leakage can be detected if the can is held under water & squeezed → bubbles appear). -.Os. (1) Flat sour : * Flat sour of canned foods detected only by opening the can (because it is caused by non gas producing M. Bacillus coagulans & Bacillus stearothermophilus (cause sour flavour of canned food). * Occur mainly in foods containing sulfur containing protein (as methionine or cystine).H2S + mild steel (iron) → Iron sulfide → Blackish discolouration of the inside of can & surface of food → requires only trimming of affected part.Non-gas producing aerobic or facultative anaerobic → growing at optimum temperature of 45 ْ C & cause "flat souring".Underprocessing → one or 2 M. * Presence of Staphylococci.Os. (3) Sulphiding : * It is light pink or dark purple discolouration of the inside of can.
.Os.H2S + Zinc oxide → Zinc sulfide (ZnS) → Light pink or dark purple discolouration of the inside of can only without involvement of food → Can pass for human consumption.). 3. Moulds or Yeast is indicative for :1.Gas producing anaerobic → growing at optimum temperature of 55 ْ C. which can resist normal processing & may cause spoilage of canned food : 1. * Mostly occur in foods containing starch & sugars and in meat products containing cereals as sausage.
5) ْ C]. -.
Preservation by low temperature [Refrigeration]
* Refrigeration → Extraction of food heat & lowering the temperature below the surrounding temperature.O.A.Cooling by solid CO2.
. * It could attack low & medium acid canned food leading to spoilage & liberation of gases (H2 & CO2).* Source → Blancher or starch & sugar. 2. temperature of carcass increases (in cattle → 39 ْ C / in sheep → 40 ْ C]. temperature of carcass reach to 5 ْ C. -. (b) T. b. has irritant odour & corrosive effect. * Types of refrigeration :(1) Natural refrigeration : a.Hanging room should be free from dust & have fans (air increase relative humidity) with air velocity at least 0. * After slaughter.Freezing → below freezing point [-1-(-1. -.Fluorinated hydrocarbons → primarily freons. -.Chilling → above freezing point [0-2 ْ C].75 meter / second. * There are 2 types of mechanical refrigeration : 1.both are bacteriostatic & physical methods of preservation. (2) Mechanical refrigeration (Mechanical refrigerator) : * Using liquid refrigerating → CO2 – SO2 – NH4 – Freons.SO2 → Irritant & repulsive. At last room.
I – Preservation by Chilling
* Chilling → Preservation of meat above freezing point usually at [0-2ْC]. Methods of chilling (rate of chilling)  Slow chilling :a) Carcass hanged in hanging rooms for 10 hours (lowering temperature from 39 ْ C to 25 ْ C).CO2 → Uneconomical. -. -.Cooling in ice (disadvantages → increase bacterial growth). b) Then carcass transferred to 3 prechilling rooms. spoilage : * It is the nickname of M.NH4 → Used since 1867 & still used up till now. causing it [Thermophilic Anaerobic non-H2S producing] or species Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum.
* Disadvantages : [Cold Shortening] -.Short shelf-life time. * Chilling room adjusted at (-3 → -4 ْ C) [-3 ْ C for 4 hours & -4 ْ C for 3 hours] & switch off the refrigerator to enter meat (load meat into refrigerator room) then switch it on → Meat divided into parts.
. -. is 65%.Firstly recorded in New Zealand when rapid freezing of lambs at -1 ْ C occurred.c) Then carcass transferred to main chilling room (-1-0 ْ C) where its temperature becomes [0-2 ْ C].Loss of weight not exceed 1-2 %. 2. -. 6. * Air circulate at 1 meter / second. than rapid chilling.Os.Time consuming. 5. * There must be spacing (rail space) between carcasses. * Time → 28 – 36 hours.Need more space. -.Toughness of meat due to excessive loss of moisture when meat refrigerated where meat in normal rigor mortis PH is high & ATP is still present leading to severe convulsions & loss of water. 2.Loss of weight increases when R.High R. help in growth of bacteria on surface of carcass.H. 2.Loss of weight by this method may reach 5-10%.  Rapid (Quick) Chilling :* Start one hour after slaughtering. 3.Gradual decrease of temperature is less inhibitive for growth of M. * Advantages : 1. 4.Cold shortening occur mainly in rapid chilling & not occur in slow chilling. than slow chilling. then refrigerator temperature allowed to be raised to [-1-0 ْ C] for 14 hours to reach carcass temperature 0-2 ْ C.Os. * Disadvantages : 1. * Advantages : → Prevent cold shortening of meat.H.Electric stimulation of carcass to enhance rigor mortis if carcass was fit for quick chilling.Don't lower temperature below 10 ْ C in the first 10 hours. -.Lowering temperature of carcass from [39 ْ C → 5 ْ C].More inhibitive for growth of M. -.To overcome cold shortening : 1.
H.  Relative humidity [R. * Importance of air : (a) Removing of odour. * Most optimum R. / Mould → 92 % / Yeast → 85-90 %.For egg → 2. in chilling room.Permit use of high temperature & R.H.H. stable during chilling cycle (because any fluctuation in R.H.H. -.] :* Chilling at high R. without effect on the shelf life time of chilled meat.  Air velocity :* In rapid chilling → 1 meter / second. ranges between 88-92 %. → Growth & multiplication of M.  Using of U.6 ْ C – but it's found that Clostridium botulinum can grow & produce toxins at 3.3 ْ C. leads to bacterial growth & loss of weight).H.H. aureus can grow & produce toxins at 7.5 % 3. (c) Keeping of constant R.Bacteria need high R.For beef → 10 % 2.H.H.
. * According to that.  Gaseous storage of meat (components of storage atmosphere) :(a) Introduction of CO2 in % about 10 % → prolong storage of beef from 35 to 90 days.Factors affecting chilling  Temperature :* Chilling occur at 10 ْ C but Staph.H. 2.OS. * Prolong durability of chilled meat. (b) Prevent developing of stale odour.[88% at 2 ْ C / 92% at 0 ْ C] -. (c) Nitrogen → tried experimentally but not used practically till now. * It's very important to keep temperature & R. → More loss of weight. chilling should be done at 0-2 ْ C.75 meter / second.For bacon → up to 100 % (b) Ozone → tried by several ppm but it's not used for food in case of food spoiled by oxidation (as butter) & it had irritant effect on employees. * In slow chilling → 0.CO2 % recommended : 1. * Chilling at low R.Prolong storage life time of meat. * Uses of gaseous storage of meat lead to :1. so it's preferable to chill at 5.V rays :* Permits use of high temperature & R.78 ْ C.
) * Highly contaminated meat will be spoiled rapidly with low durability. (5) Sweating (dew points) : * It's condensation of water vapor on surface of meat.B.Air temperature reach dew points (due to fluctuation in temperature between newly-added carcass & previously-added carcasses in chilling room). (as degree of temperature used in chilling is not efficient to delay or stop most of M.5-2 % loss.  Previous contamination of meat :* Meat should be produced under hygienic conditions. * At first day → 1. Durability of chilled meat (1) Beef 35 days → by CO2 10 %.Os.H. b. become 90 days (2) Mutton 1 – 3 weeks (3) Pork 1 – 2 weeks (according to content of fat) (4) Rabbit 5 days (5) Poultry 1 week Changes which may occur in chilled meat [A] Physical changes :(1) Shrinkage (loss of weight) : * Freshly slaughtered animal loses body weight by evaporation of water.e. of better flavour (i. (3) Ripening : * Enzymes of meat still active & cause partial hydrolysis of meat protein & fat → Meat becomes more tender. (2) Darkening : * Found on surface of meat due to oxidation of Oxyhaemoglobin into Methaemoglobin.V rays). * Further loss of weight depend on storage condition. * Causes : a. or presence of dust hinder the action of U. desirable changes). swell & become dull → So meat bloom appear dull & less transparent.
.Os.Rapid extraction of carcass to air temperature. juicy.N. – high R. Any obstacle prevent U. * When meat become moist during chilling → Collagen fibers absorb water.V rays has no penetration power & destroy only surface M. (4) Loss of bloom (colour & general appearance) : * Carcass appear semi transparent (bloom) immediately after slaughter.V rays (as U.
Changes occurring in stored meat [ As these changes occurred in chilled meat ] Physical changes 1.Sweating 5. (3) Brine socking (brine staining) : * Escape of calcium chloride due to leaks in pipe system of chilling. (2) Absorption of foreign odours by fat : * Occur by 2 ways : a.Loss of weight 2.Os.Loss of bloom Chemical changes 1.Liquid refrigeration.[B] Chemical changes :(1) Rancidity : * Hydrolysis of fat by action of lipase enzyme liberated by lipolytic bacteria into free fatty acids & glycerol.
.Absorption of foreign odours by fat 3.Other food present beside chilled meat. Methods of freezing  Sharp freezing :* Freezing at -29 ْ C → -34 ْ C for 3-25 hours (may be for 72 hours).Rancidity 2.5) ْ C]. [C] Microbial changes :* Mainly caused by Psychrotrophic M.Ammonical odour ---------------------------------Microbial changes
II – Preservation by Freezing
* Freezing → Physical method of meat & meat byproduct preservation several degrees below freezing point of meat [-1-(-1. * It is the main change occurring in chilled meat more than microbial spoilage. * It is bacteriostatic method although some bacteria died during freezing (due to conversion of available water to ice which kill bacteria) but some moulds & yeast survive at several degrees below freezing point of meat. giving bitter flavour for meat. * There are 2 types → Oxidative & ketonic rancidity.Darkening 3.Ripening 4. b. (4) Ammonical odour : * Escape of ammonical odour due to leaks in pipe system of chilling. (mainly Pseudomonas fluorescence).
fish. Changes occur in frozen meat A. 2. evaporation of water from muscle cells occur → Large number of ice crystals are formed between muscle cells → Injury of muscle cells during freezing → Increased drip during thawing → Bad quality meat. * This method is used for preservation of meat slices. * This method is not suitable for large carcasses or quarters (because temperature at -275 ْ C is requires to lower beef carcass temperature to -46 ْ C in 7 minutes & this is impractical). 2. poultry & rabbit. * It is 0. Zone of Maximum Ice crystal Formation [ZMIF] It is the zone or range of temperature at which ice crystal formation reach its maximum with large amount of ice crystals outside the cells. * Far away from ZMIF → Small (ultra microscopic) ice located within muscle cells → Amount of drip is so small & practically there is no drip [& this occur in quick freezing] → Good quality meat. Quick freezing is more better than sharp freezing due to: 1.More inhibitive for enzymatic activity than sharp freezing. minced meat.* This method is suitable for preservation of :1.5 – (-4) ْ C.Ice crystals formed in quick freezing are smaller than that formed in sharp freezing. 2. * During freezing process. 4.  Quick freezing :* Freezing at -46 ْ C for 30 minutes. 3.Meat slices in the form of cartons.Changes due to faulty technique of freezing.Physical changes B. although a number of bacteria died in quick freezing lower than in sharp freezing. while in sharp freezing large amount of weep after thawing which give unpalatable meat of low value.Fish & poultry.Small animal as a whole carcass.Beef in the form of halves or quarters.Chemical changes C.Microbial changes [A] Physical changes 1.More inhibitive for bacterial growth than sharp freezing. → So time & temperature differ according to size of meat. 3. so there is small amount of drip during thawing.
.Changes due to act of freezing.
* Losses in empty stores is greater than full one (due to air circulation in empty stores). (c) Loss of weight : * Frozen meat for 4 weeks undergo loss of weight at 2 degrees of temperature → (-8 ْ C) & (-30 ْ C).05 % 0.Changes before freezing. * When water changed into ice crystals → Muscle plasma can't retain its solubility in water. (b) Ammonical odour : * Leakage in pipe system → Escape of ammonia → Ammonical odour.05 % Unwrapped meat 1. (c) Fibrosis of musculature :
. (d) Darkening in colour : * Due to oxidation of Myoglobin to Metmyoglobin on surface of meat.5 ْ C 35 % -3 ْ C 70 % -5 ْ C 82 % -10 ْ C 94 % (b) Changes in physical state of muscle plasma : * Normally muscle plasma is soluble in water. * Cartooned meat loses weight as half as does in non cartooned meat. * Judgment → Condemnation.3. (2) Changes due to faulty technique of freezing :(a) Brine socking or staining : * Leakage in pipe system → Liquid refrigerants (calcium chloride or ammonium hydroxide) precipitation on surface of meat → Cause greening of surface of meat & may penetrate into deeper tissues of meat giving a bitter taste on cooking.16 % 0. Temperature Amount of changed water into ice -1.2 % * So wrapping of frozen meat must be done before freezing to decrease loss of weight & decrease incidence of freezer burn. Frozen meat Loss of weight at Temperature of (-8 ْ C) (-30 ْ C) Wrapped meat 0. (1) Changes due to act of freezing :(a) Expansion in the volume of frozen meat : * Some water of frozen meat changed into ice.Changes after thawing. 4.
bruising. * Judgment → Should be condemned. in intestine escape to deeply-seated muscles especially around bones [synovia temperature is not yet lowered (not cold) & PH of media is still high (7-8)]. (c) Bone taint : * Putrefactive changes occur in deeply-seated muscles at pelvic bone of ox. → Isolated lesion in popliteal. -. * It is know as sour hip in ox & sour spot in pig. * Affected part appear leathery in texture & unpalatable. & Actinobacillosis : * Isolated lesion which escaped the attention of inspectors or escaped the routine inspection of lymph nodes. * Judgment → Affected carcass or offals should be condemned (because they are tasteless & unpalatable).B. tasteless & unpalatable (due to high water content of offals → dehydration of ice crystals & recrystalization again occur in greater rapidity than in meat).* Occur in long standing frozen meat.Actinobacillosis → Nodules between the muscles. Air circulation at rate of 3-5 meter / second cause evaporation of ice then ice crystals formed again).M. * Cause → Slaughter of animal affected with septic condition or exhaustion of animal. 2. * Lesions : 1. -.B. wrinkled.
. * Appear during jointing of carcass.On surface of frozen meat → Dry. heart. sometimes at shoulder plate & may occur at femurotibial junction. ischiatic & axillary lymph nodes. kidneys). (d) Freezer burn : * Occur due to dehydration of ice crystals on surface of frozen meat or offals (liver. (3) Changes before freezing :(a) T. brown button-like areas (due to dehydration of ice crystals on surface of frozen meat & recrystalization again i.e. -. * 75 % of water changed into ice & at -0.O.T.4 ْ C → All water changed into ice & salting out of protein → Development of extrafibrous band especially in buttocks region.In offals → Yellow patches on surface of frozen offals → Offals become inspisiated. pus formation : * Occur in deep parts of carcass (as round of beef). (b) Haemorrhages.
[B] Chemical changes * More detective for durability of frozen meat than microbial changes. Diphtheroids & Anaerobic M.8) then begin to rise up again (favour the growth & multiplication of M.Absorption of foreign odour. 2. * Causative M. 2. * Legal requirement for thawing : At 0 ْ C → 70 % moisture At 10 ْ C → 90 % moisture Air velocity → 1 meter / second -.Rancidity of fat.Localized condition → Condemnation of affected part.Joints (cuts) → 1. → Gram (–ve) rods. * Loss of weight due to thawing : 1.5 %.Full beef carcass → 1-2 %.Extensive condition → Total condemnation of carcass.Os.
. (1) Rancidity of fat : * There are 2 types : a) Oxidative rancidity. b) Ketonic rancidity → by lipase enzyme. → Hind quarter consume 80 hours till complete thawing. * After thawing → PH decrease suddenly to (5. imported frozen meat (not occur in our trade due to rapid cutting). especially Psychrophils). (b) Dripping (Weeping) : * Presence of blood-stained watery fluid on thawing of frozen meat.Os. * Drips → Extractives. 1. (4) Changes after thawing :(a) PH change : * PH of frozen meat is still constant (6). protein (sarcoplasm) & some RBCs which give the drip its red colour.by this process → Forequarter consume 65 hours till complete thawing.* Bone taint occur in emergency slaughtered. * Air thawing is better than water thawing. Gram (+ve) cocci. * After thawing → Part of ice enter muscle cells & the part descend as drip.5-2. * Lesion → Affected area has greenish yellow colouration & bad odour as sewage. 2. * Judgment : 1.Os.
. even if no mycotoxins are produced). Judgment of whiskers & blue spots 1Trimming of affected part. then second freezing (because mould growth will be more rapid if no second freezing is done than if it was left without trimming). 2.Mutton → Total condemnation (unmarketable. -.In mutton → legs.5 ْ C). * Mould can't grow at (-7 ْ C) but grow mostly around (0 ْ C). Rhizopes.* Usually combination of both types. -. peritoneum & pleura. * Hyphae of fungus grow about 6-13 mm in diameter.Trimming or whipping by clothes. (2) Absorption of foreign odour : * Fruit odour – fish odour (due to presence of fat). [C] Microbial changes [Moulding] * Frozen meat is mostly affected by moulds because they are able to grow at several degrees below freezing point of meat. appear as black spots on surface of meat. * Affection in most cases accompanied by spoilage due to Achromobacter. b) If was accompanied by bacterial spoilage → Total condemnation. (3) Whiskers :* Cause → Genus Thamindium elegans & Mucor.To detect bacterial spoilage → Meat appear slimy & soft.Beef : a) Trimming of affected part with rapid consumption. * Judgment : 1. * Appear as white areas on surface of meat & usually accompanied by black spots. (2) White spots :* Cause → Genus Sporotrichum.5cm from the surface of meat. thoracic & abdominal cavities. * Appear as while yellow areas projecting 2. 2.In beef → neck. * Its presence indicate that temperature is (0 ْ C). * Site of affection : 1. also some types of moulds can grow at low available water. (1) Black spots :* Cause → Genus Cladosporium.5 → -8 ْ C) but growth is more at (-2. (4) Blue spots :* Cause → Genus Penicillium. * Mould can grow at (-7.
3 ْ → Released for immediate consumption with C thorough cooking & regarded as inferior quality meat. [except pork & offals → at (-20 ْ C)] Beef At (-18 ْ C) For 1 year (9 months in Egypt) Mutton At (-18 ْ C) For 8-9 months Pork At (-20 ْ C) For 6 months Poultry At (-18 ْ C) For 8 months Offals At (-20 ْ C) For 4 months (all offal except liver) At (-20 ْ C) For 7 months (liver) * Storage period of frozen meat is a limited period due to :(1) Some moulds & yeast can grow at different degrees below freezing points of meat. durability of frozen meat becomes lower than that of chilled meat → So regulations of frozen meat should warn the purchaser that the durability of thawn frozen meat is less than durability of chilled or fresh meat. b) Exposure of chilling units to dust many times. 2Increase alkalinity predisposing for bacterial spoilage. 3Decrease nutritive value of meat. C
. * This refrozen meat should be regarded as inferior quality meat (due to loss of drip twice).3 ْ → Organoleptic examination of meat. 4Some moulds may secrete mycotoxins due to : a) Fluctuation in temperature & R.Whipping of affected part by clothes. (2) Some chemical changes occur as rancidity.H. After thawing. 3Soaking in salt solution. leathery in texture [fibrosis of musculature].B. [B] Completely thawn meat :(1) If thawn below 3. (2) If thawn above 3. N.
Durability of frozen meat * All types of frozen meat → At (-18 ْ C). (3) Continuous conversion of water to ice → Salting out of protein → Decomposed meat. Effect of moulding 1Give mouldy or muddy odour. Disposal of frozen meat [in case of sudden cut of electricity] [A] Partially thawn meat (still contain ice) →Allowed to be refrozen again.
b.g.If meat was not spoiled → Released for immediate consumption with thorough cooking & regarded as inferior quality meat. * It is bacteriostatic method. * Xerophilic moulds can grow at 65-70% available water (aω ).a. 2. Beef affected with Cysticercus bovis → Freezing at -10 ْ C for 3 weeks till temperature of meat reach 3 ْ C for 24 hours → Meat become safe for human consumption.  Mechanical dryness :* Passing of hot air on surface of meat or passing of meat through hot air. Effect of freezing on parasites & bacteria  Parasites :* Freezing could be used if meat was affected with parasitic cyst.Bacillus anthracis survive freezing at -133 ْ C. -. -.Tubercle bacilli can survive freezing at -10 ْ C for 9 years. * Advantages : 1.Salmonella species survive freezing at -170 ْ C for 3 days.
Preservation by Dryness
* Dryness → Physical method of preservation depend on evaporation of surface water.
. Mould is the main cause of dry food spoilage.g.aω 85-90 % → moulds can grow for 5-7 weeks. * There are some organisms which resist dryness such as moulds. 3.
Types of dryness
 Sun (Solar) dryness :* Meat sliced into very thin slices then dried in sun light.aω below 70 % → moulds can grow for 3 months.Controlled temperature & R. * Occur in countries which have hot climate & dry atmosphere.H. 1.If meat was suspected → Total condemnation. e. → So freezing can't be regarded as a safe method for making affected meat with bacterial disease safe for human consumption. e.  Bacteria :* Freezing has no great effect on pathogenic bacteria.
2. Durability of dried meat (1) Raw beef steak → 4 months at 37 ْ C.  Dryness during smoking :* Leads to surface drying & water evaporation. (2) Cooked beef steak → 12 months at 37 ْ C.Durability of meat is longer than meat preserved by mechanical dryness.Dry curing.Moisture is lowered to 5 %.aω is lowered to 2 %.Ice changed into vapor without passing liquid stage.  Drying by salting :* Addition of salt leads to withdrawal of water from meat causing its dryness. 2. * Advantages : 1. 3.2.
Types of curing
1.  Freeze-drying (Sublimation of water) :* Used for drying of frozen meat.
. * Frozen meat is put under vacuum while its surface is subjected to high temperature for evaporation of water [high temperature will cause evaporation of water by conversion of ice into water vapor which will be sublimated by vacuum].  Dry curing :* Curing agent applied directly into meat.Dry salting.Pickle curing. * According to the ingredient. → 18 months at 21 ْ C. 3.Durability of meat is longer than meat preserved by sun dryness. there are 3 types of dry curing : 1.
Preservation by Curing
(Chemical Preservatives) Curing Using organic preservative Smoking Using inorganic preservative Salting Using dry salt or brine solution (pickling)
* Curing → Addition of salt + Source of nitric oxide [as sodium salt or potassium salt of nitrite or both].
Common defects in cured meat (1) Bruising :.in cooked fresh or cured meat → heating make its colour dark. * Higher temperature → enhance both penetration of curing agent & M.  Pickle curing :* There are 3 types of pickle curing : 1. Time of curing * 3 – 7 days. 3. 3.Dry curing (NaCl+NO2). * It is best to be done for beef intermixed with fat. 2.due o excessive nitrate.2.Pickle curing.3 ْ C. Ingredients used in curing 1.2-3.O. (4) Jelly pockets :.Curing adjuvant → Sugar – Phosphate – Ascorbates. (as Clostridium botulinum).Pickle sweet cure. (2) Greening (Nitrate burn) :. (5) Fiery red areas on meat surface :. * Wooden vats + Pickling solution + Layers of meat for 30-40 minutes. Colour changes in cured meat
.due to injection of brine into connective tissue which it denatures. 2.Pickle salting.Dry sweet cure (NaCl+NO2+Sugar).conversion of cured meat pigment Nitrosomyoglobin into brown Metmyoglobin due to excessive nitrate or prolonged exposure to air. (3) Browning :. * Lower temperature → retard both penetration of curing agent & M. during this period stitch pumping is done (injection of pickling solution in carcass). Temperature of curing * Optimum temperature for curing → 2. * Lean beef or mutton become dry in curing & unpalatable (because cells lose their water content → intercellular spaces decrease). so brisket & flank of beef constitutes the best meat to be cured.O.may occur in deep meat cuts due to miscure or lack of nitrate. Meat to be cured * Curing could be applied to all types of meat.Curing agent → Salt + Nitric oxide.
Erysipelothrix → survive for 5 months in meat immersed in brine solution 12-13 %.+ Oxygen Myoglobin (Purplish-red) Freshly cut surface + Nitric oxide Nitrosomyoglobin (Dark red) Heat Oxidation Nitrosohemochrome (pink) Typical cured meat colour Reduction + Nitric oxide Denaturated Metmyoglobin (Gray-brown) Typical cooked fresh meat colour Oxidized Prophyrins__ (green. So pickling or curing is not used to make meat affected with parasitic or bacterial disease safe for human consumption → So meat preserved by curing should be preserved by another method of preservation (as smoking) e.
. [B] Effect on bacteria :* Some bacteria could resist curing. 2.Tubercle bacilli → can survive for 80 days in pickling solution. Curing + Smoking → New method of meat preservation. 3. yellow.Salmonella → survive for 10 days in meat immersed in brine solution 12-13 %. colourless) .
Preservation by Smoking
* Smoking → Chemical method for preservation of meat by use of inorganic preservative.g.Oxygen Oxidation Reduction Oxidation Reduction + Nitric oxide Metmyoglobin___ (Brown) Heat + Oxygen . 1.Oxygen + Nitrite Oxymyoglobin___ (Bright red) Typical fresh oxidation
Effect of curing on parasites & bacteria [A] Effect on parasites :* For destruction of Cysticercus bovis → preserve meat for 3-4 weeks in brine solution (but the meat will be spoiled if brine solution was not changed).
mahogany. birch. (3) Primary & secondary alcohol (acetaldehyde). the temperature of product is not less than 65 ْ C → More efficient in killing of M. (3) Electrostatic smoking :-
. followed by beech. oak. (2) Incomplete burning of sawdust (wood) → Release of volatile materials which are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration. (3) These volatile materials are antioxidants (prevent rancidity). Formaldehyde followed by phenol & crysol are the most important volatile materials. (4) Deposition of these volatile materials on surface & impregnation into meat tissue → Improvement of appearance (colour) & tenderization of meat. * Action of smoking :(1) Dehydration through evaporation of water.3 ْ C to avoid botulism.
Types of smoking
(1) Hot smoking :* Heating at 55 ْ C & smoking. → These woods are used in the form of sawdust. then at 71 ْ C → for 3 hours.Os. * By this method. (2) Aliphatic acids (formic acid). → Hard wood is used instead of soft one (because burning of soft wood produce undesirable materials). so appearance of smoked product by hot smoking is less developed than that smoked by cold smoking. so hinder growth & multiplication of M. the temperature of product is less than 65 ْ C.* Aim of smoking → Add particular flavour & aid in preservation. then at 60 ْ C → for 3 hours. with impregnation of low amount volatile materials into meat tissue. * Gradual rise in temperature : -. (2) Cold smoking :* Heating at 32 ْ C. * By this method.Os.Smoke at 55 ْ C → for 2 hours. (4) Waxes & resin. * Smoked food by this method should be kept in refrigeration at less than 3. then at 76 ْ C → for 6 hours. * Types of wood used in smoking :→ The best one is hickor. * Volatile materials :(1) Formaldehyde followed by phenol & crysol.
Have high quantum of energy. 4.Os. * Electromagnetic radiation :(1) Short wave length. (2) Long wave length.
Preservation by Irradiation
* Till now preservation by irradiation is still experimental. so examination of smoked meat should be done from time to time for detection of nitrosamine.Used for cold sterilization of food.* Ionization of smoke. 2. 3.Have low frequency. Effect of smoking on pathogens * Smoking affect only vegetative M. b) Smoke is passed by using wood in the form of beams. Short waves
1. 2. 3.000 volt) making ionization of smoke. N. 5.Action : Thermal agitation of food particles together which produce heat → Rise of food temperature → Destruction
.Os.000-45. d) Precipitation of specific ions or materials on meat surface which carry the opposite charge.
1.Used for hot sterilization of food.Not associated with heat production. a) Food heated before smoking by Infra red oven.Os. 5. * Cured & smoked meat may develop nitrosamine but the level occurred in smoked meat is below the permissible limit.Associated with heat production.Have low quantum of energy. 4. * Advantage of this smoke → Well controlled & increase durability of smoked product.B. yeast & moulds are not affected by smoking.Action : Ionization of certain organic molecules particularly water (food of M. → So meat preserved by smoking should be preserved by other method (as curing & salting) & should be kept chilled or frozen. * Spores.Have high frequency. c) Then electric current pass (35. Nitrosamine may develop in smoking & curing which is carcinogenic (due to interaction between nitric oxide & amines liberating nitrosamine instead of combination of nitric oxide with Myoglobin).) causing mutation or death of M. * Benzene in volatile materials is carcinogenic but present within permissible limit.
rays. -.Freeze-drying of food.Os. rays]
* Action :Ionization of certain organic molecules particularly water (food of M.Time of exposure : -. * Action :Thermal agitation of food particles together which produce heat → Rise of food temperature → Destruction of M.V. rays :1. * Factors affecting the effectiveness of U.V. 2.The most powerful range → 2550 – 2650 A.Intensity of U. 6.Examples : Infra red rays Microwaves
 Electric current
* Not used in heating of food as it cause severe electrolytic changes. 3.Uneven heating (due to low penetration power).V.Don't inhibit enzymes of food.Natural source → Sunlight.Os.[Cold sterilization].Artificial source → Quartz mercury vapor lamp (near 2550 A).V. rays when reaching the object : a) Distance between lamp & object :
.1 millimicrone) → Erythemic range (which cause redness & inflammation). -. [Hot sterilization]. 2. * Source of U.It is a visible light occur between 136 – 3900 A (A=angstrom=0.There is direct relationship between time of exposure & germicidal power of U. 3.Danger of irradiation.) causing mutation or death of M.
 Infra red rays & Microwaves
* Uses :1. [Cold sterilization]. 2. -. * Disadvantages :1. 6.Heating of food (as vending machine). * Wave length :-.Os.Examples : U. [Hot sterilization].Defrosting (thawing) of frozen food.V. rays :1.Os.To overcome problem of uneven heating → Dithermal heating is used & source of heating must be from both sides. 2.V.
 Ultraviolet rays [U. rays γ ( Gamma) rays
of M.The most germicidal effect → 1500 – 2800 A.
 Ionizing radiation
* Free radicals make ionization of organic particles & include → X-rays – γ ( Gamma) rays – protons – neutrons – α -particles – β -particles – cathode rays. → So U. 3.V. rays :1. rays not used in sterilization of food.Efficiency 10 – 25 % (lower than that of 40 – 80 % cathode rays because gamma
.V. γ ( Gamma) rays → used. b) Angstrom power of the lamp : -. * Effect of U.Bacterial spores are more resistant than vegetative bacteria by about 22.5 inch 0.α -particles. rays.Surface sterilization of food.Mould is more resistant than bacteria by 10-50 times.Sterilization of atmosphere (in packing room.U. rays on pathogens :1. -. 3.Clear water decrease effectiveness of U.V.Higher power of lamp → Higher germicidal power but by repeated uses of lamp to U.V.H.Neutrons → Leave remnants of radiation in food. protons → of no penetration power. c) Presence of obstacles : -.-.Suitable distance → not more than 12 inch. so not used. 2. germicidal power decrease → So lamp should be changed from time to time. rays.V.5 times. surgical room) 2. * Uses of U.U. retard or decrease effectiveness of U.Yeast is more resistant than bacteria by about 255 times. rays.X-rays → Uneconomic & not used.Cathode rays.Penetration 5. -.V. resulted from acceleration of heavy metal particle) 2.Penetration : -. -.Source Nuclear reactors Cathode rays particles (accelerated by electricity. -.V. rays have no penetration power. Item Gamma rays Cathode rays 1.Dust & too high R. -. rays is 100 times powerful when they are in 5 inch distance than when they are in 8 feet distance. so presence of thin layer of fat or meat cut off the rays.V.25 inch 3.
(2) Number of M.Compounds combined with [-SH] group increase effect of ionizing radiation.Mould & yeast are more resistant than bacteria.High number of M.Os.Os.O. * Effect of ionizing radiation on food :→ The use of ionizing radiation result in organoleptic or chemical changes as : (1) Rise of PH value of food.Removal of O2.Irradiation is used successfully in pork nut not used up till now in beef or mutton. nitrite) decrease effect of ionizing radiation. → So ionizing radiation is recommended not to be used for sterilization of food.Irradiation of pork in frozen state.Os.O.Presence of reducing substance (as sulphahydral compounds.Spore former M. (3) Composition of food : --. -. against ionizing radiation. --. is more resistant than Gram (–ve) M.4. → Lower effect of ionizing radiation.
. --. (4) Presence of O2 : --. to ionizing radiation → Resistance of M. -. is more resistant than non spore former M.Os. b) Micrococcus → non spore former but more resistant to ionization. (2) Destruction of natural antioxidants in food. (3) Destruction of most food enzymes & vitamins (except niacin & riboflavin which are more stable than other vitamins).Gram (+ve) M. :(1) Type of M.Resistance of M. --.Varies from no effect to sensitize the M. --.O. : --.To overcome these changes to be used in pork : 1.Safety
rays are non-directional rays) More health problems & decayed by time (because they are non-directional rays)
Less health problems than gamma rays (because they are directional rays)
* Factors affecting effectiveness of ionizing radiation on M. 2.O. to temperature is parallel to it resistance to ionization except : a) Clostridium botulinum → less resistant to temperature than flat sours but more resistant to ionization.O. sulphid.O.O. (4) Increase level of H2S & carbonyl compounds. : --.
in food (radicidation) → destroy Salmonella & Campylobacter. * e.Used with other types of preservation to prolong shelf life.
Water activity or water availability (aw)
[It is the ratio between water vapour pressure of food & that of water] * Water vapor pressure of pure water → 1.Os.g.
. → Zabady – Fermented meat product. 4. Uses of Irradiation 1.
(2) Addition of antibiotics
* Recommended only in fish preservation. * Preservation of food by increasing (aw) to be optimum for growth of certain M. 3.Inactivation of certain non spore forming M.Os. 5. has optimum. * Each food has its (aw) & each M.Destruction of liver fluke.Surface sterilization of food. Oxytetracycline – Nisin (the most common).Dehydration. 7.Sterilization of packaging materials especially if they are not eaten.
Other methods of preservation
(1) Mechanical preservation (Autoclave)
* It is expensive & complicated.3. maximum & minimum (aw). 2.Killing of Trichinae. 6.O. * Preservation of food by decreasing (aw) → Salting – Drying – Freezing.Destruction of insects or their eggs in food.