KANCROFT LIBRARY

Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2007

with funding from

IVIicrosoft

Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/canrealmormonismOOwebbrich

THE REAL MORMONISM
A
Candid Analysis of an
Life
Interesting but

Much

Misunderstood Subject in History

and Thought

BY

ROBERT

C.

WEBB

*'It

has alivays been a cardinal teaching nvitb the Latter-day

Saints, that

a

religion that

has not the ponjoer
prosperous

to

sa've people

temporally

and make them
to
'

be depended upon
in the life to come.

sa^ve

and happy here, cannot them spiritually, and to exalt them

—Joseph

F. Smith.

Dew ]i?orft STURGIS & WALTON

COMPANY
1916
All
rights reserved

Copyright, 1916

By STURGIS

& WALTON COMPANY
Published April, 1916

Set

ap

ftDd electrotyped.

Bancroft Library

TO THE ILLUSTRIOUS MEMORY OF

JOSEPH SMITH
THE " MORMON PROPHET,"
who,
in Spite of the evil character and corrupt motives attributed to him by enemies, critics and fault-finders, stands revealed to the candid student of his career as an honest man, a deep thinker, a powerful leader, and a pre-eminent reformer, worthy to be classed with the great men of history, and deserving the respect and attention of honest and intelligent

minds

.

Good and ments first first 10-24 CHAPTER HI THE COMING-FORTH OF THE BOOK OF MORMON " Religious portions Theories on the origin of the Book Golden Smith's account of the origin of the Book Martin Harris Severe persecutions plates delivered to him No origin indicated Anthon's statements visits Prof. A. political did treatment 3-9 CHAPTER n THE " RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH " evil spoken of — An obscure origin and vast achieve— Personality of the Prophet —" Most powerful influence of — the nineteenth century" "Helpless before the puzzle" — The traditional "affidavits" — Misfit sins — Slanderous rural gossip — No serious accusations made — Supposed alcoholic addiction — — Joseph Smith's evident sincerity — His early religious unrest "If vision — Declared "all of the — His any of you lack wisdom" devil " — Character of persecution — Visions and theophanies in human tradition — Not incredible —" Divers temptations offen—" Without the assisting grace of the sive in the sight of God " Savior"— Early errors of saints and Church fathers — The vision of Moroni — The Book of Mormon promised . Black on " persecutions — A timely warning — Judge piety"— Are Mormons champions of American institutions? — Hon.. THE MORMON PROBLEM — A large subject — Justice demanded — Traditional prejudice and injustice — Anti-Mormon S.. Anthon Harris's defection The Translating the sacred plates by him A theory of the Various suppositions Prophet chastised Its psychological consistency "translating" by a Mormon Unfair Anti-Biblical methods used against the Book of Mormon and disingenuous — added? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 25-36 iii . Carlton on injustice to the Mormons — Charles Ellis on the secret of Anti-Mormon hatred — The claims of Mormonism — " Apostasy " and " restoration "— Joseph Smith as a " reformer " His " bad character "— Joseph Smith and Mormonism deserve canOrigin of the PAGE name Mormonism J.— " TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION I — MORMONISM CHAPTER AND I ITS FOUNDER. B..

Emerson's recommendation by 11 years — . Ohio The perfection The Order of Enoch of human society Perfecting the organization of the Saints " Correct principles " Consecrated prop- — — — —A — — — — — — erty and stewardship — Failure of the " Kirtland boom "— Temporal and spiritual prosperity — Educational interests — Settlements Missouri — Wanderings of the Mormons — Heroic death of David W.— TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER IV THE BEGINNINGS OF MORMONISM iv — David Whitmer — Whitmer's epitaph and firm —" Rational " explanations testimony — Hypnotism or stage-craft? inconclusive ation—Oliver The plates of Mormon shown to the three witnesses Their " testimony " Not accomplices in fraud Apostasy and reconcili- — Co wdery — Martin — — PAGE Harris 37-43 CHAPTER V JOSEPH SMITH AS THE FIRST PROPHET. Patten — The emergence of Brigham Young — His law of mutual helpfulness — Strong men around the Prophet — — He heals Smith overcomes the mob — He rebukes his the sick at Commerce — A rheumatic arm Smith's —"A fine-looking—man" geniality — A good-natured debater A great mystic — Direct revelations from God — Not these cheap " and wretched properties " —" Some mastering force of the man — Personal kindness and good will in jailers " electrified " — — — — — — — — " 44-67 CHAPTER VI —"Concocting" the Nauvoo charter of Nauvoo — Charter passed unanimously by the state legislature — Voted for by Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln — Gov. SEER AND REVELATOR Smith's history written only by enemies or adherents Problematical situations 'Restoration of the Priesthood John the Baptist a ministering angel Smith's unadorned narrative Cowdery's repetition of the story The apparent conviction of Smith and Cowdery The organization of the Church Beginnings of Mormon persecutions First recorded trial of Joseph Smith travesty of justice Steady growth of the Church The doctrine of "gathering" Settlement of Kirtland. Ford's history of the episode — Possible motives back of the charter — The to Zion — Severe ordinances passed against crime — Edict of — First effective temperance measure history toleration to — Suppression of vice and disorder — The Government of God " — Benevolent intentions of the Saints — The unifying power of Mormonism — Persecutions attributed to lack of faith and obediknown benevolent ence — The Female Relief Society — The organization for women —" An empire-founding religion — Debts 1880 — Gospel of to the Church forgiven — The "jubilee" The founding call all JOSEPH SMITH AS LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE in " first " in brotherhood and mutual helpfulness 68-86 CHAPTER VII JOSEPH SMITH AS A STATESMAN AND REFORMER — Anticipating Smith's plan for abolishing slavery Live questions of the day Ralph W.

unrequited in money 107-118 vital efficiency of Mormonism — — — — CHAPTER X — Reactionism — MORMONISM AS THE INSTRUMENT OF TEMPORAL SALVATION The Icarian colony at Nauvoo Mormonism versus Fourierism — and social reform—"The coming slavery"— SoSocialist cialism assumes a non-existent "goodness" in man failures in Paraguay —" Super-rational sanction for conduct" Character Social "solutions" and the treatment of disease — — . Marsh and will and tendency to antagonize associates Orson Hyde supplements the beginning of the " Danite " deluson scandalous and wicked procedure Marsh's "testimony" Schuyler Colfax and Hundreds of lives endangered by a silly lie others accept the statements later discredited by their authors Marsh and Hyde both reunite The truth on the " Danite " hoax Joseph Smith dewith the Church and die in full membership An important figure in history serves credit for real greatness many —A — Anti-Smith — — — — — bitterness — — — 99-104 — — SECTION II — THE FRUITS OF MORMONISM. community labors. IX CHAPTER An MORMONISM THE EXPONENT OF EQUAUTY AND FRATERNITY effective scheme of social regeneration must be based on reCoordinaReligion demands a thorough organization ligion Christ demanded tion of individual wills for the common good temporal regeneration as well as promising salvation in the world The Catholic Church and The influence of Buddhism to come The " reformers " attempted the ideal of overcoming the world " The " Salvation by faith to promote personal righteousness The significance of inexcusable character of social difficulties Its principles of organization destined to wide acMormonism First step in Dispensing with professional preachers ceptation Mormonism and cooperaabolishing artificial class distinctions — — — — — — — — — — — — — tion—-"The demand of the ages"— The United Order and perRules Religious significance of the Order sonal stewardships "You are to be equal" Worthlessness of curfor the Order Its rent "benevolence" and " charity "^ The law of tithing — — — — Missionary work.TABLE OF CONTENTS v PAGE — Sad that Smith and Emerson were not heard — Appealing to the federal government — Humiliating comment on governmental ciency — Partisan politics and corruption — Smith candidate for President — His " Platform " on the powers and policy of the government — An idealistic document — Compared to the idealism of Jefferson and Paine — Accepted at face value by saner portion of —" The sine qua non of the age the public — Comments by the press effi- to our nation's prosperity" 87-98 CHAPTER Vin JOSEPH SMITH IN HIS PERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS Unfailing ability to Evil character of make enemies Great ability. antiquity As practiced by Latter-day Saints The temple building. strong of Smith's enemies Thomas B.

XIII ' CHAPTER THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM Based upon a thorough belief in consistent body of doctrine Avoids "curious questions" The restoration of the revelation An old effort Follows the Bible literally —" Gifts of Gospel the Spirit"— "The Spirit of prophecy "— Prophetic office explained Joseph Smith a " wanton gospeler "— Direct communiTheology the " God-science "— Mormon doccation with God The proper "endowments" of believers trines mystical Morsystem for the "wayfaring man. not invested — The authorities "merely wasting their funds"? — A grudging endorsement — The Church buys up irrigation company bonds — The Hawaiian colony in Utah — The Government should "assist them in every way possible"— The empire-building march of Mormonism — Individual salvation the aim of the Gospel . .. a worthy and highly necessary order of practical well-doing — Church money given. CHAPTER XII THE MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE Mormon moral character misrepresented Mormon enthusiasm Reverence for the " Word of Wisdom " Close for temperance organization conducive to temperance and personal probity Never invited to " have a drink " Mormons and " Gentiles " compared—Educational advantages of the Mormon organization Voting on the local option law Saloons in the Mormon states Only ^iJl Utah Statistics on police offenses and misdemeanors On crimes Statistics on commonest crimes felons in 16 years 151-162 of violence and impurity — — — — — — — — — — — SECTION III — THE TEACHINGS OF MORMONISM... infirm and and provided for LoMethods of providing employment for the needy widows Persistent efforts for the cating families newly arrived in Zion Brigham Young's efunemployed by the Presiding Bishopric The reorganization of society for forts to provide employment 145-ISO Recognized by the Mormon Church a better efficiency interests of the individual considered — — — — — — — — . though uninstructed mons "too primitive "—" Literalism " and " materialism "—" All A — — — — — — — — "— — .A vi TABLE OF CONTENTS — — — Brigham Young — The beginnings of irrigation — Colonies founded by the Church — Sugar industry introduced — Silk manufacture attempted — Zion's Cooperative Mercantile Institution — Perpetual Immigrating Fund Company — Building the Union Pacific Railroad — Mormon colonization record — The Dry Gulch District — The inestimable value of cooperation —"The bond of religion greater than others"— A new. . all religion The methods of Mormonism Brigham Young attempts to restore the United Order His " land law of " " temporal activities " opposed modern Israel His Home industry a " watchword in Utah " The faith and determination of and function of — — — PAGE 1 19-144 CHAPTER The XI THE PRACTICAL WORKINGS OF MORMONISM Needs looked into Bulk of beneficences for aged.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Spirit is vii intelligible reality — Words —^^Subjective and objective — The—Athanasian controversy — Theories of Descartes and Spinoza Berkeley's matter "—-" Materialism " and ideas PAGE rather than idealism whimsey — An " Immaterial — Two kinds of atheism spirit " and karma —A philosophical 165-179 CHAPTER XrV THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD " materialistic " conception Consistent literalism God The risen Christ The " express image of his of flesh and bone " person " God " an exalted man " Power to lay down his life and take it again " The eternal drama of redemption God. AND OF THE CHARACTER OF EVIL Preexistent in innoeternal and uncreated Reason for human " The spirit and the body is the soul " cence The embodied soul immortal after resurrection incarnation " Preexistence and predestination The " great council of the gods The " war in heaven " and Freedom of choice unimpaired " Determinism and free will as reconciled by moral " dualism The — Spirit of man — — — — — — " philosophy —" No Salvation means " to triumph over all our enemies salvation except through a tabernacle " " Adam fell that men might be " The significance of the fall Adam the " patriAdam and Christ compared Adam arch" of the human race The alleged "Adam-god" doctrine the "Ancient of days" The sin of Adam The " patriarchal " concept of the universe 190-203 The need of the atonement emphasized — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVI THE DOCTRINES OF ATONEMENT. man may be " The Holy Spirit. AND PERSONAL RIGHTEOUSNESS " Descending below Explanation of the doctrine of atonement Reasons for the "intervenall things" to rise above all things A man The circuit restored Adam's sin wiped out tion" must "work out his own salvation" Faith and personal rightIntrinsic value of good acts not material in this conneceousness Works required to please God. not merely words and protion Baptism and ordinances essential to highest exaltation fessions An instrument The significance of the Church organization Follows New Testament in emfor promoting righteousness ^Lack of organization phasizing temporal and social well-being A "sacred system of cause of futility of traditional religion The salvation government " must be both temporal and spiritual of the earth—"Like unto crystal "— Man's place in carrying out Priesthood and God's designs for this world by righteousness " God-science " The masterpiece of the Temple endowment Righteousness. OF THE FALL. " bridge between the human and divine "— The constitution of the humanly intelligible doctrine "The splendid docGodhead 180-189 trine of anthropomorphism" "Made in the image of God" . The — — — — — —— —A — — —A — — . CHAPTER XV THE DOCTRINES OF MAN. RELIGIOUS DUTY. gods and angels " As God now is. temperance and the Word of Wisdom ages — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .

. CHAPTER XVIII PLURAL MARRIAGE AND THE POSITION OF "A stone of stumbling" Doctrine based on revelation " holy order " Means of Ground of sanctity hard to understand An incident in the doctrine of begetting a race of godlike men " eternal " or " celestial " marriage Text of the revelation -— "Sex problems" of society "social phase" of eminent interest A Polygamy and morality Extirpation of the social evil " sad and sickening comment " Productive of a healthier poster239-249 Continence ity — — — WOMEN AMONG THE MORMONS — — — — — — — — A — CHAPTER XIX WOMAN UNDER The "downtrodden PLURAL MARRIAGE — The doctrine of Mormondom No advantage to men Arguments in favor vitally religious Susa Young Gates on Mormon family life " The world never saw such women before "—" Perfect through suffering"? "Higher compensations " " Determine to attain to celestial glory " " My desire for an eternal union with him will be the last wish of my mortal life "— Let them " make their prisons large enough to hold The Cullom bill denounced by women " For their wives " also "The Lord gave me a the exaltation of the human family" Unfamiliar and noble forms of virtue mother's love for them" "We have Peaceful and loving cohabitation of plural wives "—" Each contributes to the utmost for raised our children together "—" race of men and women who shall the support of the family "—" Tends to virtue. RESURRECTION AND SALVATION " Love " and law The Mormon Prophet a pioneer The Everlasting Gospel The seven dispensations Dispensation of the Fulness of Times The gathering of the dispersion of Israel Spur to missionary enthusiasm Salvation for the dead The authorities claimed for the doctrine The strong appeal made by this doctrine A help to faith in the future life A new order of The three "glories" " universalism " The three resurrections The Terrestrial Kingor " kingdoms " The Celestial Kingdom dom The Telestial Kingdom The sons of Perdition 225-236 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .A viii TABLE OF CONTENTS unto death" "Blood atonement" A scriptural punishment of heresy God's laws thwarted by the man-made laws of the nations of the world 204-224 Under law or under grace? — — — The "sin doctrine — The CHAPTER — PAGE XVII THE DOCTRINES OF RESTORATION. SECTION IV — MORMON MARRIAGE INSTITUTIONS. so contrary to their sinful practices "— Were they happy?—"How is the missionary 250-266 going to begin?"— The love song of a plural wife — sisters" —— — — — — — — — — — — — A — We — . purity and holiness " live to the age of a tree " " Mormon women working grandly on the sex problem " Mormon wives emphatically 'women's rights' women "—" Mormon "—" enjoy all the rights and women the happiest in the world know how to use them"— The Mormon women's protest against " Happy in the consciousness of mutual and the Edmunds law eternal affection "—" Our grievous offense. .

. SECTION VI — TRUTH. JUSTICE AND MORMONISM. self-exiled among the " moral lepers " — An intemperate and brutal tirade —" Mormon women are ripe for rebellion "—" What Utah needs "— Vice advocated to neutralize Mormon influence — Where the "end — " sincerity "— The " civilization them in the means " " We from which the Mormons "shrink"— The object to destroy popular rule in Utah —" Polygamy " not the real objection against Mormonism — The " lust-of -empire " slander — Judge Boreman's intemperate harangue — Garfield's reported experiences — Crim313-326 inals accused of being Mormons — Vituperation ad absurdum — justifies tell Anti-Mormonism and the Ninth Commandment A brief anAn anti-Mormon sermon The. . duties and digni— President may be impeached — The "stake" and government — Quarterly stake meetings — Votes to "sustain" or re— Comparison to national government — the ward ject and organization — Three regularly organized Church courts conditions tive The best-known fact about Mormonism Significance to social Inevitable to the genius of Mormonism The primi- — PAGE Church restored " in " in all its ties its all officers its — Total quorum membership 269-295 CHAPTER XXI " AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " Organizations additional to the quorum membership -. CHAPTER XXII ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS thology — — Mormons accused of sympathy with Garfield's assassin — The impending Mormon "rebellion"— Damiens. Mutilated history — all . CHAPTER XX THE ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH ix — — Priesthood Aaron —"Holy — Two orders of the order of—the Sonand priesthood after Melchisedek of God — All men should hold the priesthood — Priesthood " power the name of God — Lower priesthood an and authority to act "appendage" to the Higher — Grades and dignities the two priesthoods — Teacher and deacon "necessary appendages" Duties of deacons — Of teachers — Of Aaronic priests — Baptism administered by Aaronic priests — The bishopric — Presiding bishop should be a "lineal descendant of Aaron"— Duties of bishops — The dignities of the Higher Priesthood — Quorums of orders — Quorum and society presidencies peculiarly organized — The Seventy and their duties — The Twelve Apostles — Three quorums of equal authority — A contradiction? — Popular votes in Church government — The First Presidency.The Women's Relief Society An efficient charitable organization The Mutual Improvement Associations History of the Mutual Improvement movements The Sunday School Organization Sunday School memGraded instruction The Parents' Class bership The Primary Association The Church Board of Edu296-310 cation History of Mormon education The Religion Class — — — — — — — — — — — .— TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION V — THE MORMON ORGANIZATION.

" The Battle of Louisville " anti-Mormon agitation 327-349 mander"— The Church "Address wails of sectarian missionaries — " — Bishop " — — — — — — — — — — — — . old contentions Governor Morrill's absurd attack on Colony similarly accused " Religious opposition. the real cause against Mormonism " No evidence of Mormon " disloyThe real " Mormon menace Evialty " The proposed constitution for the state of Deseret dent misrepresentations Judge Carlton on " Know-Nothing " and His poem. S. — Ridiculous stories of " distress " circulated cuttings and by the managers of the " home "— The " home " a failure — Buildfittings — — ing sold at auction 370-377 .X TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER THE ALLEGED POLITICAL XXIII THE MORMON AUTHORITIES PAQB ACTIVITIES OF occasionally in politics Explainable on two grounds Wrangles over the Mormon vote in Illinois " Muck" at work on the " problem " rakers Pres. degradation and neglect " Christian Industrial Home " proCategorical denials tions posed — — — Objections by Mormon women — Touching speech by Governor West — The kind of " home " needed — An imposing building—Refuge for "victims of polygamy "— Darnings. Roosevelt's alleged agreement with the Church The charge vigorously denied by Mormonism — — him — The — — — Mormon Church and Tammany Hall Hearsay eviThe " dreadful climax " Nothing podence and wanton gossip litically worse than is done in all other parts of the country The " bleeding Kansas " fight The time-honored " Gerry- — — — — — to the World" (1907)— The Tuttle's circular petition The cause of the EdThe new Come over and help us " Know-Nothing " spirit ramThe old munds law oppressions Corrupt politicians speak of "theocratic polygamy" The pant Mormon position explained Superiority of God's laws and dicUtah and Massachusetts Bay tates of conscience. Snow imprisCurtis Judge Boreman's unjust decisions The new weapon of "segregation" The real objects of oned Outline of the Edmunds-Tucker Act the anti-Mormon party 3SO-369 Senatorial attacks on the provisions of the bill — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXV A SHELTER FOR THE " ERRING AND OPPRESSED " False Absurd charges of "treasonable" and "disloyal" talk Monstrous accusareports of misery. — — — CHAPTER XXIV HOV/ JUSTICE WAS DONE IN THE MORMON COUNTRY — The evils perMeaning of " Mormon degradation " exhibited Activities of unbalanced women petrated by fanatics in politics Resolutions against perverAbsurd reports on public meetings Wives compelled to sions of law adopted by Mormon women Women's "Memorial" to Congress testify against husbands Utter contempt of human The bitter fruits of Tuttle's petition " Unlawful cohabitation " not defined The miserable ficrights " The case of Lorenzo Snow tion of " constructive cohabitation Argument by George Ticknor before the U. Supreme Court Mr. Not against popular rule the " hierarchy not objectionable doctrines. mendings.

—" Added religious matter " Statements certainly inspired 'The time-honored "character test" Virtue and long memories The alleged theft of Spaulding's manuscript A manuscript possessed by Sidney Rigdon "Affidavits" supposed — — — — — — — — — — Rigdon evidently interested in support Rigdon's dupHcity Parantiquities and millennarianism Rigdon's alleged motives ley P." as of religious significance — Epilepsy must have been common among ancient saints — Renan —"Epileptoid" suggestions from the and Lombroso on Paul Bible — The persistence of the witnesses — Absurdity of " rational- — — fallings. probably also his only one — No probability that he could have improved on at his age (48 or 49) — His formal rejection of Christianity another presumption against his authorship of the Book of Mormon — Conclusion to be in first it — — — — — — drawn from the evidence is " not proven " 400-426 CHAPTER XXVIII WAS THE BOOK OF MORMON PRODUCED BY "AUTOMATIC WRITING?" The theory a good example of the pseudo-scientific Repeats the opinions of Alexander Campbell — Forced — arguments — Slov- . St. Smith..xi TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION VII — ANTI-MORMON EXPLANATIONS. etc. etc. istic" explanations of such matters 381-399 CHAPTER XXVII DID SOLOMON SPAULDING WRITE THE BOOK OF MORMON? Substance of the Spaulding theory Theory first promulgated A dramatic " occurrence " Phenomenal memby E. CHAPTER XXVI WAS JOSEPH SMITH AN EPILEPTIC? — Hypothesis of Smith's insincerity untenable Psychology and pathology invoked for this reason Evidence defective in all par" ticulars Riley's theory unscientific Ancestral " predispositions Visions explained as " migraines "— Smith a " magazine " of assorted symptoms Contentions not demonstrated Symptoms doubtful Migraine and epilepsy Common aurae of Epilepsy Varieties of Epilepsy Riley's vague and indefinite case analyzed Mis-quoted " evidences " " Exhaustion paralysis " Leading " Epilepsy not a morbid entity "— Epileptisymptoms not present form convulsions might occur in any disease Smith's " symptoms " perfectly explainable as caused by other conditions than disDarwin on the symptoms of fear and astonishment ease James on reflexes produced by emotions Smith's accounts correct as to details Evidently unaware of the suggestions of disease Smith — — — — — PAGE — — — — — — — — — — — — — deprecates " twitchings. and others. mere imbeciles? The "mysterious stranger" Rigto in — — — — don denies the Spaulding theory — Ridiculous charges against Smith the matter — Professed points in common between Spaulding's book and the Book of Mormon — Spaulding's only known work discovered in 1884 — Utterly unlike Book of Mormon every particular — General account of the book — Evidently Spaulding's literary effort. D. Pratt. Howe ories Hurlburt visits Spaulding's widow Alleged "affidavits'* in support of the Spaulding theory " Singular unanimity " in regard to names "Lost Ten Tribes" Object of accounting for mounds. Pratt's alleged part in the plot Were Rigdon.

and other " reformers " regarded as cuted " prophets. . Note Note Index I II — Danites or Destroying Angels — Polygamy and the Jewish Law from the Book of Mormon . Luther.xn TABLE OF CONTENTS enly generalizations on mounds and "caches of arms" Sources suggested in books appearing later than the Book of Mormon Parallel passages with Paine and the Westminster Confession Mormon organization absurdly compared supposed to be found "cross-section of his brain" with that of Methodism Sup" veritable crystal gazing " Transcript from the posed results of " plates of Mormon " resembles Hieratic Egyptian " signs of No the Zodiac " and no excerpts from " farmers' almanacs " Supposed evidences of "automatism" in this writing "Automatic " not entirely incompatible with claims made by Smith himwriting Prof. Selections 441-443 443-445 445-450 451-463 ." although not so called " Test " of truth proposed by the Book of Mormon as yet untried by anti-Mormon agitators 427-440 — PAGE — — —A — — — — — — — — — — — . James on case of " automatic writing " self His views on the matter Smith undoubtedly sincerely convinced of the truth of the Mormon record The real reason why Smith has been perseCalvin.

— T MORMONISM AND '* ITS FOUNDER out of the If the reader does not know what to make of Joseph Smith." . difl&culty. I myself stand helpless before the puzzle. I cannot help him Josiah Quincy.

.

Swedenborgians. who during his earth life was the son of Mormon." it furnishes a recognized inspired scripture for the church founded by him. without marks of quotation. who. Wesleyans or Papists. in preference to the longer title.THE REAL MORMONISM CHAPTER I THE MORMON PROBLEM The name Mormonism is the popular designation for the system of religious doctrine and practice founded on the teachings of Joseph Smith (1805-1844). that no more disrespect or opprobrium attaches to the use of these words than to that of such analogous epithets as Quakers. Translated by Joseph Smith. and very 3 ." was. The title or epithet. large in reputation. large in results. it is claimed. as is claimed. lived anciently on the American Continent. Hence. in distinction from the " Former-day Saints. large in efforts. had been lost and obscured through centuries of apostasy among Christian people. inscribed on " plates resembling gold." later as — — — — " Mormons. "through the gift and power of God. Hence his disciples were known. remarking. which." Mormonism is a system of large things. delivered to Joseph Smith by an angel named Moroni. as he asserted. we will in the present book speak of Mormonism and Mormons. now known as the Book of Mormon. Although not officially recogthey call their organization the Church nized by his disciples of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. into the collection of documents. who claimed a divinely revealed authority to restore the Gospel of Christ in its original purity." or the Church of the time of Christ's apostles the term has the authority of sufficient good usage to warrant us in retaining it. This record. following the rooted habit of over three-score years and ten. and was largely instrumental they were known as in compiling the records of his people Nephites and of God's dealings with them. derives from a prophet and important personage of that name. however. first as " Mormonites. It is large in claims. Mormon.

if judged by the opposition it has evoked. Like the man through whom it had origin. a certain From . One finds difficulty in maintaining a perfectly neutral position in treating of its claims and history. so common to Several of these " clergymen." persuaded the populace that the Mormons were not only heretics. and in no case do we find such writers even attempting to understand the Mormon " point of view. notably a certain Bogart. oppressed by the people of a nation. Even in that day of fierce theological debate these people laid aside their internecine strife to make common cause against this new opponent. however." as alleged. which of all others on earth boasts the — most proudly of its liberties and toleration. the Mormon Church has been an object of persecution. has greedily accepted and aided in the further publicity of all accusations of evil-doing brought against this Church and people by their enemies. at the hands of those who plead conscience for their violence and injustice. has given the worst possible construction to every fact of its history. undoubtedly redolent of things viction. both great and small. who urged large claims and had the courage of conTheir pulpit efforts. are violently prejudiced hence liable to misinterpret or distort opinions and beliefs. when not exaggerating weaknesses common to all humanity. other than '*pure theology. on a full show of evidence and with intelligence and righteousness. Like all else in this world. good or evil. in the role of a martyr for human liberty. but also brigands. they have accused the Mormons of crimes and vices all but preposterous." the frontier life of the time.4 THE REAL MORMONISM large in importance. as it is stated. and deserves pure. by their own acknowledgment. when it had no humanly visible prospect of ever being a "menace. simple justice. The average writer on Mormonism and its founder. it possesses an individuality that is intense and vital: it repels and attracts with equal force." in order to criticize and condemn. if nothing more. But justice it has never received. it has its own side of the matters with which it is concerned. teaching and practice. Anti-Mormon agitators seem to have been literally blinded to the fact that. and the probable perpetrators of all the thefts and murders. a certain Sashiel Woods. the very moment of its birth. Its success in making converts was the first occasion against it on the part of various sectarian missionaries and pastors. By such procedures on the part of their self-styled " candid critics " Mormonism has been placed in the anomalous position of a cause suffering. as if with deliberation. and. to anything. has accepted as sufficient authorities on all Mormon teachings and beliefs the statements of persons who. if at all. for the sake of conscience.

When we read of such things in history. and a certain Brockman. which in their judgment would be much obstructed by the Federal Jurisdiction further continuance of free goverment in Utah. alleged " claim. however. in spite of our boasted culture and advancement. and grab its money. including even the murder of women and children. " By some famous preachers the policy of killing the Mormons by wholesale. whether fostered by accredited pulpiteers or mere " wanton gospelers. prominent and well-informed people is indicated by the follow- ing from a speech of Judge Jeremiah S. we must concede. wherever it has turned up the whites of its eyes in this country or in Europe. Mormonism. seize its offices. the spirit of persecution That similar conclusions have been reached by is not yet dead. . which on several occasions inflicted grievous violence on these people. We should remember. that both mob violence and acrimonious strife were mere commonplaces in the life of the times. appeared as active inciters and leaders of mobs. Black before the Committee on Territories of the tjnited States Senate. I suppose. conspicuously suffering from the baleful effects of epidemic hysteria. that it is very good taste and refined humanity disguised in a new dress. abandon their homes. Their righteous souls are vexed from day to day by the mere fact that sinful men are allowed to live peaceful and prosperous lives. also against many people innocent of all offense. and flee beyond the Union. Equally pure is the act of a returning officer who fraudulently certifies the election of an anti-Mormon candidate known to be defeated by a majority of more than fifteen to one. unless they leave their property. notably against Catholics. and were active against others than Mormons. we are apt to think them diabolical.jumpers " and — horse-thieves. but in this exceptional case it would be speaking evil of dignities to call The soundness of a religion which slanders a Mormon is it hypocrisy. and unrebuked even by senatorial wisdom. Judge Black's statements in this particular may be held to have such weight as can be derived from the careful examination of a subject by a learned and experienced judge and advo- . is openly advocated and apparently concurred in with great warmth by congregations supposed to be respectable and this is accompanied with curses loud and deep upon all who would interpose a constitutional objection to that method of dealing with them. nor will we attribute any sordid motive to those residents of Utah. 5. p." has been the instrument of demonstrating that. Abolitionists. political piety. — in the Territories. who busy themselves here and at home to break down the Territorial governnot to be questioned. As a general rule. approved as they are now and here by popular judgment. in spite of our intelligence and civilization." That they did not escape seems to have been inevitable. ment.THE MORMON PROBLEM 5 Williams. we might have credited their immunity to an actual " miraculous interposition. is a sham and a false pretense. official and private. But. Had the Mormons escaped. They are animated solely by disinterested zeal for the advancement of the Lord's Kingdom.

^ " Every now and then lies are set afloat that the Mormons are about to rise in armed insurrection when. Thus. " I wish deliberately worse misrepresented Lies about them have weaknesses have been to record lied and . p.' on a certain day. alleged to have been delivered by Bishop West of Juab. anti-Mormon agitators cate. Ambrose It is difficult to believe that the B. ' — — ' . . has ever been taken that was not in violation of some principle dear to every liberty-loving heart. or in response to the tybring unerring retribution when turned rant's devilish plea necessity from their natural purpose. lygamy aside. ' . in which the Mormons were cruelly and outrageously abused for conduct that was just and honorable. vulpine sagacity temporary evil to be justifiable that worse may not survive. — Judge Carlton was chairman of the Utah Commission. have been inconsistent with the traditions of freedom and equal rights. a brutal. venial faults and magnified into gross and monstrous offenses. they have stood manfully for principles that must endure forever. " I have been an eye-witness to transactions. Not that they have courted the assaults made upon them but as a peculiarity of their history. the Mormons have been more sinned against than sinning. Carlton: $ my opinion that the Mormons have been about than any people I have ever met. I can say after nearly seven years' observation. bloodthirsty. Sloan. It was on this plea a temporarv evil on behalf of permanent good that the advocates of this policy urged the adoption of measures against the Mormons by Congress. i. But we do find those of madly protesting. in truth. Says R. despite the experience of all times.6 THE REAL MORMONISM Since. " It is because of this phase that Mormonism has become known as a * vexed problem'. a very few years ago. and innocent or indiflferent actions have been misinterpreted. violated even as a temporary expedient. and which. suffering from their onslaughts. But if it be examined closely there will be found much to justify the assumption. that there is no community on the civilized globe less Poliable than the Mormons to take up arms against the government. should have wittingly perpetrated such injustices as the Mormons have suffered. and that such a departure from good will be in the cause of good. whereas in truth and in fact no such sermon had been delivered at any time or place. and it was acknowledged afterwards to be a pure and simple fabrication. a Mormon writer: " It has been the claim of the Latter-day Saints that in making a defense in their own behalf they have been fighting for liberty in behalf of all men. p. pledged as they are to safeguarding the rights of humanity at large." Wonderlands of the Wild West. ap- . . been made out of whole cloth. because of this also that men possessed of instinctive statesmanship have never touched the problem.. in defending themselves. have been the real champions of American institutions. Says the Hon. no action against them. disloyal harangue.. At first blush this claim seems presumptuous. the Mormons. as he strongly suggests. either by lawless mobs or through legal means. W. . 151. — — — — American people and the American Government. but not until it had gone abroad as evidence of the disloyalty of the Mormons. I have read what purported to be Mormon sermons. . that were purely fictitious one in particular." The Great Contest.

perfectly restored on earth after the apostasy of the whole of the " Christian world. Mormonism claims to be a religious system furthermore a Christian system of belief and practice and bases its first and strongest appeal on the profession that it is the true. have never been more than a subterfuge. although he never joined the Church. In the first place. it may be readily understood that an investigation of early Mormon history in Utah will reveal a very diflferent spirit from that which has been talked about. fairs set forth in the foregoing quotations. which was to destroy the Mormon heresy. are concerned most particularly with such an analysis and discussion of the system and its claims as will enable the reader to derive an intelligent idea of an object of so much detestation." because of traditions that have ** made God's law of none effect. Why has Mormonism This statement will bear full investigation. been so much misunderstood? Simply because the evangelical churches saw in its success their own downfall and they dared not let their own followers know what Mormonism was. original Gospel of Christ." Utah. . The cry against its polygamy. consequently. inspired the promulgators and founders of several antecedent sects and systems." In making even so radical a claim as this the system is not perfectly unique its assertion seems to hark back to " reformation " times. of the fact that anti-Mormon persecutions date from the very birth of the Mormon Church. Says Mr. — A sufficiently large number of the stock allegations urged people will be discussed and analyzed on later pages. . some of the reasons why it has been so much detested. Ellis: "From its appearance. as will be shown by other quotations from his writings. lest they should embrace it. Why it is materially worse in Joseph Smith to promulgate a new system of has. and sent to Although opposed to plural marriage on prin- he was otherwise fair to the Mormons. as being a danger to solater ciety. It would be. . however. of God and the glories of immortality. and the cry against its priesthood. possibly also. 1847 to 1870. Mormonism has been hated by the evangelical sects as a heresy. Mormonism is as a RockyMountain day in May compared to a New England day in March. . /». the explanation offered by Qiarles Ellis. in 1882. Edmunds Law. a former clergyman residing in Utah. "As compared with the evangelical conception of life here and hereafter. 5. It may be difficult to comprehend the surprising state of afIn view. who wrote considerably in defense of Mormonism.THE MORMON PROBLEM pointed under the provisions of the 7 Utah ciple. as being a danger to the government. and written and preached against in the east for nearly half a century. both unnecessary and unprofitable to give them here. indeed. when the wind is east and the sun is veiled. Such being the case. the object being to detract attention from the real fight. and. and to savor of a spirit of confidence that against the Mormon Church and We — — : whether rightly or wrongly. may be accepted tentatively.

one possessed. quite apart from the failings of character and conduct that he may have manifested at any period of his life. presumably. the most highly esteemed founders of sects and systems in the past even the vigorous and intrepid Luther. since persons possessing the shortcomings and afflictions in question are not the most likely to accomplish memorable results. Scripture. or to interpret the Word of God anew. is a question that should logically occur to the candid and unbiassed mind. are found to be unworthy of serious consideration. to have labored under the handicaps of serious personal faults and failings. or which were originated. quite apart from all personal considerations. even with the best efforts. a drunkard. or other accepted standard of authority. all of them. nowit is a highly reasonable act to examine his adays at least utterances and history. oftentimes quite as serious as even the drunkenness and ignorance alleged against Joseph Smith. Since Joseph Smith was also a man. of several of the virtues and failings common to humanity. it is no more than just that he should be given credit even though as a vigorous and independent thinker and leader and one may not feel constrained to accept his leadership that. there can be alleged no sufficient reason for dealing with him by any other method. also an ignoramus or an " epileptic. in order to found a just estimate on his character and influence than merely to dwell on the often ribald accusations of unknown and irresponsible " old neighbors " and — — — — . — — . If the ideas which he originated. we must recognize that he was only another among the host of " guessers. To answer in the words of his opponents that he was a man of contemptible character." is evidently no answer at all. Even though Smith claimed to have received " revelations " from the Almighty and many people believe that this is impossible. or promulgated." who have confidently announced themselves as " solvers "of the " great problem " of life. imposter and self-interested exploiter of credulity. than the same attempt in John Calvin. by certain of his associates. Martin Luther.8 THE REAL MORMONISM thought and practice. Furthermore. or the gloomy and intellectual Calvin seem. If his teachings contain aught that is worthy or excellent. But. the ideas and beliefs promulgated by any of these men must be judged according to their consistency with reason. and recommended or rejected accordingly. The same candid and honest spirit of investigation has been invoked in dealing with the teachings of all the ancient and "heathen" sages and teachers nor is there any good reason why the system popularly known as " Mormonism " should be ignored and misrepresented by people otherwise supposed to be intelligent. or any other " reformer " or leader. as some have alleged.

he originated a system of social and community organization that is of the highest signifi. he dealt with the historic dilemma of " faith and works " in a manner that cannot but excite the admiration of the candid and informed reader. Joseph Smith is entitled to his place.THE MORMON PROBLEM 9 "prominent citizens. Surely. and the best efforts of which the investigator is capable. in the teachings of Mormonism. or whether assisted by others or not deserves earnest and careful atten- — — tion. and decidedly notable light. at the same time. among historic In spite of the dense ignorance thinkers. he interpreted the religious life in an entirely new. to both thought and life. ." whose accusations against him and his family form the bulk of the case against Mormonism. on the basis of an exhaustive and prolonged study of Joseph Smith and of the system founded by him. whether an inspired prophet of God. and venal character alleged against him. cance to sociological theory. or not. in order to unravel his significance to the world and to the history of thought. he handled the problems of life in a manner that showed the master-mind. It may be proper to state at this point that. and that. leaders and reformers. the writer of the present work is convinced that both deserve better of the world than they have as yet received that there is an immense amount of the greatest value. finally. the historic originator of all this whether " inspired " or not. as the first of its kind attempting to deal with the " problems " of himian life that really seems to solve them rationally. to possess any of the elements of permanence and efficiency. and. and a conspicuous one at that.

with only moderate educational advantages. doubtless. particularly if we be asked to countenance or justify the deliberate lies that they have told about him and the savage truculence with which they have opposed him and his followers. founder of Mormonism and professed prophet of God. who still hold his name in reverence and endorse his every profession to a divine mission in the world. or more thoroughly beloved on the other. his first appearance before the world is in the role of leader and teacher of religion. as friends and sympathizers. describe as wonderfully magnetic 10 . To the fairminded student of his career Joseph Smith must appear as a veritable riddle." Apart from anything that may inspire respect or evoke mistrust. and to win such distinguished regard. and his teachings have been accepted by thousands. to '' be good and evil spoken of among all peoples. indeed. " a youth to fortune and to fame unknown. in all the world's history. a character not readily to be estimated at its full value. Although born of simpleminded and largely unlettered parents and reared in a wilderness. so versatile and so forceIf it is difficult for any of us to understand the " secret of ful. logical." should have appeared so near to our own time to play such a part. It seems strange. practical and persistent. on the one hand. moving one to admire or dislike him. perhaps. that a man of inconspicuous origin and defective worldly advantages. one of the most problematical. and the promulgator of a system of doctrine and life that is at once intelligent. which those who knew him." the reason for the lofty reverence of his followers. His personality was such that it lent cogency to his teachings. because evidently so many-sided. as was said to him in one of his reported visions. it must be equally difficult to comprehend the superlative bitterness of his enemies. also. is destined. his influence.CHAPTER II THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH The name of Joseph Smith. he remains one of the most romantic figures in history. Few men have been worse hated. The personality of Joseph Smith.

* He also exclaimed at the close of almost every sentence. He is also very round shouldered. diers " Among such is the often-quoted " Girl's Letter from Nauvoo. evidently possessing power and exerting influence. Smith. and expressing great shrewdness." " vulgar " and otherwise disagreeable. is characterized by others as " uncouth. It must be refreshing. Smith possessed sufficient sense of humor to aptions of this " girl " preciate the absurdity of many of the so-called legal proceedings that were brought agamst him. who had expected to be overwhelmed by his eloquence. for he frequently remarked that at every place he stopped. He has a large head. was never more disappointed than when he commenced his discourse by relating all the incidents of his journey. however. That's the idea * ! * ' Although the maidenly prejudices and phrenological predilechave evidently led her to discount the abilities of Mr. Thus." who seem to vie with the affidaviting " old neighbors and " prominent citizens. youthful in his appearance. His critic was evidently deficient in ability to comprehend some situations. and blue eyes set far back in the head. and phrenologists would unhesitatingly pronounce it a bad one. or I should say. for the organs situated in the back part are decidedly more prominent. He had just returned from Springfield. it is necessary to remark only that most of his published discourses seem to be of a far different character from the one presumably heard on this occasion. I. His object seemed to be to amuse and excite laughter in his audience. as asserted. He is evidently a great egotist and boaster." " THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH ii and masterful. to the candid reader of the present day to learn that Mr. not otherwise available to them is represented to the intelligent public as some sort of buffoon or wholesale " confidence man. That he described them in the humorous language suggested in this passage is scarcely remarkable. stout man." *' awkward. cunning. where he had been upon trial for some crime of which he was accused while in Missouri. going to and from Springfield. a few were " revolutionary solin making descriptions which do not describe. but he was released by habeas corpus." which — — — — contains the following: " Joseph Smith is a large." Such representations are familiar in the several " testimonies " of anonymous " ladies " and " gentlemen. people crowded around him. we have the famous . Compared with the common run of estimates and incidents regarding this man's personality and character." none of whom figure very largely in history unless. and his language and manner were the coarsest possible. and expressed surprise that he was so handsome and good looking. with light complexion and hair. but in the midst of hardship and persecution yet some people will tell us that many of Smith's disciples were attracted by the prospects of material benefits. This he did in a loud voice. not only in days of calm prosperity. this man who could command the devotion of thousands of sane and normal people.

son of the famous Josiah Quincy. The man who established a religion in this age of free debate. I myself stand helpless before the puzzle. If the reader does not know just what to make of Joseph Smith. but these epithets. whether for good or for evil. where many writers have found only a vulgar and corrupt charlatan. imposter.. His influence. History deals in surprises and paradoxes quite as startling as this. then. I cannot help him out of the difficulty. for the use of generations yet unborn. I mean). Fanatics and imposters are living and dying every day. charlatan. that Smith "mingled Utopian fallacies with his shrewd suggestions. from Adam down (Adam of the Wealth of Nations. such as would be cheerfully and even Judas accorded to any other character in history will reveal the surprising fact Iscariot has had his defenders that. It is partly as follows: " It is by no means improbable that some future text book. but as a phenomenon to be explained. morals. and that " he talked as from a strong mind utterly unenlightened by the teachings of history. Burning questions they are. Mayor of Boston. not as a rogue to be criminated. none had so won human hearts and shaped human lives as this Joseph. and a teacher of religion. but the wonderful influence which this founder of a religion exerted and still exerts throws him into relief before us. be thus written absurd as it doubtless seems to most men now living. which is competent in evidence to show how Smith affected a really intelligent and experienced mind." many of which he was compelled to endorse in the highest terms. and their memory is buried with them. we shall discern a born leader of men. at one time." Figures of the Past. one possessed of force and intellect. And the reply. he had made himself at the age of thirty-nine a power upon earth. than mine must deal with these questions. who was and is to-day accepted by hundreds of such a rare human thousands as a direct emissary from the Most High being is not to be disposed of by pelting his memory with unsavory Fanatic. for the statement that a careful study of Smith's life and work. . this: : — A P' 367. the Mormon Prophet. and. he may have been. may be an obvious common-place to their descendants. a real reformer along several lines." may be prepared. Although Mr. We — — . The most vital questions Americans are asking each other to-day have generation other to do with this man and what he has left us. will contain a question something like What historical American of the nineteenth century has exerted the most powerful influence upon the destinies of his countrymen? And it is by no means impossible that the answer to that interrogatory may Joseph Smith." he concludes. which must give a prominent place in the history of the country to that sturdy self-asserter whom I visited at Nauvoo. I have endeavored to give the details of my visit to the Mormon Prophet with absolute accuracy. a thorough student of the Bible.— THE REAL MORMONISM 12 account written by Josiah Quincy. himself. without book-learning and with the homeliest of all human names. as follows: " Born in the lowest ranks of poverty. is potent to-day. hard names furnish no solution to the problem he presents to us. and the end is not yet. Of the multitudinous family of Smith. Quincy states at another place..

As for the remarks on " illiterate. have been of a grade of intelligence and energy likely to beget a son capable of engineering " hoaxes. and the Smith family. rather than differing conditions in the environments and characters of the subjects. and his habits of exaggeration and untruthfulness. whiskey-drinking. instead of merely illiterate and shiftless. shiftless. Thus. by the average critic and " stuTucker. At the very beginning of our study we find a host of alleged "affidavits" embodying the famiUar traditional accusations against Joseph Smith and all his family. hide and hoofs. or even a conspicuous figure in any other walk of life than that which he selected. From the age of twelve to twenty years he is distinctly noted only remembered as a dull-eyed. as he was universally named. should have expected to hear that Smith's father had been a notorious housebreaker. We must remember. prevaricating boy for his indolent and vagabondish character. both ordinary and extraordinary." To ask the public to believe that a merely worthless and indolent father can account for such a movement as Mormonism is only to insult intelli- We A . in the words of one Pomeroy who has been largely quoted by all subsequent " inves- tigators. they were popularly regarded as an illiterate. indicate differing " animus " in the witnesses. man of such a character would." this period in the life At — — Admitting fully the genuineness of the " testimony " upon which these statements are based. hair." we learn that and career of Joseph Smith." If we may judge from the careers and characters of many of the people noted in these other "walks. very probably. who evidently attempted to justify his every claim to the intelligence of mankind. the " cloven foot " of slanderous rural gossip is only too plainly evident. flaxen-haired. whatever may have been — the real facts in the present case.. that. whiskey-drinking." in spite of various inconsistencies and irrelevancies. the chief subject of this biography. being unanimously voted the laziest and most worthless of the generation. highwayman or horse-thief. also. artist or writer of fiction. shiftless" parents. which are " swallowed whole. as explained. or Joe Smith. its competence is not established things " unanimously voted " and " distinctly remembered " in this way are not always the justest and most intelligent things that may be said of people." we must understand that the variant estimates in the two cases. had Smith become a poet." instead of one possessing an " indolent and vagabondish character. he would have been remembered as a " dreamy and introspective boy. alleging depravity of several orders. " dent" of Mormonism.: I THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH 13 sociology and government with a real message. irreligious race of people the first named. Jr.

In view of the results achieved by him. to acknowledge such shortcomings as may have been committed by him nor does he offer excuses or " ex: planations. whiskey-drinking and general worthlessness of character." but why any man sufficiently intelligent to write a grammatically-constructed book should consider it worth quoting as authority is very nearly incomprehensible. an " imposter. and the foibles of human nature. the undersigned. offensive in the sight of God. and is to be discredited as mere ** railing accusation." Such allegations.. we are bound te recognize in Joseph Smith a really exceptional man. That they were not only a lazy. ignorance and credulity.: 14 THE REAL MORMONISM gence. he must certainly have been more than merely idle and drunken in his youth. of his parents and brothers in after-life shows no signs of the " faults so confidently stated in the affidavits of " old neighbors and "prominent citizens. with whom the Gold Bible. but also state: intemperate. therefore. at least. Tucker." demagogue and self-seeking scoundrel." . and their word was not to be depended upon and that we are truly glad to dispense with their society. it is only just to say that the allegations of superlative worthlessness made against the family of Joseph Smith are enThe behavior tirely unproven by any decent show of evidence. as he says in his journal." thus guaranteeing its truth " to the best of their knowledge and belief. when." who evidently follow the prevalent uncharity of judgment in ascribing poverty and business incapacity to " shiftlessness. and displayed the weakness of youth. and others. But. here we have no more serious accusations than he himself pleads guilty to. If he was altogether evil. and betray one's own spite." Apart from the evident reasonableness of such a line of criticism. however." Nor. have played their . something colossal. Of very similar value are most of the " affidavits " presented by Howe. Without attempting to clear the characters of Joseph Smith. in protesting against this kind of " testimony " can we be justly charged with partiality: we complain only because we hear nothing worse. Of these the following is a good sample " We. being personally acquainted with the family of Joseph Smith. one worthy to rank far above the average of his associates in point of native abilities. Sr. or those of any of his family. originated. indolent set of men. Eleven " prominent citizens of Manchester " apparently swore to this " instrument. we must protest that the futility of such testimony is amply demonstrated in the fact that it never attempts to make really serious criminal charges. enterprising and really depraved." He had the grace. so called. he fell into " many foolish errors.

what was. if present. It seems safe. have forgotten to give the references. stimulated by a conviction of their reality and divine authority. In the case of Joseph Smith. there is no element or motive that explains his career quite so well as his sufficient and unfailing belief in the reality of his authority to teach and preach in the name of God. they played their full part in stimulating a mind whose products have valuably enlightened the world in several important particulars. Smith. This involves. . Smith.THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH full part in 15 prejudicing the mind of the public against Mr. The entire course of his life certainly furnishes an excellent argument for the conclusion that he himself believed implicitly and firmly in their reality and authority. at least. a sufficient belief in his own mind in the reality of the several visions and revelations which he claims to have had. as may be claimed with some show of reason. should become occasions for violent abuse and denunciation from the preachers of religion and the intelligent public in general in a nation. and certainly in defective courage to face the truculent assaults of enemies. directed. are positively not characterized by any pathological element whatever being rather admirable and highly practical solutions of sociological. clerical and It is quite certain. It is curious that such handicaps. Nor is it essential to our argument that we determine. emancipated from the sickening In Smith's case. theoretically at least. and his would-be accusers. Smith been addicted to the excessive use of alcohol from his youth onward. whether dreams. worthy line of criticism has been carried to a disgusting extreme. . as they were. should rather excite the compassion of generous and informed minds. that had Mr." who has presumed to rise above the level in which he originated. as has been suggested by one or two slovenly theorizers. Careful search among the published statements of his " followers " reas a man veals no such admission. of " humble origin and unfortunate early influences. by intelligent and relentless leaders. then. he would probably have shown its effects in some definite impairment of his energies. which Joseph Smith attributed to direct divine agency. this untraditions of hereditary aristocracy. even by implication. the fact still remains that the consequent productions of the mind of Mr. except in a remark ascribed to Martin Harris. we read in several anti-Smith productions that he himself was so given to over-indulgence in alcoholic drinks that " even his own followers admit " the fault. to assert with confidence that. or probably must have been the real nature of the various experiences. delusions or actualities. which. however. moral and religious difficulties. as will be explained later. Perfectly similarly. If they be held to have been of purely pathological import. literary. of course. theoretically.

seem altogether more perfect than anything that should be demanded. ecclesiastical and otherwise.' i6 THE REAL MORMONISM which have defied the ingenuity of thinkers and religionists of other persuasions to this very day. The following passages give the account of Joseph Smith's professed experiences in his own words: " Some time in the second year after our removal to Manchester. namely Harrison. For notwithstanding the great love which the converts to these different faiths expressed at the time of their conversion. there was in the place where we lived an unusual excitement on the subject of religion. and the great zeal manifested by the respective clergy. in all propriety. we cannot escape the conclusion that. my brothers Hyrum and Samuel church. the whole district of country seemed affected by it. he displayed a masterly imitation of real conviction. for a scene of great confusion and bad feeling ensued. Lo. and my sister Sophronia. we assume that Smith's reported visions and revelations were deliberate fictions. some to one party and some to another. in order to have everybody converted. so that all their good feelings one for another. still I kept myself aloof from all these parties. some for the Presbyterian. it was seen that the seemingly good feelings of both the priests and the converts were more pretended than real . cannot vitiate the evident conclusion that the several excellent institutions. some crying. father's family was proselyted to the Presbyterian faith. in his speech and actions. We make Mr. priest contending against priest. and some for the Baptist. If. finally. though I attended their several meetings as often as occasion would permit. let them join what sect they pleased yet when the converts began to file off. if we assume merely that all these things were done to uphold the alleged truth of a fable that had been already so eagerly accepted by hundreds of people on his simple word of mouth. were entirely lost in a strife of words and a contest about opinions. and I felt some desire to be ! ' ! — My — . Smith work altogether too hard and too well. It commenced with the Methodists.. here and others. however. and great multitudes united themselves to the different religious parties. to lend mere verisimilitude to an original misrepresentation. but soon became general among all the sects in that region of the country. who were active in getting up and promoting this extraordinary scene of religious feeling. or promulgated. * Lo. as they were pleased to call it. and four of them joined that my mother Lucy. my mind was called up to serious reflection and great uneasiness but though my feelings were deep and often poignant. which created no small stir and division amongst the people. Such alleged fact. In process of time my mind became somewhat partial to the Methodist sect. Indeed. by this same person. thus adding excellent histrionic ability to his other talents. During this time of great excitement. and convert against convert. if they ever had any. for the mere sake of gratifying sundry critics who talk more than they think or investigate. " I was at this time in my fifteenth year. It has been said that a falsehood persistently told presently assumes the symptoms of reality in the falsifier's mind. there ' Some were contending for the Methodist faith. devised.

' " My object in going to inquire of the Lord was to know which of all the sects was right. the cry and tumult were so great and incessant. calling me by name. both in the sectarian quarrels and in the mental perturbations likely to occur in young persons of susceptible organization. when immediately I was seized upon by some power which entirely overcame me. and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and not to an imaginary ruin. I kneeled down and began to offer up the desires of my heart to God. monition. which of all the sects was right and which I should join. and said. and the personage who . at least. that it was impossible for a person young as I was. "It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from the enemy which held me bound. we have no reason whatever for doubting that such were the actual experiences of the youthful Smith. and had such an astonishing influence over me as to bind my tongue so that I could not speak. . I was answered that I — must join none of them. Thick darkness gathered around me." So stirred was he by this ad. 2-4. so as to be able to speak. In the same narration previously quoted. the Baptists and Methodists in their turn were equally zealous in endeavoring to establish their own tenets and disprove all History of the Church. The results may be best explained in his own words. standing above me in the air. pp. in the course of his readings. and that he records them truthfully. to come to any certain conclusion who was right and who was wrong. which descended gradually until it fell upon me. The Presbyterians were most decided against the Baptists and Methodists. and so unacquainted with men and things. I. — — — ' fore. but so great were the confusion and strife among the different denominations. that he determined to put it to the test. exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me. When the light rested upon me I saw two personages. and used all the powers of both reason and sophistry to prove their errors. having looked around me. that I might know which to join. Vol. He further records that he determined to put his doubts to the test of Scriptural authority. But." In reading this passage one cannot doubt that it gives a faithful picture of the times (1820). My mind at times was greatly excited. he proceeds with the following: " After I had retired to the place where I had previously designed to go. On the other hand.5) " If any of you lack wisdom. and that. than I asked the personages who stood above me in the light. let him ask of God and it shall be given him. who had such marvelous power as I had never before felt in any being just at this moment of great alarm. but to the abandon myself to destruction power of some actual being from the unseen world. and finding myself alone. One of them spake^ unto me. above the brightness of the sun. or. he records. did I get possession of myself. whose brightness and glory defy all description. I had scarcely done so. pointing to the other This is my beloved son. hear him. and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden destruction. he came upon the passage (James I. to make the people think they were in error. No sooner. which was another thing largely done at that period.— THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH 17 united with them. there. others. for they were all wrong. I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head. In fact.

Thus. except with the members of his own family. looking up into heaven. visiting ages." all sects " improbable " such a condition of affairs might seem to the casual reader.5-6. I went home. As might have been expected. Nor did it occur to any of them to make mere sport of the young man's professions a saving sense of humor seems never to have been possessed by any of Smith's detractors and. and reaching to the influential and powerful only exceptionally. only between fourteen and fifteen years of age. To his neighbors." and that all the sects " were all wrong. poor and humble ** victims of error " that were selected in the majority of cases for the distinction of martyrdom : very few of the " ringleaders of heresy. the ignorant and the dependent. the report of this vision by the youthful seer gained very slight credence. and create a bitter persecution. as he records." comparatively speaking. and worse than that. and this was — — : all united to persecute me." : PP. I had no Ibid. were "brought to justice. he could seem to be nothing other than a victim of delusion. When I came to myself again. they teach for doctrines the commandments of men : having a form of godUness. I found myself lying on my back. but soon recovering in some degree. and was the cause of great persecution. yet men of standing would take notice sufficient to excite the public mind against me." Smith " I soon found that my telling the story had excited a adds also great deal of prejudice against me among the professors of religion. and though I was an obscure boy. but they deny the power thereof." common among However — . as is recorded. As in the reign of ** Bloody Mary " of England. instead of some pious attempt to exorcise the *' delusion. which continued to increase. one must not forget that it forms an eminently fitting start for the bitter persecutions always visited upon Smith. strength. but their hearts are far from me. which I cannot write at this time. " righteous wrath " upon the weak.' He again forbade me to join with any of them and many other things did he say unto me. and my circumstances of life such as to make a boy of no consequence in the world. of diabolical delusion. it was principally the mean. of course. It is also of a part with the religious persecutions of all Their nature has ever been essentially cowardly." was met with " a great deal of contempt.— THE REAL MORMONISM : ' i8 addressed sight me said that all their creeds were an abomination in His that those professors were all corrupt : that they draw near to me with their lips." Undoubtedly Smith's report that he had " learned for himself that Presbyterianism is not true. or obsession. When the light had departed. as a consequence. his narration of his vision to one of the most active of the revivalist Methodist preachers. their treatment of him partook of a childish brutality that seems in no way less absurd than the most exaggerated claims that he could have ventured to make.

alleged by persons who were led. In the consideration of Smith's reported experience. through such instrumentality. Also in the literature of "wonderful conversions. now. of the departed. even of the Saviour himself. as reproduced by several " authorities " the two parts of the story " seem his account and the affidavits of " prominent citizens : — to belong together. whether real or unreal. it is by an " audible voice " that certain eminent Christian people claim to have been called to a " better life. it is a " glorious personage. that his all who would listen. the youth persisted in telling the story to But it seems strange. it is quite or of mere derangement of the senses. the numerous and constantly recurring accounts of apparitions. The assertion that such visions. it is an angelic visitant that rebukes the sinner and warns him to repent " ere it is too late " . particularly." so popular until within a generation since. that calls to a special mission for the kingdom of God . we must not overlook the readily-verifiable fact that. in the literature of " psychical research. are accepted as evidence of " something not perfectly understood. as well as other " gifts " and marks of divine favor. on the other certain that their acceptance involves no violation of the principles accepted among the pious." so-called. seem to have been reported and tolerated among the religious. of evil spirits." We seem to have some explanation of the origin of the confidently circulated stories of his youthful worthlessness and depravity. ages." probably believed to be the Saviour himself. as would seem probable. to adopt the Christian life." Whatever may be the explanation of such experiences since they seem to be sufficiently numerous and sufficiently vivid to avoid the suspicion of either fabrication. only between fourteen and fifteen years of age.THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH 19 — must have stirred the antagonism of the clergy. seemingly. particularly since. particularly of the deceased. also. we will find numerous cases of such experiences. and distinctly states that he believed them both possible and frequent. on the one hand. even to this very day. he was boy. or of a fear lest the Evil One uses such means to *' deceive unwary souls. as he reminds us. need we cite examples of notable and prominent historic personThe visions of angels. its professed nature and details are quite of a kind with Nor the experiences claimed by numerous others in all ages. again. indeed. are no longer " vouchsafed " seems rather an evidence of growing " scepticism " among the clergy. No less a Puritan authority than Increase Mather records numerous cases of " apparitions " in his book. narrations should have been received in such a spirit of bitter*' an obscure ness." than the statement Now — — . Remarkable Providences." As we may find.

which. condition in such a large proportion of the people whose names are notable in religious history. ascribing their '' manifestations." if they should credit such accounts although. and. quite negligible in their influences. give answers as enigmatical as the ancient Delphic oracles to any inquiries that may be made. or a very similar. or to prayer. and that he must repent. say or do nothing that The subject of the is of very exceptional interest or value. accepted among all nations. or some similar form of cerebral affection. Religious writers among Protestants are considerably more " careful " nowadays fearing. or. Very often. as we shall see later. also. In one particular this vision of Joseph Smith seems to differ from the majority of recorded experiences of similar character. Spiritistic messages partake of the mental . and this is in the delivery of a message that is (i) strikingly contrary to anything that he might be supposed to have expected. of angels. As a general rule. further. as we may find by some reading in the scattered sources. do not hesitate to credit the claims of Spiritism. is a part of the common stock of human tradition. As a usual thing the personages.20 THE REAL MORMONISM of a principle distinctly involved in traditional systems of belief. somewhat sceptical. visitations or "apparitions. When we consider the fact that visions and supposed visitations of the dead. or impossible. also of divine personages. the mind of Mr. some compromise with the claims of '' spiritism. in very many cases. Smith involves more or less the same. probably. that its other ill effects are very generally absent. as well as by sundry others since his day. apparently present in a vision. it is certain that we have a very poor and unreliable *' explanation " of Joseph Smith's visions in the theory that he was the victim of some order of pathological The great trouble is that the allegation of disease in delusion. also. Such an attitude is distinctly taken by such writers as Increase Mather. usually in the way of preaching the Gospel or of caring for God's poor. the foundation of all the strikingly brilliant contributions to sociological and theological sciences. therefore.'* coming in answer to an expressed desire." one and all. for example. were made by him. also but certain reactionaries. we are asked to believe that religious exaltation partakes of the nature of epilepsy. to the Evil One and — — : his angels. that we know of nothing that can warrant us in stating that such experiences are either untrue. at least. and (2) that forms the real point of departure for the work of his after-life. and to the present day. visitation is often told. In order to discredit him. the real " conservatives " in theology. and similar cults. or that there is a work for him to do. that he is a sinner.

offensive in the sight of God. not consistent with that character which ought to be maintained by one who was called of God as I had been. in view of his previously reported vision. I am sorry to say. however. It is popularly supposed that he indulged in alcoholic stimulants. It is interesting. Except for this. was never in my nature. — — — .. and sometimes associated with jovial company. his vision would likely have been set down to mere fervid imagina- — — tion. he remarks of this period: "During the space of time which intervened between the time I had having the vision and the year eighteen hundred and twenty-three been forbidden to join any of the religious sects of the day. and persecuted by those who ought to have been my friends." History of the Church. Nor could it be remarkable that the " levity " of which he makes mention should appear of even graver import. and is acquainted with my native cheery temperament." these things are as they are we shall not undertake to determine. since there is no . to consider that the message given to the youthful Smith in his reported vision was scarcely of a character to have originated in the untutored and inexperienced brain of a boy in his surroundings and at his period. above quoted. and displayed the weakness of youth. Vol. In making this confession. also some alertness of mind to discern the essential incompatibility of bitter rivalries with the Gospel of Love and Good Will to men. and the foibles of human nature.— THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH Why 21 color and prejudices of the persons engaged in the " inquiry. 9-10. A tion This period must have been that in which Smith's bad reputawas greatly augmented. We need not dwell upon the folly of such lines of behavior. I. To state that it was a conclusion formed in his own mind as the result of anxious cogitation on the discordant claims for there were very keen of the rival sects of his neighborhood is to credit him and bitter rivalries among them at this period with considerable power of reasoning. Nor is it too much to believe that his recountal of this message to his neighbors. so frequently mentioned by his critics. pp. and if they supposed me to be deluded to have endeavored in a proper and affectionate manner to have reclaimed me. nothing of great importance seems to have occurred the kind is recorded by him or his biographers. etc. no one need suppose me disposition to commit such guilty of any great or malignant sins. I was left to all kinds of temptations and mingling with all kinds of society. must have resulted in precisely the kind of persecution and disfavor which he records. But I was guilty of levity. also in the fortune-telling and water-witching extravagances. In his journal. however. and being of very tender years. and to the local clergy. led me into divers temptations. which. But this will not seem very strange to any one who recollects my youth. During the three succeeding years of Smith's life nothing of at least. I frequently fell into many foolish errors. and to have treated me kindly.

and for which I have often had occasion to lament. Nor is there any reason whatever for charging him with " insincerity " or " imposture '' in the use of such expressions. also. from their subsequent contributions to Christian literature and holy living. Augustine. In either case his maturity need not be charged with them. however. I fell into many vices and follies. I take the occasion to remark that.. or all youths. that my accusers can substantiate against my moral character. In some other cases of precisely similar disquietings of conscience we find that the things repented of are matters of no great moment. written some years later..' I have not. I fell into many vices and follies. as is common to most. were a light. to fulfil a duty I owe to myself. exhibiting a foolish and trifling conversation. and states explicitly his complete dependence upon the grace of the Saviour for every good of which he is capable. His lapses may have been serious. whatever these may have been.: — 22 1 THE REAL MORMONISM reason to believe them any worse in Smith than in other persons conspicuous. in making this public confession of my former uncircumspect walk. neither can it be sustained. Like many of them. though as I have said above." He makes no attempt to justify or excuse any of the lapses committed by him. but this fact detracts in nothing. I only add. and have been forward less me of being guilty of gross and outrageous violations of the peace and good order of the community. . p. " This being all. Oliver Cowdery. that I do not. In a letter to his friend. he comments upon his conduct in the following words " During this time. as I often acted in violation of those holy precepts which I knew came from God. nor never have. as well as to the cause of truth." Ihid. and the worst. I wish to add that it is not without a deep feeling of regret that I am thus called upon in answer to my own conscience. and trifling conversation and more particularly. in truth." lived lives by no means exemplary until well into their mature years. as is common to most. and that we have to deal rather with a morbid tendency to self -accusation than with anything that is worthy censure. been guilty of wronging or injuring any man or society of men.' and liable without the assisting grace of the Savior. eral others among the " Church Fathers. but as my accusers are. or merely the foolish indiscretions of an immature and irresponsible boy. to deviate from that perfect path in which all men are commanded to walk. pretended to be any other than a man * subject to passion. to accuse ' In any other man than Smith the last sentence would be quoted as evidence of "manly piety and humility. vain mind. even in the young. lo. and too often. or all youths. and sevnature. that St. in common estimate. and those imperfections to which I allude. the mind of the youthful Smith was seriously — — We . His manhood certainly showed no such unless we take account of the stock charge serious criminality that we need dwell upon this "confession" of "imposture" as evidence of anything beyond the common failings of human must remember.

10. so. for I ' had full confidence in obtaining a divine manifestation. I was afraid but the fear soon left me. " When I first looked upon him. for his feet did not touch the floor. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen. that there were two stones in silver bows and these stones. as I previously had done. and also for a manifestation to me. after I had retired to my bed for the night. His head and neck were also bare. but returned twice again in the same night. fastened to a breastplate. kindreds. giving an account of the former inhabitants of this continent. He also said that the fulness of the everlasting Gospel was contained in it. standing in the air. I betook myself to prayer and supplication to Almighty God for forgiveness of all my sins and follies. While I was thus in the act of calling upon God. pp. as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants also. I often felt condemned for my weakness and imperfections. nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant. a little above the ankles. also were his feet naked. book. when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside. read: " In consequence of these things. as were his legs. until the room was again left dark. except just around him. when instantly I saw. so that I could see into his bosom. 12. as it was open. or that it should be both good and evil spoken of among all people. On the manner of his ascent into heaven the account has the following: "After this communication. a little above the wrist. The room was exceedingly light. 11. and also wrought upon the mind of the youth. constituted what is called the Urim and Thummim deposited with the plates. and the possession and use of these stones were what constituted ' Seers in ancient or former times and that God had prepared them for the purpose of translating the Ibid. and said unto me that he was a messenger sent from the presence of God to me.— . — — ' According to the account. a conduit open . and tongues. The messenger then ascended into heaven. He said there was a book deposited. but his whole person was glorious beyond description. when. I could discover that he had no other clothing on but his robe." . that I might know of my state and standing before Him. written upon gold plates. Not only was his robe exceedingly white. repeating his former message. but not so very bright as immediately around his person. as it were. and it continued to do so. so that he was enabled to see the golden plates in their resting-place. and his countenance truly like lightning. I saw the light in the room begin to gather immediately around the person of him who had been speaking to me. on the evening of the above-mentioned twenty-first of September. I THE RIDDLE OF JOSEPH SMITH 23 Thus we disquieted on the matter of his spiritual standing. I discovered a light appearing in my room. He called me by name. His hands were naked and his arms also. that God had a work for me to do and that my name should be had for good and evil among all nations. . the heavenly messenger then quoted and commented on several passages of the Old and New Testaments. and the course from whence they sprang. He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday. and that his name was Moroni. and adding admonitions about the golden plates and similar important matters.

and for a time was quite unconscious of anything. I obeyed.: 24 THE REAL MORMONISM right up into heaven. but. in attempting to cross the fence out of the field where we were. went to the necessary labors of the day. surrounded by light as before. He then again related unto me all that he had related to me the previous night. and rehearsed the whole matter to him." He then resumes " I shortly after arose from my bed. was left as it had been before this heavenly light had made Ibid. and the room. its appearance. and he ascended until he entirely disappeared. I knew the place the instant that I arrived found my father. I left the field. in attempting to work as at other times. I started with the intention of going to the house. who was . and told me to go and do as commanded by the messenger. the narrator records that " the cock crov^ed. He replied to me that it was of God. I returned to my father in the field. but. My laboring along with me. and told me to go home. I strength so exhausted as to render me entirely unable. and commanded me to go to my father and tell him of the vision and commandments which I had received."— Ibid. 13. . discovered something to be wrong with me." — After the third visit of Moroni. as usual. and I found that day was approaching. my strength entirely failed me. The first thing that I can recollect was a voice speaking unto me. calling me by name. 14-1S. pp. and I fell helpless on the ground. there. and. and beheld the same messenger standing over my head. I looked up. p. and went to the place where the messenger had told me the plates were deposited and owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it.

also. and then discuss. no would-be critic has studied this book with any other motive than to pick flaws and condemn. the several Nor can we fail to find out at theories devised to fit the facts. the fair and logical procedure is to give Smith's own story of the origin and production of this book. one theory tions of the involved matters. but without definite and conclusive soluThus. teachings and The several theories of its origin. and by him for some obscure and unsatisfactory reason deHvered to Joseph Smith. in turn. As in other With the matters in the history of Smith and his Church. are literary merits." which is another rare. indefinite and imperfectly explained phenomenon. nor has the reading public ever been informed as to precisely what are its contents. the end of our discussion that there is positively no complete and final explanation of the matter discoverable to the investigator — — 35 . as set forth by certain writers on psychology." several writers have attempted to demonstrate that this book was the product of " automatic writing. And all these improbable. already discussed. The production of the alleged " record of the Nephites " introduces him as the preacher of a definite gospel and the arbiter of opinions about God and religion. whose manuscript had been stolen from a printing office in Pittsburg by a certain Sidney Rigdon. whose claims and assumptions are '* their own refuta! tion. indefensible and undemonstrable theories have been formulated to explain the doings of an arrant and shallow " imposter." CHAPTER III THE COMING-FORTH OF THE BOOK OF MORMON the episode commonly known as the " coming-forth of Book of Mormon " the history of Joseph Smith enters upon a new phase. as we shall see. to serve as the basis of a movement for restoring the Gospel in an age of doubt and apostasy. as in the others. As an alternate " explanation." and " could be seriously considered by no informed mind In this matter." as they call Smith. of the origin of this book ascribes its authorship to a certain Solomon Spaulding. distinguished particularly as masses of bald assumption and plausible possibilities. a retired Presbyterian preacher of Ohio.

or otherwise promulgated. or as stray remarks and dialogues.forth " of this book is as follows: On the morning after the second vision (Sept. the " interpreters " (the prophetic " Urim and Thummim ") and other objects concealed with them. 1827. I knew the place the instant that I arrived there. so far as the average critic could discern." now known as Cumorah. Smith's accoimt of this event is thus given in his own words "At length the time arrived for obtaining the plates. it is certainly not the product of an ignorant and diseased brain. however. a record of God's dealings with certain ancient inhabitants of this continent. . with no other intention in mind than to enlighten the reader upon the views of Gospel truth therein pre- — — sented." whether appearing in the form of lengthy discourses. Whether or not it be what it prothe fesses. should call for them. and. the Urim and The same heavenly messenger deThummim. As may be found on reading the book. who informed him. also. Smith's account of the " coming. 1823). one must seriously mutilate the accounts of various events. the messenger. bent on perpetrating a hoax " carrying out the fun. during the next three years. It was on the west side of a " hill of considerable size. . as Smith says. that he would not be allowed to take them away until that date four years thereafter. 22. That the writing of Book of Mormon was " no fool's job " must be evident to any unprejudiced reader. until he." He then relates that the golden plates and other objects buried with them were shown him by the angel. in company with the angel Moroni. while the body of the book was written as a novel by Spaulding. originally. that these several discourses and dialogues were evidently uttered. preserve them. and. he visited the hiding place of the plates of Mormon. I should be cut ofif but that if I would use all my endeavors to . and the Breastplate. or through any neglect of mine. . are. Certain theorists have held that.: 26 THE REAL MORMONISM working on the problem at this late day. the " religious portions " were incorporated by Rigdon. they should be protected. as they now stand. Smith visited the place. The " religious portions. on the anniversary of that day. . livered them up to me with this charge: that I should be responsible for them that if I should let them go carelessly. . as he records. To omit them. integral parts of the total work. as part of his design for foisting it on the public as a brand-new revelation from God." as some critics express it nor could one readily believe that it had been written originally as a novel. However. was given possession of the plates. on Sept. " owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it. 22. It may be asserted. Rigdon must have been far more skillful as an editor than was Spaulding as a novelist. finally.

He gave me a certificate." and that the purported translations were correct. Mitchill. Chaldaic. had given him $50 for his expenses. The persecution became more bitter and severe than before. as given by Smith in his journal. he would call for them. to Professor Charles Anthon. when Mr. Vol. 18-19. the fact remains that Harris returned to Smith convinced of the truth of his claims. until I had accomplished by them what was required at my hand. and multitudes were on the alert continually to get them from me if possible. Anthon called me . According to the story told by Harris. and showed it to Dr. and Arabic. a wellto-do farmer of Palmyra. after Smith had made a *' transcript " of some of the characters. I took the certificate and put it into my pocket. to Susquehanna County. said to appear on the plates. who. they remained safe in my hands. more so than any he had before seen translated from the Egyptian." particularly in view of the fact that the supposed object of Harris' " investigation " was to dis- The cover whether investment of money in the publication of the book would be advisable. For no sooner was it known that I had them. Harris* account. certifying to the people of Palmyra that they were true characters. I then showed him those which were not yet translated. Later. and Arabic. whatever may have occurred. Charles Anthon and Dr. is as follows " I went to the city of New York. Professor Anthon stated that the translation was correct. However. Prof. and why it was that the messenger had said that when I had done what was required at my hand. Every stratagem that could be invented was resorted to for that purpose. leading scholars and educators of that city. and ready to assist in the work of translating the plates. with the translation thereof. pp. In his removal he was assisted by the generosity of Martin Harris. according to arrangements. than the most strenuous exertions were used to get them from me. Pennsylvania. New York. both by personal labor in writing at Smith's dictation and by the contribution of funds. and he has them in his charge until this day. although but recently become acquainted with Smith. — History of the Church. All this may be attributed to " hypnotic influence. Anthon declared that the letters on the transcript " were Egyptian. Samuel L." but such explanation seems somewhat " far-fetched. Harris took it to New York. Assyriac. but. and was just leaving the house. wherever attached to the professed originals. persecutions mentioned became finally so severe that Smith and his wife were obliged to remove from Manchester. Chaldaic. the messenger called for them.: THE BOOK OF MORMON " I soon found out the reason to keep 27 why I had received such strict charges them safe. I. a gentleman celebrated for his literary attainments. the story may best be told in the words of the principals. Anthon subsequently denied Harris' statements. and presented the characters which had been translated. When. and that the translation of such of them as had been translated was also correct. I delivered them up to him. Assyriac [Syriac?]. and he said that they were Egyptian. But by the wisdom of God. and he said they were true characters.

and the whole ended in a rude delineation of a circle. T. were intermingled with sundry delineations of half moons. which give his version of the story. more or less distorted. no meaning at all connected with them. as far as I can now recollect. " Many years ago the precise date I do not now recollect. I answered that an angel of God had revealed it unto him. given by Humboldt. and had evidently been pre' pared by some person who had before him at the time a book containing various alphabets. Anthon's characterizations into a complete " expert condemnation " of the existence of the plates of Mormon and of Smith's honesty in the matter of their — professed translation or transcription.. when he took it and tore it to pieces. It consisted of all kinds of in question was. construing Prof. requesting me to decipher. singular characters. The import of what I wrote was. and the whole ended with a rude representation of the Mexican zodiac. and had. 1834. — In opposition to this statement of Harris'. of our city. Hebrew and all sorts of letters. Let me see that certificate. a plainlooking countryman called upon me with a letter from Dr. and asked me how the young man found out that there were gold plates in the place where he found them. On my telling the bearer of the paper that an attempt had been made to impose on him and defraud him of his property. Coit {New Rochelle. he would translate them. . on the other. disposed in columns. divided into various compartments. and partly to let the individual 'behind the curtain' [Smith] see that his trick was discovered." Letter to E.. like to have explained. on the one hand. Some years ago. the Chinese mode of writing. D. but copied in such a way as not to betray the source whence it was derived. and other natural objects. and that if I would bring the plates to him. W. that the marks in the paper appeared to be merely an imitation of various alphabetical characters. in fact. 17. p. Samuel L. Anthon.^ arched with various strange marks. As may be reasonably . and give my opinion upon a certain paper.' I accordingly took it out of my pocket and gave it to him. simply this. marked with various characters. in my opinion. the paper which the farmer would hand me. . Mitchill. New York). there are two letters ascribed to Prof. Mitchill. which the doctor confessed he could not decipher. stars." Ibid.— — 28 THE REAL MORMONISM * ^ back. and presented the most singular medley that I ever beheld. apparently simple-hearted farmer called on me with a note from Dr. saying that there was no such thing now as ministering of angels. Howe. Greek. if . a singular scroll. he requested me to give him my opinion in writing about the paper which he had shown to me. and which the bearer of the note was very anxious The characters were arranged in columns. Roman letters inverted or placed sideways were arranged and placed in perpendicular columns. a plain. and evidently copied after the Mexican calendar." Letter to Rev. Feb. — — . . now dead. crosses and flourishes. April 3. 1841. The paper possible. I did so without hesitation. . 20. either through unskillfulness or from actual design. . These variant accounts have been quoted frequently by writers on both sides of the perennial Mormon " controversy " the Mormons. Greek and Hebrew letters. usually accepting Harris' version. partly for the man's sake. He then said to me. and their critics. requesting me to examine. They may be quoted in part as follows: "The whole story about my pronouncing the Mormon inscription to be reformed Egyptian hieroglyphics is perfectly false.

Conversely. While certainly a " screed of indefinite origin. however. issued in 1819. could very easily be made to answer to precisely the description given by Prof. . particularly when copied by one unskilled in. the paper examined by Prof. indeed. Unfortunately. as a careful scholar. notably Isaac Taylor." as he acknowledges in. " book containing various alphabets " is unlikely. it is quite reasonable to suppose that some form of Egyptian writing also was included. have suggested that such originated in some earlier forms of the Hieratic style. both conclusions are only partially warranted by the probable facts. or " reformed Egyptian " proposed by some writers for Demotic or Hieratic writing is not known to have been such as would have enabled him to read such texts off-hand. Anthon suggests. Anthon remarked definitely that the " translation of such of them as had been translated " was correct . " ignorant." or any other script. unless. that to prove that he ever used them. The identity of this '* book " must be somewhat doubtful. Hebrew. and so closely resemble archaic forms of several Semitic alphabets that some theorists. however. but another alleged transcription of the characters on the plates of Mormon has been shown by several writers. or unaccustomed to. from a "book containing various alphabets. also. since a term his knowledge of Egyptian. also. if any. and containing an article on It is easier to the Egyptian language by Dr. Such scripts differ widely from the Hieroglyphic. Anthon has not been preserved for us. Thomas Young. it is extremely unlikely that Prof." '' dreamy. gave very definite information on Egyptian writing. as may be readily verified. the remarks in which both the witnesses agree." it more closely suggests Egyptian Hieratic than " Greek.I THE BOOK OF MORMON 29 held. than might assume." as Prof. since few. we except the supplement of the Encyclopedia Britannica." " epileptic " and " hypnotic " assumed that any scrawl he might be pleased to make would pass for " reformed Egyptian." or anything else he might choose to That such a person would ever think of consulting a call it. a document in Hieratic or Demotic Egyptian script. Anthon." " vagasuch a person as Smith is said to have been might have bondish." may not be taken as a definite condemnation of the transcription since. even " Assyriac. — — " containing various alphabets. copying such writings." If copied from any book . available to the general reader at that date (1827). Whatever may be the real facts regarding the interview of whether Anthon gave him Martin Harris with Prof. his letter to Coit We — — — ." presumably copied. suggest possible sources of a man's information. Anthon a written " certificate. as Anthon suggests. to the effect that the inscription was a medley of " all sorts of letters. Thus.

his " warnings " to Harris were of a very definite and emphatic description the fact remains that. and dictated the sentences. to read from the manuscript of Spaulding's romance. . even the most arrant knave. concerning the manner of — translating the sacred record of the Nephites. set in the rim of a bow. the translation of the ancient plates was accomplished. and we find him later one of the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon. been may not be perfectly obvious. After transcribing ii6 pages of Smith's dictation. when correctly written. Admitting the truth of any of the accounts which we have. however. Harris discontinued his work. it is difficult to understand. Spaulding's edited manuscript. there seems to be some variation in details. On this matter Roberts says "The sum of the whole matter. The story popularly accepted is that Smith sat behind a screen or blanket hung from the ceiling of his room. and was. according to various accounts. on his return to Harmony. and quite as good reasons for the method of " translation " adopted. bent on deceiving the people. as he states. consisting of two transparent stones. and also mortgaging his farm to defray the cost of its printing." as dictated by the Prophet. as is equally probable. and so on until the work was completed. would disappear and the other characters with their interpretation take their place. but larger.: 30 THE REAL MORMONISM and denies in his letter to Howe . which. This. which occupied months at a time with hard work. or not.' but by the The Nephite characters with the English in. he was not exactly " overawed " by the personality and opinions even of so great a scholar. called by the ancient Hebrews *Urim and Thummim. as any that these hostile What such " good reasons " may have critics have suggested.' terpretation appeared in the sacred instrument. partially estranged from the Prophet. had no effect on his faith. thus carrying out the story of the golden plates of Mormon. Whitmer and Harris) is: With the Nephite record was deposited a curious instrument. or else. however. as edited by Rigdon. or whether. according to the testimony of the only witnesses competent to testify in the matter (Smith. Cowdery. would have served the purpose of printer's copy quite as well as the one laboriously transcribed by his amanuensis. As to the manner in which. somewhat resembling spectacles. we might seem justified in asserting that there could have been other. the Prophet would pronounce the English translation to his scribe. as alleged by numerous critics. . Nephites * Interpreters. then. he either understood that Anthon had endorsed the translation. should have resorted to all this trouble. or a transcription of it made by himself. for some time. " as they were given to him. Why." to his amanuensis who sat on the other side of this partition. This gave him the opportunity. Evidently. as will be explained later. . Harris entered upon the work of transcribing the " translation.

. 1909. and this is supposed to constitute its sufficient refutation. while he who used them did nothing but look and repeat mechanically what he saw thene reflected." although some have asserted that they were burned by Harris' wife." History of the Mormon Church {Americana Magazine.. that this translation. at least.— THE BOOK OF MORMON. and other members of his immediate family. was merely a mechanical procedure. shall see later.. the pages disappeared. in addition to his mere annoyance at the carelessness and broken faith of his scribe. even in these days of " rationalism " and *' naturalism. after Harris had completed the transcription of 116 pages. involves a diselement of the supernatural. that any such " refutation " is no refutation at all and for the very excellent reason that." Oct. in order to exercise the gift of translation through the means of the sacred instruments provided for that work. or. course. It is not too much to claim. Among such curious situations is the condition of Martin Harris' departure as Smith's scribe. indeed. 808-809). or mental or spiritual effort was required on the Prophet's part. however. Harris broke his promise. Thus. that no faith. as a protest against his determination to finance the publiAmong other penalties visited cation of the completed book. One supposition has been that they were stolen by enemies of Smith and his **work. although many of the discussions on this matter of " translation. is unhesitatingly ascribed to man. we know no more about the things outside the realm of our immediate experience than did our remotest ancestors perhaps. This we left the matter as much " in the air " as it always was. as a result. however.." . or even credible. and. and were never seen again. — the fact remains that there is positively nothing more to be said against their arguments than can be said by the most ignorant doubter of all that is not understood. he importuned the Prophet for the privilege of taking them home to Palmyra and exhibiting them to his wife. upon the Prophet. It is significant. ." tinct Of formerly supposed to belong to God. 31 "It should not be supposed. as stated above. his brother. and the request was finally granted upon the strict agreement that they should be shown to no one beside." when the attribute of " omniscience. than that offered by himself and his assoHis most ** rationalistic " and ** scientific " critics have ciates.. that the most confidently urged " explanations "of Smith's performances are in no sense more probable. that the instruments did all. It • required the utmost concentration of mental and spiritual force possessed by the Prophet. were the withdrawal by . the story as accepted by Mormons. of the superhuman. however. however. not quite as much." as given by some of his advocates. According to the story told by all historians of the matter. pp. though accomplished . even now. partakes of what is often characterized as " sophistical reasoning.

Joseph Smith dictated the Book of Mormon. also. hence had not translated by inspiration. "AH — Although the conditions set forth by Roberts have been interpreted by various critics of Smith's claims as proof that the Prophet was seriously embarrassed by the loss of the manuscript. in commenting on the tion " in a philosophical manner. besides Oliver Cowdery. and the work was ordered resumed. however. sat and There . or that one could suppose was done. we have attained no nearer approach to certainty than we had at the very start. hence was not a Prophet of God. as has been said. as fast as a scribe could write it in long hand. howsoever he came and his opponent must alike agree by his material. as the work of transcription progressed. or approximate wording for he may have made changes as he read along of the original? Of course. and upon inquiry of the Lord through Urim and Thummim he received another revelation in which the designs of those who had stolen the manuscript from Martin Harris were made known. N. Nelson writes: " In a consideration of this question [* How the Book of Mormon was that on which the Mormon Translated'] the fundamental proposition — — . he was restored to divine favor and privilege. they would hold it and see if the Prophet in a second translation could reproduce it verbatim et literatim. they would say he had no gift for he could not translate the same matter twice alike. he was a false prophet. but an imposter. Smith had before him the copy of Spaulding's romance. If. p. beyond the work involved. L. without — — apparent hesitation. hence had no supernatural gift. The entire Whitmer family. if not. as alleged. criticisms of Rev. 795. is no chance for error on this point. author of The Gold Bible. we stop to consider all that might have been done. what difficulty. Nor is the situation materially improved by the usual line of reflections on this incident. however. and had dictated it to his amanuensis. he may have destroyed the original. On this episode Roberts says: the sacred things were now restored to the Prophet. and for this reason he could not reproduce it. Lamb. Mr. could there be in the way of reproducing the exact. Prof. Those designs aimed at nothing less than the destruction of the work Joseph Smith had in hand. Martin Harris. If. If." Ibid. and Joseph's wife. is the fact that. and his work must be discredited. and could change that and claim that the prophet evidently could not translate the same matter twice alike. Having now in their possession so large a part of the ancient record. he should reproduce the matter verbatim et literatim then they had the manuscript of the first translation in their hands. with Sidney Rigdon's editions. As a result of his repentance. on the other hand.32 THE REAL MORMONISM the heavenly messenger of the sacred plates and " interpreters." and the cessation of his own power of receiving revelations from God. it seems to furnish a very good refutation of the confidently-urged Spaulding authorship theory. Some Mormon writers have treated the matter of Smith's " translaThus. therefore he had made false pretensions.

-that is to say. in fact. to the record as during the entire month of June. pp. read them character by character. By 'stranger' I mean merely that telepathic communication takes place under circumstances less simple and direct not that scientific research has yet evolved telepathically or probably will evolve during the next century anything to compare with the Book of Mormon either in extent or definiteness. declaring that the record had been translated ' by the gift and power of God. as considered in many quarters. The thought so aroused passed by the power of the Spirit directly into the mind of the Prophet. that is to say. both should account very similarly for the phraseology and ideas of the work itself. that the translation of the Book of Mormon is the joint product of two men Joseph Smith and most probably the Angel Moroni. Thus. then. — — experiences of humanity. . he looked at the symbols and thereby awakened or aroused in his mind the thought corresponding to the symbols for that is precisely what reading means. 33 it grew day by day " idea is. concerning the incipient science of telepathy. who. Prophet . it is interesting to remark in passing that the latest. into English words.' " But how. just as Dayid Whitmer says. being familiar with the characters on the plates. ancient and modern. My idea is simply that if man has demonstrated the power of telepathy to exist. that the angel was commissioned by God to act for the dead quite as truly as was the Prophet for the living . is the meaning of the words spoken to the Three Witnesses. or had free access to listen. who in turn rendered it into such English symbols as were at his command. as Moroni.— THE BOOK OF MORMON listened. continuing from Nelson's work: "The second question relates to Joseph Smith's mental qualifications. may affect the general to depreciate all arguments in favor of Mormonism. Nothing could be simpler. . His part was consequently to put the thought so/ received. Nor does it seem any better justified on the basis of the common this However theory of Prof. . — — — — . "Fortunately. Stranger things are taking place to-day in the laboratories of psychic research. I view it. Nelson's is likely reader. than that the English symbols corresponding to the thought in Joseph's mind should also be projected before him as a visual image? This may account for the double line of symbols. Furthermore. as I — . that such. in the average. then it is surely worthy of faith that God could so shape conditions as to make the communication of the Book of Mormon possible in the manner I have suggested. . the reader is ready to ask." The Mormon Point of View. which was seen by the My — — in the darkness surrounding the Urim and Thummim. What then would be more natural. science has taught us enough concerning the laws of thought communication. that no fact in the above theory need stagger the student. the " most scientific " theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon that it was the product of " automatic mental operations " of some kind involves very nearly a similar line of suppositions. . and in doing so his personal equation would inevitably be stamped upon the translation. have suggested that Moroni communicated with him through a medium common alike to the inhabitants of heaven. 1829. and hell the medium of thought divorced from all symbol. Nor did the thought alone so pass: the very image of the character that held the attention of Moroni was flashed into Joseph's mind and visuaHzed before him. earth. and. 124-130.

writers are of two extreme types. he had to draw upon his stock of phrases upon that part of his vocabulary which. since this is God's part of scripture. had Joseph never read the English version. from the fact that the witnesses of the mode of translation have nowhere said that Joseph stopped to read passages from the Bible. it is fair to assume that those chapters which occur identical in both books. he would have been obliged to coin these concepts anew as best he could . but the moment it ascended into abstract realms. at least this was probably true of him during that early period when he was put to the stress of inventing the style of the Book of Mormon. as I have intimated. the thought could do nothing else than take the line of least resistance. " Are we then to assume that the Scriptures as known to the Nephites were identical. the experiences of his oAvn life furnished the Prophet with an original diction. and there is always a certain conventionality or triteness in their style.. That the thought was the same we may well believe. Consequently. and that was the line of expression familiar to the translator through contact with the King James' version of the scriptures. a resemblance to others in phraseology which would convict them of plagiarism. " The other extreme is represented by every beginner in the thought world and. it would undoubtedly have been moulded into forms of expression which would have left no chance for the charge of plagiarism. "To this latter class belongs. both from books and men but they stow away these ideas without undressing them. for that matter. boots and all. . every phrase is coined anew and therefore stamped indelibly with the writer's individuality. There is surely no difficulty in holding that Christ would give the Sermon on the Mount in practically the same mental concepts to the Nephites that He did to the Jews. every tyro in composition. Now. at the time of translating. and through reading the King James' version of the Bible. As long as the thought communicated by Moroni ran along in simple narrative. who read or listened with such intensity that he could never quote : the phraseology of others having melted down like slag in the white heat of his mind and yielded up the pure gold of their ideas. in the language of psychology. m . so to speak. were received and dictated by the same telepathic communion as the rest of the matter that is. the Prophet himself did not probably know. especially with reference to the use of words. we have an adequate explanation of why scriptural phraseology enters so largely into the style of the Book of Mormon. by nine-tenths of those who grow old in it. "As before suggested. had not been apperceived. with all degrees of overlapping. but even if we suppose — . and therefore Joseph Smith. in form of expression. which case his rendering would have differed from Matthew's as much at least as do those of the other three evangelists. The one extreme is well represented by Henry Ward Beecher. . they proceed from phrase to phrase. It is important to consider now what that equation was. or melted down in the crucible of individual experience. with the scriptures in the King James' version? By no means. As it was. should their productions be compared critically with the authors they — — have read. rather than from word to word. . how the result would compare with the English version of the Bible. They gather ideas with more or less avidity. 34 THE REAL MORMONISM we have seen that it was. " In respect of diction. When we consider that this part of his vocabulary had been stored almost exclusively by contact with ministers of the Gospel. when these try to write. Had the thought of the Book of Mormon been flashed into a mind like that of Webster or Beecher. When such a man writes.

only Bible probably known to the early life of the Prophet. This view requires that quotations and sothe called plagiarisms shall always be from the King James' version and this. Mr. With any person other than Joseph Smith the explanation would be highly acceptable to our scientific authorities. "As an instance of the truth that probably no impression on the consciousness is ever completely effaced. in the cases of the lengthy quotations from the prophet Isaiah and the New Testament. who would. as we have seen. Theos9phists claimed the circumstance as evidence of re-incarnation. was the case. candidly speaking. at least. Indeed. 132-137. undoubtedly. in the character of some kind of indefinite *' control. when put into the clairvoyant state. Nelson deals. on their theory. therefore. because of the fact that. which would spring verbatim unto consciousness when brought into association with the thought that originally inspired them.— I THE BOOK OF MORMON 35 he had read Matthew's only once. nor would they revert to the theory of " plagiarism " until all the phases of " automatic reproduction of memory records " had been exhausted. " were fully able to express their ideas " in their own words and forms. — — course. would be the method by which they would explain the facts with which Prof. there would seem to be some demand for such an explanation of the presence of these passages. The Law of Psychic Phenomena." but fairness requires that we acknowledge the fact that the conditions outlined by Prof." Ibid. but it was finally explained that ten years previous she had been present. Hudson. or writers. that Joseph's mind would without his knowledge retain whole chapters of the Bible. Nelson with the sole exception of the alleged activities of an invisible personage." presumably. a phase of the " subliminal self " or a manifestation of a *' second personality. It is not difficult to believe. dusting a certain library. while a noted scholar had recited the poem to a friend. in his epoch-making book. admit the activity of the Angel Moroni. there is ample evidence that the writer. while the Book of Mormon shows no very large or varied vocabulary. unless the translator strongly willed otherwise. angel or otherwise are a part of the common stock of phenomena which are receiving serious consideration at the hands of our foremost psychologists at the present day. the essential ideas are not given in Of and all — — . They would also accept his proffered explanation of the presence of lengthy quoted passages from the Bible. pp." This. relates that a servant-girl. astonished her hearers by reciting perfectly a Greek poem in the original Attic tongue. Psychic research reveals many similar instances. no mind already prejudiced against Mormonism that belongs to it can be expected to see in this explanation anything other than an elaborate attempt to justify something confidently classed as a " fraud. we must allow that the thought would take the channel broken in preference to one unbroken. and it can be no otherwise than surprising that.

The science of psychology must insist that the charge of " fraud '* or " plagiarism " be relegated. so-called. with the Bible. Lamb on the extraordinary rate of increase of the inhabitants of America during the first century. or even as history. as a sufficient and final explanation of this fact. it seems necessary to outline the several explanations. by their showing. a divine record of God's dealings with the ancient inhabitants of America. It is well to remark that. new form.. C. as they say. It seems unnecessary to say that all such attempted criticism is essentially and irredeemably unfair and disingenuous. until all conditions be more fully analyzed. a certain Lamb. of the Book of Mormon and its origin. with the numerous hostile criticisms of the Biblical account of the rapid increase of the Israelites in Egypt from the time of Joseph to that of Moses. has argued that the book cannot be what it professes. for example. were for the definite end of convincing people of the truths of God and so reasonable and obvious in all its professed historic narrations that no one could doubt. after the arrival of the first colony. or so. Nor can we urge Smith's alleged " ignorance. — — — — . which. because of its defects of style. like several other hostile critics. we ibility of the Bible by the " infidels " of all ages. it is obviously inadmissable to use the same line of criticism against any other book claiming dignity as a revelation from God. its " exaggerated miracles " and the essential " improbability " of most of its narraThese conclusions they profess to argue by comparison tions." or any other evil quality. in the mere fact that it applies to the Book of Mormon no matter the very line of what may be the real facts regarding it criticisms that have been made against the veracity and credThus. Thus. about 600 B. Although such " scientific attention " as has been accorded the case of Joseph Smith goes very far toward discrediting the theory that his activities may be classed as mere conscious and deliberate fraud.36 THE REAL MORMONISM ^ rather than in direct quotation. if the Bible is not to be condemned because of the difficulties of statement and the defects of style repeatedly indicated by hostile critics. which we may assume that he possessed. " dignified " in all its accounts of miraculous events all of which. need only compare the amused reflections of Mr. is perfect in literary style.

. at least it was again opened to me. fervently engaged in prayer. and earnestly requested me to join him in prayer. immediately afterwards. and he that keeps His commandments ' when. again observed the same order of prayer. of exceeding brightness and behold. . to which we retired. we may quote from Joseph Smith's own words describing the exhibition of the golden plates to the "three witnesses. and try to obtain. each calling on and praying fervently to God in rotation.' " I now left David and Oliver. we began to pray in much faith to Almighty God to bestow upon us a realization of these promises. saying." Oliver Cowdery. . Whitmer's house. that he had not yet prevailed with the Lord. and went in pursuit of Martin Harris. He then addressed himself to David Whitmer. accordingly made choice that they should have a view of the plates. * We Z7 . and Martin Harris: " We four agreed to retire into the woods. and had not been many minutes engaged in prayer. CHAPTER IV THE BEGINNINGS OF MORMONISM In entering upon an examination of the alleged supernatural elements in Mormon history. " Upon this. whom I found at a considerable distance. by fervent and humble prayer. In his hands he held the plates which we had been praying for these to have a view of. . Martin Harris proposed that he should withdraw himself from us. but with the same result as before. He accordingly withdrew from us. our second failure. obtain any answer or manifestation of divine favor in our behalf. however. I commenced by vocal prayer to our Heavenly Father. . and I once more beheld and heard the same things. so that we could see them. believing. and they have been translated by the power of God. and we knelt down again. blessed is the Lord. These plates have been revealed by the power of God. He turned over the leaves one by one. He soon told me. The translation of them which you have seen is correct. * David. accordingly joined in prayer. the same vision was opened to our view. and said. " According to previous arrangement. and discern the engravings thereon distinctly. the fulfilment of the promises given . that he also might realize the same blessings which we had just received. We We We . David Whitmer. however. and was followed by each of the others in succession. for before we had yet finished. an angel stood before us. of a piece of woods convenient to Mr. we heard a voice from out of the bright light above us. when presently we beheld a light above us in the air. and ultimately obtained our desires. did not at the first trial. as he expressed himself. and I command you to bear record of what you now see and hear. that his presence was the cause of our not obtaining what we wished for. and having knelt down..

and he brought and laid before our eyes. they are perfectly well known. for His voice hath declared it unto us. without fear of contradiction. Furthermore. that an angel of God came down from heaven. and in no equivocal language. whom In dealing with the several visions and theophanies accorp-panying the founding of Mormonism and the *' coming forth of the Book of Mormon." * this one also is in the same category. Martin Harris cried out. mine Hozanna. . at any rate. and not of man. it might be held that. to be obedient unto the commandments of God. the voice of the Lord commanded us that we should bear record of it wherefore. and jumping up.. Vol." we have a series of situations that fairly challenge the ingenuity of hostile critics to produce a satisfactory rationalistic explanation. he shouted God. and our Lord Jesus Christ.38 THE REAL MORMONISM * whilst at the same moment. 'tis enough. or so obscure and unknown that their alleged experiences might be confidently As it is. PP' 54-55. mine eyes have beheld. " Be it known unto all nations. ' I. it substantially endorses the description of the occurrence just given It is as follows: in the words of Joseph Smith. as a " visual aura of epilepsy. And we declare with words of soberness. from the hour of this visional experience to the day of their deaths. As may be seen."—' History of the Church. tongues. . And we also testify that we have seen the engravings which are upon the plates." if the three witnesses could be assumed fictitious personages. noted by any reader who has had the patience to follow us to this point. and otherwise rejoiced exceedingly . It is easy to suppose and assert that the witnesses to this book. they have testified to the reality of this experience. Although he mentions no physical effects occurring at the time or later. wherefore we know of a surety that the work is true. described. On the publication of the Book of Mormon the famous " Testimony of the Three Witnesses " appeared as a sort of introduction on a page following the title. the gift and power of God. have seen the plates which contain and we also know that they have been translated by this record . nevertheless. if the former experience is to be explained. together with Sidney * This theory is discussed in a later chapter. and we know that it is by the grace of God the Father. and it is marvelous in our eyes.' blessing eyes have beheld . that we. "Tis enough. that we beheld and bear record that these things are true. and they have been shown unto us by the power of God. we bear testimony of these things." . and our Lord Jesus Christ. apparently in an ecstasy of joy. and people unto As may be this work shall come. through the grace of God the Father. however. the account of the appearance of the angelic visitant here given agrees in all substantial particulars with that of the second vision of Joseph Smith in 1823. as some hold. as they believed it to be. And such an explanation might be advanced. kindreds. '' for all that it is worth. that we beheld and saw the plates and the engravings thereon . .

men of their advertised character and intelligence had thus separated from their leader. Yet every one of them became an apostate. never sought to recoup his own position. ! ' so far as the existence of the Plates is concerned." and denounce him ? This would seem to be the most usual procedure for men **bent on revenge". Not one — — — : — of the three witnesses. the evidence could not be made stronger than by their turning away from the Church and . became bitter and outspoken enemies of Smith. Other lesser offenders and * apostates from this Church such as Philastus Hurlburt and who. two of them'. could you expect anything else from men who consented to remain the tools of an unscrupulous hierarchy? These men have everything to gain and nothing to lose by maintaining their false testimony Clearly. probably. out of which all hoped " to make money. whom they knew to be a fraud. then. and every one of them was loaded with all the opprobrium that the Church could pile upon him. however. also " mercenary " has been urged as a good explanaWe might tion of their complicity in an unworthy scheme. made strenuous efforts to wreck his work and ruin his reputation." The fact that most of these people were " ignorant. what more probable than that they should recant their former " testimony. ever denied the truth of his original testimony as a matter of fact all reaffirmed it in strong terms years afterward. As a matter of fact. tion. at least.BEGINNINGS OF MORMONISM Rigdon. if these men had continued to be the associates and beneficiaries of Joseph Smith during the remainder of their lives. as persons of bad morals and contemptible lives. Bennett and his history than any of his earlier associates. Even Sidney Rigdon.* Yet had they remained faithful to the Church. readily accept such an explanation as tentative. according to certain popular and highly esteemed theories. also. it should be these chosen witnesses to the actual existence of the Golden Plates. or to discredit Smith by revealing any part of." as alleged the Mormon Church. If. The three witnesses and Rigdon were all cut off from the "arch-conspirators. 39 its who has been credited with a large share in produc- were all accomplices of Joseph Smith in the perpetration of an enormous hoax. in view of the fact that all of them were more or less severely censured and' characterized by the Church authorities. knew far less about Smith John C. " Respecting the witnesses to * : Plates." hence. what would have been Mr. while Rigdon withdrew in surly disaffection. particularly probable. Harris and Cowdery. although himself an ambitious and violent character. Linn [author of The Story of the Mormons] has this to say Surely if any three men in the Church should remain steadfast. the reverse is the case. presimiably. whom the Angel Moroni showed the Mr. mighty pillars of support for the Prophet in his future troubles. what he might be supposed to have known about the origin of the Book of Mormon. Linn's comment? Would he not have said: 'Of course.

It extended away around us. in which he " admitted his error and implored forgiveness. it was real to grandfather in fact" Founder of Mormonism^ pp. David Whitmer never reunited with the Church. 1878. 22. as alleged by one of the multitudinous " affidavits " seem to be the proper accompaniments of Mormon history somewhat as **blackfish" accompany a whale that Oliver Cowdery. and that " it contains the everlasting Gospel. and added: " The fact is. jilst as it was written. Whitmer. but in the midst of this light about as far off as he sits [pointing to John C. 7. declaring that the records of the plates of the Book of Mormon were translated by the gift and power of God. . to their testimony.. Smith. and died in Utah. 49. of his vision there is only one explanation about noon time in an open pasture barring an actual miracle and that is this if that vision was not real it was hypnotism. . as it were. a table with many records or plates upon it. Schweich (Sept.e." Mr. he re- peatedly reaffirmed the truth of his original story. after his withdrawal from the Mormon Church in 1838. Vol. and a short time before his death publicly affirmed his belief that the Book of Mormon is — that — true. nevertheless.— THE REAL MORMONISM 40 still remaining true.) Although. which reads. when we were overshadowed by a light. Missouri. as they did. . also the sword of Laban. sitting a few feet from him]. yet the conviction that they had actually seen and handled the plates remained stronger still. According to accounts. note. as follows: " I have begged him (Whitmer) to unfold the fraud in the case and he had all to gain and nothing to lose but speak the word if he thought so but he has described the scene to me many times. 189-190. it was just as though Joseph. and I heard the voice of the Lord. Oliver. the ball which Lehi had. i. 50. 219^220. pp. after years of separation. Our testimony as recorded in the Book of Mormon is strictly and absolutely true. describing the scene minutely." Millennial Star. making a public recantation. he stated that he saw the plates and the angel at this time. Riley quotes from Whitmer*s grandson. I cannot tell how far. must. as distinctly as I ever heard anything in my life." N. there appeared. XL. Nos. George W. The temptation to injure the Church by recanting. but. besides the plates of the Book of Mormon. letter — — — — . It was not like the light of the sun nor like that of a fire. continued firm in his belief that the vision of the angel was a true one. L. — a In his discussion of the " three witnesses. 1899). the directors.'* Martin Harris also returned to the Church. I saw them just as plain as I saw this * bed [striking the bed beside him with his hand]. united with the Methodist Protestant denomination. until the day of his death. at a certain period in the life of each. that he returned to the Mormons in 1848." it is certain. and I were sitting just here on a log. Sept. at Richmond. Orson Pratt and Joseph F. have been very strong. but more glorious and beautiful. Nelson {The Mormon Point of View. and the interpreters. In an interview with the noted Apostles.

the splendor of God shone upon them. denied their testimony to that book. Neither separation from Joseph Smith as a companion." Whitmer (Address to all Believers in Christ. affected them as Witnesses. we seek some " rational " explanation. as follows: trying circumstances under which the Witnesses persisted in maintaining the truth of that testimony is also known. It was a simple. it must be held to embody evidence of some order of unusual influence upon their minds. 1909. that neither Oliver Cowdery nor Martin Harris ever at any time denied their testimony. They were not deluded. While to the general public the testimony of the three witnesses must be judged as a part of the total grand riddle of Joseph Smith. we have quite as much to explain and justify to the intelligence of the public. If. They both died reaffirming David the truth of the divine authenticity of the Book of Mormon. 8).— BEGINNINGS OF MORMONISMi — Mr. if not. In the Church and while out of it they steadfastly maintained what they first published to the world respecting the Book of Mormon. Truth is eternal. The great revelation was not given in a dream or vision of the night. of the coming forth of the Nephite Record. The visitaHistory of the tion of the angel as in the broad light of day. also. *' The Record of the Jews and the Record of the Nephites are one. the exhibition of the plates. they felt his presence. and associate." "The Mormon Church (Americana Magazine. The several incidents making up this great revelation were too palpable to the strongest senses of the mind to admit of any doubt as to their reality. that I I have never at any time denied that testimony or any part thereof. There was no mysticism about it. nor did they ever attempt to refer this really great event to some jugglery on the part of Joseph Smith. one year before his death: "It is recorded in the American Cyclopedia and the Encyclopedia Britannica. they heard. Oliver Cowdery and Martin Harris. If we assume with Roberts that it recorded an actual divine manifestation. have denied by testimony as one of the Three Witnesses to the divinity of the Book of Mormon. B. They never allowed even the possibility of their being mistaken in the matter. straightforward. I will say once more to all mankind. open fact that had taken place before their eyes. Thus on the theory of some writers. Whitmer required that there be inscribed on his tombstone the epitaph. p. upon their senses. Nov. and that the other two Witnesses. we find his published statement. on the other hand. nor excommunication from the body religious. that I. in 1887." In addition to these testimonies of Whitmer's unfailing faith in the reality of his vision. writes. 911^12). David Whitmer. brought into existence as a sequence. They saw. or hearing the voice of the Lord into hallucination of the mind. Roberts. we may concur perfectly in his estimate. the whole affair mentioned in the " testimony " was " set and staged " by . also testify to the world. Commenting on the fact that the three witnesses maintained a consistent adherence to their original testimony. one may say. pp. Nothing unseemly or occult. Schweich is also quoted as stating that Mr. They never attempted to resolve the appearance of the angel. H.

" Another theory. being unreal. but we must credit him with wonderful skill and success as a " stage manager. the fact that sensory hallucinations and illusions may be produced by suggestion. without the previous ceremony of 'magnetizing' or putting into the 'mesmeric sleep. and the affirmation must apparently be accompanied by the patient concentrating his attention and gazing. or even in the waking according to certain observers. even with the strongest be or other form of hypnotic influence. whatever its nature. Not only muscular phenomena. more — ' Although." and could be excused for doubting if any '* properties " and "business" could be so arranged. To assert that it fits the facts is a plain presumption. a whole array of things and events entirely unmentioned in any accounts we have read on the event. but changes of personality and hallucinations are recorded as the result of simple affirmation on the operator's part. even though we have no other explanation to advance in its In the first place. unless previous separate hypnotic states have been induced. there can be no doubt that such delusions. This.42 THE REAL MORMONISM Smith to produce an impression on the minds of his too-confiding friends. of course. under the conditions. it is by no means an easy feat to control and suggest to two subjects at a time. into the eyes of the operator. As may be readily found on study of the subject. or corresponding to no normal experience. as well as a more or less persistent conviction of their reaHty. if any suggestion made to assume the permanent semblance of reality. James.* These are all trained subjects. It is probable therefore that an extremely rapidly induced condition of trance is a prerequisite for success in these experiments. as appears in the writings of several of the foremost investigators of hypnotic phenomena. as we have claimed. so. must eventually wear off. there is no evidence before us that stead. himself a careful investigator of the subject: " Some subjects seem almost as obedient to suggestion state as in sleep. The effects of the influence. assumes the use of " hypnotism " in the production of this permanent effect upon the minds of the witnesses. as is fairly evident to anyone at all familiar with literature on hypnotism. however briefly. and. 615. and definite suggestions for behavior on a given occasion made and acted upon." even though suggested by Whitmer's grandson. as quoted by Riley." The Principles of Psychology. II. As to the theory that hallucination may be produced in the waking state by strong suggestion we may quote Prof. the hypnotism explanation is no more than an hypothesis. p. is also " supposing a great deal. cannot. This supposition involves. however. > — — . so far as I know. even if this were the case. as already mentioned. as to deceive even " ignorant farmers. anything like the ordinary procedures of the hypnotist or mesmerist were attempted. Vol. and a very indefinite one at that.

as they do. as in the cases of two of Smith's witnesses. And some such evidence Whatever may be the truth is positively essential to the theory. even to the present day." etc." " hypnotism. in precisely the same fashion that dreams lose their definite character in the memory. At best. that such effects may be permanently registered on the brain. which. it strongly suggests the general tendency of presentday learning to assume the finality of our knowledge of even doubtful matters. and to label imperfectly reported " cases " as " epilepsy. on the basis of a few symptoms. James and others record that the effects of trance suggestion have been manifested after periods more or less remote " months or even a year. and cannot be quoted as sufficient and demonstrable. in the course of years. — — . in one case reported by M. constituting the sum of our knowledge of the matter.. of the matter. the hypnotic explanation involves many difficulties.BEGINNINGS OF MORMONISM 43 and become less vivid. Liegeois " there is no conclusive evidence. to be constantly referred to and believed in for over fifty years. are quite as compatible with several other explanations. however.

and are ordained to the " priesthood of Aaron " . also. now a resurrected personage. it is a curious fact that no systematic account of his career. has appeared. they are ordained to the " higher priesthood." at the hands of the Apostles Peter. James and John. opposed and argued against. whose reverence for his memory has moved them to attribute the highest character and the purest motives to him. now also '* angels. both in time and in the attention secured. later. Smith and Cowdery are baptized by order of John the Baptist. as the initiatory move in the foundation of his Church. Thus. Between these two extremes the intelligent mind is left to form its own conclusions. unless it be by the expenditure of pains and effort involved in examining and studying the records and literature that remain to preserve a first-hand picture of this man and ture. as it is called the "priesthood of Melchisedek. except from the pens of two classes of writers. entirely unaided. With such matters we are less concerned than with the estimate of his significance to the world. whose spite and prejudice have blinded them to the fact that Smith is entitled to be considered as any other human being on the basis of his doings. There are many things recorded in the history of Smith's career that could scarcely be urged as the strongest and most convincing evidences of his claims." and are given full authority to teach and administer the ordinances of religion in the name of Christ. SEER AND REVELATOR the name of Joseph Smith figures largely in literaand although the work inaugurated by him has been variously discussed. nor even the most probable occurrences.: CHAPTER V JOSEPH SMITH AS THE FIRST PROPHET. and to argue confidently for all the claims made by and for him. as is recorded. Although — — his doings. The first of these. are implacable enemies." or. The first event is thus recorded in the words of Smith himself 44 . The second class of writers is composed of the friends and adherents of the Prophet. and no estimate of his character and influence. honestly examined and represented and have led them into espousing the several silly hypothesis which will be discussed at a later place.

I baptized him! first. nor in any of those great visions and revelations which precede or follow it. . I confer the Priesthood of Aaron. and afterwards he baptized me. neither in his narrative of the above really great and dramatic event. in the name of Messiah. Accordingly we went and were baptized. said that his name was John. and of baptism by immersion for the remission of sins and this shall never be taken again from the earth.. and conferred this Priesthood upon us.— I PROPHET. and makes explicit testimony to its reality many years later. shares this vision. Oliver Cowdery. and afterwards that he should baptize me. and of the Gospel of repentance. and gave us directions that I should baptize Oliver Cowdery. which Priesthood he said would in due time be conferred on us. James and John. which holds the keys of the ministering of angels. 30-41. Commenting on this account. this account involves quite as great an element of the unusual and supernatural as even the reported appearances of the Angel Moroni in Smith's visions of 1823. but that this should be conferred on us hereafter. He may never have heard the maxim. A true tale speeds best being plainly told. and having laid his hands upon us." History of the Church. I. and that I should be called the first Elder of the Church. and that is to get on record the plain truth pertaining to the coming forth of the work of God. 42 note. Vol. that we found mentioned in the translation of the plates. another person. stops to comment or grow eloquent over the importance of an administration or the grandeur of an occasion. and he commanded us to go and be baptized. that we were ordained under the hand of this messenger and baptized. 1829). . "The messenger who visited us on this occasion. and he (Oliver Cowdery) the second.* but had he heard of it and adopted it as his motto. pp. * . While we were thus employed. — As may be readily understood. who held the keys of the Priesthood of Melchisedek. however. . a messenger from heaven descended in a cloud of light. praying and calling upon the Lord. and afterwards he laid his hands on me and ordained me to the same Priesthood . has left upon record a description of the scene and the impressions it left upon his mind. Oliver Cowdery. The case with him is precisely the same as that involved in the testimonies of the three witnesses to the Book of Mormon. as already discussed. the same that is called John the Baptist in the New Testament. " He said this Aaronic Priesthood had not the power of laying on hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. 1829. when. he could not have followed it more closely than unconsciously he has done in his narrative. we on a certain day went into the woods to pray and inquire of the Lord respecting baptism for the remission of sins. after which I laid my hands upon his head and ordained him to the Aaronic Priesthood. It was on the 15th day of May. SEER AND REVELATOR " 45 We still continued the work of translation.. but without specifying the other extraordinary phenomena that might lead a psychologist to attribute the experience to some subjective derangements of the senses. Moreover. — for so we were commanded. he ordained us. and that he acted under the direction of Peter. in the ensuing month (May. saying: " Upon you my fellow servants. Roberts remarks in a note: " It may be well at this point to call attention to the singular and important fact that the Prophet. until the sons of Levi do offer again an offering unto the Lord in righteousness." Ibid. p. He seems to have but one object in view.

after a separation of eleven years. the fact remains that both Smith and Cowdery behaved. what joy filled our hearts and with what surprise we must have bowed (for who would not have bowed the knee for such a blessing?). no more to rise.: — 46 THE REAL MORMONISM In a public address delivered on the occasion of his return to the Church. that earth. uncertainty had fled. which appeared in the accredited organ of the Church. however.. . we gazed. after we had called upon him in a fervent manner. and delivered the anxiously looked What joy! for message. I hope to adore in that day which shall never cease. he had written a full and lively description of it. to bestow the peace. pierced to the center. and I shall ever look upon this expression of the Savior's goodness with wonder and thanksgiving while I am permitted to tarry. As in the 'blaze of day'. 15-16. or else deliberately romancing. That it is the result of " hypnotism " or other obscure mental state is by no means evident. I am thy fellow-servant.. dictated by the will of God. and ever willing to answer the consistent prayer of the humble. ! . and in those mansions where perfection dwells and sin never comes. think. while His love enkindled upon our souls. however. cannot begin to clothe language in as interesting and sublime a manner as this holy personage. aside from the abodes of men. who is rich in mercy. and we were rapt in the vision of the Almighty! Where was room for doubt? Nowhere. thereafter. while fiction and deception had fled forever! " But. On a sudden. and the truth unsullied as it flowed from a pure personage. further think for a moment. . is to me. or comprehend the wisdom which was contained in each sentence as they were delivered by the power of the Holy Spirit The assurance that we were in the presence of an angel the certainty that we heard the voice of Jesus. as from the midst of eternity. Nor could any such theory be easily supported. vocate. while the veil was parted and the angel of God came down clothed with glory. previous to his defection from the Church. doubt had sunk. but you will believe me when I say. . We listened. Immediately after the experience reported above. 1834. nor the majestic beauty and glory which surrounded us on this occasion. Oct. we admired 'Twas the voice of an angel from glory 'twas a message from the Most High! and as we heard we rejoiced. and his words. dear brother.. when we received under his hand the Holy Priesthood. the voice of the Redeemer spake peace to us. which then shed its brilliancy over the face of nature Then his voice. in 1848. Whatever may be the truth of the matter. more above the glitter of the May sunbeam. .. It is partly as follows " The Lord. yes. the . viction occurs strongly that its author is either telling the truth." Messenger and Ad- — — ! * — ! . The conIt is needless to comment on any such statements. condescended to manifest to us His will. past description. "I shall not attempt to paint to you the feelings of this heart.' dispelled every fear. Fourteen years before. as if the experience had been a veritable reality. pp. though mild. nor men. No nor has this earth power to give the joy. and the keys of the Gospel of repentance! What wonder! What amazement! . Cowdery expressly reaffirmed his conviction of the reality of this experience. as we have already seen in another connection. with the eloquence of time.

or others. however. and which is popularly supposed to have originated in indignation at teachings advocating " polygamy. New York. The Holy Ghost was poured some prophesied. at that period. after several days of popular opposition to the attempts of Cowdery to baptize converts to their faith in a stream near the house of a certain Joseph Knight at Colesville. and rejoiced exceedingly." and other " immoralities." which seems to have consisted principally in the act of " setting the country in an uproar by preaching the Book of Mormon. Peter Whitmer. praised the Lord. Finally. sprang at once into active existence. when the conditions characteristic of Mormon history. on April 6. and be confirmed members of the Church of Christ. the Church was formally organized with six members of record. or other." and with Joseph Smith was sustained as an accepted teacher " in the things of the Kingdom of God.. Evidently. and within the succeeding eleven months about forty had professed behef in the new teachings. even to the present day. the heart and origin of the whole opposition to Mormonism.— I PROPHET. SEER AND REVELATOR 47 baptism of converts began.. is that Joseph Smith. Jr. whilst we all out upon us to a very great degree History of the Church." work of preaching undreamed of by Mormons. The charge alleged on this occasion is said to have been " disorderly conduct." In default. p. without doubt. 78. and Oliver Cowdery. of any definite and reliable proof to the contrary. and the its message systematically begun. to wit: Joseph Smith. also that " witnesses were intimidated. his brothers. We — Scarcely had the Church been formally organized. Nor can any fears of " political menace " be urged in explanation for the violence perpetrated on a few dozen obscure and uninfluential people. that they might receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." Of course. it is in June. The . I. David Whitmer and his brother.. The whole character of the proceedings against him evidences this." had undertaken to found a new religious body and promulgate teachings out of harmony with those acceptable to the regular Protestant clergy. Jr. Foremost among these was the bitter and persecuting spirit which still survives. to-day as well as at the beginning. Hyrum and Samuel Harrison Smith." Vol. On this occasion Cowdery was formally ordained as " second elder. first recorded arrest and trial of Joseph Smith took place 1830. hostile critics of Smith allege " that the arrest was caused by even more serious " misdoings on his part. the case would have been different. as previously suggested. 1830. Had he begun as a recognized preacher of some established sect." Smith records of this meeting: " then laid our hands on each individual member of the Church present. a " wanton gospeler.

Of the first of these Smith gives the following description: " At length the trial commenced amidst a multitude of spectators.' * * * ' . pp. The young ladies arrived. which seems to be admitted on all hands. when they both bore such testimony in my favor as left my enemies without pretext on their account. daughters of Mr. that the arrest of Smith always followed as a sort of climax to mob violence and disorder. with had at times kept company. and of course were very zealous that I should be punished according to my crimes. but particularly as to my behavior towards them. have a horse of you?" — — "*Yes. it would seem that he was effectively and ably seconded by the rest of the population. the conclusion of this " trial. I in order that two young women. if possible. he told me no such story/ " Well. which. Such doings might reasonably be declared impossible. and was hurried thither for trial. Pickwick. Among many witnesses called up against me. how had he the horse of you? " He bought him of me as any other man would. and know him to be an honest man and if he wishes. however.' * " " " " * Have you had your pay? That is ' . were it not for the fact.* The question being again put. as it seems. could scarcely exceed the absurdity manifested in the succeeding trials before local courts. illegality as could be imagined. of whom I have made mention as having worked was Mr. Stoal. "After a few more such attempts. and were severally examined touching my character and conduct in general.' : : — 48 THE REAL MORMONISM safe to assume the truth of the accounts given by Smith of this episode. 89-91. Josiah Stoal and examined to the following effect for him some time "*Did not the prisoner. or the trial of the famous cause Bardell vs. who in general evinced a belief that I was guilty of all that had been reported concerning me." History of the Church. Here similar forcical proceedings took place. Whatever Smith may have done on any of these occasions. I am ready to let him have another horse on the same terms. who. might be sent for. Jun. in order. to elicit whom something from them which might be made a pretext against me.. and he was again set at liberty. was as preposterous an example of An episode from a comic opera." which seems to have consisted in a series of vain attempts to force someone or other to assume the role of accuser against Joseph Smith on some serious charge. the court was detained for a time. Vol. both in public and private. * not your business. I.. for I am well acquainted with Joseph Smith.' " Did not he go to you and tell you that an angel had appeared unto him and authorized him to get the horse from you ? " No. Almost immediately. the prisoner was released. which I consider as good as the pay. the witness replied * I hold his note for the price of the horse. in spite of their At . Joseph Smith. he was rearrested on a warrant found in another county. even considering the very irregular methods often followed in rural courts.

which. Sidney Rigdon.PROPHET. How far the doings of these mobs may be credited to genuine popular indignation may be judged as the story proceeds. Thus. as the result of missionary effort. such prominent and able converts as Parley P. detained only under circumstances that permit of a strong suspicion of injustice. Immediately after his discharge by the courts of Chenango and Broome counties. must seem no otherwise than wonderful to a fair mind. In view of the surroundings of his birth and education. also. at this early age is remarkable. One might reasonably expect that a person so widely accused and so often arrested amid violent manifestations of popular detestation. the doctrine of " gathtinctive feature of the Mormon system which has always differentiated it from other sects and ering " bodies professing Christianity. Accordingly. the latterly to organize them in the way considered most appropriate and effective. appeared the disto the membership. and." seem to have been able to do no more than fasten upon him the blame for their own acts of violence and disorder in the minds of the already prejudiced pubhc. seems to have grown steadily. as required by the exigencies of external conditions. Joseph Smith was but four months over twenty. this doctrine of "gathering" is no less a departure than all that succeeded it. instead of being repeatedly acquitted. particularly on the organization of the church.four years of age. SEER AND REVELATOR 49 " righteous indignation. whereas the maturity and brilliancy shown in his formulations of the new Church. Whitney and Edward Partridge were added In this same year. as we must agree. full-grown and complete. out. although the primitive first step in the in- — — . at the very beginning would have seemed remarkable to say the least. his prominence. were gradually developed. in spite of all unfavorable Among the notable conditions. alike in years. Pratt. While there is some room for the theory that his ideas on all matters. for whose conversion a number of elders were sent Later in the same year. Smith returned to his interrupted activities for the upbuilding of the church. the first of which is to gather the people. there is also quite as good reason for considering his claim that the later principles were " revealed " in some manner. At the time of the founding of the Church. we find that the process of development follows consecutive and logical steps. even locally. a very young man. movements inaugurated was the first " mission of the Lamanites. Newel K. in learning and in experience." or Indians. and in the administrations of its affairs. To have formulated and have attempted to establish the organization of the Church. when held. might at least have been found guilty of some of the grave charges made against him by historians.

appeared as an essential element of the "Latter-day Gospel. was to be in Jackson county." Life of Joseph Smith the Prophet. along with its founder and ruler and hither. therefore. although early in 1831 Smith announced a revelation to the effect that Zion. Missouri. It was a bold proclamation. Section Ixxviii). the working-out of the very reforms for which the world is still sadly in need. priest and ruler and in this respect it is not of a perfect community of people wholly out of accord with the ancient versions of his life and work. according to a new version of the old story. now first given to the world. But it was from the Lord. " ment to the world. and going to a new land. or the final home of the Saints. had been taken up to God. In a revelation dated in March 1832 {Doctrine and Covenants. many of the converts to the Church prepared to migrate. of the Lord. the gathering of communities of righteous people. with all its delightful associations and ancestral memories. This is explained as due to changes made for the sake of rendering the reference obscure to hostile readers. and should have been convincing to every human soul. on Smith's advice." This seems to be expressed in the words of a revelation dated March 7. devoted to performing the law of God in its fulness. pp. in which he is himself addressed as Enoch. remote from kindred and friends. was as near to God ^ The first gathering-place of the Church was at Kirtland. In this region.* the design was undoubtedly originated in his mind of realizing on earth again the perfection of society said to have been found in the time of the ancient patriarch of the same name. and honest seekers after truth were led to look to Him for the evidence of its heavenly origin. as a religious duty was a startling one and came in contact with all pre-conceived views. Under the inspiration. For the achievement of this prodigious ideal. as follows: Teaching of the doctrine of the gathering also was a new announceThe belief common in Christendom was that man In one place as another. had been enacted many of the important events of antediluvian and early here was located the city of Zion built by Biblical times Enoch. Ohio. of converts abandoning home.: — 50 THE REAL MORMONISM This is auguration of the " work. . to be a light • In several places in the Doctrine and Covenants fictitious designations are used for both persons and things. The idea. was likely to interfere with successful conversions. and He could be worshipped everywhere alike. Cannon. Joseph made it known as a movement required of true believers by the Almighty to prepare them for coming events. as the founder. as he claimed also." expressed by George Q. 1831. and viewed from a human standpoint. Undoubtedly the story of Enoch. and in other Semitic books played a profoundly significant part in guiding the movements of Joseph Smith. as given in the Talmud. as — — — — follows " I have sent mine everlasting covenant into the world. 81-82. however. and which. The result came in due time.

was based in an enthusiasm far greater than either mere personal advantage or the achievement of temporal good ends. The possession of these high qualities by Joseph Smith demonstrates that his primary significance to history is in the character of a leader and executive of the highest ability. not every such person can himself endure the brunt of persecution. which has proved a vital and persistent reality to this very day. on the condition of obedience to the law of righteousness. and. evidently sincerely convinced of the truth of his message. and were received unto myself a city reserved until a day of righteousness shall come a day which was sought for by all holy men. — — — . as stated by himself. who were separated from the earth. amply ready and willing to brave persecution. and confessed they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth but obtained a promise that they should find it and see it in their flesh. It is well to note. nevertheless. the very essential difference between these two forceful men. which is discussed at another place. and to be a messenger before my face to prepare the way before me wherefore. 9-14. as is evident. and with him that cometh I will reason as with men in days of old. Also. — lofty ideal embodied in this and other revelations underlay also the motives involved in the organization of the Order of Enoch. Indeed. . and undaunted determination. courage. perhaps. and to be a standard for my people and for the Gentiles to seek to it. apart from the confident promise of direct communion with God. come ye unto it. the wisdom of him whom ye say is the God of Enoch. a distinctly and validly religious consideration." Doctrine and Covenants. wherefore hearken ye together and let me show it unto you. and I will show unto you my strong reasoning. is it evident to the candid student that Smith used any other inducements. although he carefully reserved for himself the direction of affairs during his own life-time. Such converts may be acquired. and they found it not because of wickedness and abominations. by many preachers with a message. and made himself " tribune " by virtue of his high qualities as a popular leader. who in the fourteenth century achieved the liberation of Rome from the clutches of a corrupt oligarchy. even my wisdom and his brethren. and that it collapsed with his downfall. Nor. Smith. in the fact that Rienzi's movement led direct to his own elevation to the seat of government. as events proved. Smith has been compared to the Italian insurgent reformer. on the other hand. however. xlv. The successful leader of men must be endowed with firm conviction. His appeal gathered around him a company of disciples. his motives in the founding of his church organization had precisely this signifi- . such as assur- The ances of the foundation of an earthly Paradise. SEER AND REVELATOR 51 to the world. Rienzi.PROPHET. but not every such person can hold them together in the face of truculent assaults. whose influence. promulgated the details of a splendidly-conceived organization.

and they will do it before the millennium can be ushered in and Christ takes posHistory of the Church. he said: * I do not govern them. such settlements must have continued both prosperous and orderly. only by the force of reasoning. V. . as follows " The inquiry is frequently made of me. despoiled or killed by " unmanageable mobs " and this alleged fact is supposed to be very much to his discredit. the people were carefully and stably organized. Christians should cease wrangling and contending with each other. Do you believe in Jesus Christ and the Gospel of salvation which He revealed? So do I. let it come from whence it may. I. that the brethren might eventually be independent of every incumbrance beneath the celestial kingdom. and they govern themselves.. 269. until the affairs of the community could be so settled that It was in Kirtland. * Wherein do you differ from In reality and essence we do not differ others in your religious views ? so far in our religious views. and succeeds in welding together iron or steel more perfectly than any other mechanic... settling among a ferocious set of mobbers. p. The wonderful solidarity of the Mormon people. maltreated. and mutual love. shall I not have attained a good object? ". however. by bonds and covenants of mutual friendship. for truth will cut its own way. " To one who inquired how he governed men so well. in taking a welding heat. I teach them correct principles. One of the grand fundamental principles of * Mormonism is to receive truth.' " His method is outlined in his own words. is he not deserving of praise? And if by the principles of truth I succeed in uniting men of all denominations in the bonds of love. and in such fashion that. 499session of His kingdom. ". We who were he used way of criticism of Smith's motives that his forceful and persuasive powers to induce people to settle in localities in which very many of them were. or at his instigation. In a familiar quotation he is represented as stating this." ' of Ohio. Thus. Vol. that in every settlement made under his direction.: — THE REAL MORMONISM March 27. but that we could all drink into one principle of love. p. If a skillful mechanic. Mormonism were first . unfortunately. like lambs among wolves. that the essential social principles promulgated.. under date ing entry in his journal: " he makes the follow- transacted considerable business for the salvation of the Saints. It was my endeavor to so organize the Church. ' S2 cance. etc. 1832.. I will not seek to compel any man to believe as I do. Vol.. is attributed by the Prophet himself to the inculcation and living of " correct principles " of life and truth. could the violence of mobs have been escaped. uses borax. Here several revelations were received requiring such members of the Church as possessed lands to share them with the incoming new arrivals from the east. and cultivate the principles of union and friendship in their midst.. alum. It has been said in It is well to note. Thus. in order that all might have the means of self-support."— History of the Church. which is a fact only too evident to admit of denial.

: PROPHET. 39-42). Oliver Cow. and eventually scattered by disorderly mobs. proved a disastrous failure. Whitney (Ibid." though considerable properties were actually assigned to their owners as " stewardships. " An effort was made by the Prophet. The law of consecrated property and stewardship was also promulgated. 24-25). Williams (Ibid. however. employed in the bank is known to have embezzled a large sum $30. and during the following winter and spring went rushing and roaring on toward the whirlpool of financial ruin that soon swallowed it. Considerable capital has also been made in the fact that a banking establishment. 27). but was productive of * wild-cat schemes of every description. and other branches of either of profited in account — that — any way. Of course. drey (Ibid. and Newel K. was constantly interfered with. real estate dealings. indeed. John Johnson (Ibid. civ. in spite of the bitter denunciations among both outsiders and church members several of the latter " apostatized " on this largely be difficult. that alcertain " ringleaders. 28-33). and. A certain — — — — * ' — — business of a legitimate if much inflated character. 20-23) to Martin Harris is appointed "a lot of land" (Ibid. designed as traps for the unwary.000 is the amount named and by this misfortune the concern seems to have been crippled. who foresaw the inevitable dis' . it results in the poverty of those who fail. or moneys derived from other ready sources." the only ones mentioned by name in authoritative documents belonged to recognized leaders of the Church. the leading officers of this concern Warren Parrish. the surplus of such stewardships. to account for the constantly increasing prosperity of the settlement in and about Kirtland. Furthermore. Thus. As failure in a business venture is not classed among crimes in civiHzed communities unless. however. hostile and disingenuous critics have asserted that all these advices and commands were only so many attempts to appropriate the funds of converts for the benefit of The fact remains. also stewardships are appointed to Frederick G. It would on another supposition. which. The all-prevailing desire to amass wealth did not confine itself to mercantile pursuits. the Saints were urged to hold their surplus at the requisition of the Church authorities. the Kirtland Safety Society. of which Smith was president for a time and Rigdon cashier. in several instances. if we may judge from the prevailing methods in such cases the following resume of this notorious incident is in place " The Kirtland boom as it would now be styled began in the summer or fall of 1836. enterprises in every respect fraudulent. were expended in the benefit of the whole people. like all others founded by Smith and his associates. to Sidney Rigdon is appointed his residence and tannery (Doctrine and Covenants. for the benefit of the whole people. 34-38). SEER AND REVELATOR 53 each could purchase and own his own home. There is no proof.

seer and revelator " with that of practical executive and temporal leader. Before this. " to persuade the three witnesses that they had seen an notism angel." 54 THE REAL MORMONISM aster that awaited. Farming and other industries were successfully conducted. Vol. it might be in place to inquire what order of influence he employed to achieve such remarkable results at the very beginoffice . — — — — — During the seven years of Mormon residence in Kirtland it seems that a thrifty and prosperous settlement was built up. "Another opportunity was thus given to heap censure upon the Prophet .." was also erected. entirely by the voluntary subscriptions of the Church membership. and the essential laws and regulations of the " new dispensation were formulated. in and out of the Church. It mattered not. the main object of which was to control the prevailing sentiment and direct it in legitimate channels. an opportunity of which his enemies. I. it went down in the ruinous crash of 1837. and someone must be blamed. not only to inspire a mystical enthusiasm for the "things of the spirit." Orson F. not being satisfied with the way events were shaping. throughout the country. He seems to have been able. The Prophet and some of his staunchest supporters became officers and members of this association. Whitney. The first regular church building. quickly availed themselves." but also to lead practical men of affairs to combine If. and robbed by some of its own ofit soon collapsed. visions of Christ and of several ancient saints and prophets were also manifested. and. to stem the tide of recklessness and corruption now threatening to sweep everjrthing before it. victimized by counterfeiters. "The career of the Kirtland Bank was very brief. it must seem no less than remarkable that he could so successfully maintain the double of " prophet. Unable to collect its loans. is an especially holy place in the eyes of devout Mormons from the additional reasons that within its walls several important revelations are believed to have been received. or however much he may have excited " intense feeling " against himself. 132-133. History of Utah. As usual the most prominent target was the one fired at. This building. as testified by Smith. A subordinates having charge of the funds ficials Well-to-do members of the Church begheroic effort was made to save it. But in vain. Rigdon and Cowdery. and large bands of converts and new accessions to the settlement were constantly being received and provided for. pp. he used " hypefficiently for the general good. In common with many other banks and business houses for it was a year of general financial disaster. gared themselves to buy up the bank's floating paper and preserve its credit. Whatever may have been Smith's failures. so intense had become the feeling against the Prophet at Kirtland. or '* temple. however. as claimed. which still stands. that it was almost as much as one's life was worth to defend him against his accusers. As a matter of fact Joseph had withdrawn from the Society some time before. Someone had done wrong. For this purpose the Kirtland Safety Society was organized.

" trine and Covenants. The more sure word of prophecy means a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life by revelation and the spirit of prophecy. 36. and brought up in the way of holiness. p.. even and again. . that you shall teach one another the doctrine of the kingdom. my servant William. ." state that the . teach ye diligently and my grace shall at" A — ." Ibid. it will rise with us in the resurrection and if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than anDocother.. in other words. did the Prophet omit the consideration of educaThus. and give us knowledge of the things of God. Iv. but to the second coming of the Savior. through the power of the holy priesthood. 1-4. in the Church of Christ need not wait it is all important that children. cxxx. yea. in the midst of his other activities.. or. — Ibid. In the public utterances of Joseph Smith perfectly similar ideas are found expressed. It is impossible fdr a man to be saved in ignorance. they are they that ficient. will attend to that subject. the Lord of the whole earth. with specific directions to one William W. he will be brought into captivity by some evil power in the other world." — A In addition to these occasional expressions. Vol. Nor. and perform the duties which. thus saith the Lord unto you. all successful for the general good. as soon as more weighty matters are finished. in the first number of the Evening and Morning Star of Independence. you shall be ordained to assist my servant Oliver Cowdery to do the work of printing. recorded. V.. xciii. that they may be taught as is pleasing unto the Lord. he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. and of selecting." Historv of the Church. in the authoritative works of the Church occur the following: " Whatever principles of intelligence we attain unto in this life. " And I give unto you a commandment. Thus. not only appertain to this world. to become good word to the wise ought to be sufshould be taught so. and writing books for schools in this . But the parents and guardians. for children soon become men and women. Thus: " The glory of God is intelligence. light and truth. and consequently more power than many men who are on the earth. 392.— PROPHET. thou art called and chosen. it may be safe to enthusiasm for education is an essential part of the Mormon system. Yes." — me as is About one year later. (good). 1831. . as early as June. 18-19. Mo. 588. Those appointed to select and prepare books for the use of schools. Vol. and for eternity. even preparing for the Sabbath of creation. as evil spirits will have more knowledge. the following revelation is tion. Hence it needs revelation to assist us. for if he does not get knowledge. IV. the following appeared: " The disciples should lose no time in preparing schools for their children. that little children also may receive instruction before Doctrine and Covenants.. p. pleasing unto me. must follow us. SEER AND REVELATOR ^%iing 55 of his career as leader and guide of hundreds and thousands of people. church. man is saved no faster than he get knowledge. Phelps: " Behold.

in which some still profess belief. which he continued later under another scholar named Piexotto. It is also affecting to read that some of his converts. besides a desire to prepare thereby for a more effective ministry? His course. he was certainly a wonderful and inspiring leader of men. Seixas. and devotion to his own person. when. under the instruction of a certain Dr. 56 be instructed more perfectly in theory. credits Sidney Rigdon with a phenomenal judgment of human nature. During this time I received my endowments and attended the school of Professor Haws." . 25. that are expedient for you to understand of things both in heaven and in the earth. and a knowledge also of countries and of kingdoms. as asserted." Doctrine and Covenants. in company with Elders A. Ixxxiii. things which are abroad the wars and the perplexities of the nations. The Spaulding hypothesis. one also worthy to rank with Napoleon in ability to stimulate enthusiasm for a cause. and under the earth things which have been. things which must shortly come to pass things which are at home. in doctrine. among other educational institutions founded by the direction of Joseph Smith was a class in Hebrew. who taught Greek. Thus. in . Such facts in themselves are sufficient to discredit the vulgar theory that Smith was merely a semi-insane and venal " hypnotist. he chose this man for his " publisher " and *' mouthpiece. eagerly sought to supplement their lack by availing themselves of present opporThus Wilford Woodruff. but of defective youthful advantages. Smoot and Jesse Turpin. records in his voluminous and carefully kept journal: " Having returned from my southern mission in the autumn of 1836. Under him Smith himself studied the Hebrew language. I spent the following winter in Kirtland. that you ciple. and the judgments which are on the land. tend you. Woodruff that should prompt him at the age of thirty years to seek to perfect himself in rudimentary branches. a Jewish scholar apparently well equipped to teach the language and literature of his people. whatever his character or motives in any particular respect. which was adopted by numerous others similarly circumstanced certainly evidences the fact that the influence of Joseph Smith and of his teachings moved men to seek improvement and better equipment. for which a considerable enthusiasm was manifested at various times. in printhe law of the gospel. things which are. Such teachings were undoubtedly understood by many of the Prophet's associates to refer to intellectual training. at least. p. . 77-79.— — THE REAL MORMONISM may . .'* and evidence the contention that. Latin and English grammar. What other object could exist in the mind of Mr. men of force and character." Leaves from my Journal. He evidently believed in his own teachings to this extent. Church. O. in all things that pertain unto the kingdom of God. subsequently president of the tunities. I confined my studies mostly to Latin and English grammar.

through a rough and virgin country for most of the distance of between 900 and 1. and 1838 over 12. farther west by 250 miles than any other then existing in the United States. and othef. neither enjoying nor desiring any of the benefits of civilization. They laid out and cultivated farms. and began the publication of a newspaper. Here. the influence of Joseph Smith among his followers was by no means confined to matters didactic.200 members of the Church. within a very few years.000 Latter-day Saints settled in this region. within three years. a thriving settlement was built up by people who had journeyed from their former homes in New York and Ohio. Although settling in a wild and primitive region. principally in Caldwell county. and became the first inhabitants of the present Caldwell and Daviess counties. educational or communal. Ohio. and were requested to leave Clay county. In spite of these. of " governing themselves. principally from New York. Here they . as mentioned by him. Nevertheless. where they had sought refuge. as claimed." he was residing principally in Kirtland. had located in the confines of Jackson county. Ohio. 1837. Besides building up Independence. They then migrated to the northern parts of Missouri. then largely unsettled.200 miles. for. It seems veritably to have endowed them with the While ability. their industry and enterprise counted for nothing. Illinois. During the years 1836. The Evening and Morning Star. a thriving colony was being built up at Independence. and. as at Kirtland. SEER AND REVELATOR 57 However. The printing office then opened by them was. on the revealed site of the future Zion. evidences of good citizenship.PROPHET. introduced various industries and mercantile enterprises. these people were driven from the county by disorderly mobs in 1833. they were again driven. this time from the confines of the state. with only an occasional visit to the regions further west. immediately southeast of the present location of Kansas City. and as the result of their efforts the whole country was transformed from a wild prairie into a flourishing farming country. joined their fellow-religionists from Ohio in founding the city of Nauvoo on the Mississippi River in Hancock county. and the villages of Spring Hill and Adam-ondi-Ahman (later called Diahman) in Daviess county. and within two years nearly 1. Jackson county. in 1836. the Mormons immediately set about introducing the elements of refined living. The Upper Missouri Advertiser. They also founded the city of Far West in Caldwell county. whose white inhabitants were mostly of the frontier type of that day. migrating eastward. the Mormon people established farming settlements in the neighborhood of the Big Blue. Missouri. and a monthly periodical. and other northeastern states.

Patten. As he lay dying. from the state of Missouri. availed to inspire many to seek wider educational advantages. was himself shot and mortally wounded. again achieving things worthy a place in the world's history. ligion. For Patten. It survives among the heroes of America was upon his shoulders. Immediately. faith and consolations which they profess to find in their reThere was a reality behind it all. later in Missouri. as some insist. which should shed a valuable side-light on the quality of the influence that held them together. in a vain attempt to rescue certain of the Mormons held in captivity by the mob. any other connection. the religion preached by Joseph Smith was a great and Nor do people originate in themselves all the beautiful reality. persistently and systematically inflicted. he took up his duties. because of intolerable persecution. the people were kept together. do not deny the faith. and it was Christian. and were reduced to . There are several touching incidents in the course of this " Mormon war " in We We — — Missouri. he remarked simply to his wife. such words would be widely quoted among the " dying sayings " of great and good men. and preserved for the edification of posterity. suddenly and unexpectedly. " Whatever you do else. between twelve and fifteen thousand strong. Among these is the striking testimony of David W. have also learned that through his leadership several thriving settlements were founded. where they still remain. who. as head of the Apostolic body that the duty of conducting the exodus fell. virtually the entire population again migrated. There were defections. in loyalty to the teachings promulgated by him. many of whom had been despoiled to the last remnants of fortune. many of the Church fell away from their allegiance and professions but the greater body of them held tonor is this surprising gether with a tenacity worthy to rank as heroic. oh. in the face of brutal persecutions. however. Brought to the leadership of a band of people. and discharged them with the — vigor and directness that characterized all his doings. have learned already how that the influence of this man. of course. through the defection of several of the other officers who had ranked him in the quorum. this time to the Rocky Mountain region. as we cannot doubt. first in Ohio. Then. in the confines of the present state of Utah. In the movement of the Mormons. and threatened with death. whose name Brigham Young. was a sodden ignoramus. almost like a destiny. there was opportunity for the emergence of another colossal figure." In It was evidently a faith fit for heroes of which he spoke.58 THE REAL MORMONISM many were allowed to remain for about eight years. at least. who. and otherwise to improve themselves. and that. one of the apostles.

wonderful visions all — and to That his message was something real and vital to . 1838. he called a meeting of his despoiled. with Sidney Rigdon. in accord with the principles of the Gospel. he showed at once how seriously he regarded his title of "apostle. and into Iowa and lUinois. so far as he had influence "Resolved. leadership. or as to the future of the very Church itself. them others of his followers. That we this day enter into a covenant to stand by and aseach other. SEER AND REVELATOR 59 abject misery and dependence. actsist name of the state. or that he was an ingenious. Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum. leaders and proposed the following resolution." Except for the faithful performance of this resolution by the people and their leaders." He became the friend and protector of the poor. is undoubted. such men as Patten. abilThat his influence is to be credited to any such ity and courage. men worthy to rank as heroes from the way in which they deported themselves in trying and but it is truly interesting how large a difficult conditions number of such men Smith actually succeeded in attracting and — — inspiring.: PROPHET. but the highest tributes are paid to his own personality. but this fact did not discourage Brigham Young. even in the face of hardships. At times. and that its people were to be scattered abroad. Young. indeed. Whatever he may be supposed to have done in cases in which. it would be difficult to explain how large bodies of refugees could have been guided safely out of Missouri. were imprisoned in Missouri. devices as " hypnotism. constituting the Presidency. plausible and indefatigable " imposter. and ing for and in the the bald uncertainty as to their destination." or any other form of chicane pretending. in his presence. and to another abiding place. which he enforced to the letter. and a score of others among the companions and coadjutors of Joseph Smith. as must be acknowledged by all candid minds. in constant seeming danger of death. is to be awarded a very large part of the credit for bringing this army of helpless refugees out of the reach of their enemies. Kimball. and exerted himself to enforce the determination that. were men built on if we may judge a large scale. it seemed as though the end of the Mormon Church were at hand. till they shall be out of the reach of the general exterminating order of General Clark. to the utmost of our abilities. and that we will never desert the poor who are worthy." are suggestions altogether too stupid and vulgar to deserve a moment's discussion. and to their courage and downright faith in something that seemed grand and beautiful to them. Of course. of the constant danger of defections from their ranks. nor any of the stronger men around him. those who had saved anything should share it with all who had been Late in September. in removing from this state.

and they replied that they were on the way to kill 'Joseph. " It was always so when men would listen to Joseph long enough to let the Spirit which animated him assert itself to their reason. in the handling of the body of the Church.. writing letters. as they recounted to each other their deeds of rapine. " In one of those tedious nights. the dreadful blasphemies and filthy language of our guards. which they had committed among the * Mormons ' while at Far West and vicinity. he talked to them earnestly with regard to the persecutions against the Saints. while we had listened for hours to the obscene jests.. Colonel Price at their head. or anyone else. that they insisted upon giving* him an escort to protect him to his home. and spoke in a voice of thunder. Pratt. robbery. in comsimilarly striking incident is related it A who states that mand of the state militia. and when his mother introduced him as the man they sought. When he concluded. they started as if they had seen a spectre. and without alluding to their purpose of murder. etc. " I had listened till I became so disgusted. and certainly bears out the very qualities which one would logically expect to find manifested by a real leader. when a large party of . . " we had lain as if in sleep. demanded their business. and Joseph. " The Prophet invited the leaders into the house. as near as I can recollect. Missouri. in and too many of them were dealing with people in the mass people of strong personality and decided character he could have had recourse only to the methods and powers of a real leader of men. together with Smith. 249-250. and so filled with the spirit of indignant justice that I could scarcely refrain from feet and rebuking the guards. murder. walked to the door and stood before them with folded arms. having finished his writing and hearing the threats against himself. pp. as well as the influence of his presence even upon sworn enemies. awaiting their execution under the orders of a certain Colonel Clark. ." Life of Joseph Smith the Prophet. On a sudden he arose to his feet. "An incident of this period shows that Prophet's calmness and self- — — command " in the face of danger. although I lay next to him and knew he was awake. by Parley P. Cannon. horrified. and our ears and hearts had been pained.' His mother remonstrated with them. not to mention a man who had some quality closely akin to confidence in a Power greater than himself. sitting in his father's He was day. but had said nothing to rising upon Joseph. so deeply had they been impressed. Lucy Smith. house near the edge of the prairie one armed mobocrats called at the place. occurred on an occasion when he was confined.. the Prophet's mother. Here they were confined during several days and nights.— 6o THE REAL MORMONISM and divine manifestations are related by his associates. the following my words : . Though they were unacquainted with his identity. the Mormon Prophet. uttering. . or as the roaring lion. The following incident is related by George Q. the horrid oaths. till the hour of midnight had passed. in a jail at Richmond. shocked. they knew they were in the presence of greatness ." Pratt relates. bared head and such a look of majesty in his eyes that they quailed before him. it is altogether certain that.

as exampled in the findings of such psychological authoriIn regard to ties as Professor William James. Cease such talk. and criminals arraigned before them. and others. unruffled. If. and dignified as an angel. in the Courts of England I have witnessed a Congress in solemn session to give laws to nations I have tried to conceive of kings. but dignity and majesty have I seen but once. Smith's reputed power to heal disease. Nor is it surprising to find in the writings of Smith's disciples and others accounts of his exercise of " miraculous " pow- Of ers. as in the of old. and it stood in chains. as we may assert. or you or I die this instant ! ceased to speak. this matter is an open one. we are less concerned at present in inquiring into their actuality than in presenting excellent examples of the nearly mystical regard in which the Prophet was held by his fellows and disciples. calm. whose knees smote together. he looked upon the quailing guards. That he was a man of wonderful forqe. to say the least. neither of them is justly to be called improbable. and remained quiet till a change of guards. and who. on the site of the future city of Nauvoo) and Joseph had given up his home in Commerce to the sick. nor to open discussion with people who would be inclined to regard " demoniacal possession " in all its phases as a " discredited superstition. pp. and had a tent pitched . we have the following striking testimony from the writings of Wilford Woodruff: " It was a very sickly time (when the refugees from Missouri first arrived at Commerce. while life was suspended on a breath. Although. Pratt. as may be justly objected.' PROPHET." " He . to whose activities he seems to have attributed certain orders of affection. as seems well attested. in a dungeon. 228-230. He stood erect in terrible majesty. heahng of the sick. souri. and without a weapon. at midnight. "I have seen the ministers of justices. — course. however." Scientifically. both of these heroic incidents are related by devoted disciples of Smith and earnest adherents to his teachings. of thrones and crowns and of emperors assembled to ciecide the fate of kingdoms. also. nor discounted as altogether exceptional. in true New Testament consistency. of royal courts. I will not live another minute and hear such language. it is unnecessary to inquire into the theories or opinions which he may have held regarding their nature and origin. and command you to be still. Chained. . or crouching at his feet. begged his pardon. after the manner of the apostles In narrations of some of his earlier doings we find. SEER AND REVELATOR ' 6i " Silence ! Ye fiends of the infernal pit ! In the name of Jesus Christ I rebuke you. shrinking into a corner. in an obscure village of MisAutobiography of Parley P. he possessed and exercised any power whatever to effect the cure of disease. clothed in magisterial robes. dignity and ability cannot be denied. whose weapons were lowered or dropped to the ground. . hence may be somewhat colored by the enthusiasm of their narrators. examples of casting out evil spirits. in view of the influence which he wielded.

Brother Joseph had waited on the sick. " After taking hold of his hand. and that he was speechless and unconscious. had he not been rescued. I think it might have . and on the ground. to arise and be made whole " The words of the Prophet were not like the words of man. nor with those who were present with him. in the name of Jesus of of the Godhead: Nazareth. Yes." ^Leaves from My Journal. I command you. The unbeliever " may ask * : Was there not deception in this ' ? "If there is any deception in the mind of the unbeliever. Brother Joseph walked up to Brother Fordham. "He again said: 'Elijah.' was the response. He healed all in his house and dooryard. Another example of Smith's reported power to heal disease. "On the morning of the 22d of July. but had no homes to go into. As they were passing my door. * : been.' had the appearance of a man awaking from sleep.' These were the only words spoken by till we crossed the public square. so Joseph. and took him by the right hand in his left hand he held his hat. and he called upon the Lord in prayer. healed all around on this occasion. therefore. "He saw that Brother Fordham's eyes were glazed. Brother Joseph.. the Prophet of God. to come up and be made whole. It seemed to me that the house shook from its founda! tion. and were living in wagons. It was the sleep of death. and we expected each minute would be his last. he went through among the sick lying on the bank of the river.' — 62 in his THE REAL MORMONISM dooryard and was living in that himself. as in the majesty 'Elijah. . fpp. was I am afraid it is too late. follow me. and entered any of the company Brother Fordham's house. which was a little plainer than before. "He "Then the Prophet of God spoke with a loud voice. Brother Joseph said: * Brother Woodruff. and life was manifest in every act. he arose reflecting upon the situation of the Saints of God in their persecutions and afflictions. .' " The Prophet then said. he looked down into the dying man's face and said Brother Fordham. but like the voice of God. were sick through the exposure they were subjected to. healthy color came to his face. If you had come sooner. ' : * ' was worn out and nearly sick himself. . but we could all see the effect of the Spirit of God resting upon him. there was certainly none with Elijah Fordham.. then. ' " Joseph then said : * Do you not believe that Jesus is the Christ ? " * I do. do you not know me ? ' At first he made no reply . Have you not faith to be healed ? * " The answer. . Brother Fordham answered. in tents. Many. " Elijah A Fordham leaped from his bed like a man raised from the dead. and he commanded them in a loud voice. and they were all healed. The large number of who had been driven out of Missouri. in company with Sidney Rigdon and several of the Twelve. . until he Saints 1839. 62-64. and the power of God rested upon him mightily. were flocking into Commerce. and as Jesus healed all the sick around Him in His day. " I felt the power of God that was overwhelming His Prophet "When we entered the house. do you not know me?* " With a low whisper. the dying man. for in a few minutes more he would have been in the spirit world. Brother Fordham had been dying for an hour. in the name of Jesus Christ.

lay in the fact that he was " disappointed " when he found that he was not granted the " power to smite men and make them believe" (See History of the Church. a very clear evidence of the fact that he was thoroughly convinced of the reality of miraculous powers at the present day. such as were conferred in the days of the apostles. and walking across the room. Johnson by the hand. Johnson at once lifted it up with ease." is related in connection with the conversion of Ezra Booth. 'Here is Mrs. Johnson with a lame arm. and the calm assurance with which he spoke. was also by no means a pompous and gloomy " superman. Mrs. The occasion of his defection.' and immediately left the room. and on her return home the next day she was able to do her washing without difficulty or pain." out of touch with the world of mankind. later a Mormon elder. at one time a Methodist minister. to learn that this man. said in the most solemn and impressive manner: Woman. During the interview. Although a highly successful leader and administrator. in 1831. Mr." It is interesting. Johnson some time with a lame arm." Hayden. Johnson. had been visited Smith at afflicted for ' whole. pp 215-216). a Methodist preacher of much more than ordinary culture. when the conversation had turned in another direction. — — — Whether. and demanding an exaggerated reverence for his person and opinions." it must be admitted that Smith possessed some power capable of exciting the reverence of his adherents and bringing conviction to the minds of people who had come to visit him ** partly out of curiosity. The sudden mental and moral shock I know not how better to explain the well-attested electrified the rheumatic arm fact Mrs. I command thee to be (Hiram). in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. however. " The company were awe-stricken at the infinite presumption of the man. we can agree with the writer of this account that a " sudden mental and moral shock " of this description could avail to " electrify the rheumatic arm. taking Mrs. who could thus impress so many people with a firm belief in his professions as a direct agent of the Almighty. Vol. and finally an apostate from Mormonism. and was not at the time of the visit able to lift her hand to her head.— I PROPHET. Someone said. The following account of the miracle which led to the conversion of Booth is given in a publication of the Campbellite denomination: " Ezra Booth. and who evidently believed every word of his own message implicitly. has God given any power to men now on the earth to cure her?' A few moments later. and with strong natural abilities. he seems to have been a curiously . or not. in company with his wife. SEER AND REVELATOR 63 through the gift and power of God. The party visited Smith partly out of curiosity. and Mrs. 250-251. the conversation turned on the subject of supernatural gifts. as related by Joseph Smith. Smith rose. of Mantua. and partly to see for themselves what there might be in the new doctrine. and some other citizens of this place his home in Kirtland. History of the Disciples. I. pp.

Potter. Quincy's instincts and training that he should have derived so favorable and intelligent an opinion of Joseph Smith. . I have already mentioned the resemblance he bore to Elisha R. pp. I told my congregation the other Sunday that they might as well believe Joe Smith as such theology as that. Quincy seems to have derived a most favorable impression of his personality and influence. although freely invited to address the Mormon congregation on the following Sunday. as by intrinsic right.' Did you say Joe Smith in a sermon?' inquired the person to whom the title haclbeen applied. But Smith was more than this. . these two seemed best endowed with that kingly faculty which directs. * : * Although by no means converted to the doctrines preached by Smith. This it is just to say with emphasis. *if you can't argue better than that. and to these he adds the following "A fine-looking man is what the passer-by would instinctively have murmured upon meeting the remarkable individual who had fashioned the mould which was to shape the feelings of so many thousands of his fellow-mortals. it would have been more respectful to have said Lieutenant-General Joseph Smith. 'Of course I did. one. The latter gentleman. — of Mr. and one could not resist the impression that capacity and resource were natural to his stalwart person. and I will promise to hold my tongue. who. related the substance of a running conversation on religious topics between him and a certain Methodist minister. who was one of the party.. also. Some of his encomiums have already been quoted. 381-382. Thus. * Come/ said the latter.. to emphasize the production of a triumphant text. there was more dispute between the minister and Smith. in spite of the things which It is greatly to the credit of a man . soon after. p. among other anecdotes of the Prophet. from Quincy: A "As we rode back.. Why not?' The Prophet's reply was given with a quiet superiority that was overwhelming Considering only the day and the place." Ibid. notable instance of this is recorded by Josiah Quincy. suddenly slapping his antagonist on the knee. Of all men I have met. for the reader will find so much that is puerile and even shocking in my report of the prophet's conversation that he might never suspect the impression of rugged power that was given by the man.: — THE REAL MORMONISM 64 genial and approachable person.' Clearly the worthy minister was no match for the head of the Mormon Church. the feeble or confused souls who are looking for guidance. for there's not a Mormon among them who would need my assistance to answer you/ Some backthrust was evidently required to pay for this and the minister. whom I met in Washington in 1826. 'Why. you shall say all you want to say to my people. of Rhode Island. Mr. possessed of a redeeming sense of humor that must have added greatly to his influence among the more intelligent people with whom he had to do." Figures of the Past. having occasion to allude to some erroneous doctrine which I forget. seems to have considered it incumbent on him to controvert all of the Prophet's opinions. suddenly exclaimed. 393.

I PROPHET. rather than with any judgment on the matter of " appropriateness " or textual form. embodied in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants." We must take account of the *' personal equation. but. literally to the level of the persons whom He is represented as addressing. in the majority of passages. both the Church. homely and familiar counsels on everyday matters. how otherwise could we expect Him to do it. and Ixxxviii." was not only a leader of men. And his particular revelations. we must insist that the question of the validity of '* possibility " of the authority claimed for these directions and instructions lies primarily with the basic theory of the religious system that embodies them." Nor is the Almighty represented as using " university English. it is scarcely remarkable that he displayed many traits. addressed to various ** servants " of God. who. This man. If God be assumed to address men thus individually. it may be honestly asked." and who showed " a beard of some three days* growth." This very element. mentioned by Quincy. Nor is it strictly just to judge of the significance of a man's work and life to the world of humanity on the basis of the personal traits that repel certain of his acquaintances. in addition. is a factor in the grant aggregate of surprises that enter into the career and character of Smith. " polished literary forms " He comes down. without desire to prejudice the reader's mind. Considering the temperament and early environments of Joseph Smith. as one might object. are to be guided by the direct revealed will of God. Yet. a great mystic. and said many things that must have seemed " uncouth " to a " Brahmin" of New England. He stands for nothing more vividly and emphatically than the belief that. but. God is represented as speaking to his " servants " precisely " as a man speaketh unto his friend. could we reasonably expect : . but. by God Himself. SEER AND REVELATOR 65 he characterizes as " puerile and even shocking. was " clad in the costume of a journeyman carpenter when about his work. except in the form of admonitions and commendations on their daily walk? ** mouth " a man If.). to be sure. as they are believed to be. show precisely. indeed. There are. on his first appearance before this scholar from Massachusetts. He has seen fit to employ as uninstructed in literary refinements. in the true Christian life. many sayings and directions that are both wise and profound. and each Individual member of it. particularly in sections dealing with the blessedness of the future life (See Ixxvi. with a few notable exceptions. lofty flights." elegant diction. if we really would estimate him justly." even with Josiah Quincy. etiquette and table manners are not essentials in the curricula of any of the " schools of the prophets.

" it was evidently combined with a consistent faith in his own professions. the fact remains that. in such forms as these. impostor partly believe in his own mission. and that they still so inspire thousands more.(£ THE REAL MORMONISM that He would employ terms and phrases that must necessarily puzzle him. Joseph Smith succeeded in inspiring the allegiance and devoted enthusiasm of thousands of his personal disciples. Smith seems really. as well as many to whom they are addressed ? " Literary form " is not always a " form of godliness. even the " gigantic specAs was most truthfully said of him by a writer in tacles. pp. with rather doubtful accuracy: " I have quoted enough to show what really good material Smith managed to draw into his net. and that do still so appeal. undoubtedly. on the contrary. that. Quincy styles them. to have emerged from each successive trial " rejoicing that [he was] counted worthy to It would be difficult indeed to suffer shame" (Acts v." as Mr. inspired the devoted misIhid. do not deny the faith." — cannot insist too often that. He was a preeminent leader of men. obliterate the influence of such a man. He remarks." Whatever may be the true and final answer to all such queries. with his dying breath. as the history of Mormonism amply demonstrates. we may quote again from Quincy. it was precisely " these cheap and wretched properties. 395-396.e. not wholly with agreement in his conclusions. that appealed most strongly to the imaginations of his foremost converts. with the assistance of such professed revelations as are printed in this book. even as he represented the Divine Being as acting. " Oh. but who. in some sense or other. 41).. such wonders. although. Were such fish to be caught with Spaulding's tedious romance and a puerile fable of undecipherable gold plates and gigantic spectacles? Not these cheap and wretched properties. the influence of Joseph Smith manifested great and admirable traits. like the ancient apostles." Chamber^ Cyclopedia (Article on "Mormons"). but some mastering force of the sionaries who worked man who handled them. Further. an example of the power of personal influence." All such facts really aggravate the riddle of Joseph Smith. as we have learned. also." We — — the furious assaults made upon him and his teachings. perhaps. as is recognized by truly candid critics. who have lived since his day. It was in the sincere belief. but also a leader of individuals. that God speaks now. the heroic Patten. so he evidently considered that he himself . Thus. felt would that he was the liar and cheat that people called him have broken down under such a tempest of opposition and hate Instead of breaking down under as Smith's preaching excited. a person who did not. whatever may have been the *' mastering force of the man. "a mere i. whispered. In another particular.

in the numerous cases of apostacy that occurred in his Hfetime. had denounced him as a " fallen prophet." Rise and Fall of Nauvoo. was the first Such a spirit was manifested by him to extend a welcome. When. who. sore feelings toward several of these persons. Thus. Orson Hyde hath need of him. SEER AND REVELATOR 67 should act. "Write Oliver Cowdery. Smith seems to disaffected with Smith personally. who had withdrawn under charges of misconduct about the same time as Phelps. and the first to make pubSubsequently. "A letter was written accordingly. did return. he lic proclamation of the Gospel to the world. the prevaiUng sentiment seems to have been a personal antagonism to Smith himself. Phelps. but now they had turned against him. To Phelps he wrote a cordial letter. were Sidney Rigdon and David Whitmer. the Prophet. himself. and go up to Jerusalem.: PROPHET. namely in 1848. have entertained for the time being. Small wonder! They had been his friends and confidants. also. as in the translation of the Book of Mormon. particularly against Harris and Cowdery. any of these apostates expressed a desire to return to fellowship. however. 70. once the second Elder of the Church. he wrote to Oliver Cowdery. and ask him if enough. Some of them. as related. be clothed with robes of righteousness. As Roberts states: " In a sudden burst of kindness he said to his secretary if he has not eaten husks long not almost ready to return. Some time after." although fully endorsing his early work. Thus. who had withdrawn from the Church during the trying times in Missouri. while adhering to their previous testimonies as to the truth of the Mormon gospel. were Furthermore. p. at least. however. but the Prophet's generous tender of forgiveness and fellowship called forth no response from Oliver Cowdery. in the cases of Orson Hyde and William W. he is — .

also. — . of so far.— : CHAPTER VI JOSEPH SMITH AS LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE In the work of building up the city of Nauvoo. in many obvious particulars. accordingly. under Smith's direction giving place. within the limitations of the constitutions. as an act of legislature could avail to accomplish such a result. that every honest man might dwell secure under its protective influence without distinction of sect or party. the enlistment and equipment of a military organization. it was necessary." p. or in an irregular manner. With virtually the entire body of the Church collected in one the he exercised his genius for organization in inaugurating a community and a government that were excellent. and such an instrument was drawn up. as any one dares to make such a suggestion in the face of historic facts that are liable to be unearthed by investigators that the charter was passed by the state legislature under some kind of unlawful pressure." and the building of a university. — — . History of the Church. which was subsequently known as the " Nauvoo Legion. In the work of organizing the city. IV. It authorized. on the site of little village of Commerce. Vol.. and some have suggested so far. at least. the city council exceptionally wide powers virtually in independence. In view of these miserable lies. it must be a surprise to the reading public to learn that the first charter of the city of Nauvoo was passed by unanimous vote of both houses of the state legislature in regular session. Smith had the fullest opportunity to manifest his ideas upon governmental and civic matters. I concocted it for the salvation of the Church. early in 68 The charge has frequently been made that the charter Nauvoo virtually erected the city into an independent state. and on principles so broad. first-place. so widely circulated by disingenuous and slovenly critics. 249. to secure a charter from the state legislature. at least. as they were novel and original. of the state of Illinois and of the United States. This is supposed by critics of Mormonism to indicate the essentially " seditious " character of the procedure. As Smith stated in his journal "The City Charter of Nauvoo is of my own plan and device.

they voted for John J. and even congratulated the i'Mormon agent. "At the legislature of 1840-41 it became a matter of great interest. " In this state of the case Dr. fcal. It will be further interesting to learn that Abraham Lincoln. Van Buren. both Whigs. the considerations involved were wholly politil:leged would seem that no "extraordinary pressure" had been by the regular party leaders. Clay. it jxercised. when the Mormons came to this State. and was witnessed by Stephen A. . Mr. and when they appealed to Mr. In August. Stuart. the Mormons had always supported the Democratic party. Indiana and Illinois. Douglas. and exerted themselves on both sides. further than they could be supported by that party. they voted for the Whig candidate for President. . In the November following. by professions. then a member of the lower house. to win their support. Mr. and kindness and devotion to their interests. 1840. as a member of the United States Senate. the Democratic President of the United States. ^may understand. understood their cause. Bennett presented himself at the seat of government as the agent of the Mormons. and have traced him in several places in which he had lived before he had joined the Mormons in Ohio. hope of Mormon favor. as Secretary of State. for relief against the Missourians. the Whig candidate for Congress in their district. who may be asisumed to have been moved solely by ambition. how "high up" the al" corrupting influence " must have reached. from Illinois. they voted unanimously for the Whig candidates for the Senate and Assembly. with both parties. on its successful passage. and were fast increasing by emigration from all parts. A city charter drawn up to suit the Mormons was presented to the Senate by Mr. This soured and embittered the Mormons against the Democrats.LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE 69 December. of which Mr. It was evident that they were to possess much power in elections. . It was referred to the judiciary committee. John C. a member of the House of Representatives in Congress. two days later. as he claims. He flattered both sides with the . Little. and in August. 1840. They were already numerous. I have made particular enquiries concerning him. for want of constitutional power in the United States to coerce a sovereign State in the execution of its domestic polity. An account f the passage of this measure and of the conditions leading up [to it has been given by Thomas Ford. and introduced and countenanced their memorials against Missouri. was signed by Governor Thomas Carlin on the |l6th of that month. later Governor of the state. and he was everywhere accounted the same debauched. voted for the charter. he refused to recommend it. and both sides expected to receive their votes. and John T. unprincipled and profligate character. but to vote for such persons as had done or were willing to do them most service. And the leaders of both parties believed that the Mormons would soon hold the balance of power. Stuart. This Bennett was probably the greatest scamp in the western country. to conciliate these people. They had been driven out by a Democratic governor of a Democratic State. Ford writes. [if. they attached themselves to the Whig party. except fas follows: "In the State of Missouri. Bennett. the calibre of some of the men who We helped perpetrate this enormity. John C. 1841. so that. They had already signified their intention of joining neither party. therefore." also.

262-265. This seemed to give them power to pass ordinances in violation of the laws of the State. pp. but all were busy and active in hurrying it through. the ayes and noes were not called for. to be governed by its own by-laws and ordinances. " This city charter and other charters passed in the same way by this legislature. and for the protection of property from fire. It must be acknowledged that these charters were unheard-of. " Thus it was proposed to reestablish for the Mormons a government within a government. . and not subject to the command of any officer of the State militia. One would have thought that these charters stood a poor chance of passing the legislature of a republican people jealous of their liberties. In view of the widely repeated charge that the Nauvoo charter had for its primary object some seditious " resistance of organized authority " on the part of Smith and the Mormons. provided for the election of a Mayor. or not. or cleanliness of the city. gave them power to pass all ordinances necessary for the peace. . and each believed that it had secured their favor. and nine Counsellors. . convenience. courts to execute them. and capable of infinite abuse by a people disposed to abuse them. where it was never read except by its title. four Aldermen. a Democrat. good order. such people sought reflections logically occur at this point. and to erect a system of government for themselves. This charter also established a mayor's court with exclusive jurisdiction of all cases arising under the city ordinances. who reported it back recommending vote was taken. In like manner it passed the House of Representatives.— 70 its THE REAL MORMONISM passage. incorporated Nauvoo.' It was made entirely independent of the military organization of the State. no one opposed it. If. The * . Snyder. Messrs. Each party was afraid to object to them for fear of losing the Mormon vote. or this State. was chairman. so generously guaranteed in the constitutions of all the states of the union and of the United States. and a military force at their own command. a legislature with power to pass ordinances at war with the laws of the State. . and subject to no State authority but that of the Governor. should wish to obtain some kind of exceptional powers that should secure them the ordinary rights of human beings. several In the first place. wittingly. Little and Douglas managed with great dexterity with their respective parties. It established a municipal court to be composed of the mayor as chief justice. . subject to an appeal to the municipal court. the ayes and noes were not called for. regulation. benefit. to be called the Nauvoo Legion. . subject to an appeal again to the circuit court of the county. and anti-republican in many particulars. "This charter also incorporated the militia of Nauvoo into a military legion." History of Illinois. The municipal court was also clothed with power to issue writs of habeas corpus in all cases arising under the ordinances of the city. with but little dependence upon the constitutional judiciary. which court was to have jurisdiction of appeals from the mayor or aldermen. and the four aldermen as his associates. it is scarcely remarkable that a lot of people. however. as commander-in-chief. and the same universal zeal in its favor was manifested here which had been so conspicuously displayed in the Senate. which were not repugnant to the Constitution of the United States. except the Governor himself. Nevertheless they did pass unanimously through both houses. who had been so outrageously treated in both Ohio and Missouri.

Whatever may quite as badly as the persons who ask for them. however. Whitney writes as follows: " To this call the Saints responded with alacrity. at Kirtland. than the kind of lawmakers who will sell their votes for the sake of hoped-for party advantages. a work done by Time for Eternity. and in Lee County. as well as to the Prophet himself. p. such fact need not be wholly blamed to the Mormons or to Joseph Smith. and other edifices erected which are necessary for the great work of the last days. amounts to what might be termed a divine passion. instead of any of the numerous deadly. be understood that all the stakes. No work in . it is necessary to refer to original documents and the testimony of contemporary history. they could scarcely be more incompatible with the of American institutions. Ohio. Vol. May 24. Iowa. anxious to promote the prosperity of said Church. not to say " preposterous. the following proclamation was issued to all the Saints in the stakes outside of Nauvoo. therefore. Temple-building. and the Saints instructed to settle in this county as soon as circumstances will permit." as Ford states.. have been Smith's motives in " concocting " such a charter as ** safety this. This is important. with the Saints. Let it. we need scarcely inform the reader. the University built. These will furnish a very fair line of evidence that an orderly and stable community was in contemplation. that the popular uprisings against the Mormons in Illinois were no more in protest against this kind of " favoritism " than were the perfectly similar disorders in both Ohio and Missouri. The question naturally arises as to whether " republican people jealous of their liberties " need not dread the activities of legislatures who will grant such plenary powers. are discontinued. excepting those in this county..— i LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE 71 for and obtained powers " capable of infinite abuse by a people disposed to abuse them.' " To the followers of the Prophet. also. The fact remains. that there is no distinct evidence that the privileges granted in the Nauvoo charter were abused to any conspicuous degree. and at Independence. to engage in the work of building up and beautifying 'the corner stone of Zion. 362. IV." as another cant phrase has it." History of the Church. this was all that the call really meant. who " concocted " the charter. feel it their duty to call upon the Saints who reside out of this county [Hancock]. In order that the motives of Smith in the founding of Nauvoo may be thoroughly understood. 1841. and which can only be done by a concentration of energy and enterprise. . Orson F. Commenting on this announcement and invitation.. and came pouring in from all parts outside the two counties mentioned. Here the Temple must be raised. Missouri (the " centre-stake "of Zion) : "The First Presidency of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Under date." objects as supposed by various critics. and should be attended to by all who feel an interest in the prosperity of this corner-stone of Zion. to make preparations to come in without delay.

meant something them as a shrewd political maneuver. in his discussion of the chartering and early hiswriters. It was construed by — or — I. seems to be indicated by the several ordinances early passed by the Council looking toward the maintainance of order. The accuracy of this view^ is borne out by reference to a discourse delivered by Joseph Smith on June 11. Ford relates " crime. entirely different. and the relegation to the rear. Vol. kill another. manifested by the Saints to the word and will of their leader. p. That he and his associates were primarily far more interested in founding a city that should be a " city of the Saints " in fact. Nor were such ordinances merely verbal declarations. pp. It was believed. foreshadowing the ultimate domination of Hancock County by the Mormons. " But to the politicians it meant more. than the punishments provided tory of Illinois. Vol. 266. 423). in spite of all that has been said and thought to the contrary. the nations. as a hopeless minority." severe. Some such tendency as this is shown in a debate March 4.. This explains in part that ready wrongfully supposed to be a mere servile yielding to the dicobedience. p. ix. Democrats and whatever else. and this. in short. Next to their religious mission of preaching. to be a colonizing' scheme. 1843. as we have said. and let the smoke thereof ascend up to God and if ever I have History the privilege of making a law on this subject. fluence of the Mormons in county and in state. the avowed object of which was to oppose and counteract the political inHistory of Utah. tum of a despot. 187-188. George A. The common council passed many ordinances for the punishment of The punishments were generally different from. and administering in their temples for the salvation of the living and the dead. spill his blood on the ground. of the combined forces of Whigs. 296.: — 72 their THE REAL MORMONISM among not even their proselyting labors estimation is so important. sound morals and human rights. Already jealous of the power wielded by the Saints at the polls. is their penchant for founding institutions of learning. in spite of all that could be done to hinder. This statement was evidently made in harmony with the Old Testament dictum. He was simply inviting them to engage in the work most congenial to their souls." of the Church. This fact Mormon history abundantly verifies. as well as in name. I of the Council was better than hang- was opposed to hanging.. and professing to 'view with alarm' the prospective increase of that power by means of the proposed concentration. 1843. (See History of the Church. Smith said imprisonment " I (Joseph Smith) replied. and vastly more by the laws of the State." * really meant. I will . Vol V. was all that the call — — — rather. proselyting.. tory of the city. I will have it so. p. some of the politicians now set about organizing in Hancock County a new party. V. which is reported thus: " In debate. " By man shall his blood be shed " (Gen. even if a man shoot him. a trick to increase and render supreme the local Mormon vote. as is amply evidenced by the testimonies of non-Mormon Thus. . or cut off his head. — His- held on ing.

those guilty of using profane or indecent language. etc. as may be claimed. under the leadership of the Prophet himself. 1841 " Catholics. this ordinance was probably framed with a vivid recollection of the wanton interruptions of Mormon meetings in Missouri. shall have free toleration. Universalists. it contemplated no locality. " either with or without process. he shall. Episcopals. nor was such discrimination alleged by the mobbers who harried and finally effected the migration of the people of Nauvoo. 306. 13. shall " be required to enter into security for good behavior for a reasonable time. Methodists.. but it must not be forgotten that it proscribes all interruptions of any kind of religious gathering. on March i. and equal privileges. or of disturbing or interrupting any religious meeting within the limits of this city. decency and the free exercise of individual rights. because. or imprisoned not exceeding six months. or to be fined five hundred Such provision dollars. and all similar ordinances. all drunk or disorderly persons." In this act it is prescribed that all vagrants. and fined in any sum exceeding five hundred dollars. at the discretion of the court. the . and protects "all other religious sects and denominations whatever" with equal penalties. passed by the City Council of Nauvoo. Nor has any case of unlawful. the "blood atonement/* so called. Latter-day Saints.: LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE 73 6). be considered a disturber of the public peace. 1841. and abusing or otherwise depreciating another in consequence of his religion. which will be discussed at another place. entitled " Concerning Vagrants and Disorderly Persons. Presbyterians. Furthermore. there can be no doubt in any candid mind. in default of such security. Similarly severe in point of penalties prescribed was the ordinance presented by Smith. p. as seems evident. Vol IV. Nov. and all other religious sects and denominations whatever. Unitarians. as speindividual freedom of conscience. discrimination in this matter ever been brought to the attention of the public by any of the enemies of Smith and Mormonism. That the above. Mohammedans. or both. In addition. or unworthy. or both. and should any person be guilty of ridiculing." or. and any officer was authorized to arrest all violators." Of course. was undoubtedly intended to discourage the very kind of disorders that had so sorely assailed the people in every other Nevertheless. to suifer imprisonment for not more than six months. Quakers.. at the discretion of said Mayor or Comt"— History of the Church. Baptists. cifically enacted. were honestly and deliberately framed for the purpose of maintaining order. on conviction thereof before the Mayor or Municipal Court. in this city. abridgement of popular rights of assemblage: it could under no circumstances be construed into a " veiled attempt " to curtail This is true. any municipal officer was required to report any violation of this ordinance to the Mayor.

and History of the Church." Of course. it has proved. shall. With an instinct which. 299.— 74 — : : THE REAL MORMONISM City Ordinances struck direct at the root of crime and disorder by passing the first effective temperance ordinance in the history of America. are prohibited from vending whisky in a less quantity than a gallon. IV. or by any other means." which is the principal evil to be combatted. 1841. records as follows: " I was in the City Council. Previously. pp. is the fiact that we heard no obscene or profane language. the bane of humanity in these last days. as. 1841 telligent " AN ORDINANCE I. indeed. in any other person. therefore. by the Chancellor and Regents of the University of the City of Nauvoo and any person guilty of any act contrary to the prohibition contained in this ordinance. is becomHistory of the Church. as may be remarked. and. at which great crowds of people were present "What added greatly to the happiness we experienced on this interesting occasion. neither saw we any one intoxicated. . 1841. or other spirituous liquors in a less quantity than a quart. on conviction thereof before the Mayor or municipal court. that all persons and establishments whatever. 383. p. also." it ." — History of the Church. 330-331ing a stranger in Nauvoo. as in- reformers will agree. Vol. IN RELATION TO TEMPERANCE ordained by the City Council of the City of Nauvoo. or not at all. on February 15. on April 6. as reflection will show. would be called truly " statesmanlike. shall be considered alike amenable.." Smith evidently understood that absolute prohibition of the sale of intoxicating liquors would be an abortive measure. p. and moved that any person in the City of Nauvoo be at liberty to sell vinous liquors in any quantity. of the Temple. "obscene or profane Ian- . Vol. the worst form of whisky drinking is not that which is done at home. Can the same be said of a similar assemblage in any other city in the Union ? Thank God that the intoxicating beverage.. sadly enough. be fined in any sum not exceeding twenty-five dollars. Few persons having a taste for whisky would care to purchase it by the gallon. IV. To limit the sales of alcoholic drinks to large quantity lots should. he records. excepting on the recommendation of a physician.. in connection with the account of the laying of the corner-stones. Vol. duly accredited in writing. IV. wherever attempted. since no licensing proIndeed. Be That this ordinance was considered an effective means of curbing the evils of intemperance is evident. at the discretion of said Mayor or municipal court and any person or persons who shall attempt to evade this ordinance by giving away liquor. to any person whatever. under date July 12. Smith vision is recorded. This measure put a stop to " tippling. fined as aforesaid. " Sec. in this city. sought to reduce the liquor evil to its lowest terms by an ordinance forbidding the sale of alcoholic drinks in small quantities. subject to the city ordinances. prove a very effective discouragement to overindulgence. The following is the Ordinance passed at the instance of Smith.

in such matters. been that prohibition of the liquor traffic has been established in most parts of that city. that the principle involved. and the ordinances were repealed. they seem competent to prove that the " exceptional powers " granted to the City Council of Nauvoo had not been misplaced. under the direction of Joseph Smith himself. Vol. who were disposed to corrupt the morals and chastity of our citizens. for example. particularly in matters touching personal morals. and render government effective. and the good of public morals. testimonies are to be accepted. hawkers. in recent years. The world might then have had the opportunity of correctly estimating this man and his influence. a result impossible." History of the Church. the State Legislature afterward " reconsidered. in a manner impossible.: I LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE 75 guage " and intoxication are not usually expected in persons who gather to a religious service. the Mormons did not strike westward at once. although special local legislation. and describing the doings of scoundrelism masquerad- . except by It is interesting to note. as " option " as to the sale of intoxicants. has the wards of the Municipality. V. 1842 "I attended city council in the morning. under date May 14. in some unsettled region. apart from the disgusting necessity of constantly reviewing the false accusations made by wicked and prejudiced assailants.. desiring that this might be a free people. and. From very many points of view build up their own social and governmental institutions. where the local government is often hampered by " upIn some points state legislators. and advocated strongly the necessity of some active measures being taken to suppress houses and acts of infamy in the city." and greatly modified the charter of Nauvoo. seems to be indicated by the following entry in his journal. extends even to The result. taverns and ordinaries. where local self-government. Joseph Smith seems to have had a firm grasp on the principles necessary to conserve popular liberties. even in Illinois. for the protection of the innocent and virtuous. being embodied in the Charter of the great city of Chicago. at least. but were being used to the advantage of order and decency. but it must not be forgotten that If these the experience of the Mormons had been otherwise. was not abandoned. showing clearly that there were certain characters in the place. at the it is to be deeply regretted time of their expulsion from Missouri. and that houses of infamy did exist. 8. in New York. ^ — that. and enjoy equal rights and privileges. upon which a city ordinance concerning brothels and disorderly characters was passed. to prohibit such things. " I also spoke at length for the repeal of the ordinance of the city licensing merchants. That Smith was intensely alive to the requirements of good government and social order. p. It was published in this day's Wasp." as frequently complained. that. local autonomy within a wide range of power.

weakness. tended to promote peace. 1842. the blood of the oppressed. strength. their ears were saluted with the groans of the dying and the misery and distress of the human family . in the Times and Seasons." there would have been ample opportunity and sufficient warrant for dealing with him by the proper use of the accredited guardians of peace and law. The designs of God.7(> THE REAL MORMONISM ing under the disguise of public virtue. and sustained by oppression. before them the earth was a paradise. and behind them a desolate wilderness their kingdoms were founded in . or some other man close to him. who years after his death wrought nobly and well in the deserts of Utah. on the oljier hand. the alternative would have been no such slogan as "Joseph Smith or the Sword. the moans of the widow. unity. and happiness while that of man has been productive of confusion. It would have been interesting. was certainly from the pen of Sidney Rigdon. Babylon. of the Almighty has always been very dissimilar to the governments of men. have been to pro- . and. it has been at the expense of the lives of the innocent. the world has lost something in the fact that Smith himself. under date July 15. — carnage and bloodshed. Persia. harmony. or in the service of the general government. was not per- — — : mitted to enter into even that " land of promise." The following seems to set forth Smith's ideals and purposes. record precisely how far his surprising design of welding gov- ernment and religion deriving the powers of government direct from the presumed authority of God could have been successful and operative. each was raised "Egypt. and despotism. and the tears of the . Greece. to have been able to peace." Despite. disorder. like a modern Moses. tyranny. and misery. then. " The greatest acts of the mighty men have been to depopulate nations and to overthrow kingdoms and whilst they have exalted themselves and become glorious. orphan. indeed. Rome. ." making " one gore of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic ocean. we refer to His religious government. with the leadership of alleged righteous men. Had he then attempted to carry out the design attributed to him by various persons of becoming "a second Mohammed. he records this: " I find an editorial. whether or to the government of nations. it would have been unnecessary to heap further reproaches upon his head had he succeeded wonderfully." and giving the alternatives for "Joseph Smith or the Sword. In his journal. to dignity amidst the clash of arms and the din of war and whilst their triumphant leaders led forth their victorious armies to glory and victory. The government of God has always . Had he failed utterly. without enlisting drunken and disorderly mobs in the militia forces of any state. the wonderful and highly creditable achievements of men inspired by his teachings. on the government of God as follows: — "The government ''The Government of God. if not written by himself. Carthage.

by revelation. and the most profound statesmen have been exploded and the proceedings of the greatest chieftains. been raised to dignity. and prostrated in the dust. and the wonder of the world. and their knowledge of astronomy was no doubt taught them by Abraham and Joseph. the wisest senators. The design of the ark (of the Covenant) was given by God. their short-lived glory. and our poor crying for bread. those imperishable truths strength is weakness. and they subject to his mandate. they would still have been a great and mighty people the rulers of the universe. this we have fully shown.' " The great and wise of ancient days have failed in all their attempts to promote eternal power. to bring about a state of things that shall unite man to his fellow man. and our states overwhelmed in debt. aristocratical. and take the reins of government in His own hand. our counselors are panic stricken. anarchy and confusion will be destroyed. and we have inherited nothing but their folly. Nation has succeeded nation. History records their puerile plans. cause the world to 'beat their swords into plowshares. ^ . to stand as a head of the universe.' It is for want of this great governing principle. political intrigues. and if he had always been their king. They prothat man's claim as with a voice of thunder. have. 'j'j mote the universal good of the universal world to establish peace and good will among men. to promote the principles of eternal truth. who received it from the Lord. " It has been the design of Jehovah. yet we are. his wisdom is folly. . to direct his steps .' The learning of the Egyptians. is rent. of time-worn monuments have left us but feeble traces of their former magnificence and ancient grandeur. their feeble intellect and their ignoble deeds. and their spears into pruning hooks/ make the nations of the earth dwell in peace. and the wisest kings have fallen to the ground. in their turn. and have been in peace. Their nations have crumbled to pieces their thrones have been cast down in their turn. 'a pattern of heavenly things. our farmers distressed. * ' . our credit ruined. as their records testify. and or their cities. ' . our banks are broken. or even their general well being? Our nation. our tradesmen are disheartened. and obedient to his laws. the bravest generals. when 'the earth shall yield its increase. and to the judges of Israel. . . and is His purpose now. it came from God. resume its paradisean glory. and to bring about the millennial glory. our legislators are astonished. The construction of the first vessel was given to Noah. to regulate the affairs of the world in his own time. that all this confusion has existed for it is not in man that walketh. from centre to circumference. peace and happiness. and our senators are confounded. from the commencement of the world.I LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE . with party strife. judgment will be administered in righteousness. and become as the garden of the Lord. our merchants are paralyzed. his glory is his shame. The plans of the greatest politicians. and republican governments of their various kinds and grades. which possesses greater resources than any other. Wisdom to govern the house of Israel was given to Solomon. " Monarchical. "If there was anything great or good in the world. . . our mechanics out of employ. — "This is the only thing that can bring about the 'restitution of all . and their mightiest works of art have been annihilated their dilapidated towers. — . " Have we increased in knowledge or intelligence ? Where is there a man that can step forth and alter the destiny of nations and promote the happiness of the world? Or where is there a kingdom or nation that can promote the universal happiness of its own subjects. and nations will learn war no more. and sectional interest. When that is done. .

every effort has failed every plan and design has fallen to the ground it needs the wisdom of God. or I would not have done it. . and that thing have power — : .. we may receive an inheritance among those that are sanctified. Vol. by the revelations of heaven . but keeps Ibid. under His direction.' Other attempts to promote universal peace and happiness in the human family have proved abortive. Some study law only me When God for the purpose of seeing how many feuds. they will be under the counsel that God has appointed. carry us not up hence. The kingdom of God does not interfere with the laws of the land. He sets up a system of government that shall rule over temporal and spiritual affairs. and the power of .. should pull me up. in contradistinction to all other bodies. spectable. " In regard to the building up of Zion. V. the intelligence of God. " The law of God is far more righteous than the laws of the land. when God shall gather together all things in one. but would bow to him. how many broils they can kick up. we have laid the foundation for the gathering of God's people to this place. itself by its own laws. VI. . " Every man is a government of himself. A man is not an honorable man. 292. God We We .." History of the Church.' the Saints that come here. He says in part: " I will endeavor to show why salvation belongs to us more peculiarly. . e. to live a great way within the circle of the laws of the land. * would say to if the Lord go not with us. how much they can disturb the peace of the public without I know my rights. . . that I can build a Church without government. . Very similar ideas were expressed in a discourse delivered by Sidney Rigdon at the General Conference of the Church in April. and infringes upon no government. to save " sets up a system of salvation.. " I see in our town we have need of government. I would live far abK)ve all law. Will this be clear enough? " I discover one thing Mankind have labored under one universal viz. salvation was distinct from government mistake about this i. and obedient to His law.' " He is no gentleman. . we may grow up in righteousness and truth. and we hope that when our brethren they will assist us to roll forth this good work. p. it has to be done by the counsel of Jehovah. that as God's people. 1844. 78 THE REAL MORMONISM things spoken of by all the holy Prophets since the world was 'the dispensation of the fullness of times. and to accomplish this great design. are trying here to gird up our loins. and they expect that when the Saints do come. Vol. Gentlemen would not insult a poor man in the jstreet. to accomplish this. ' 61-66. that * Zion may be built up in righteousness and all nations flock to her standard . and we should feel to say. as much as those who appear more reought No marshal or any one else. if he is not above all law and above government. and purge from our midst the workers arrive from abroad. of iniquity." — ' We Although such expressions used by Smith and his coadjutors have often been quoted as evidence of " seditious intent. and then say * I did not know it was the marshal.! — — — . pp." and the claiming of powers and authority in defiance of the civil law it is quite evident that they mean no even to its subversion — — . that when His purposes shall be accomplished. and will have them ' breaking the law..

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79

more than that the law of God is the real source of all authority, and that any one who is animated by a desire to live and act in accord with its principles is " above the law," while, at the same Similar teachings have been often time, " not against the law." propounded throughout Christian centuries, particularly on the authority of St. Paul, and have never been seriously misun-

The sole difference in the present case is that the derstood. persons here speaking profess the belief that the law of God finds preeminent statement for this age in the mouths of accredited prophets and apostles. Such passages furnish very imperfect grounds for charges of " sedition " or unlawful defiance of authority. At the least, there is no known statement of Joseph Smith, which distinctly voices the sentiments thus ascribed to him by hostile, and, too often also, disingenuous, Nevertheless, in whatever manner such people may discritics. tort his words, and refuse to give credit for human sentiments to Smith and his immediate associates, it is altogether evident those also engaged in work in bethat most of his followers held opinions very different from these, half of the Church also quite in accord with what we have stated were his actual The following, from the EngUsh organ of beliefs and ideals.

Mormonism,

is

significant:

"In the midst of the general distress which prevails in this country [England] on account of want of employment, the high price of provisions, the oppression, priestcraft, and inquity of the land, it is pleasing
to the household of faith to contemplate a country reserved by the Almighty as a sure asylum for the poor and oppressed, a country every way adapted to their wants and conditions ^and still more pleasing to think that thousands of the Saints have already made their escape from this country, and all its abuses and distress, and that they have found a home, where, by persevering industry, they may enjoy all the blessings of liberty, peace, and plenty. "It is not yet two years since the Saints in England, in obedience to the command of their Heavenly Father, commenced a general plan of emigration to the land of Zion. " They were few in number, generally poor, and had every opposition to encounter, both from a want of means and from the enemies of truth, who circulated every falsehood calculated to hinder or discourage them. Newspapers and tracts were put in circulation, sermons and public speeches were delivered in abundance, to warn the people that Nauvoo that it was a wild and uninwas a barren waste on the sea shore habited swamp that it was full of savages, wild beasts and serpents that all the English Saints who should go there would be immediately sold for slaves by the leaders of the Church that there was nothing to eat, no water, and no way possible to obtain a living; that all who went there would have their money taken from them, and themselves

imprisoned, etc. " But notwithstanding all these things, thousands have emigrated from this country, and now find themselves comfortably situated, and in the enjoyment of the comforts of life, and in the midst of society where God is worshipped in the spirit of truth and union, and where nearly all


8o

THE REAL MORMONISM
They
all find plenty of employment living is about one-eighth of what

are agreed in religious principles.
it

and good wages, while the expense of
costs in this country. " Instead of a lonely
. .

.

or dense forest filled with savages, wild and villages are springing up in their midst, with schools, colleges, and temples. The mingled noise of mechanism, the bustle of trade, the song of devotion, are heard in the distance, while thousands of flocks and herds are seen grazing peacefully on the plains, and the fields and gardens smile with plenty, and the wild red men of the forest are only seen as they come on a friendly visit to the Saints, and to learn the way of the Lord. . .
beasts,

swamp

and serpents, large

cities

.

" Who that has a heart to feel, or a soul to rejoice, will not be glad at so glorious a plan of deliverance ? Who will not hail the messengers of the benefactors of the Latter-day Saints as the friends of humanity

mankind ?
"
*

Thousands have gone, and millions more must go.

The

Gentiles as a stream to Zion flow.'

" Yes; friends, this glorious work has but just commenced; and we now call upon the Saints to come forward with united effort, with persevering exertion, and with union of a;ction, and help yourselves and one another to emigrate to the Land of Promise. " In this way we shall not only bring about the deliverance of tens of

otherwise suffer in this country, but we shall add and help to rear her cities and temples to make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the Lord,' while the young men and the middle aged will serve to increase her legions to strengthen her bulwark that the enemies of law and order who have sought her destruction, may stand afar off and tremble, and her banners become terrible to the wicked. " Ye children of Zion, once more we say, in the name of Israel's God, arise, break off your shackles, loose yourselves from the bands of your neck, and go forth to inherit the earth, and to build up the waste places of many generations. . " do not wish to confine the benefit of our emigration plan to the Saints, but are willing to grant all industrious, honest, and well-disposed persons who may apply to us the same information and assistance as emigrants to the western states, there being abundant room for more than a hundred millions of inhabitants." Millennial Star, February, 1842.

thousands

who must

to the strength of Zion,

*

.

.

We

This document, which reads like an ultra-sanguine invitation to the " oppressed of every nation " to take up their residence in " this broad country," and enjoy the advantages elsewhere denied
them, embodies merely the same kind of golden hopes and promises that have attracted to our shores such myriads of the very class of people, as those to whom it is addressed. If written at the present day, sadly enough, it must misrepresent matters in sundry particulars. It was more nearly true seventy years ago, when it was issued; although, even then, somewhat colored with the high hopes, great ambitions and lively faith of the Prophet's disciples feelings undoubtedly shared by himself. This man and his followers, in fact, actually hoped to found a " gatheringplace for Israel," a nucleus of God's redeemed people on earth.

:


8i

LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE

{fast, they hoped to provide a refuge for the downtrodden; and in every place where they founded a settlement, they did their Of this there can be no doubt whatever. best to realize this aim. In another aspect, also, this appeal is notable. It was made by the accredited representatives of the most successful agency at work in our midst to-day for the actual welding-together into a type almost tribal or national in character people of diverse origins and instincts, transforming them, as already mentioned, into a " peculiar people " in the highest acceptation of the term. Some such agency at work among us should serve a wonderful use in bringing our armies of immigrants to conform to an ** American type," instead of embarrassing us, as at present, to provide for the diverse interests, sentiments and habits of peoples, apparently irreconcilably antagonistic to each other, and to If Smith and his associates the mass in which they are found. went to this length " to make money," as some stupid critics still allege, may we have more such " money-makers " among us. They are the kind of ** capitalists " very sorely needed at the present time. Nevertheless, in spite of all efforts, and in spite of the great faith and courage of the actual workers in the " upbuilding of Zion," there were sore embarrassments encountered in the work. Thus, many of the English converts who gathered at Nauvoo were greatly distressed for lack of work, which matter is mentioned by the Prophet in his journal, under date June 13, 1843, where the following entry occurs "Attended a general council in the lodge room to devise ways and means to furnish the poor with labor. Many of the English Saints have gathered to Nauvoo, most of whom are unacquainted with any kind of labor, except spinning, weaving, etc.; and having no factories in this place, they are troubled to know what to do. Those who have funds have more generally neglected to gather, and left the poor to build up the city and the kingdom of God in these last days." History of the
Church,
It

Vol

V., p. 25.

critics will find it possible to blame Smith for such conditions, precisely as they blame the Mormons of the present day, for representing the possibilities and advantages of their American settlements altogether too favorably to prospective immigrants. must not forget, however, that we are considering no " real estate " or colonization enterprises, but, precisely, an order which, in the minds of its directors and agents, has been founded and is being conducted under the direct command of the Almighty. Thus, in such circumstances, as in his explanation of the Missouri persecutions. Smith upbraids the people for their " lack of faith and obedience," which, as he

may

be that some

We

S2
states,

THE REAL MORMONISM

are the real occasions for the withdrawal of divine favor protection. This may seem a severe characterization for people who endured the hardships suffered by the Mormons in Missouri; but it is recorded that there were many examples of

and

defection

among them
et al.

Marsh, Hdye,

— notably of several of the Apostles, — and that Smith himself bore the brunt of

much

of the severest trouble suffered by his people.

His experi-

ence seems to have agreed with that of other professed advocates of righteousness, in the fact that he found human nature a " refractory material." Thus, four days previous to making the entry above quoted he had delivered an address before the Female
Relief Society, which
" President Joseph
is reported, in part, as follows: Smith opened the meeting by prayer, and then addressed the congregation on the design of the institution. " It is one evidence that men are unacquainted with the principles of godliness to behold the contraction of affectionate feelings and lack of charity in the world. The power and glory of godliness is spread out on a broad principle to throw out the mantle of charity. God does not look on sin with allowance, but when men have sinned, there must be allowance made for them. "All the religious world is boasting of righteousness: it is the doctrine of the devil to retard the human mind, and hinder our progress, by
. .

.

us with self-righteousness. The nearer we get to our heavenly Father, the more we are disposed to look with compassion on perishing souls; we feel that we want to take them upon our shoulders, and cast their sins behind our backs. My talk is intended for all this society; if you would have God have mercy on you, have mercy on one another. " President Smith then referred them to the conduct of the Savior,
filling

the Lord, saying that that in the secret place for life, every day of their lives, shall live to three score years and ten. must walk uprightly all the day long. How glorious are the principles of are full of selfishness ; the devil flatters us that we righteousness can are very righteous, when we are feeding on the faults of others. only live by worshipping our God ; all must do it for themselves none can do it for another. How mild the Savior dealt with Peter, saying, When thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.' At another time, He said to him, 'Lovest thou me?* and having received Peter's reply. He said, * the sisters loved the Lord, let them feed the sheep, Feed my sheep.' and not destroy them. How oft have wise men and women sought to dictate (to) Brother Joseph by saying, * O, if I were Brother Joseph, I would do that and that; but if they were in Brother Joseph's shoes they would find that men or women could not be compelled into the kingdom of God, but must be dealt with in long-suffering, and at last we shall save them. The way to keep all the Saints together, and keep the work rolling, is to wait with all long-suffering, till God shall bring such characters to justice. There should be no license for sin, but mercy should go hand in hand with reproof. "Sisters of the society, shall there be strife among you? I will not have it. You must repent and get the love of God. Away with selfrighteousness. The best measure or principle to bring the poor to re-

when He was taken and crucified, etc. " He then made a promise in the name of soul who has righteousness enough to ask God

We

!

We

We
*

;

H

'

:

LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE
^H 1^
IS

83

not only to relieve the poor, but to save souls. Smith then said that he would give a lot of land to the society by deeding to the treasurer, that the society may build houses for the poor."-— Ibid., pp, 23-25.
" President

Nor can we doubt that the appeal of the Prophet, here reported in but fragmentary form, met with the ready and generous answer that has been the wont of this worthy organization, founded by him, when, as he remarked, " I will now open the door for woman." It is claimed that, in the foundation of the Woman's Relief Society, as it is now known, was formed the first organization of women for benevolent purposes, in known The Prophet was a pioneer here, as in other matters. history. Strange that it takes a man, so widely and persistently abused as a mere " impostor," to be thus a pioneer in good works There are several vivid contrasts between Calvin's rule at Geneva and Calvin was a sort of " prophet " and Joseph Smith's rule in Nauvoo (the '* City Beautiful ") ; and this is one of them. As we may have guessed, also, there are yet others. However great may have been Smith's " ignorance " ; however halting and ungrammatical may have been his speech; however " uncouth " and '* self-assertive " his manner ; however much his
!

conversation may 6ave abounded in the " puerile and even shocking" things remarked by Mr. Quincy, the fact remains that he sought to realize the happy consummations for humanity that others have only dreamed of, and called *' Utopian " i.e., " things that happen in Nowhere " and actually inspired able men and earnest women to help him realize his dreams of justice and righteousness. On several occasions he repeated the statement that God intended His Church to be " a kingdom of priests and kings," and this simple suggestion inspired many of his foremost associates to '* take him literally,'* and really try to manifest priestly and kingly traits. There was something heroic about this. It strongly reminds one of Tullidge's forceful re-

marks
"

:

strange religion indeed, that meant something more than faith and prayers and creeds. An empire-founding religion, as we have said, religion, in fact, that meant all this religion of a Latter-day Israel. that the name of Latter-day Israel' implies. Out of Egypt the seed of promise, to become a peculiar people, a holy nation, with a distinctive God and a distinctive destiny. Out of modern Babylon, to repeat the same Hebraic drama in the latter age. Mormon Iliad in every view." The Women of Mormondom, p. 68.

A

A

*

.

.

.

A

" in exhortation worthy to rank if not in an " Iliad " epic of faith " is found in the " Epistle of the Twelve to the Saints in America," issued under date, April 12, 1842. It

An

some

contains the following passages

84

THE REAL MORMONISM

" Brethren, the Temple will be built. There are hundreds and thousands who stand ready to sacrifice the last farthing they possess on the earth rather than have the building of the Lord's house delayed, and while this spirit prevails no power beneath the heavens can hinder its progress: but we desire you all to help with the ability which God has given you; that you may all share the blessings which will distil from heaven to earth through this consecrated channel. " This is not all. It will be in vain for us to build a place where the Son of Man may lay his head, and leave the cries of the widow and the fatherless unheard by us, ascending up to the orphan's God and widow's Friend. It is in vain, we cry Lord, Lord, and do not the things our Lord hath commanded; to visit the widow, the fatherless, the sick, the lame, the blind, the destitute, and minister to their necessities; and it is but reasonable that such cases should be found among a people who have but recently escaped the fury of a relentless mob on the one hand, and gathered from the half-starved population of the scattered nations on the
other. " Neither is this all. It is not sufficient that the poor be fed and no, when all this clothed, the sick ministered unto, the Temple built is accomplished, there must be a year of Jubilee; there must be a day of rejoicing; there must be a time of release to Zion's sons, or our offerings, our exertions, our hopes, and our prayers will be in vain, and God will not accept of the doings of His people. " On these days of darkness which overspread our horizon ; when the

wolf was howling for his prey around the streets of Kirtland; when was committing his midnight and midday depredations in Jackson County; when the heartless politician was thrusting his envious darts in Clay County and when the savage war whoop, echoed and reechoed through Far West, and Zion's noblest sons were chained in dungeons, and her defenseless daughters driven by a horde of savages, from their once peaceful homes, to seek a shelter in a far distant land many of the brethren stepped forward to their rescue, and not only expended all they possessed for the relief of suffering innocence, but gave their notes and bonds to obtain more means, with which to help those who could not escape the overwhelming surge of banishment from all
the burglar

*

that they possessed

on

earth.*

"To accomplish this, the President and Bishops loaned money and such things as could be obtained, and gave their obligations in good faith for the payment of the same; and many of the brethren signed with them at different times and in different places, to strengthen their hands and help them carry out their designs; fully expecting, that, at some future day, they would be enabled to liquidate all such claims, to the satisfaction of all parties. " Many of these claims have already been settled many have been given up as cancelled by those who held them, and many yet remain unThe Saints have had many difficulties to encounter since they settled. arrived at this place. In a new country, destitute of houses, food, clothing, and nearly all the necessaries of life, which were rent from them having to encounter disease and difficulties unby an unfeeling mob numbered, it is not surprising that the Church has not been able to liquidate all such claims, or that many individuals should yet remain involved, from the foregoing circumstances; and while things remain as they are, and men remain subject to the temptations of evil as they now are, the day of release, and year of jubilee cannot be and we write you especially at this time, brethren, for the purpose of making a final settle;

;

LAWGIVER AND EXECUTIVE
I
J.

85

|.

'J-

f
'',

J
'/

i
:Y

ment of all such claims, of brother against brother ; of brethren against the Presidency and Bishops, etc. ; claims which have originated out of the difficulties and calamities the Church has had to encounter, and which are of long standing, so that when the Temple is completed, there will be nothing from this source to produce jars, and discords, strifes and animosities, so as to prevent the blessings of heaven descending upon us as a people. "To accomplish this most desirable object, we call on all the brethren who hold such claims, to bring them forward for a final settlement; and also those brethren who have individual claims against each other, of long standing, and the property of the debtor has been wrested from him by violence, or he has been unfortunate, and languished on a bed of sickness and all claims whatsoever between brother till his means are exhausted and brother, where there is no reasonable prospect of a just and equitable settlement possible, that they also by some means, either by giving up their obligations, or destroying them, see that all such old affairs be adjusted, so that it shall not give occasion for difficulties to arise hereafter. Yes, brethren, bring all such old accounts, notes, bonds, etc., and make a consecration of them to the building of the Temple, and if anything can be obtained on them, it will be obtained and if nothing can be obtained, when the Temple is completed, we will make a burnt offering of them, even a peace offering, which shall bind the brethren together in the bonds of eternal peace, and love and union; and joy and salvation shall flow forth into your souls, and you shall rejoice and say it is good that we have barkened unto counsel, and set our brethren free, for God hath blessed us. "How can we prosper while the Church, while the Presidency, while the Bishops, while those who have sacrificed everything but life, in this Arise, thing, for our salvation, are thus encumbered? It cannot be. then, brethren, set them free, and set each other free, and we will all be History of the Church, Vol. IV., free together, we will be free indeed." PP' 591-593.
;
;

However, as if to emphasize the " other side " of this matter, which there might seem to be a danger that injustice might be done, the epistle closes with this paragraph, which effectually " absolves its authors from all suspicion of " interested motives
in in the

premises:

" Let nothing in this epistle be so construed as to destroy the validity of contracts, or give any one license not to pay his debts. The commandment is to pay every man his dues, and no man can get to heaven who justly owes his brother or his neighbor, who has or can get the means and will not pay it; it is dishonest, and no dishonest man can enter

where God

is."

That the Church also discharged and forgave all indebtedness to it, on the part of its members is altogether probable, although the details of the matter have not been preserved. On the occaanother " Jubilee," however, thirty-seven years later, fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Church was celebrated in 1880, the Church authorities made the occasion memorable by canceling the entire outstanding indebtedness incurred by numerous immigrants to Utah for expenses paid out of the Perpetual Immigration Fund. The rule was that the
sion

of

when the

86

THE REAL MORMONISM

prospective emigrant from Europe, or other part, received his expenses of transportation, on signing a contract to " reimburse the same, in labor or otherwise, as soon as their circumstances will admit," making payment in full, " with interest if required." some anti"That these obligations were never rigorously pressed Mormon writers to the contrary notwithstanding is witnessed by the fact that by the year 1880, the unpaid principal of indebtedness to this fund amounted in the church to the sum of $704,000 and if interest on this outstanding indebtedness (had been charged) during the years it the could legitimately have drawn interest at the rate of ten per cent. that interest would have usual rate in the west previous to 1880 amounted to $900,000; making a total of principal and interest of $1,604,000. Yet instead of oppressively seeking to collect this amount, the Fund Company in the year 1880 the year known in our annals as the Year of one half Jubilee, the Church then having been in existence fifty years of this principle and interest was cancelled, being applied on the indebtedness of the worthy poor, they being wholly set free from the obligaB. H. Roberts, History of the Mormon Church, Chap. tion of payment." Ixxvii. {Americana Magazine, N. Y., Nov., 1912.)

;

Such precepts and performances as are noted above certainly go very far toward establishing the contention that the Mormon Church really represented, on these occasions, at least, a stablyorganized and fraternal body of people. In these respects it embodied a realization of high ideals of social and moral reorganization of mankind, which should be the rule among intelligent human beings, instead of the exceptional possession of any one set of people whatsoever. Nor can there be a doubt in any

mind that, although the principles of human brotherhood and mutual helpfulness are a part of the teachings of Christ, which the world has known for eighteen hundred years, they were brought to practical operation in a society of people
reflecting

professing Christianity, solely through the influence of Joseph Smith.

CHAPTER
On

VII

JOSEPH SMITH AS A STATESMAN AND REFORMER
questions of current political importance Smith's opinions have been both intelligent and statesmanlike, if we are to He seems to have believe the testimony of contemporaries. been particularly interested in discussing slavery, a live topic in his lifetime, and to have shared the opinion of many of the wisest minds that its abolishment was a necessity. His known attitude on this subject, and the opinions of many of his converts, who came largely from the New England and middle states, is alleged by some as the real grounds for much of the violent opposition While this opinion may be to the Mormon people in Missouri. partially correct as applied to that state, it is less valid as explanation of the violent doings in Ohio and Illinois. It is not wholly improbable that a large part of Mr. Quincy's friendly feeling for Smith was due to the latter's anti-slavery opinions. Thus, in the book quoted above, Quincy relates of a conversation with Smith: " We then went on to talk of politics. Smith recognized the curse and iniquity of slavery, though he opposed the methods of the Abolitionists. His plan was for the nation to pay for the slaves from the sale of the public lands. Congress,' he said, should be compelled to take this course, by petitions from all parts of the country; but the petitioners must disclaim all alliance with those who would disturb the rights of property recognized by the Constitution and foment insurrection.' It may be worth while to remark that Smith's plan was publicly advocated, eleven years later, by one who has mixed so much practical shrewdness *" with his lofty philosophy. In 1855, when men's minds had been moved to their depths on the question of slavery, Mr. Ralph Waldo Emerson declared that it should be met in accordance with the interest of the South and with the settled conscience of the North. It is not really a great task, a great fight for this country to accomplish, to buy that property of the planter, as the British nation bought the West Indian slaves.' He further says that the United States will be brought to give every

seem

to

*

*

fe'

'

*

inch of their public lands for a purpose like this.' We, who can look back upon the terrible cost of the fratricidal war which put an end to slavery, now say that such a solution of the difficulty would have been worthy a Christian statesman. But if the retired scholar was in advance of his time when he advocated this disposition of the public property in 185s, what shall I say of the political and religious leader who

87

88

THE REAL MORMONISM
in print, as well as in conversation, to the

had committed himself,

same

course in 1844? If the atmosphere of men's opinions was stirred by such a proposition when war-clouds were discernible in the sky, was it not a statesmanlike word eleven years earlier, when the heavens looked
tranquil
^,

and beneficent?

General Smith proceeded to unfold still further his views upon politics. He denounced the Missouri Compromise as an unjustifiable conces-

"

sion for the benefit of slavery. It was Henry Clay's bid for the presidency. Dr. Goforth might have spared himself the trouble of coming to Nauvoo to electioneer for a duellist who would fire at John Randolph, but was not brave enough to protect the Saints in their rights as American citizens. Clay had told his people to go to the wilds of Oregon and set up a government of their own. Oh, yes, the Saints might go into the wilderness and obtain justice of the Indians, which imbecile, timeserving politicians would qot give them in the land of freedom and equalThe Prophet then talked of the details of government. He thought ity. that the number of members admitted to the Lower House of the Nacrowd only darkened counsel tional Legislature should be reduced. member to every half million of population and impeded business. would be ample. The powers of the President should be increased. He should have authority to put down rebellion in a state, without waiting for the request of any governor; for it might happen that the governor himself would be the leader of the rebels. It is needless to remark how later events showed the executive weakness that Smith pointed out, a weakness which cost thousands of valuable lives and millions of treasure; but the man mingled Utopian fallacies with his shrewd suggestions. He talked as from a strong mind utterly unenlightened by the teachings of history. Finally, he told us what he would do, were he •President of the United States, and went on to mention that he might one day so hold the balance between parties as to render his election to that office by no means unlikely." Figures of the Past, pp. 397-399.

A

A

Apropos of Mr. Quincy's outright comparison of the views of Joseph Smith with those of so able a thinker as Emerson, it seems in place to remark that, with his inevitable mental bias,
of the successful performances, already mentioned, might have been classed among the " Utopian fallacies," as also the apparent over-confidence of himself and his coadjutors, which, in any other people, would undoubtedly be attributed to an allsufficient ** faith." People who beheve that they have a mission from God to do any works, great or small, usually exhibit qualities closely

many

suggestive of " over-confidence."

In such a category

one might reasonably place the famous philanthropist, George Muller, who, if reports are correct, actually fed and clothed several hundred orphans in, his asylum on the " answers " given to the prayers of childlike faith. As to whether Smith's mind was ** utterly unenlightened by the teachings of history," we must admit, on Quincy's own testimony, that his suggestions, for the most part, seem to have partaken of a larger wisdom than the " teachings of history " would seem to have imparted to those who finally dealt with the question of slavery and its abolishor Emerson's, if you prefer ment. Had Smith's suggestions

I

STATESMAN AND REFORMER

89

history
Civil

been actually put into practice, the reader of United States would have been spared the shocking story of the great

War,

the tedious recountal of the

wanton

spoliation of the

Southern states by government agents and unofficial scoundrels and " carpet-baggers," and the squalid chapter of negro domination in Alabama, and other states, as the result of mere bigotry, self -righteousness and " reforming paranoia," all of which are miserably worse than the largest accusations made against Smith and Mormonism. Although chattel slavery may be an unmitiand it is not wholly evident that it is abolished, gated evil the planters of the Southern states purchased even to-day their slaves in " good faith," and, on the whole, cared for them far better than many managers of " big enterprises " care for their employes at the present time; and there can be no doubt, from the standpoint of strict justice, that they should have been reimbursed when their " property " was taken from them. This ** utis one of the axiomatic truths recognized only by a mind terly unenlightened by the teachings of history." In another matter, also, Smith's views on the slavery problem showed a degree of wisdom greatly in advance of the agitators of his time. Thus, under date, January 2, 1843, ^^ records: " At five went to Mr. Sollars' with Elders Hyde and Richards. Elder Hyde inquired the situation of the negro. I replied, they came into

— —

the world slaves, mentally and physically. Change their situation with the whites, and they would be like them. They have souls, and are subGo into Cincinnati or any city, and find an edujects of salvation. cated negro, who rides in his carriage, and you will see a man who has risen by the powers of his own mind to his exalted state of respectability. The slaves in Washington are more refined than many in high places, and the black boys will take the shine off many of those they brush and wait on. " Elder Hyde remarked, * Put them on the level, and they will rise above me.' I replied, if I raised you to be my equal, and then attempted to oppress you, would you not be indignant and try to rise above me, as did Oliver Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, and many others, who said I was a fallen Prophet, and they were capable of leading the people, although I never attempted to oppress them, but had always been lifting them up? Had I anything to do with the negro, I would confine them by strict law to their own species, and put them on a national equalization." History of the Church, Vol. V., pp,

^.

f^^

217-218.

Smith's utterances on the slavery question were, of course, merely expressions of opinion from an intelligent and observant citizen, without further significance, as he himself seems to recognize.

The

vicissitudes of his

own

position as leader of his

Church and people, and as the constant target of disorderly agitators, and the subject of numerous attempts at prosecution and persecution by an official clique in the State of Missouri, had

story of the Mormon sojourn in both Missouri and nothing other than a humiliating comment on the kind of governmental efficiency that obtained at the midde of the nineNor is it an answer in any sense to catalogue a teenth century. particularly also. such as mining strikes. was understood to constitute a bar to interference by the Federal Government. such acts. as is not the case here. as it seems. against the Mormons themselves." and Nor could regrets that justice is not allowed to take its course. in where interstate commerce was threatened. as it must seem from the point of view of the present understanding of the matter. so miserably rampant both in this country and in England.. who had been whipped into frenzy by wanton agitators. That this understanding of the matter no longer holds is evidenced by the frequent use.90 THE REAL MORMONISM already forced him into the arena of national politics. lot of alleged acts of treason. He had appealed to Congress and to the President to take some measures to compel the State of Missouri to reimburse the Mormon people for the destruction of their property and the murder of their by drunken and unlawful mobs. and the like. Smith could obtain no redress from the day. merely because. him with stones. both " religious " and political. there be any other verdict in the matter. as ingeniously argued by a certain Southern advocate of this method of " justice." which. immorality. he was afraid The whole Illinois is ' . robbery." '* outraged derers and ravishers are done to death by mobs of citizens. merely local disorders. he was justly aggrieved.* " It is also a sad comment on the righteousness of partisan politics. Federal Government. etc. in the role of petitioner seeking redress for undoubted grievances. violence. but found himself faced by the then popular fetich of " state rights. disorder. As any reasonable and informed person will admit. in recent years. and. unless." the public sentiment protests against " lynch law. even when proved beyond dispute. furnish no warrant by which the people can be justified " in taking the matter Even in cases in which atrocious murinto their own hands. even with the most aggravated disorders and insurrections. after reading the history of the times." " lynching is the divinely-revealed method of dealing with the people shall stone capital crime since the Bible specifies. as we must say. of United States troops to put down strike relatives I disorders. That the understanding of the doctrine of " state sovereignty " should extend the privilege to state governors and legislators to connive at such disorders as occurred in Missouri during a term of several years would not be allowed at the present Nevertheless. that any holder of a public office should hesitate to take measures to put down disorder.

and voted unani- mously — will have an independent electoral ticket. even if a " forlorn hope. to vote for the re-election of President Van Buren a man who criminally neglected his duties as chief magistrate in the cold and unblushing manner which he did. 1844. consented to accept nomination for the Presidency of the United States. when appealed to for aid in the Missouri difficulties. as he states. and that we use all honorable means in our power to secure his election. and to be protected from the later finding that the activities of disorderly mobs. it must be insisted that his actions and expressions at this time evidence nothing of the kind. it is with very doubtful accuracy or justice. that Smith and his people are variously accused. he records: " At ten. his sentiments and cool contempt of the people's rights are manifested in his reply—"'Fom had better go to Oregon for redress/ which would prohibit any true lover of our constitutional privil^es from supporting him at the ballot-box. lynchers and marauders of any variety.. the proposed petition to Congress. also. to take into considera- tion the proper course for this people to pursue in relation to the coming Presidential election. Twelve Apostles. was theatening them in Illinois. Clay. in all justice and consistency.— STATESMAN AND REFORMER pto 91 jeopardize his own political future by opposing mobbers.* "As to Mr. of seeking " seditiously " to found governments independent of both state and nation. However. to make the city of Nauvoo. As we shall see later. the Prophet. and that Joseph Smith be a candidate for the next Presidency. January 29. but. — "It was therefore moved by Willard Richards. "The candidates for the office of President of the United States at present before the people are Martin Van Buren and Henry Clay." There is at least nothing seditious about it. in justice to themselves. parading under the disguise of political and social righteousness. Having been obliged to withdraw from Missouri. but I can do of every true friend of liberty nothing for you. and same kind of wanton agitation. even to the present time. to " explain " his own conduct in the Mormon disorders in his state." As may be understood from the foregoing. Thus. But the matter never came to anything. "That we . M. as the direct result of failure to obtain justice from accredited authorities and tribunals. It is morally impossible for this people. but succeeds very poorly in justifying his failure to ** preserve the peace. federal territory. His heartless reply burns like a firebrand in the breast 'Your cause is just. under date. the and John P. even of religion. must seem reasonable. together with Brother Hyrum met at the mayor's office. A. Greene. and its environs. Governor Thomas Ford attempted by elaborate and specious argument. Several ill-informed writers have attempted to allege this act as evidence of his derangement.

because of our religion. if I and piy friends could have had the privilege of enjoying our religious and civil rights as American citizens. . I will protect the people in their rights and liberties. . . pp. Pay them two dollars and their board per diem (except Sundays). he proceeds to make sundry recommendations. have since been adopted in some. and no portion of the Government as yet has stepped forward for our relief. and he lives honestly. it is unfortunate that they were not adopted. And in view of these things. cers of Government in pay. In the meantime. and power. 210-21 1. dential chair the first slide. as already suggested. which are interesting historically. pp."— /5irf. for the protection of injured innocence. and if I lose my life in a good cause I am willing to be sacrificed on the altar of virtue. in maintaining the laws and Constitution of the United States.. Tell the people we have had Whig and Democratic Presidents long enough: we want a President of the United States. still seems He recommends partly. like peals of thunder. tioneer and make stump speeches. from portions of the United States. But this as a people we have been denied from the beginning. under date. That Curtail the offiis more than the farmer gets. Vol." "If you attempt to accomplish . I feel it to be my right and privilege to obtain what influence and power I can. lawfully. righteousness and truth. and deploring the gradual decay and corruption of American ideals. advocate the purity of elections. '* Views of the Powers and Policy of the Government of the United States." upon which he based his candidacy. you must send every man in the city who is able to speak in public throughout the land to elecMormon religion. One week later. for the Philistine entitled . even those rights which the Constitution guarantees unto all her citizens alike. 187-188. If I ever get into the presidential chair. . no otherwise. There is oratory enough in the Church to carry me into the presiHistory of the Church." which may be called the " platform. and. Persecution has rolled upon our heads from time to time. VI. for the general good of mankind. Two Senators from a State and two members to a million of population will do more business than the army that now occupy the halls of the national Legislature. if need be. Smith had prepared his famous pamphlet. " Reduce Congress at least two-thirds. or candidate for that office. if. After reviewing the principles and practices of the earlier presidents. as follows to be so..— : 92 "I said THE REAL MORMONISM — * ' this. and I will attend as many as convenient. February 8. number. "After the April Conference we will have General Conferences all over the nation. The Whigs are striving for a king under the garb of Democracy. in others again he was evidently ahead of his times. 1844. . in the United States. he addressed a meeting as follows: " I would not have suffered my name to have been used by my friends on anywise as President of the United States. . and call upon the people to stand by the law and put down mobocracy. as we may regret. In some particulars his recommendations indeed.

" The net gain of the mother bank shall be applied to the national revenue. when they make laws for larceny. where intelligence. . with all his ferocity. which several banks shall never issue any more bills than the amount of capital stock in her vaults and the interest. ye goodly inhabitants of the slave States. and " glary. 93 its goodly locks in the lap of De- . the author of perfection. and the States authority to repeal and impugn that relic of folly which makes it necessary for the Governor of a State to make the demand of the President for troops. Abolish the practice in the army and navy of trying men by court-martial for desertion. public works. and that of the branches to the States' and Territories' revenues. leave the people's money in their own pockets. in case of invasion or rebellion. confidence. towns. " For the accommodation of the people in every State and Territory. . and by the States and Territories for the branches and whose officers and directors shall be elected yearly by the people. ". Let the penitentiaries be turned into seminaries of learning. which will mercifully cure that fatal disorder known in cities as brokerage. "Give every man his constitutional freedom and the President full power to send an army to suppress mobs. frank. could rejoice when he put his foot on the sacred soil of freedom. and the neighbor from any State or from any country. with wages at the rate of two dollars per day for services. And the bills shall be par throughout the nation. let Congress show their wisdom by granting a national bank. . would banish such fragments of barbarism. like a kingdom of kings and priests. Advise your legislators. would beget esteem. and more honesty and familiarity in societies. and become more enlightened. would make less hypocrisy and flattery in all branches of the community. Murder only can claim confinement or death. . union and love. and open. and country. . also. and exclaim. and as just and holy for heaven. and be respected as wise and worthy on earth. buror any felony. and save the abolitionist from reproach and ruin. Rigor and seclusion will never do as much to reform the propensities of men as reason and friendship. your legislators to abolish slavery by the year 1850. send him his wages. by Jehovah.STATESMAN AND REFORMER lords have shorn our nation of lilah. " Petition. . more equality through the cities. Imprisonment for debt is a meaner practice than Amor vincit omnia* the savage tolerates. infamy and shame. would make less distinction among the people. and the whole nation. clime or tongue. candid decorum to all men. of whatever color. . " Pray Congress to pay every man a reasonable price for his slaves out of the surplus revenue arising from the sale of public lands. or any place where the culprit can be taught more wisdom and more virtue. . Be sure that good is rendered for evil in all cases. with this instruction. will rise up in righteousness. where the capital stock shall be held by the nation for the mother bank. and from the deduction of pay from the members of Congress. in this boasted land of liberty. with branches in each State and Territory. like the angels of heaven. or now. " More economy in the National and State governments would make less taxes among the people. If a soldier or marine runs away. The very name of 'American' is fraught with friendship. "Make honor the standard with all men. . he has forfeited His honor. that his country will never trust him again. to make the penalty applicable to work upon roads.

come. — . and who has promised that He will come and purify the world again with fire in the last days. They will help to rid so free a country of every vestige of slavery. whenever they are assured of an equivalent for their property. And when the right arm of freemen is stretched out in the character of a navy for the protection of rights. I would use my best endeavors to have their prayers answered. with a million or more. that they might extend the mighty efforts and enterprise of a free people from the east to the west sea. that the whole nation might be free indeed! " When the people petitioned for a National Bank. "The Governor himself may be a mobber. let the iron eyes of power watch from Maine to Mexico. and make them the controllers of And when the people petitioned to possess the its ways and means. I would use all honorable means to have their prayers granted. . rights. and open the hearts of all people. and let reason and friendship reign over the ruins of ignorance and barbarity. and refuse not the same friendly grip to Canada and Mexico. let and let there be a universal peace. for murder or treason. and honor. . all the world. give her the right hand of fellowship. " In the United States the people are the Government. on the land and on the sea. Canada.94 THE REAL MORMONISM . "Abolish the cruel custom of prisons (except certain cases). open the prisons. us be iDrethren. And when a neighboring realm petitioned to join yea. as he should be. and property he should protect. Oregon belongs to this Government honorably. and give liberty to the captive by paying the Southern gentlemen a reasonable equivalent for their property. open the eyes. open the ears. yea. come. and their united voice is the only sovereign that should rule. should be supplicated by me for the good of all people. Territory of Oregon. and when that people petitioned to abolish slavery in the slave States. as the universal friend of man. . whose Son laid down His life for the salvation of all His Father gave him out of the world. he may destroy the very lives. I would walk in the tracks of the illustrious patriots who carried the ark of the Government upon their shoulders with an eye single to the glory of the people. let the Union spread from the east to the west sea. by the voice of a virtuous people. and a State Bank in every State. and make the wilderness blossom as the rose. Come Texas. and establish one on national principles to save taxes. Mexico. were I the President of the United States. . wisdom would direct no tangling alliance. and come. come. and the only gentlemen that should be honored at home and abroad. . and God. " As to the contiguous Territories to the United States. I would lend the influence of a Chief Magistrate to grant so reasonable a request. court-martials for desertion. as in the coffers of a speculating banker or broker. who once cleansed the violence of the earth with a flood. commerce. "The Southern people are hospitable and noble. . . The country will be full of money and confidence when a National Bank of twenty millions. and instead of being punished." . the only power that should be obeyed. I would. penitentiaries. and make a circulating medium as valuable in the purses of a whole community. to behold and enjoy freedom unadulterated freedom. . I would honor the old paths of the venerated fathers of freedom. or any other contiguous Territory. and when we have the red man's consent. my voice would be. — . give a tone to monetary matters. Wherefore. and from California to Columbia. . and if Texas petitions Congress to be adopted among the sons of liberty. the unioij of the sons of liberty.

and ever forget the fatal impediment to be encountered in the " inertia " of human depravity." as previously noted. these " inalienable rights " were through them about to be safeguarded to evidently a good case of " Utopian fallacy. Idealists invariably manifest supreme faith in their ideals. its Such sentences could be — " You will. which. he was an idealist of the most confirmed type. this document is preeminently thfe work of an idealist. and reap the reward in the thankfulness of nations. must seem. Thus. That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends. and to institute new Government. Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness." It all mankind is evident. that Smith's protest against governmental corruptions is no more Utopian than Jefferson's Declaration. held high ambitions to make his own administration ideally fruitful. should be exclusively " political. that among these are Life." consideration of matters peculiarly religious. like Joseph Smith. in some fashion. As the candid reader must agree. or. His is the same order of " idealism " as that which wrote into our Declaration of Independence the memorable — men — words hold these truths to be self-evident. it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it. as well as all individual consistent and all-sufficient. ing human society. as to them shall seem most likely to effect their "We Safety and Happiness. thus furnishing the real ground for his remarks on " Utopian fallacies." seems. nor any more fatuous than the expressions found in Jefferson's letter to Thomas Paine. it is my sincere prayer." he says. at the least. "to speak as from a strong mind utterly unenlightened Jeflferson. theological and moral.: I On it STATESMAN AND REFORMER 95 reading this manifesto. In these it will be your glory to have steadily labored. and with as much effect as any man living. " find us returning to sentiments worthy of former times. that all men are created equal. he interpolates into a document. Every idealist. That to secure these rights. the conviction occurs strongly that must have been read by Josiah Quincy. laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form. also. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights. that its substance must have been imparted to him in conversations by Smith. also. and. Governments are instituted among men." because injected into a political document only authors believed that. as for Paine. as . deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That you may live long to continue your useful labors. the immione whose faith in the principles for which he stood nence of God's providential activities in reorganizing and redeemis constant. which has acted hitherto to thwart the noblest designs of the greatest minds. also. by all precedents. in general. written on the occasion of his own accession to the Presidency.

" must. before a perfect. certainty. tend to confirm the opinion that between the ideal and the practicable." the ideal seems the more important consideration. until Mr.— 96 THE REAL MORMONISM by the teachings of history. Such a document as the above sheds a most important light upon the motives and opinions of Joseph Smith." as we are constrained to call it. who believe that this sublime consummation awaits only the inculcation and acceptance of true and philosophical views of life. suggesting in no particular that it exhibited " presumption. somehow. " General Smith possesses no such fastidious delicacy. He says to the south that he has not sufficiently examined the present tariff. but insisted that it was invented on purpose to aid us in concealing them. He comes right out in favor of a bank and a tariff. several newspapers commented on Smith's nomination quite as a matter of course. "At present we can form no opinion of Clay's principles. with unwavering although enlightened intelligence . containing an extract of his principles. but thinks very likely it should be amended. and most of the virtues classed as both " ethical " and " moral. Clay say what kind of a tariff he is for. or who." or any of the other deSpringfield fects since " discovered " by unintelligent writers. so familiar at that day. the fact remains that the saner portion of the public was content to accept it as a bona-fide declaration of principles. supposing that its " idealism. taking the true Whig ground. or even an efficient. who denied that language was intended as a means to express one's ideas. However accurate our view of this pamphlet of Smith's may be. newspaper speaks as follows: "It appears by the Nauvoo papers that the Mormon Prophet is A actually a candidate for the presidency." " insanity. Clay can so far recover from his shuffling and dodging as to declare his sentiments like a man. . except as they are professed by his friends in these parts." indeed. that. Nor will Mr. " Clay himself has adopted the notion which was once entertained by an eminent grammarian. " there is a great gulf fixed " indicates. from which it appears that he is up to the hub for a United States bank and a protective tariff." Illinois Springfield Register. was only the flowery rhetoric and enthused oratory. but talks all the time of restoring a national currency. Clay. and ought to be regarded as the real Whig candidate for President. To men like Paine." These ''teachings. Thus. 1844. who will not say that he is for a bank. anticipate the speedy appearance of the King of kings " to rule the nations with a rod of iron. and of the mutual relations of man with man. although with both the " practical " is ably calculated. social order can eventuate before even the most obvious principles of right and justice can be made available the general average of intelligence and good will among human beings must be raised. like Smith. He has sent us his pamphlet. be embodied in — — the behavior of the majority. On these points he is much more explicit than Mr.

I have no reason to doubt but General Smith's integrity is equal to any other individual. had reason my — concerning him. Times and Seasons. he dives into every subject. and I am satisfied he cannot easily be made the plant tool of any political party. frank. in the following words see from the Nauvoo Neighbor that General Joseph Smith. and realms are wielded in his hand as familiarly as the top and hoop in the hands of their little masters.: — I STATESMAN AND REFORMER "We 97 Another contemporary newspaper comments with equal favor on the candidacy of the Prophet. integrity. 1844. governments. and from his conversation one might suppose him as well acquainted with other worlds as this. which with his^ familiar and dignified deportment towards all must secure to his interest the affections of every intelligent and virtuous man that may chance to fall in his way. I to believe him a bigoted religionist. ". and intelligence. and the man who will exalt the nation. as willing others should enjoy their opinions as to enjoy his own. but. that if superior talent. General Smith is the nation's man. to the National Convention.* will be a "The Missouri Republican believes that it will be death to Van Buren. or not. " Free from all bigotry and superstition. we conclude that he considers himself a full team for all of them. and enlarged views. are any guarantee of General Smith's being elected. From many reports. "General Smith's movements are perfectly anomalous in the esti- . and generous. as follows: "I have been conversant with the great men of the age. on the short acquaintas the savages. i This latter newspaper also quotes in extenso a letter from a person signing himself " Traveler." which had formerly been published in the Mormon magazine. the great Mormon Prophet. " The General appears perfectly at home on every subject. sir. and in the knowledge of that book I have not met with his equal in Europe or America. in the presence of your A General Joseph Smith. has become a candidate for the next do not know whether he intends to submit his claims presidency. and all agree that it must be injurious to the Democratic ranks. last of all I feel that I have met with the greatest. " All that we can say on this point is. and it seems as though the world was not large enough to satisfy his capacious soul. but judging from the language of his own organ. Although I should beg leave to differ with him in some items of faith. we think that he full team of himself. I have found him as familiar in the cabinet of nations as with his Bible. I find him open. genius. combined with virtue. and.. while nations." Iowa We ' - Democrat. and his familiarity with many languages affords him ample means to become informed concerning all nations and principles. to ance. and all parties will find a friend in him so far as right is concerned. inasmuch as it will throw the Mormon vote out of the field. No. and I am astonished that so little is known abroad esteemed Prophet. "So far as I can discover.. as ignorant of politics utter astonishment. if the people will give him the opportunity. I take him to be a man who stands far aloof from little caucus quibblings and squabblings. his nobleness of soul will not permit him to take offense at me.

on the theory that both Quincy and " Traveler. on the one hand. General aware this will appear Smith begins where other men leave off.Smith agency. has learned the all-imporfant lesson 'to profit by the experience of those who have gone before'. It is interesting to consider. the sine qua non of the age to our nation's prosperity. I have discovered neither vanity nor folly). at times. I consider General Smith (independent of his religious views. and best explain his doings. acquaintance. have furnished a truer picture of his personality and habits than those " secondhand authorities" and vengeful apostates. who confidently accuse him of being " an infamous and villainous deceiver and scoundrel. of course. I — my my He am a bold assertion to some but I would say to such. but this subject is too ridiculous to dwell upon. but I have frequently heard the General called a fool because he has gathered the wisest of men to his cabinet. " From brief acquaintance. in short. and of an altogether exceptional hatred and detestation. then judge. All of these elements are found in the history of Joseph Smith." impossible." who saw him in his later days. of the people adhering to its principles . both temporal and moral. on the other. to refute the probable accusation that his statements must have been inspired by some pro.98 THE REAL MORMONISM mation of the public. has operated wonderfully for the benefit. and more capable of managing the affairs of a State than most men now engaged therein. which I consider much to his credit. call. which. and form your In default of information as to the identity of this " Traveler. who direct his movements. as would likely express such sentiments as appear in the above-quoted pamphlet and who. also. in all probability. though I would by no means speak diminutively of old friend. A mented. would be the object of nearly prostrate devotion. as I have done. Suffice it to say. that he describes precisely the kind of man who would seem most capable of founding such a movement as Mormonism. actually deit is . so that. however." or else hold that " he was. he has wise men at his side superlatively wise." . so far as I have seen. such a man." . in which by-the-by. as we shall see later. All other men have been considered wise in drawing around them wise men.

have been of a character not so far removed from the commission of the very iniquities charged against them by Smith and the Church authorities. testifies to the rascality of BenSimilarly. hypothesis. even Governor Ford. On the other hand. the situation is embarrassed 99 . who added to his other vices his false pretensions as seems an a mere " quack. This is his apparently unfailing ability to make enemies. are compelled to notice another phase of his personality that seems to have had but scant attention from any of the various writers who have attempted to estimate him. that persons claiming ordinary decency of character should connive at them for so long a time. Bennett. as noted in a previous quotation.CHAPTER VIII JOSEPH SMITH IN HIS PERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS In completing our study of Smith's character and influence. — — to catch a thief. as to be " revolted at " the things alleged by themselves in turn. bitter and implacable enemies all. in the words of a certain noted journalist. It is surprising. who was transformed from the agent who secured the passage of he was also the first mayor of the city the Nauvoo charters into one of the bitterest enemies that Smith and Mormonism ever had but. who was no advocate of Smith's. since. that " he was such a sham himself that he was well qualified to detect sham in others. if we accept their testimony that such things are well known. were it not for the fact that a large and representative percentage of these people. on the hypothesis that they are true." on the classic principle of " setting a thief we — — ." in short a qualified physician incompetent witness against the promulgators of false assumptions." Some of the charges made by other apostates are so utterly vile as to seem their own best refutation. the father of the Spaulding nett. as must have been the case. It might be possible to assert with confidence that this quality indicated an "unfathomable depth of turpitude/* which was bound to revolt many of his associates. Philastus Hurlburt. they are of such a character as to revolt any one possessed of a spark of decency. unless we admit. Among such may be mentioned the notorious John C. and cause them to apostatize. if true.

was undoubtedly personal in character. who said I was a — " had always been lifting them up ? one acquainted with the states of mind. although in positions to know of all abominations " alleged by others. . about whom so much of an unfavorable character has been al: fallen prophet. even in those whose fortunes they have made. . it is difficult. Where In the case of Joseph Smith. Nor. Thus only can we discriminate wanton and wicked slander from anything worthy to rank as credible. need we be actuated by any motive favorable to Smith or his claims we need desire merely to derive an intelligent conception of the personality and influence of this man. likely to be found in a strong minded person. is alleged against any man. in making such a comparison. can derive a vivid conception of the relations of Smith and several of his dissatisfied coadjutors. . superlative wickedness. Thus. may be explained much of the bitterness manifested by Oliver Cowdery. and their reputations for veracity. Bennett. he was evidently a person of strong will and great people of other varieties are incapable of the determination Such people must frequently greatest influence in the world. on the part of Smith and the Church authorities. in a literal sense. is fair in such cases. Like all men capable of accomplishing large results.100 THE REAL MORMONISM by the fact that so goodly a proportion of clean. or against any set of people. John C. to deny its existence with any degree of confidence. demand implicit obedience from their associates and assistants. under frequently-recurring conditions. and other former advisers and confidants of Smith. and are liable. able and excellent people have never apostatized from their connection with this Church and its founder. Wilson Law. to excite bitter antagonism in the minds of even their closest associates. He seems to have described the situation accurately in a quotation formerly given. apart from the resentment at the vigorous denunciations of their own alleged wrong doings. of It course. as well as by outsiders. as may be safely asserted on any hypothesis regarding him. but I . and then attempted to oppress you. as did Oliver Cowdery. however. a greater part of the antagonism displayed by apostates. and many others. and the variety of No expressions. if such be assumed to the *' exist at all. in order to form a judgment for or against the probability of the conditions alleged by them. to consider the character of those who make the accusations. although I never attempted to oppress them. secretly practiced. Peter Whitmer. would you not be indignant and try to rise above me. saying: "If I raised you to be my equal. who believes that he has been grievously oppressed by some associate of his.

" I know to Whatever truth may be contained made by these deponents. the conclusion is also inevitable that they were actuated by some feelings of excessive bitterness against Smith. in at any of the allegations Richmond. and walk over their dead bodies. rather than to believe him so nearly impossibly wicked as many have foolishly sought to represent him may claim. in the main. The Prophet inbeing against moral and religious principles. at least. also. Here were two men who had occupied prominent positions in a body of people. however. culcates the notion. at that time in the midst of serious hardships.PERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS leged. involving . I have heard the Prophet say that he would yet tread down his enemies. Mo.' These last statements were made during the last summer. of course. by reasonable motives. loi and whose real significance to history is still a puzzle. of this band are much dissatisfied with this oath. who swore date. Many. who have taken an oath to support the heads of We the Church in all things that they say or do.' So should it be eventually with us Joseph Smith or the Sword. Marsh. . whose motto in treating for peace was. These statements were also supplemented by the sworn testimony struction of Orson Hyde. called the Danites. that Smith's prophesies are superior to the laws of the land. the remainder I believe to be true. and that he would make one gore of blood from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic ocean.. whether right or wrong. strongly suggests the kind of disaffection and antagonism that arises from some exaggerated sense of injustice suffered. speedily silenced through the agency of a " posse of indignant citizens." Such a conclusion seems well demonstrated when we consider the conditions under which the accusations were recorded. under October 24. if attacked by the regularly accredited Missouri mobs." as above quoted. and if he was not let alone. he would be a second Mohammed to this generation.tles. who alleged: "The most of the statements in the foregoing disclosure be true." . It seems clear. 'the Alcoran or the sword." the temptation is strong to attempt explaining him as a man possessed of ordinary good character and actuated. that the very bitterness of their accusations against Smith was grounded in some hope that he might be. once president of the Twelve apos. thus. that the following affito have been. >He states: "They have among them a company. we may reasonably be " astonished that so little is known abroad concerning him. perpetrating acts of a distinctly " seditious " character. While with the " Traveler. rather than by any desire to " right wrongs " or to make " reparation " of any description. 1838. as . * This document also alleges that there had been formed a " DeCompany." whose duty it was to bum several towns. that like Mohammed. davit of Thomas B. and it is believed by every true Mormon. in some way. considered true Mormons.

for some consideration. at this period. evidently quite other than children. ^e * For explanation of the persistent stories of " Danites. as it seems. which was called or known by this name. to carry them to any such brutal length. to the evident endangering of hundreds of defenseless women and children. under some certain condithe Twelve Apostion. on refusal to obey orders. are then people sworn represented under the new title of " Danites. numerous careless and prejudiced writers. their significance was certainly negligible. Marsh and Hyde thus vented their spleen. it must be admitted. occurred at about the same period in which Messrs. to "support the heads of the Church and the members of the "band" who are said to be " dissatis- — . that any order or society so called ever entertained the bloody and violent designs attributed to them. It is safe to assert that men who will allow their personal grievances. however. which is so vigorously denied in toto by Mormon writers. as they must have understood. have quoted this iniquitous document. they had withdrawn from the Church tles. The truth of the matter might reasonably be assumed to be that Marsh and Hyde had come to regard themselves as Smith's tools. as a " menace " of any description. . Nevertheless. which are circulated by opponents of the Mormon Church and system. in which Smith withstood certain mobbers dispatched to kill him.* or anti-Mormons." right or wrong". and the other close associates of the President. be they real or fancied. inaugurated an anti-Mormon movement of his own. in view of the facts of Mormon history. and quoted copiously from this and similar documents.103 THE REAL MORMONISM the constant jeopardy of property and life to numbers of their former friends and associates. There is no respectable evidence. that they were an extremely ineffective crowd of people. see Appendix I at back of the present volume. of lying and perjury. even though Smith himself might have been destroyed in the meanIt is interesting to note that the incident previously quoted time. apparently. are capable. If they did so organize and act. Notable among these was the late Schuyler Colfax." they utter an affidavit that. in a sense distasteful to themselves. either political or sectarian. Hyde and Marsh were the originators of the Danite story. together with their wives and Yet. also. Messrs. of these conditions. would inflame the disorderly elements still further against their former coreligionists. We may pause here to remark that there may have been a society among Mormons. Cannon's book. also that. In this affidavit. simple '' qualms of conscience. and hence." or destroying angels. and has been so persistently repeated and exaggerated by their opponents and detractors. — . who. for the purpose of achieving some advantage against the Mormons. from George Q. . utterly ignorant. in 1870.

at least. Such. apparently fearless of " Danites. for which there is space in such a book as the present one. however. who is fully occupied in carrying out his chosen mission. died there a few years later. who asks only that he may know the real truth of all matters involved. betrays an actual inspiration or genius that cannot but excite reverence. Smith is no less a surHis ability to influence his associates is prodigious. In the interest of simple intelligence. would be the ver- dict on many persons. and. within two years. rank him as a thinker and teacher of importance to the world. 1857. in which he seems to have actually grappled and solved the problems of society." Marsh also renewed his membership in the Church in July. and that late award may involve nothing other than according him a high place among thinkers. forgetful. even to the present day. leaders and re- . seventy years after his death.PERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS fied 103 cipally of the with this oath. nor entirely "against [his] moral and religious principles. That he is destined to receive justice at last is certain. It is notable. removing to Ogden. printwo deponents. The conditions were not entirely intolerable to him. Viewing his life record from the standpoint of the unprejudiced observer. In his writings he appears as an honest and straightforward man of large affairs and considerable responsibilities." are composed. must be sufficient to convince the candid reader that there is no one word that can justly describe him. that. although harassed constantly by inability to bring his designs to perfection. returned to the Church asking forgiveness. The number of particulars also. his success in imparting the spirit of his own convictions to other minds. at least. presumably situated as were these gentlemen. of " iniquitous Danite oaths '* and neo-Islamic boasts. while prise. who cannot be discredited by the slanders and misrepresentations of his almost unparalleled enemies. It was merely one of numerous examples in which Smith's enemies attempted to injure him in any available manner." The whole affair was concerned solely with personal animosity at the start. at the time of speaking. since it is quite certain that by unjust and preposterous misrepresentation nearly the most interesting American of the nineteenth century has been obscured to the view of all thinkers and students outside the limit of his own disciples. Hyde. the name of Joseph Smith should be rescued from its position as a synonym for all that is disreputable. Utah. so that they remain of vital and peculiar import. apparently. by the defection of trusted friends. who swore thus half-heartedly to Marsh's allegations. and the unflagging assaults of his constantly increasing enemies. Even the brief and cursory study of the character and career of Joseph Smith. with a reconciliation at the close.

perhaps. . Whitney give a fair example of the inspiration derived by his disciples from the record. By voice of God. whose acts are seven. — " I saw And "A living prophet unto dying time. Adown the glowing stairway of the stars? in vision such a one descend. "Wherefore came down this angel of the dawn. "Then was he one of those of the Mighty Descended from the Empire of the Sun. Nor knew it then the soul incarnate there. A And earth be joined a holy bride to heaven. Who wist not that a great one walked with men. His glory veiling from the gaze of all. or staggering into the quagmire of infidelity. That here the Father's work may crown the Son's. His part to fell the false. When potent weak confound the puny strong. throned. crowned. And The Light A kindle newly on earth's ancient shrine that points to Life unerringly. The ashes of its dead and dying creeds. — — The following stanzas by Orson F. by heavenly whisperings. Heralding the Dispensation of the End. and glorified.104 THE REAL MORMONISM one also who brings a distinct and well-needed mesformers if. In strength divine. indeed. pp. Yet learned his truth betimes by angel tongues. to the advantage. his own sage to the world of human endeavor claims to a special mission on earth from a Higher Power be not widely accepted. garb him in a guise of common clay. To clear away the wreckage of the past. of many who are now suffering in oppression and ignorance. mighty still bespeaking mightier. Threshing the nations by the Spirit's power. Rending the kingdoms with a word of flame. replant the true. 38-40." — Blias: an Epic of the Ages. memory and teachings of Joseph Smith. When Christ once more His vineyard comes to prune. queen 'mid queens. Betwixt the temporal and spirit spheres So dense forgetfulness doth intervene. 'a stirring role to play In time's tense tragedy. Crowning what has been with what now must be.

you must prepare yourselves by doing the things which I have commanded you and required of you.— II THE FRUITS OF MORMONISM " If ye are not equal in earthly things. for if ye will that I give unto you a place in the celestial world. ye cannot be equal in obtaining heavenly things. ." Doctrine and Covenants.

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and create prosperity and happiness. pose evidently manifested among adherents of the most futile sects among us are good.CHAPTER IX MORMONISM THE EXPONENT OF EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY In any permanent and complete scheme for the rescue of lankind from the miseries and shortcomings of current social conditions. Indeed.the growth of intelligence. has never been able to neutralize any of the evils of human society. with all that has been claimed for it.ry. unless coupled with an organism capable of carrying out good intentions and promulgating and conserving excellent principles. crying. but experience has shown that they are sterile of vital and permanent influence." if we may use a term familiar among certain sociological thinkers. The failure to recognize this fact has been the primary source of weakness in virtually all proposed systems of betterment hitherto promulgated. now in vogue. This is the reason that Christian influence. that while righteously protesting against the unjust and abominable system. and other radical movements of the present day. liberty and the pursuit "inalienable rights" of mankind " upon a virtual ignoring of the religious instinct. need is for a practical coordination jof . there must be a strong and permanent organization on a basis distinctly religious in character. the validity of the appeal for consideration of an organization capable of embodying these desirable qualities is selfThe earnestness of conviction and consecration of purevident. of happiness which is nearly the strongest instinct and propension in human — — nature. But even intelligence is not sufficient to reorganize society. which shall embody the element of a " superrational sanction for conduct. it is the greatest element of weakness in Socialism. depends upon a consider the fact that the persistence of real morality vital and well-presented religious influence. in past centuries. they attempt to found a vital sense of the inherent and "life. so far as they go. and that these have been mollified solely by .all in- When we I . where haver-always been poverty and mis£. The.

consider the fact that Christianity. and be satisfied with the " allegiance " of those classes of people who may not be brought to attempt the achievement of its highest ideals of human duty." The organization of its priesthood and of the numerous orders of " religious. mercy and truth. — . as the Saviour said. and in the states of mind that sympathize with this theory of the aim and functions of religion." whose duty it is to administer to the needs of those in the world life. or. indeed. with the result that much " worldliness." who belong to the " orders " and whose occupation consists in fulfilling the higher obligations of the faith. any system holding self-immolation as its supreme ideal. whose influence has probably been very great on the development of historic theologies. it makes an appeal to the imagination in the same fashion as the heathen Buddhism. very ineffective in achieving an order of righteousness that shall be able to do away with the shortcomings and evils of society. evidently contemplates the regeneration of society and the establishment of " justice. with Catholicism. If we admit that this is the real aim of Christianity. including. even the persons who are devoted to the religious life are divided into two classes.io8 THE REAL MORMONISM dividual wills into a concerted effort for achieving the ends of good. the flesh and the devil. and advocating the suppression of the " carnal self " as the highest duty of religion. The greatest trouble is that the religious life has been too greatly separated from the life of the world. the " religious. as it is with Buddhism. when glorified by the poet's skill." quite as common When we as certainly as the achievement of '' salvation " in the we begin to realize that. Such a system must take the world about as it is. as it does. and other old-time *' heresies. must necessarily be a compromise. religious teachers are to be known " by their fruits. The trouble. as stated by Christ himself. much and world to come. cruelty. very many people who lack enthusiasm in these directions. Thus." is an admirable system for ** overcoming the world " by " scourging the flesh for the spirit's good. and the " secular. clergy and laity interests of rehgion and those continuing to live the life of humanity in the world. through the imported tendencies embodied in Manicheanism. is that its message to the world at large." Indeed." we must admit that the Catholic Church has the only organization on earth capable of saving mankind from the " world. The result was that the Catholic Church divided its membership into two which is to say those devoted to the classes." such as vanity. however. in this aspect." The Roman Church has always emphasized the blessings to be earned in the next world by suffering in this.

therefore. shall gauge the efficiency of religious influence by its ability to save mankind in the flesh. of the stern ideals of " doacceptable. producing a statement of the Gospel suited to the needs of people in the world. and has done — — immense harm operative. the aim in most cases was to bring righteousness down to the basis of every-day life. we have social and moral " problems " that should never have emerged in a world. and thus " saving " mankind more evidently and effectively than could be possible with a system holding an ideal of " overcoming " that was not possible. the majority of people who are attempting to grapple with these conditions are outside of all sects. One might also claim ." the puritanism and separatism. mestic asceticism. dominated. which. which should have been made clearly and definitely inconsistent with Christian profession of any degree. etc. One might be excused in the for believing that some such ideal existed mind of the founder of Mormonism. or not In spite. conmake a very real and very unfortunate compromise " between the demands of the Gospel and the natural " disabilities of the human soul in the state of worldly existence. in any sense. tions. at the end of eighteen centuries of Christian domination. and shall follow Protestantism in emphasizing the need of salvation for the individual living in the natural conditions of life . In the case of the Catholic Church a splendidly conceived organization is devoted solely to the end of " overcoming " the world. Undoubtedly. rather than subjecting it to the good of God's people: in the case of Protestantism. to all. in short. trine of *' salvation by faith although a mere corollary of scholastic theology. however. organization is largely ignored. introduced by some of the foremost of the " reformers " these leaders committed the inexcusable blunder of promulgating the noxious doc" which. socially. which to say. that there is room for some system of religion that shall follow Catholicism in an effective organization. The " reformers " of mediaeval Europe. as well as individually. in the professed behalf of an improved order of righteousness. and practical righteousness largely neutralized by theories of the most indefensible variety. In the meantime. dent. has been tolerated as inevitable. assent.. by intelligence.I EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY 109 selfishness. trives to in rendering practical and social righteousness inProtestantism. often outIt is eviside of religion in any conscious or professing sense. produced the systems included under the general term Protestantism. has always been a futile compromise with antinomian tendencies. quite as surely as Catholicism. and our traditional sects have no answers and no solu- Indeed.

adhered to this excellent first step in abolishing artificial classes. This theory makes religion the immediate concern of every individual. The followers of George Fox. or Quakers. From in touch with religion and keeping religion in touch with hitherto has been that any such synthesis has been impossible in by far the greater majority of cases. rather than an occupation for Sundays and holy days. enabling it to persist as an affair of daily living. owes his standing and significance solely to his religious activity. forming the Society of Friends. in fact. particularly in Protestant churches. which is one of the most aggravated evils of human society. — — the point of view of common helpfulness and efficiency. has well been described as of a " third sex. a fragment of the rejected Catholic institutions. serving no end more effectively than to divorce religious interest and effort from the sympathy and participation of the large majority of really manly men. In one point." or dispensers of learning. as the most convenient means ever devised for keeping also. nor yet practical participants in the life of the community. there can be no doubt of the ultimate validity of the Mormon theory of religious organization and in this it is the only valid antithesis of Catholicism and this is in the principle that the priesthood should be held by all worthy men of mature years. which maintain the absurd tradition. this life life." it is fairly evident that religion is freed from one of its most harmful impediments. the only one that can be reasonably expected to bring religion into immediate relation with the affairs of everyday life. These men. with their peculiarly biased and defective views of life. however. It is certain that the majority of the Mormon principles of organization are destined to permanance and wide acceptation. On such a theory. in the closely compacted society based upon his religion. and the inevitable shortcomings of character always found in them. in the words of the ancient Apostle. difficulty The . society cannot fail to achieve some very real order of regeneration in the fact that it is. whether ex'* pressed in the distinction between clergy " (so called) and laity. form a class by themselves. which. With the elimination of the type of person." This theory is. arrangement possesses inestimable value to the community. who are neither priests in the sacerdotalist sense.no THE REAL MORMONISM toleration for the opinion that the ultimate effective reorganization of religion and society will be a system so closely like Mormonism that the student of history could be excused for suspecting some relation between the two. of having separate professional ministers or preachers. quite incidental to the business of the world of ordinary existence. nor any longer " clergy. like the Protestant preacher. who. a kingdom of " priests unto God.

ends was the deliberate aim of the founder of Mormonism there can be no doubt. . It is true that there are varying grades of capacity in men.„ between aristocrats and commoners. by the Church. which have been the dreams of sociologists.. " One of the first steps taken by the Prophet.. 220).„ . after the establishment of headquarters at Kirtland. communal in its character. and to bring about unity and equality in temporal and spiritual things. The Mormons are not. and kindred evils. prophet and his associates confine their ends recommended above to any vain preachments. . It is the first and only entirely practical mechanism yet devised for reorganizing society on the basis of that equality and brotherhood. _. however. It required the consecration to the Church. no capital and labor in the ideal life. A. without vital interest to back them. The following is a fair sample of the enthusiasm with which this ideal is held among them: " One great lesson that has been set before intelligent men and women of today is that of corelation of economics. monopoly. /. moralists and the saner class of reThat the attainment of these ligious thinkers for over a century. which have been only too sadly familiar throughout Christian history. by its members. M. and this will always lead to a division But the statesman who looks toward the altruism or classification. store. p.' a religio-social system. it is that there should be no classes and masses. no sex divisions in civil and social affairs. of all their properties. or factory that this same ' Nor Mormon — . and affording means for their training in the practical duties required of those who shall be devoted to the life of religion and brotherhood.„. {History of the Y. unless it carries with it the cornpelling force to use all superior advantages for the uplifting of the inferior and ignoT2Lnt"-^Susa Young Gates. Moreover. to cooperate in all matters affecting economic and social life is the demand of the ages if we have learned anything from the pages of history. I ^Hr ^^erefore.. and the subsequent distribution to those members. and that superiority of intellect is a menace to civilization. . and gave precise and unmistakable directions for its practical operdid the efforts to achieve the noble ation. of what were termed stewardships/ E^ch holder of a stewardship which might be the same farm. was the institution of what Latter-day Saints call the 'United Order. He provided the organization for the realization of his ideals. designed to abolish poverty. of the future will teach the strong that their strength is given its highest expression in protecting the weak.. In an additional sense the Mormon Church organization is of the utmost significance sociologically. That their perpetuation has been nearly the foremost interest of his followers is equally clear. the first body of people to recognize and protest against the evils and incumbrances of usual religious and social organizations. for contriving in a thoroughly practical manner to achieve some degree of real equality in human society by first place making all men members of the ministerial body. workshop. L. They deserve credit.

and migrated to Missouri. and also at- . West. pp. The purpose in view. a religious consecration in the best and highest sense. according to the Book of Mormon (IV. and in Jackson County. 244-245. from which he would derive a sufficient support for himself and those dependent upon him. and the reason was two-fold. by the Latter-day Saints. or maliciously made evil out of their pure and philanthropic designs. Smith. " The United Order was not perpetuated at that time. involving a consecration of life and effort. being the temporal officers of the Church. 1905. the New Jerusalem. which prevented the Saints. nor speak lightly of things. the Prophet declared. received the consecration of those properties. was the cruel mobbings and drivings of our people. " We We will not take the name of the Deity in vain. A Temple was reared at Kirtland. was the same ancient system that sanctified the City of Enoch the same also that the Apostles set up at Jerusalem (Acts 4:32-35) and that the Nephites instituted upon this land. which are still to be seen in Mormon households. But another cause.— 112 * THE REAL MORMONISM ' was expected to manage it thereafter in the person had consecrated interest of the whole community all his gains reverting to the common fund. was vio. " The United Order. was a real order. " will pray with our families tend to secret prayer. is amply shown by the rules of the order." Joseph F. and also as. beneficent system the Gospel was preached on both hemispheres and the gathering of Latter-day Israel begun. that under the auspices of this souri. Missouri. . an event to be preceded by the gathering of scattered Israel. was the building up of Zion. In this cause. as well as of property. or Order of Enoch. Primarily it was due to the innate selfishness of human nature. His character or of sacred morning and evening. and that. Ohio. The Bishops. the foundations of the City of Zion were laid. by those who did not comprehend their real motives. Nephi.. not only preaching the Gospel and administering its sacred ordinances. and industrial enterprises of various kinds conducted by the Church. Lands were purchased in both the States named. which was established at Kirtland. The following rules governed the life of all members of this order: RULES FOR MEMBERS OF THE UNITED ORDER. during the year 1831. mercantile and publishing houses instituted. Sept. . and prepare for the literal coming of the King of Kings to reign upon the earth a thousand years. and at Independence. and preparatory to the second coming of the Saviour and the advent of the Millennium. The Mormon colony which settled in Jackson County. equally cogent. as a whole. . i :3). * ' * ' from that part in the autumn of 1833 and in i837'-39 the main body of the Church was compelled to leave Ohio. but also traveling to collect money and other means for the erection of the Kirtland Temple and the purchase of lands in Missouri. — . Missouri.) That the United Order. the Apostles as well as the Bishops performed a variety of labors. also. from entering into the work of redeeming Zion with sufficient zeal and singleness of purpose. "The Truth about Mormonism" {Out lently expelled . " I need not weary the reader with a recital of details as to how the Church grew and prospered along the lines laid down by the United Order. the object being to build up Zion spiritually and temporally. in the accepted sense of the term. signed the stewardships. MisSuffice it. schools were opened.

every man seeking the interest of his neighbor. that every man may gain other talents. and all this for the benefit of the Church of the living God. . will contract no debts contrary to the wishes of the Board of Directors. and will culticonsider it our duty to vate a spirit of charity towards all. for the benefit of managing the concerns of your stewardships. prayers. " will be simple in our dress and manner of living. whoredom and lust. courage the producing and manufacturing of all articles needful for our consumption as fast as our circumstances will permit. and. and will seek the interest of each other and the salvation of all mankind. when once fully identified with said Order. . yea. and works those whom we have elected to take the management of the different departments of the Order. will observe and keep the and meaning thereof. every man according to his wants and his needs. Word ^ . using proper economy and prudence in the management of all intrusted to our care." " Listen to the counsel of him who has ordained you from on high. " We will observe personal cleanliness and preserve ourselves in all . " will patronize our brethren who are in the Order. This order I have appointed to be an everlasting order unto you. or which will foster and encan be produced by combination of home labor. and will cease to import or buv from abroad any article which can be reasonably dispensed with." We We We We We We The authoritative revelations setting forth the principles of the United Order contain the following significant passages: "And you are to be equal. IxXxii. "That which we borrow we will return according to promise. of . cancel all individual indebtedness contracted prior to our uniting with the Order. that salvation may be unto you in that thing which you have presented before me. "In our apparel and deportment we will not pattern after nor encourage foolish and extravagant fashions. and unto your successors. and that which we find we will not appropriate to our own use. to be cast into the Lord's storehouse.— EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY "We spirit 113 " We will treat our families with due kindness and affection. to become the common property of the whole church. duct. That which committed to our care we will not appropriate to our own use. or in other words. Wisdom ^ according to the cr . even an hundred fold. we will refrain from being contentious or some. and doing all things with an eye single to the glory of God. but seek to return it to its proper owner. the Revelations. in accordance with . saith the Lord I . . and we will cease to speak evil of each other. who shall speak in your ears the words of wisdom. i *. sustain without faith. inasmuch as ye sin Doctrine and Covenants. " will combine our labor for mutual benefit. In our f aniilies and interquarrelcourse with all persons. " will. inasmuch as his wants are just. refraining from a spirit of fault-finding. " will honestly and diligently labor and devote ourselves and all we have to the Order and to the building up of the Kingdom of God. you are to have equal claims on the properties. keep from acting selfishly or from covetous motives. We will also chastity by refraining from adultery. as soon as possible. not. that every man may improve upon his talent. " We will observe the is Sabbath day to keep it holy. discountenance and refrain from all vulgar and obscene language or con- We . and be subject to them in their official capacity. . and set before them an example worthy of imitation. 17-20.

in regulating and establishing the affairs of the storehouse for the poor of my people. and earthly things also. . the time has come. for all things are mine but it must needs be done in mine own way and behold this is the way that I. my church. . all these properties are mine. verily I say unto you. wherefore a commandment I give unto you. But. And he who breaketh it shall lose his office and standing in the church. whereby you may accomplish the commandments which are given you. I prepared all things. . and there shall be a seal upon the treasury. and built the earth as a very handy work. and to prepare my people for the time when I shall dwell with them. the Lord. he shall. have decreed to provide for my saints. to which certain persons. And ye shall prepare for yourselves a treasury. if any man shall take of the abundance which I have made. it . my friends. according to the law of my gospel. or less your and if the properties are mine. ye cannot he equal in obtaining heavenly things. (Here follow specifications of various properties. for the obtaining of heavenly things for if ye are not equal in earthly things. with the wicked. . unto the poor and the needy.. 1-3. . and have given unto the children of men to be agents unto themselves. then ye are stewards. a commandment I give unto you concerning your stewardship which I have appointed unto you. . to prepare and organize yourselves by a bond or everlasting covenant that cannot be broken. even stewards inFor the purpose of building up my church and kingdom on deed. and no man among you shall call it his God For verily and behold. Behold. and shall be delivered over to the buffetings of Satan until the day of redemption. that inasmuch as those whom I commanded were faithful they should be blessed with a multiplicity of blessings. Martin Harris. are appointed by name as stewards. that the church may stand independent above all other creatures beneath the celesIbid.. Ohio) and in the land of for a permanent and everlasting establishment and order unto Zion. and all things therein are mine: and it is my purpose to provide for my saints. . such as Rigdon. which is nigh at hand. and the ensample which I give unto you. — . and a commandment. stretched out the heavens. and ye shall appoint one among you to keep the treasury. lift up his eyes in hell. being in torment. . Therefore. 11-14. and to the glory of your Father who is in heaven. Oliver Cowdery. notwithstanding the tribulation which shall descend upon you. .. and an everlasting order for the benefit of my church. and for the salvation of men until I come. tial world. that the poor shall be exalted. and all the sacred things shall be delivered into the treasury. Williams. 4-8. by you who are joined together in this order.. . and the foundation. and is now at hand must needs be that there be an organization of my people. that through my providence. and there is enough and to spare. say unto you.) And again. you must prepare yourselves by doing the things which I have commanded you and required of you. 114 THE REAL MORMONISM . otherwise ye are no stewards. . to advance the cause. and he shall be ordained unto this blessing. the Lord. which ye have espoused to the salvation of man. and consecrate it unto my name. this is the preparation wherewith I prepare you. and impart not his portion. and I lo. that you may be equal in the bands of heavenly things yea. — . in that the rich are made low for the earth is full. earth. " Verily I say unto you. to be an united order. both in this place (Hiram. I have appointed unto you to be stewards over mine house. . and others. Behold. " And now. . . faith is vain. . I. Frederick G. verily thus saith the Lord. . . yea. I give unto you counsel. Ixxviii. it is expedient that all thmgs be done unto my glory. for if you will that I give unto you a place in the celestial world. concerning all the properties which belong to the order which I commanded to be organized and established. . with promise immutable and unchangeable.

14-18. The commands of Christ are to be accepted literally. these things are mine. and is faithful. . and a seal shall be placed upon it." his portion shall be that of Dives in Christ's parable. say unto the treasurer. or fifty. and behold. 67. And again. as the Mormons confidently believe. Even Amen. or taken out of the treasury. or any part of it. and a treasurer appointed to keep the treasury. only by the voice and common consent of the order.. my stewards. shall be cast into the treasury as you receive or in cattle. and remain thereafter as an everlasting covenant. And this shall be the voice and common consent of the order that any man among you. or consecration of the tenth of the increase for the support of the Church and the care of the poor . : 115 own. there shall be another treasury prepared. . . The discontinuance of the United Order as a practical reality was not an abrogation. until he be found a transgressor. just as they are ineffective in permanently benefitting humanity: a man's duties in this respect are precisely defined if he " impart — not his portion. be restored again on earth at the coming of Christ and the setting-up of Zion. and let not any man among you say that it is his own. this once. but a high religious duty. 1-2. that he is an unfaithful and an unwise steward but so long as he is in full fellowship. and wise in his stewardship. . the treasurer shall give unto him the sum which he requires. Our so-called " benevolence '* and voluntary " charity " are to be discountenanced as unacceptable to God. this shall be his token unto the treasurer. according to me my proceed to do the things which all I have my commandments. It will. . . in houses. I give you this privilege. EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY . unto the poor and the needy. and ye are to be broken up. nor any part of it. 54-63. by improving upon the properties which I have appointed unto you. for it shall belong to you all with one accord and I give it unto you from this very hour and now see to it. and they embody a distinct lesson and example to all theoretical sociologists. and there shall not any part of it be used. and all moneys that you receive in your stewardships. or in lands. for it moneys. or twenty. if it be five talents (dollars). 68. nor yet a substitution of a less stringent law of consecration.. The abolition of poverty is not merely a benevolent aim. . The law of tithing. since ** if ye are not equal in earthly things. I have need of . . in stewardship. shall not be called his. ye cannot be equal in obtaining heavenly things. — Ibid.. subject unto the council and voice of the order. if it this to help be ten talents (dollars). or." Nor can a candid mind fail to discern the fact a high and noble ideal of the responsibility and duty of wealth is actually presented. The wording of these revelations is significant of the actual objects for which the United Order was originally founded. and it is manifest before the council of the order plainly. the treasurer shall be shall not withhold. according to the law of my gospel. civ. . or an hundred. that the treasurer But in case of transgression. . that ye go to and make use of the stewardship which I have appointed unto you. and the master will not suffer his house so. 86. 70-76. to help him in his stewardship. who are earnestly desirous of achieving the lasting good of their fellow-men. if you laid before you..

dent on honest investigation of the matter. thus saith the Lord. by the forced levies formerly in vogue in Great Britain for the support of the established church. x:37-38) . whether one agrees with the teachings of the Mormon Church. Verily I say unto you. II Chron. and for the laying of the foundation of Zion and for the Priesthood. is by no means the easy and cheerful task that our would-be informants would have to suppose. it shall come to pass that all those who gather unto the land of Zion shall be tithed of their surplus properties. On the basis of this command. some of our larger sects. xxvii:3o. 1-7. extortion and threats of various The disingenuousness of such accusations must be eviorders. if possible. saith the Lord. who have indulged their spleen in various false representations to the effect that the custom is maintained by forced levies. Furthermore. having been enjoined in the Law of Israel (Lev. there is positively no reason for the assumption that there are not very many people who do not heartily and intelligently endorse them all.: — THE REAL MORMONISM The revelation establishing it •Il6 is now the accepted practice. Gen. have carefully considered a restoration of the practice. 9. Num. Luke xviii:i2). notably. practiced by the ancient patriarchs (Gen. the practice of tithing has always been faithfully upheld among the Mormons. xxiii:23. to keep it holy. who are in all other matters quite independent and highly individualized. The practice of tithing is an ancient one. and by this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me. cxix. or they shall not be found worthy to abide among you. On several occasions the practice has been attempted as a means for raising funds for the support of Christian churches. or not. Matt. Neh. vii:5-6. Latterly. and this shall be an ensample unto all the Stakes of Zion. behold. if my people observe not this law. in order to replenish the coffers. and has provided the most important source of income for their Church and Of course. 28." Doctrine and Covenants. it shall not be a land of Zion unto you. xiv:2o. for the building of mine house. Amos lv:4. exampled. and for the debts of the Presidency of my church. Heb. those who have thus been tithed. Mai. of enemies of the Church. iii. reads as follows " Verily. that my statutes and my judgments may be kept thereon. such as the Methodists. xxviii:22). verily I say unto you. only a moment's reflection is necessary to demonstrate the fact that wholesale extortion practiced on a body of people. and mentioned as an institution in both Old and New Testaments (Prov. for my holy Priesthood. xviii:2i. shall pay one-tenth of all their interest annually. that it may be most holy. and after that. I require all their [the people's] surplus property to be put into the hands of the bishop of my church of Zion. Deut. and this shall be a standing law unto them for ever. the practice has drawn the criticism its activities. xiv:23. xxxi:5. iii:8. and shall observe this law. and this shall be the beginning of the tithing of my people. none too well filled by . since. And I say unto you.

for example. and very frequently forego even this consideration. While all other Christian bodies. with the sole exception of the Roman Catholic. these people dedicate their time. have been able to maintain the institution with even approximate success. usually done by the younger men of the Church. which. that the Latter-day Saints. As already noted. the spread of the Mormon gospel is entirely in the hands of people who go out. is by no means confined to the mission field. seems to be a real corollary to their splendid and vital organization. But the Latter-day Saints obey a broader law of tithing and consecration than applies even to the tithing of their material increase. however. suffer from a dearth either of funds or of volunteers for missionary work. however. begets a strong sense of solidarity among its people. be they at home or abroad. as. upon the assistance of their families or friends at home. whenever required. The Church funds pay only their return fares homeward. that no other body whatever could possibly duplicate the Mormon record. alone among all bodies professing the Christian heritage. It is. Perhaps nearly the most conspicuous example of devoted time and services is to be found in the missionary work." Voluntary and unremunerated work. although by no means conclusive. a strong evidence of the vitality of this form of faith that young men from every walk of life should thus cheerfully devote several years of their time. to a work devoid of promise or possibility of material returns. indeed. who pay their own way to their mission fields. usually in their growing years. It is very probable. It is regularly and cheerfully given. like other things achieved by this Church. It is scarcely remarkable.EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY offerings. or with only meagre returns in any material sense. since this. or. labors and talents to the service of their Church. however. both at home and abroad. except in the event that their entire time is devoted The ward bishops are entitled to a small perto the work. in the building of . and are obliged to guarantee the livelihoods of their missionaries. if it does nothing else. The fact remains. literally without " purse or scrip. none of their officers receive salaries for their services to the Church. centage of the tithes and other funds collected by them. As if to demonstrate the superior quality of their enthusiasm and devotion at every point. voluntary as to 117 amount as well as to production. very often with no hope or expectation of remuneration. and depend upon the voluntary assistance of friends in the field. that opponents of this Church should allege oppression and extortion: their own experiences and capabilities in this matter have not been of the most reassuring description.

Ohio. Such a record as this shows a degree of enthusiasm. In these days of sociological theorizing. it is certainly competent in establishing the truth of the Socialist allegation that religion. slanders and deliberate misrepresentations from the lips of people professing to be teachers of righteousness. also of genuine community sentiment that is rare. and all of the ward chapels throughout Mormondom. is menaced by the advocates of sentimental and radical schemes. Illinois. If this unworthy and un-Christian attitude evidences nothing else. based on direct divine authority. when the present order. cannot be depended on to assist in social betterment to the minutest extent. which have failed wherever attempted on a practical scale. That the Mormon record argues to a contrary conclusion is good evidence that it is of a different order and origin from many of the familiar sects among us. as were also the three other large temples at St. whether. it is remarkable that the success of Mormonism should not be taken as an object lesson on the unescapable necessity of reorganizing society on a basis distinctly religious. instead of being met by lies. as it is known among us. . or not. was built largely by the voluntary labor of the Mormon people. and Nauvoo. and Logan in Utah. if not entirely is unparalleled. the older temples at Kirtland. The splendid Temple in Salt Lake City. Manti. bad as it is.ii8 THE REAL MORMONISM Church edifices. which one of the most substantial edifices in the entire United States. George. as it claims.

attempts to grow the flower of altruism and unselfishness in the soil of misery. to put their Utopian plans into operation. Never could a person go to a place under more happy circumstances. this was an utter failure familiar reason that Fourierism. money 119 — * ' — — — ! We . Well. I wish you every success . France. Rich farms were deserted. Besides all the advantages of having everything made ready to his hand. He was considered your leader man you had.—' Monsieur Krolokoski. a conports from there want money to help tinued cry for help. of " worldly salvation. is well exampled in the following passage from the experience of John Taylor.* " Elder T. third President of the Church. some time ago. Taylor. if His words have the plain meaning.— This is all I propose about the matter. and without the help of anything vital in the line of a religious influence. Cabet had a select company of colonists. When the Mormons had left Nauvoo. but I am afraid you will not succeed. and for the similar experiments. you sent Monsieur Cabet to Nauthe most talented voo. K. do you propose no other plan to ameliorate the condition of mankind than that of baptism for the remission of sins ? " Elder T. in Paris. and proceeded. Houses and lands could be obtained at a mere nominal sum. under the most favorable conditions imagAs with all inable. The cry is money. which have been so generally and so adroitly ignored by His professed and pretended followers in all ages. He went to Nauvoo shortly after we had deserted it. While engaged in a mission in Paris." Thus — " Mr.: ' CHAPTER X MORMONISM AS THE INSTRUMENT OF TEMPORAL SALVATION The unchallenged superiority of the Mormon Church as a successful exponent of social regeneration. K. under the direction of a certain Etienne Cabet. and almost everything calculated to promote the happiness of man was there. with whom he held a conversation touching the merits of their respective " gospels. like other forms of Socialism. Illinois. the city fell into the hands of a band of Fourierite colonists. of the order evidently contemplated by Christ Himself. Elder Taylor met a certain Fourierite journalist named Krolokoski. in the early part of 1846.' " Mr. M." in fact. He and his company went to Nauvoo what is the result? I read in all your republished in your own paper here.—* Mr. and thousands of us had left our houses and furniture in them.

in fundamental principle. I can say nothing. but they have sent thousands and thousands of dollars over to Europe to assist the suffering poor to go to America. Some years before this final catastrophe. Krolokoski. beginning with this year. viz. held high hopes of permanently benefitting his fellow-men. until 1878. comes with the fear of God »-^ the worship of the great Elohim we offer the simple plan ordained of God. life is the evident on careful study of the records of both communities mentioned. with more or less success. . K. Missouri. Not only this. the community life was abandoned by unanimous vote of the surviving members. In 1857 the property of the community passed into the hands of a receiver. Iowa. without sufficient planning to neutralize present The mere substitution of an ideal evils by rational substitutes. also. Louis. — — . ter. the Latter-day Saints. then to show the inevitable signs of fatal malady in the spirit of anarchism and discontent that nearly invariably affects such experiments sooner or later. " The society I represent. of communism is no offset to a regime of individualism. the community life continued. Taylor. though stripped of their all and banished from civilized society into the valleys of the Rocky Mountains. undoubtedly. comparisons made by Elder Taylor are true to the and no greater That 1 ^ of his life work. Here. natural. The unhappy conclusion of the Icarian experiment. when there was another division. or your philosophy ? " Mr. followed by an extended law suit. is merely typical of the fate that must inevitably overtake any sociological experiment. with fair prosperity. and the layingNow. Cabet (or Cabot) had died near St. — ' * No more antithesis of striking contrast exists in literature. cultivated gardens. . who had. in 1895. M. and the property was divided among them. heartbroken at the evident failure human experience can be found in history.' " Life of John Taylor (B. from 1849 until 1857. Roberts). our religion. baptism for the remission of sins. H. While your colony in Nauvoo with all the adthat they had only to move vantages of our deserted fields and homes into have been dragging out a miserable existence. which is the beton of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. and the downfall of poor Cabet. pp. that is founded firstplace on mere reaction on the present social order. whereas commtmism can subsist only on a community .— THE REAL MORMONISM I20 us carry out our designs. repentance. M. for the simple reason that individualism is. . The Icarian colony (so called) continued at NauIt began voo. . to seek their protection among there our people which Christian civilization denied us savages have built houses. Finally. Mr. and have organized a government and are prospering in all the blessings of civilized life. where they might find an asylum. the colonists gradually removed to another Icarian settlement in Adams county. — . and. Well. to be administered for the benefit of its creditors. built school-houses. . 226-227. enclosed lands.

have made that railway system by which national prosperity has been so greatly increased. we find members of this same council urging that the State should take possession of the railways. further. hitherto. with or without compensation. would be but little deterred by considerations of equity from pursuing whatever policy they thought needful a policy which would always be one identified with their own supremacy. The recent confessions of M. we have good reason for con- — — cluding." would give the slave his chance in the role of tyrant. elected and trusted by the whole people. and were left with but a bare subsistence for themselves. on the basis of actual experience. Socialism would probably fail before the stage of autocracy had been reached. within our own times. which. ism. When we find that shareholders who. — — probably true that. to at once transform a socialistic administration into a grinding tyranny like that of ancient Peru. 17-18. us back." state. he says " The final result would be a revival of despotism. that regime of status that system of compulsory cooperation. " The Coming SlavSpeaking of the possible establishment of a socialistic ery. with human nature as at present developed. labored for the support of the organization which regulated them." * * . as when many people combine for national defense. under which the mass of the people. and this bases our objections to Socialism on the ground that it While it is . the decaying tradition of which is represented by the old Toryism. each one as well as all. has thus so led among our neighrope and more recently in Japan bors. or to save themselves. the results indicated by Mr. which has never. we may infer that those who directed a socialistic administration might interpret with extreme perversity the claims of individuals and classes under their control. as in mediaeval Euto its head nay. been able to subsist on humanitarian enthusiasm alone. sometimes gaining but often losing. paralyze the representative body and make himself autocrat.' we may suspect that the heads of the ideal society desired. controlled by grades of officials. This tendency has been ably condemned and deplored by Herbert Spencer in his essay. Spencer would follow sooner or later on the establishment of a Socialist regime. pp. and towards which the new Toryism is carrying The Coming Slavery. de Maupas has shown how readily a constitutional head. under a different form. from the untoward The prime fault with socialeffects of a natural catastrophe. or some internal discontent demanding forcible suppression. It would need but war with an adjacent society. is that it has not yet outlived the state of reactionism. may. like an army of military officials. while rebelling against "tyranny. are spoken of by the council of the Democratic Federation as having laid hands ' on the means of communication. and all other current schemes of social reorganization. it is safe to say that. A disciplined army of civil officials.: TEMPORAL SALVATION 121 of interest. The defect may be in human nature. with the aid of a few unscrupulous confederates. And when. That those who rose to power in a socialistic organization would not scruple to carry out their aims at all costs. And then would be completely revived. gives supreme power a power which often led to usurpation. and leading lives that were inspected out-of-doors and in-doors.

and his inferences sound. rather than the evils inseparable from Socialism. and people with large families parasitically dependent upon the exertions of the adult ablebodied. who was seriously ill. New Australia is neither a Utopian Eden nor a 'hell upon earth. as at New Australia. forgetting that the defects of society. and against widows. would stagger to his work when he should have been lying up. Cheated by false hopes. and have disproved the allegation that it was the nature of the country. these newcomers quickly fell into the growing quagmire of discontent and misery. when put to the practical test. This cause of Socialist failure is well set forth in a recent work. to share in the ist perity. living at peace with What we have we hold . sober. are the out workings of human nature. remained tied to the spot. after battling long to live the principles of their creed. At the present day. At the present day the prosperity of those who remain in the New Australia colony is steadily increasing.. hopelessly striving to make headway against the dead-weight of debt for everything was mortgaged which bore them down. It often happened that a man. It does him an injustice by ideaHzing him. each family being allotted so much ' ! : ' — — . which outlines the history of Socialist experiments made by certain Australian and British enthusiasts in Paraguay. . ." and abandoned them. on the usual colonization terms. which is not native to his character. the original glamor faded. which induced other credulous souls to join them in the expectation of experiencing impossible bliss. Rather than work for the benefit of * all ' any longer. was the saddest feature of the place. one another and taking for their motto Cosme for many years made no such progress. many of the bachelors withdrew to Sapucay.122 THE REAL MORMONISM assumes a degree of " goodness " in man. the Government stepped in. Things became worse every year . The story goes on to relate that the result of discontinuing the Social- New experiment was the incoming of a previously unrealized prosAlthough the writer of this book is evidently bitterly anti-Socialist. great advantages which the settlement offers to Anglo-Saxons with agricultural experience. and men's hearts hardened as they had done at New Australia. for fear of the boycotting which came to be systematically practised towards any who failed to do their allotted day's task. . These colonists settled at places called by them Australia and Cosme. withdrew the original grant. against which it protests. and divided the Cosme settlement up. his account seems to be accurate. self-respecting farmers. " Eventually. He concludes his account of the ventures in the following words: "The stalwarts who remained after the collapse of William Lane's wild venture have made a gallant fight back to prosperity. Married men with families of young children. quite as much as the usual failures of Socialism.' It is an average community of sane. and obtained employment at the engineering works of the Paraguay Central Railway. The feeling of bitterness against those who were sick and unable to work. and. which caused the original failure. Till 1904 it endeavored to keep itself afloat by the publication of its journal of far-fetched articles describing the happiness of its people. and a number of the Utopians who were repatriated have found their way back to Paraguay. hard-working. finally yielded to the "logic of events..

in short. yet it is seen that we cannot deny to it the characteristics of a religion. " In the religious beliefs of mankind we have not simply a class of phenomena peculiar to the childhood of the race. a re- which do not provide a super-rational sanction for conduct. and the fewer that remained the greater individual share would accrue to each. in accents which always come naturally to the individual when he looks at the drama of human life from his own standpoint. apparently. of exercising the functions of a religion in the evolution of society.) — There is little to be gained by enlarging upon the failure of experiments in Socialism. as recognized by sociological theorizers. in which he referred to the considerable progress made by Mormonism as contrasted with Positivism. These beliefs constitute. Although. when the property would be divided. It ligion at all.'" Stewart Grahame (Where Socialism Failed. the religious instinct has been largely perverted throughout historic time. asserted. Such examples of failure are. the 'Religion of Humanity* advocated. have therein the characteristic feature of our social evolution. be ignored as an element in schemes intended to achieve the perfection of humanity. that he would as soon worship a wilderness of apes as the Positivist's rationalized conception of humanity. and that it is often associated with the grossest orders of superstition. so many cases in point to uphold the contention that there is in such schemes "one thing lacking. and may for this reason. but which call themselves religions. is no argument against its ultimate validity. pp. Mormonism may be a monstrous form of belief. great and small. . . it was an open secret (scarcely even concealed by the interested parties) that the few remaining members were held together only by the expectation of the final break-up. 225-228. from the nature of the conditions. some time ago. It is. and the real explanation of the fact that the advocates of even inefficient religious sects are able to wage effective warfare against the most promising schemes of social reform. and is. the natural and inevitable complement of our reason. incapable. original principles. has its explanation when viewed in the light of the foregoing conclusions. in a severe criticism of the Religion of Humanity advocated by the followers of Comte. Such a conclusion is ably set forth in the following paragraphs by a popular writer on sociology " Professor Huxley. we per* ' ' ' . a most exemplary set of principles. 'The Cosme Colony has now definitely thrown its dreams overboard. by Comte may be. like other forms of belief is not.: TEMPORAL SALVATION ' 123 'agricultural and so much grazing land. and so far from being threatened with eventual dissolution they are apparently destined to continue to grow with the growth and to de- We . or in any other system honestly devised for the good of mankind and the betterment of social conditions. however. sloughed off. The fact that. ceive it to be without those characteristics." That this is a deliberate recognition of the religious instinct is the conclusion of numerous thinkers. on the other hand.' wrote a correspondent to an For several years before it abandoned the Australian journal. But the comparison with which he concluded. nor any sufficient excuse for the theory that it will eventually be outgrown.

because of the evils experienced under one extreme of social development. being devoid of the scientific sense. and properly should be. ultimate in character neces- — — . the skin eruptions. may be defined as the sense possessed by the essential self of some real and organic relationship with and dependence on a source of motive and a standard of thinking. and. can be eradicated only by removing the infection in the blood. attempts to make the inner workings of the human being conform to principles presumably derived from an external study of the lower animals. and the saner method. in a very real and sufficient premacy of " religion " aspect. as we understand how an ultra-rational sanction for the sacrifice of the interests of the individual to those of the social organism has been a feature common to all religions we see. but in dealing direct with the fountain head of motivation. popular zoological sociology. or any other systematization of facts and observations of The specialists in some branch or other of human knowledge. and then we are surprised that our schemes do not work out under life conditions. And lastly." Benjamin Kidd {"Social Evolution" pp.rational sanction they provide for conduct. posed system properly to be called " scientific " because it deals in terms and principles borrowed from the hypothesis of evolution. that the only offset is to be found under an order that emphasizes the opposite extreme. assume. also. The difference between the two methods is entirely analogous to the difference between attempting to cure a disease in the physical body by treating the superficial symptoms. formulated as it is by people who are neither zoologists nor scientists in any sense.— 124 THE REAL MORMONISM velop with the development of society. and why the tendency of religion has ever been to surround this principle with the most impressive and stupendous of sanctions. and that the ideal and normal is not to be found in revising the constitution of the social order. are mere reactionists. which follows the theory that the superficial symptoms. painful and annoying as they may be. and ignoring the systemic infection that is the ultimate source of such symptoms.. while always preserving intact and unchangeable the one essential feature they all have in common in the ultra. of whose actual psychology we have very defective data. They fail to discern the fact that evil social conditions are the development of human traits.) This passage expresses the matured judgment of a sociologist v^ho recognizes the obvious fact that a really scientific solution of the troubles of society mu-st take into consideration all of the Nor is a profactors in human nature. in certain definite environments. the conception of sacrifice has occupied such a central place in nearly all beliefs. which seems to be. Most benevolent theorists. etc. the good and evil alike. inevitably. 123-125. Nor are we to understand by the theory postulating the suwhich.

TEMPORAL SALVATION

125

irily involves wholesale toleration for, or a complacent attitude toward any and every form of influence professing to be reliThe ultimate judgment of " truth," as gious, or even Christian. applied to religious systems, must be that of practical efficiency. All considerations of " historical authority " and logical accuracy are totally irrelevant, by the side of the consideration of pracSuch a rule enforced, as should be, would tical operability. class very many of our sects and systems among superstitions and encumberances. Mormonism, however, is justified in the fact that it is evidently an extremely practical form of faith, dealing direct with the most fundamental instincts of the human soul, and dealing so strongly and vividly as to produce, very nearly, a distinct type of mankind, a type almost tribal or national in its

marked characteristics. It stands almost, if not quite, unique in the evident power of transforming and unifying people of diverse races to common standards of thought, feeling and behavior. In this particular, it is demonstrated a truly vital religious influence. It is not alone its splendid organization that effects this result, but some very real and organic imperative behind even its organization. Nor is this, as far as appears, wholly the influence of its leaders, able and astute as they may be, nor yet the shadow of its founder's colossal personality. There can be no doubt that it is validly and genuinely religious in its character; since there is positively no influence other than religion known to man not even patriotism which is capable of such
strongly

results.

Mormon influence and organization would be expected, found in the persistent instinct of cooperation and mutual helpfulness, and in the practical brotherhood of Mormons. The discontinuance of their first effort, the United Order, is clearly traceable, as their own writers claim, to the fact that the world and human nature were, and are, not yet ready for such a scheme of reorganization, any more than for the various schemes of communism and socialism that have been tried unsuccessfully by numerous non-religious sociologists. That it is an excellent ideal for the future, as discerned by the leaders of both movements, is probable. One great difference in the experience of the Mormons, as compared with that of experimenters in " communism," is that the spirit and impulse
The
logical results of the
are, as
still persists among the Mormons in a very vivid sense, and has not been lost to sight as an ideal for the future. The fact is well outlined in the following quotation from a leading Mormon writer and historian:

of the system

"The United Order was

not permanently established, nor did

its

original workings long continue.

Human

selfishness

within,

inhuman


THE REAL MORMONISM
.
.

126

The system, therefore, . persecution without, were the twofold cause. went into abeyance, and the work of organizing Stakes of Zion, preparatory to the founding of Zion proper, has since engrossed the attention of the Church. But the great event has only been postponed. The reaHzation of the ideal is still in prospect. The United Order, must be, for Zion canwith all that it implies, will yet be established

not be built up without

it.

/
I

\

"Meanwhile the spirit and genius of that Order has remained with the Church, and has influenced its people, more or less, in all the moves that they have made, in all the enterprises that they have undertaken. The spirit of brotherhood, of cooperation, of mutual helpfulness, has characterized them in all their proselyting, colonizing, commercial, industrial, and educational activities. "The Pioneers of Utah and the Immigrants who followed in their wake and helped them to found the earliest settlement in the Rocky Mountain region, were actuated by such feelings. Those who came first into these mountain solitudes, these unoccupied valleys, could have made great land grabs if they had felt so disposed, and enriched themselves at the expense of their fellows who came later. But this was not their Under the leadership and counsel of disposition, nor their desire. men imbued with the genius of the United Order, and who set the example themselves, and asked the people to follow it, those early setThe real estate tlers contented themselves with moderate possessions. was distributed among all the members of the community, each one getting a share. Many of those first upon the ground gave to others who arrived in after years. There was no monopoly of land or water in the Pioneer colony, nor in any of the colonies that sprang from it. Small holdings were the rule. It was a maxim in the community that a man should own no more land than he could cultivate. . " The altruistic spirit of the Mormon community was strikingly shown during certain periods following the original occupancy of Salt Lake Valley, when drought, frost, and the ravages of crickets and grasshoppers brought scarcity and threatened famine to the struggling peoSome, foreseeing the straitness, ple. ... All were not alike destitute. provided against it, and their bins and barns were full, while others were empty. Those who had, gave to those who had not, the full larders and storehouses being drawn upon to supply the needy and prevent suffering. More than one provident, well-to-do citizen stood as a Joseph in Egypt to the hungry multitude. They took no advantage of their neighbors. Where they did not give outright, as was often the case, they sold at moderate prices their beef and bread-stuffs to those able to reimburse them. When flour commanded as high as a dollar a pound, these big-souled men, who were generally leading authorities of the Church, would not accept more than six cents a pound; nor would they sell at all except to those in need, refusing to speculate, or encourage others to speculate, out of the necessities of the poor. This splendid philanthropy was due to the spirit of the Gospel, the spirit of the United Order, the spirit that will yet redeem Zion and prepare a people for that era of brotherhood, righteousness and peace that is synonymous with the coming of the Kingdom of God." Orson F,j
*
'

.

.

.

.

.

^

'

'

Whitney {"Mormon Activities/' pp. 12-14.) After the settlement of the Mormon pioneers in the valleys of Utah, there was a well-defined movement to restore the United Order, on the part of Brigham Young and other influential

:

TEMPORAL SALVATION

127

The scheme was abandoned, however, or, rather, not spirits. perfected; very largely, as we may surmise, because of considUndoubtedly, erations of a more or less practical character. such a plan would have been acceptable to a large number of the people, whose resources were none too large, and whose labors in redeeming the desert might have been attractively lightened by a common fund to draw upon for support. Had President Young, and his immediate advisers, been of the venal and unworthy character many informants would have us believe, the scheme of a United Order might have appealed strongly as a convenient means for securing control of the funds and propThus erty of the whole of their people. "Had Brigham Young persevered in his predecessor's [Joseph Smith's] project, it is almost certain that he would have established a gigantic 'company' that would have controlled all the temporal interests of the territory, and eventually comprised the whole Mormon
population. It is just possible that he himself foresaw that such success would be ruin; that the foundations of the Order would sink under such a prodigious superstructure, for he diverted his attention from the main to subsidiary schemes. Instead of one central organization sending out colonies on all sides of it, he advised the establishment of branch communities, which might eventually be gathered together under a single headquarters' control. The two projects were the same as to results; they differed only as to the means; and the second was Phil Robinson {"Sinners and Saints," pp. 223). the more judicious."

Although Mr. Robinson's information and inferences are not always entirely reliable, his explanation of the reasons for not reestablishing the Order in Utah seems reasonable, in view of the actual developments under the administration of President Young and his immediate successors. The foremost thought in the minds of these leaders was, apparently, cooperation, as a reasonable method of providing employment for many of the Saints, and of upbuilding home industries. But the policy consistently followed by President Young in the development of Utah was conspicuous throughout the journeyings of the Mormon people from Nauvoo to the Rocky Mountains. On several occasions temporary settlements were made, and crops planted in the spring for the benefit of journeying " Saints," who should reach these localities in the summer and autumn. All ablebodied men were then called upon to contribute their labor for the common good, and did so cheerfully. During this terrible
journey, also, President Young first enunciated the famous " land law of Modern Israel," which demanded that " no man is to hold more land than he can cultivate." It was the principle upon which apportionments of land were made on the arrival in the Salt Lake Valley. The law of cooperation in all

128

THE REAL MORMONISM

temporal matters was also set forth in the Epistle issued by the Apostles at Winter Quarters (now Florence), Nebraska, December 23, 1846, in the following striking sentence:
" It is the duty of the rich saints everywhere, to assist the poor, according to their ability, to gather; and if choose, with a covenant and promise that the poor thus helped, shall repay as soon as they are able. It is also the duty of the rich, those who have the intelligence and the means, to come home forthwith, and establish factories, and all kinds of machinery, that will tend to give employment to the poor, and produce those articles which are necessary for the comfort, convenience, health and happiness of the people and no one need to be at a loss concerning his duty in these matters, if he will walk so humbly before God as to keep the small still whisperings of the Holy Ghost within
;

continually."

The excellent principles enunciated in this epistle were adhered to as closely as possible in the settlement and up-building of Utah. Indeed, as reflection will reveal, this must have been the case, since, otherwise, it would be difficult to conceive how that stable and prosperous colonies could be made up of all sorts
and conditions of people, from all parts of the civilized world. Brigham Young was undoubtedly a great leader, sometimes, perhaps, arbitrary and dictatorial, but, on the whole, a person consistently benevolent and solicitous for the well-being of the people in his charge. Moreover, as is evident to the candid historian, the responsibility largely devolved upon him to carry out
the excellent principles of the Mormon Gospel for the temporal That he nobly discharged his mission is benefit of mankind. Indeed, Young's constant activity in all movements for evident. the temporal benefit of the people furnished the occasion seized by certain malcontents, notably Messrs. Godbe, Harrison, Stenhouse, Tullidge, and others, to inaugurate a movement in protest against his activity in temporal affairs, particularly in the matter of founding and conducting large stores and manufacturing enterprises, to the disadvantage, as alleged, of spiritual concerns. This " protest " had, as was evidently desired, a truly pious flavor, but Brigham Young's policy was doubtless nearer to the sort of religious and " spiritual " influence that the world is beginning to demand very insistently, and is amply ready to apIn the words of Joseph F. Smith, as quoted on page preciate. 212, '*a religion which has not the power to save people temporally and make them prosperous and happy here, cannot be depended upon to save them spiritually, to exalt them in the life This is, in fact, the "law and the prophets" of to come." Mormonism it is also the alpha and the omega of common sense. can readily understand, in view of the puny humanitarian achievements of the last eighteen centuries, and the dreadful " civilized " and " Chrissocial order, which we are asked to call
;

We


TEMPORAL SALVATION
tian,"

129

is regarded as such a " menace " in some although its spread would mean the end of multitudes quarters: of sociological difficulties, traditional religious sects would suffer in the comparison. " From the first home industry has been a watchword in Utah, and among the first lessons taught to the Mormon people by Brigham Young, after their migration to Utah, was to supply as far as possible their wants by manufactures from raw materials in the surrounding region. It was the plan of Brigham Young to build up an independent sovereignty and to make his people as free as possible from appeal to the outside world. Disposition and need, therefore, early induced the manufacture of many articles in Utah, and thus were revealed many of the resources of Utah and developed the self-supplying facul-

why Mormonism

*

*

Many of the manufactures they then produced in a ties of the people. primitive way have since been refined upon and expanded, until the quality and quantity of goods manufactured in Utah are by no means insignificant." "Utah: Resources, Population, Industries, etc." {U. P.
R. R. guide book)
p. 78.

The part played by the Mormon Church in the development of Utah must be apparent to any intelligent and unbiased mind in
considering the history of that region from the beginning. It may be safe to assert that no band of pilgrims, of equal size, with a different religious history and character, possibly, also, with a different leadership, would have attempted, in the first half of the nineteenth century, to make a settlement in the valleys of Utah. Not even the understandable, not to say, excusable, desire to escape from the American people, with their generous and liberal professions and their curiously intolerant behavior, could have explained, in other conditions, the Mormon settlement in and subsequent conquest of the wilderness. Unless the interest of their leaders in the temporal welfare of the people, in their " temporal salvation," had been more than a verbal profession of faith, Utah would have been the scene of their dispersal, the point at which the curtain should be rung down on the 'drama of Mormonism. But Brigham Young, full of faith in his mission, as leader of these people, and possessed of good and well-reasoned plans for transforming the desert into a garden site, was nothing deterred by the challenges of the scout, James Bridger, " I will give you $1,000 for the first ear of com ripened in that valley." Doubtless, in view of the enormous difficulties to be overcome, the Mormons would consider that the determination to settle in this unpromising region was both predetermined and providential. Many less reasonable calls have been made on providence. Having brought his people to a place which seemed far from promising, not alone to James Bridger, his work was barely begun. The people must be led and guided in the work of irri-


THE REAL MORMONISM

130

gating the waste, and encouraged and held together until the work was well in progress. It is fortunate for the Mormon People that Young was not interested solely in *' spiritual concerns," but also in matters temporal and commercial. To him and to his faith are to be credited the successful accomplishment of this mighty work. "When Brigham Young assumed the awful responsibility of moving his followers to the desert valleys of the Rocky Mountains, he did it upon faith that irrigation, one of the oldest arts of the Old World, could be successfully applied to the lands he proposed to settle, and before the close of the day of his arrival in Salt Lake Valley, he began the building of the first irrigation canal. That his faith was not misplaced is manifested by the great areas now covered by canals and laterals. The first canal was obliterated in a few years by the streets and structures of a city which sprang up because of it; but by that time other canals were in operation and irrigation was well estabthe western country. What an important factor that first canal became in the growth of the West! The system it originated has extended in every direction, until now scores of runaway streams have been seized and almost every valley from California to Kansas is filled with the homes of husbandmen. It is stated with confidence that although irrigation has been employed in Spain and elsewhere in the Old World for centuries, in no place has it been brought to greater perfection than in Utah. ... As long as any of the waters of Utah's streams and lakes remained unappropriated, the building of irrigation systems continued in Utah, and many fertile valleys were brought under the plow. Under the Mormon system the utmost fairness has always prevailed in the distribution of water, and for that reason Utah's reclaimed areas are much larger than they might have been had selfishness prevailed and prior appropriators been disposed to abuse their rights. There has been almost an entire absence of water litigation in Utah, and never a claim of wanton waste. Many of the systems were put in upon the cooperative plan, and the waters have always been distributed with great impartiality farmers only taking water at stated times and using no more than the needed amount. In this way the waters have been carried over large areas now thickly populated and wonderfully productive." Ibid. p. 60.
lished in

,

j
/
/

is amply justified by the facts to be sources, it is made evident that the influence of the Mormon religion and its leaders has been eflficient, not alone in indicating lines of work to be followed, and assisting in them, in any convenient manner, but also in instilling the spirit of cooperation and fellowship, a sense of the unity of human society realized in practice, not merely held as an ideal for some indefinite future, which is sufificiently unusual to excite comment. Irrigation, which was started on the arrival of the pioneers in Great Salt Lake Valley in 1847, was, in fact, the most important consideration in the founding of all the settlements in the arid regions of the west. In scores of instances the Church has come to the assistance of the settlers in the work of constructing dams and canals, and has also purchased great tracts of land in

In this quotation, which

drawn from other

1

TEMPORAL SALVATION

131

Mexico, New Mexico, Nevada, and Canada, for colonization purposes, in order to give the poor an opportunity to obtain cheap Among the greater undertakings of this kind by the lands. Church may be mentioned the Hurricane irrigation project in southern Utah, by which the waters of the Rio Virgen were diverted from their natural channel to a tract of rich bench land lying to the south, and opposite Saint George, Washington County. Another colonization scheme known as the Enterprise colony in southern Utah was backed by Church money. Among the settlements specially founded by the assistance of the Church may be mentioned those on the San Juan river, in southeastern Utah and northwestern New Mexico, where the Church extended material aid and made it possible for those distant settlements to come into existence and thrive. The settlements of Lund and Preston, in Nevada, founded a few years ago, were also the result of purchases made by the Church, with a view to making it possible for members in search of new homes to obtain them on terms within their reach. The colonies of Diaz, Dublan, Juarez, Pacheco, Chuichupa, Garcia, Oaxaca, and Morelos, in Mexico, were all built on lands originally purchased, in whole or in part, with Church capital, with a view to providing homes for any Church members who might desire to settle in the fertile valleys of Mexico. The introduction of improved breeds of cattle in some of the settlements is another enterprise which has been backed by the Church, and by this means the cattle in different localities have been generally improved to the great advantage of the settlers. As early as 1859 the Church inaugurated the first effort to raise cotton in southern Utah, and made stronger efforts in the same direction in 1861 and 1862. One of the most important industries of the Far West, the production of beet sugar, was tnade possible, indeed actually originated and fostered by the Church authorities, with the de-/ clared purpose of providing a hopeful source of labor and in-/ come for the people of the region. The original experiments, conducted under the immediate direction of President Young, looked toward the perfection of the sorghum sugar industry in! Utah, but, after this attempt had proved unsuccessful, the production of beet sugar was undertaken instead, and is now one of the largest industries of the mountain region. The starting of the beet sugar industry at the time of its first inauguration, and under all the conditions then existing, would have been utterly impossible, if the Church had not assisted with its means. Machinery for the manufacture of sugar from sorghum cane was imported from Europe in 1852, and was hauled across the
1
1

I

132
)

THE REAL MORMONISM

Lake City on a train of forty-five wagons, each of which was drawn by four yoke of oxen. The first sorghum sugar factory was opened in what is now known as the Sugar House Ward of Salt Lake City in 1855, and, as a mere matter of history, all the vast expense involved was assujned by the Church. The buildings erected for sugar manufacture at this time were, in 1861, remodeled to serve the purposes of a paper manufacturing plant, and at this place paper was manufactured for a number of years to supply local demands. This also was an enterprise inaugurated by the Church. Later, an extensive plant for the manufacture of paper was erected at the mouth of Big Cottonwood Canyon, near Salt Lake City, which for many
plains to Salt

years helped to supply the demands for paper in the territory of Utah and gave employment to a large number of people. The plant was finally destroyed by fire. The first beet sugar factory in Utah was built at Lehi, in 1891, land there are now seven establishments engaged in this industry in Utah and Idaho, all under one management. They are situated in Lehi, Elsinore, Payson and Garland, in Utah, and Idaho Falls, Sugar City and Blackfoot, in Idaho. At the present time the sugar industry in Utah and Idaho represents a capital of $11,000,000 and employs about 1,500 people in the busy season, irrespective of those engaged in raising beets on the farms. This industry has since grown to large proportions in Utah, very largely through the encouragement of the Church authorities, both by leading in the organization of companies, and by the investment of funds, for the assistance of the farmers of the This action has, of course, been largely misterritory and state. interpreted and misrepresented by the ever-active enemies of the Church, who have ascribed all sorts of evil motives to the act, and emphasized the accusation that, because the Mormon Church had helped its people in upbuilding an industry convenient to them, it was really an active accomplice of the so-called Sugar Trust, which is one of the agencies represented to be engaged in " grinding the faces of the poor."

The Church authorities have made able efforts also to assist in attempts to acclimate the silkworm, and materially contributed to establishing the silk industry, which for a time bid fair They were to become one of the permanent industries of Utah. also active in encouraging such necessary industries as cloth
and carpet weaving, and other forms of manufacture. Woolen mills were erected, partly by Church means, on Canyon Creek (Salt Lake Co.), in Provo, Beaver, Washington, Ogden, Brigham City, and other places, which have given employment to

TEMPORAL SALVATION

133

hundreds of people. Under the guidance of Brigham Young and Lorenzo Snow, Brigham City, in northern Utah, was turned into a centre for home industry. Tanneries were built in considerable numbers in the early days, and vast quantities of socalled Valley Tan leather made. Shoe factories were also founded, prominent among which is the Z. C. M. I. Shoe Factory, which in 1912 turned out 66,000 pairs of men's, boys' and youths' boots and knock about school shoes. This output is valued at $170,000 and the wages amount to $36,000. As another branch of home industry may be mentioned the Z. C. M. I. Overalls Factory, which turns out overalls at the rate of 40 dozen per day, or about 12,500 dozen a year. One of the main industries inaugurated under the guidance of the Church was the founding of co-operative stores in nearly all the settlements of the saints. Thus in 1869 the great Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution was founded in Salt Lake City, and for many years it was known as the parent store, supI

plying scores of co-operative stores established in the different settlements in the Rocky Mountains. Up to 1868 private parties had become wealthy by importing goods from the States and selling them in Salt Lake City and the other settlements in the mountains at fabulous profits. By the establishment of cooperative stores, the people were taught the principle of selfprotection, and that it was far more desirable and profitable to trade in their own interests than to fill the coffers of merchants who generally look too much to their own interests. Until the early eighties money was exceedingly scarce in Utah, and farm and mountain products were taken by merchants in exchange for their goods, and between man and man also the products of the farm and the mountains (in the shape of wood and lumber) were the common articles of exchange. The Zion's Cooperative Mercantile Institution was, in fact, the pioneer in the movement for the cooperative selling of local products, now so largely followed throughout the country. It was also the first mercantile establishment in the Far West to adopt the department store plan. In 1870 its shoe factory, still in operation, was first opened, and in 1878, its factory for the manufacture of cotton clothing. It is also the accredited sales agent for numerous independent Utah manufacturers of clothing, food stuffs, carpets and general articles of domestic use. According to authoritative figures, its annual business transactions have for many years averaged over $3,000,000, and are at the present time over $6,000,000. Although not cooperative in the sense that its profits are divided with the public, it is a noble example of the fact that a large and productive enterprise may

62 wagons. 456 teamsters. plains and mountains. and the Black Hawk War in 1865.604 oxen. and 143. 397 wagons. and hundreds of thousands of dollars of Church money were expended at an early day to bring immigrants across the oceans.000 lbs. About five hundred teams. in order to give employment to the people of Utah whose crops had been destroyed by grasshoppers. the Tintic War in 1856. upwards of 200 wagons. were sent in 1861 . 488 men. or from two to four span of horses or mules. Each wagon. were sent in 1863 about 170 wagons were sent in 1864. 50 oxen and 61 mules were purchased by the Church in the States that year to assist the emigration across the plains. of flour were forwarded in 1862. In early days. to reimburse them for the losses sustained during the Indian wars. carrying 150. 284 wagons. of flour.134 THE REAL MORMONISM be built up on the principle of assisting home industries and employing home labor. when the settlers of Utah were troubled with Indian depredations. 49 mounted guards. 10 captains.969 lbs. President Young relet the grading to smaller contractors who in turn employed thousands of men from the different settlements of the saints in the mountains.042 oxen were sent in 1866. the Church came to the front most liberally with its means to protect them and. This was particularly the case in the so-called Walker Wars in 1853. / The opening of the transcontinental railroad brought non- . 1872. with four yoke of cattle to each. partly mule teams and partly ox teams. In this sense. 89 horses. This enabled the people to buy breadstuffs from the States. 2. was hauled by four yoke of cattle. as a rule. 262 wagons.315 lbs. that Brigham Young founded the institution and influenced the needed capital in its behalf. In 1849 the so-called Perpetual Immigrating Fund Companywas organized for the purpose of helping converts to Mormonism in Europe and the United States who had not the means to come to Utah. 134 mules. About 50 such teams were sent out in i860. and 3. besides these. were sent by the Church to the terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad up to 1868 to help the poor migrating saints to the valleys of Utah. 3. From i860 to 1868 wagons were annually sent to the Missouri river after the poor. taking 335. it is cooperative as including the entire local public in the advantages of its operations. in some instances. 293 men.880 oxen. In 1867 President Brigham Young took a contract to build 90 miles of grade on the Union Pacific Railroad. It was for the distinct and definite purpose of thus benefitting the people and local industries. of flour. and thus the famine that threatened on account of the devastations of the grasshoppers was averted.

the human race is to continue its progress to rational civilization. and that explains why it has made more progress than the rest of the country. Spalding {" Spirit of Missions^' December.) lands. Thus: "The Dry Gulch District. indeed. Of these settlements 333 are situated in Utah. 31 in Arizona. " In the The inestimable value of cooperation is well exampled in such a passage as this. who are also both religious and financial leaders. and brought about serious conditions of competition with home industries. 5 in New Mexico. but never realized. There are at the present time 615 cities. 2y in Wyoming. The grand results accomplished by the splendid organization of the Latter-day Saints. Possibly the Gentile settlers secured better lands than the Mormons. The wonderful organization of the Mormon Church enforces a spirit of cooperation unknown in Gentile communities. 7 in Oregon. and 8 in Old Mexico. existing on the hope that some day they will get water on their Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. towns. The presidents and bishops are the leading business men. Canada.000. M. industry and unison of the Mormon people. and are so able to borrow from the bank on fair terms the needed capital. and led to the founding of the Z. C. but in their most promising sections they were unable to agree as to methods. and having spent on living expenses most of the money they brought into the country with them. Even anti-Mormons are bound to acknowledge these facts. are only too evident for denial or depreciation. which have been founded and built up principally by the frugality. 22 in Alberta. It is the order that must prevail eventually. But this dream of the wise and the good has been made a reality only by . 10 in Nevada. Under these leaders in six years (for settlement did not really begin until 1906) the Latter-day Saints have constructed 223 miles of irrigating canals and lateral ditches at a cost of $300. Canada. even with the best-intentioned and most cleverly contrived schemes of social reformation. as already stated. is the 'Mormon' part of the reservation. directed by the authorities of the Church. 1912. They are well known to the higher authorities in Salt Lake. They are able to back up their business judgment as to the course to be taken with the influence they have as heads of the Church. as well as to the statesman and religionist. are now in a precarious condition. of which Rooseveh is the centre. and the creditable faithfulness of their ofThat ficers. It is the kind of thing that has been advocated by the wisest and best of mankind in both ancient and modem times. created the need for local self -protection. the actual sense of fellowship that exists among them. if." Bishop F. and Mexico. 90 per cent. they have a significance to the sociologist and moralist. is evident. 166 in Idaho. villages and neighborhoods (or 706 regularly organized wards) in the United States. which. S. 6 in Colorado.— TEMPORAL SALVATION 135 Mormon settlers and traders in large numbers. I. of the men are officers.

and when it is completed they own it. the people are about to lose heavily. and in locating the various townsites. without beggaring or humiliating its . stays of most of the canal systems. their fruits ye shall we are still told. " words of by In spite of all this. in the ecclesiastical district known as the Duchesne Stake of Zion. " The colonization work .' and the Church has always assumed the attitude that *our temporal interest in our people Even where outside help must is to help them to help themselves. postoffices and business corporations and companies. . in the know them. 94). holding most of the important positions in them. who was transferred from the Heber (Wasatch) Stake at the opening of the reservation six years ago. — This interesting article then proceeds to example and describe several typical instances of Church assistance given to struggling colonists. i6. . or whose crops have failed. encouraging the settlers. allegory which teaches that the more the wolves of adversity that ' .136 the hated THE REAL MORMONISM Mormons. or where it does so for the sole purpose of assisting those who are in trouble. and they have been. of a new one that seems to be in need of help. through some unfortunate circumstance. . equitable monetary return. constructed under the Mormon cooperation plan. or who are rendered helpless by any dire circumstances. . The Mormon people have been the organizers and main.' "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is not aggressively seeking out promising regions where irrigation and arid farming may be exploited. capital is usually very glad to step in. to prevent the disintegration of an established community. all of which typify the consistent policy of the authorities of assisting.*' Desert Evening News. or whose dams are broken. but it is holding a much more paternal attitude toward those of its followers who have gone forth to subdue the desert. for it has learned that the Mormon farmer is a good investment. {here is something higher and better than mere will power. for it is the bond of love. howl. Dec. and it is always ready to lend an assisting hand wherever expedient. p. and thus make new communities possible here and there throughout the country.' be taken into a region to builtii the irrigation system. or whose fields have been inundated. assisting in the promotion of the many canal systems. "The Mormon people have always assumed the honest attitude that *all we want is a chance to help ourselves. that will adjust the trouble and adjust Perhaps few peoples in all the earth have so typified it amicably. Nearly all these companies are incorporated. or are being." Further details of the Mormon plan are brought out in the following from another non-Mormon writer: "The bond of religion is greater than all others. and thus be sorely crippled in their work. Especially is this the case where. 191 1. . the closer will the sheep get together in the fold. President Smart. whose canal companies are about to go into bankruptcy. Cecil Alter {"Latter-day Colonising by Latter-day Saints. has spent most of his time on questions of colonisation. These the Church helps with no expectation of an during the past few years has perhaps been most important and most extensive in eastern Wasatch county. or to assist in the upbuilding. . by which the homesteaders build the canal. Christ. or exploiting. The Church steps in only where some special work is desired. and the Mormon people have proven that whatever difficulties may arise among them or between them." /.

the assistance of the public is readily forthcoming. which. now in vogue in most Christian communities and which is. part of . to be seen of men. benevolence is that which " helps people to help themselves. on good collateral. among other people." Happy the people among whom such a theory of benevolence is practicable and operative! It is immeasurably ahead of the so-called ** scientific " charity. most useful in furnishing excuses for not giving. as it will soon seem. reactionism and discontent." there would be far fewer social problems among us. From another point of view. the so-called Christian public sees here no call for benevolent assistance. or any other natural calamity. however. Some difficulty had been experienced by the Saints here. If. also. who endows colleges and builds libraries. The benevolently minded." who view the situation wholly from the point of view of investment possibilities. indeed the only real. also far less socialism. were it not for the fact that their appeal to the First Presidency was quite substantially answered. to date. the prosperity of such a community is merely threatened. as their dams have given way and. showed an increase in population of nearly 500 per cent. as well as those who " give their alms If. However. and.4 per cent. prevents the spread of any such real charity among us. deals largely with concerns. People in such straits are invariably referred to the "business men. a highly necessary order of practical If their method of benevolence could be made to well-doing. with the discovery. appeal to the general public. apparently. are not recognized matters for benevolence in any sense. our keen sense of " stewardship. 137 and keeping always in view that the truest. sees no field in helping people to live. which vaunts itself possessed of the " only true Christianity. a worthy. the virtual monopoly. or lending with prospects of ample returns. the increase being 132. it is only on the basis of owing outright. for example. The wealthy charity-monger.TEMPORAL SALVATION beneficiaries. and. The Mormon method is outlined as fol- We lows: "The greatest percentage of increase in population during the past 10 years in Utah was shown by San Juan County. must credit the Mormons. the Mormon Church method of assisting. therefore. a fire." which is a term invented to cloak our essential stinginess and real indifference. as well as. The Bluff precinct." discover a laudable activity. an earthquake. made up mostly of Mormon settlers and ranchers. or even in forwarding enterprises not regularly represented by underwritten securities. It is quite evident that we need a slight tincture of the sentiment of practical humanity. financially or otherwise. if they assist at all. a community in any part of the country is afflicted by a flood. of a new. and no more spectacular ill fortune is imminent than mere business embarrassment.

as the Bishop assumes. whereby the prayer of need and trouble may be answered. The Church did not invest money. the authorities are " compelled to take this " more helpful interest." The wholly unique character of the cooperation of the Mormon Church in the life-affairs of its people is acknowledged. but also to act as the representative of God. not only to herald his v^ill to mankind. As a prominent Church official puts it to assist all its people. Spalding in the article previously quoted.' " Ibid." it might seem that the compulsion came in the line of trying. at least. but so far. and the Bluff Ward It is the Church policy dam. they are acting for God. and yet do as much as other bodies professing the Christian name. Therefore. but has also established it as a medium on earth. If the Mormon authorities do not believe that in giving money thus to help their struggling people. they are merely wasting their funds these they could readily retain. as it beHeves that it has received it. in a way. not only to preach the Gospel. this Church must be credited with another excellent revision of the theory and practice of religion: it holds that God has appointed it. The Hammond Irrigation Company was substantially assisted by the Church. to embody divine providence to struggling We may humanity. It attempts. In another point such transactions are significant. S. and so was the Red Mesa Company. In continuing his account of colonizing in the Uintah Basin." " 138 this section its THE REAL MORMONISM might have been abandoned. They show the real disposition of a good part of the monies received for tithing and other donations. the leaders in this system of ecclesiastical finance seem to have earned officers mon their reward. as a real and vital law. to ** live up to " a somewhat higher ideal of service than is instilled into the minds of the " wealthy and influential members of the other societies. and where dams wash out and ditches get ruined by floods. the Church steps in and prevents the wrecking of the community it sustains its people in the work they have attempted. * : . he says: " Practically the system produces this good result the leading Mor: : are compelled to take a more helpful interest in the worldly prosperity of their poor brethren than is taken by the wealthy and influential members of the other societies which profess and call themselves Christians." If. honestly and consistently. by Episcopal Bishop F." Living up to ideals is often arduous. but simply gave it to them for repairing their canals and dams. in the Uintah Basin. No doubt their Church influence gives them a chance to become rich themselves. in a very real and righteous sense. and that God is the real Giver of it all. but the fact that these authorities yield so gracefully and uncom- . by force of simple honesty of character. — see from instances such as this that the Mormon Church proposes. which so grievously excites the anxiety of non-Mormon agitators for " right and justice who are afraid that the Mormons are being *' imposed upon.

The Church bought the receiver's bonds of the Hammond canal near Collinston. without vain attempts to revise human nature. Wayne county. and thus saved a large community from ruin or disintegration. Wyoming. . by reason of the fact that the irrigation bonds were bought by the Church at a reasonable figure. Idaho. they certainly succeed in fostering and maintaining a spirit of cooperation among their followers that is worthy all acceptation.' has saved the town of . or have done. be. Our sociological theorists have clearly discerned the fact that cooperation is the real solution of the evils of society. Alter continues his interesting discussion of Mormon colonization projects with the following. they have inestimably benefitted the world by demonstrating that the social problems of the day are not insoluble. The world may yet be thankful that someone " compelled " the Mor- mon authorities to follow their chosen course of action in this matter. at least. they have been really solved. authorities stepped in and bought the land the Mansfield ranch and sold it back to the settlers at practically their own terms. nothing else under the sun. and that. An irrigation project. or by attacking and attempting to remodel social institutions. In discussing this aspect of the case. was embarrassed. it is a real pleasure to find that the people do not always seek this help. just north of Afton. Mr. but Mormonism has shown a way in which cooperation may be rationally achieved. selected from a number mentioned by him: "At Teasdale. and a thrifty Mormon community was made possible in the fertile Star valley. Alter gives the following instance. by laws or '' scientific " preachments. This move was purely philanthropic on the part of the Church. in one comer of the world. which is only typical of Mormon life and methods " The community system about of the Mormons in revising the old adage everybody's business being nobody's business. and making it 'everybody's business is everybody's business. Mr. that these authorities really believe that this " helpful interest " is an essential part of their duties." In spite of the fact that the Church authorities seem constantly willing to assist struggling settlers in their efforts to keep their homes. Whatever may be the motives of the leaders. and the Church aided it. so long as they can help themselves by their own efforts. in spite of the Bishop's confident statement. . and made possible the continuance — was slowly but and the Church — of the homes of a great many settlers there by redeeming the irrigation bonds. a large surely slipping away from the Mormon tract of land settlers there.: TEMPORAL SALVATION 139 It may plainingly to this " compulsion " is certainly creditable. An irrigation company at Oneida. If they do. whether this assistance comes by " compulsion " or some other motive. .

Suffice it to say that to-day the several hundred folks there have water in their houses just the same as we have in Salt Lake City. . " The story of losepa is a story in itself. they are far better off than many farmers who have lived in this country all their lives. a large garden patch for his own use. Smith. without pay. Cluflf. W. Their schools and meetinghouses are as good as the best. " There are 1. who was studying the Indians in Tooele county at the time. and were farmers at heart. W. Hbwever. " At a recent annual celebration there by the Hawaiians. and a power plant will sometime give them their electric lights. Needless to say. which im- . the old hunter's ranch and trader's camp known as the it is losepa John T. Henry P. Richards. uniformed audience. of Mr. and kept each other so well encouraged that not one deserted. H. . with much feeling. besides. the best thing the government of the United States could do. it was done. so they laid a proposition before the First Presidency to colonize the Hawaiians in Skull Valley. William Spry. instead. a few wholesouled. both of whom had done missionary work in the Hawaiian Islands. Alter's discussion is reached in the followwhich merely states facts familiar in all Utah " Perhaps the most successful individual colonization proposition that has been attempted by the Mormon people in the United States is the Hawaiian colony at losepa (the Hawaiian pronunciation of Joseph) in Tooele county. honest fellows. would be to assist them in every way possible. Farrell.120 acres practically all in use." : : I40 THE REAL MORMONISM dam went dollars and many hundreds of settlers. and work on the ranch at good wages. and his family. the history of this place does not give the credit to the it gives them the opportunity.' — — The facts set forth in the that the truth involved in activities of the Latter-day lary to their wonderful and foregoing passages suggest strongly the vast and successful colonizing Saints is merely a necessary corolnearly unique solidarity. said " 'My friends. and have. The Mormon people conceived the plan for them. in the desolate barrenness of Skull Valley. Rich ranch. Cluff. and since they grow their own food and raise their own animals. and. and instead of losing two crops and having to abandon their homes. after having been shown all over the place. if this is a sample of the Mormon colonization work." Kanab mai?y thousands of irrigation The climax ing. Gov. losing money and often their manhood by being thrown into circumstances which they didn't apparently know how to conThese returned missionaries had a little money. and yet if ever there was a place that is truly typical of the desert blossoming as the rose. The out there recently and the community worked to a man in replacing it. they lost only part of one crop. Lorenzo D. It is located almost on the border of what the older maps show as the great American desert. and half as much more that is being brought under the magic wand of the Hawaiian irrigator. . Every Hawaiian in the United States who had come here to be nearer the Mormon people was given the opportunity to go there and move into a house that was built for him. and H. and other men of prominence attended. among them Will G. and knew how trol. when President Joseph F. rose before the great Hawaiian. to get more. noticed with some regret that many Hawaiian converts were being knocked about the towns of the state. a government Indian official from Washington. Hawaiians Several years ago. Creel. and the Church made its perfection possible.

Missouri. Here a number of industries were started to give employment to the people. rather than the result in any sense of musterings. also that many settlements made by them have since grown into thriving cities under other The following outline of Mormon colonizing activiauspices. principally in Caldwell County. the Church authorities were busy founding another flourishing settlein Geauga County. in Daviess County. and other states. Altogether about 12. the Saints migrated into an uninhabited part of upper Missouri. By this united effort all of the saints who came under the ban of Governor Bogg's exterminating order left the State. expressly for use in the present volume. Brigham Young at that time President of the Council of the Twelve Apostles. was ment .TEMPORAL SALVATION 141 pels them to form communities and conduct them in accordance with their own principles. known as the Kirtland Temple. immediately southeast of the present location of Kansas City. Ohio where they built a little city which grew so rapidly from 183 1 to 1838 that at the later date it contained over two thousand inhabitants. and 1838. which was subsequently organized into Caldwell and Daviess counties. "After the expulsion of the Mormon people from the State of "Under Ohio possessions . their pressure of persecution the saints were compelled to leave in 1838. ties was compiled from authoritative historical sources. the spirit of brotherly love and mutual helpfulness was manifested in a most practicable way. had located in Jackson County. which grew to contain nearly two thousand inhabitants. they had spent the last farthing they owned in assisting their co-religionists out of the State of Missouri. and a number of smaller settlements. Ohio. at a place called Spring Hill they founded the short-lived city of Adam-ondi-Ahman. if they found it necessary. 1837. and the successful founding of settlements by them was carried on. " Besides building up Independence.000 Latter-day Saints settled in upper Missouri. While it is unnecessary to discuss the charges to this effect made by stupid and prejudiced writers. erected. Under the trying circumstances which surrounded the Mormon people at the time of their expulsion from Missouri. the Mormon people established farming settlements in the neighborhood of the Big Blue. Missouri. entered into a covenant with other leading men of the Church in Missouri to extend aid to each other and to the community as a whole until. and nearly the whole region was transformed from a naked prairie into in 1833 " flourishing farms.200 members of the Church from New York. it is eminently to the point to indicate the fact that colonizing by Mormons. Another printing office was established and an imposing house of worship. " While these colonization schemes were being carried on in Missouri. under direction of recognized authorities for purposes political or otherwise. who at that time was unlawfully incarcerated in Liberty Jail. long before the suspicion of political significance could have been urged. After their expulsion by mobs from their homes in Jackson County and Clay County in 1836. and in the absence of the head of the Church. and in the course of a couple of years nearly 1. In the first named county the people founded Far West. and those in Missouri in 1839. the Prophet Joseph Smith. during the years 1836.

industries of different kinds besides the general occupation of farming were introduced among the people by the leaders of the Church by this means employment was given to thousands. and some of these had established themselves in a village called Commerce. California. a prominent Mormon. and others. the saints founded a temporary settlement in 1846.000 inhabitants. situated about six miles northerly from Omaha. The saints bought out the claims of most of these people and transformed the unthrifty village into the City of Nauvoo. the Mormons responded to a call from the United States government for 500 men. in Union County. the fact may be here emphasized that the leaders of the Church planned these two settlements in the spring of 1846 from the labors of the advanced companies traveling westward. where they founded the beautiful City of Nauvoo. and while the famous march to California by this battalion of men can not consistently be classed as a Mormon industry. many industrial undertakings were of necessity started. and locating themselves temporarily on the banks of the Missouri. etc. Illinois. In the building up of a city of the dimensions of Nauvoo. " With the expulsion of the Church from Nauvoo in 1846 the saints were forced into all experiences incident to pioneer life in the course of which they established many settlements in the wilderness. "On the west side of the Missouri River in what is now Douglas County. In speaking of the exodus from Nauvoo and the founding of temporary settlements of Garden Grove and Mount Pisgah. besides a great number of smaller settlements in the county last named.. was quarried) the founding of a pottery. In these settlements between the years 1846 and 1852 inclusive. and Council Bluffs (originally called Kainesville by the Mormons). in Pottawattamie County. as well as for many private buildings in Nauvoo. prompted by brother love. "Again. Decatur County.. . this they called Winter Quarters. and with these companies sowed and planted several hundred acres of land and then left their fields to be harvested by the companies that followed later in the season. was continuously manifested by the exiled saints toward one another throughout all their experiences in the wilderness and long after their location in the valleys of the Rocky east . to participate in the war with Mexico. This settlement grew until it became the present city of Florence. among these industries may be mentioned the opening of a splendid stone quarry (from which the stone for the Nauvoo Temple and other public. the greater part of the Church membership gathered on the bank of the Mississippi River in Hancock County. a company of Mormons numbering upwards of 200 souls sailed from New York in the historic ship . When the saints moved into that locality in 1839 there were but few settlers in the county. especially may be mentioned also a number of flour mills which were built in Illinois and Iowa by Fred Kesler. This was in 1840. Thus in 1846 they located what soon became a prosperous town. Mountains. They founded also Mount Pisgah. as also from Great Britain. Nebraska. Such action. while the bulk of the saints were leaving Nauvoo and dwelling temporarily in the wilderness. By this time immigration had brought many members of the Church from most of the states of the Union. carpenter and cabinet shops. blacksmith shops. 142 THE REAL MORMONISM Missouri. yet these 500 men made a march unequaled in the history of modern military travel and made a new road a great portion of the way between Fort Leavenworth and San Diego. "While on this march of exile through Iowa. by 1846 Nauvoo contained about 15. Iowa this stands to-day as a town of importance. Garden Grove.

doubled Cape Horn and landed July 31. " In the meantime the migration of the bulk of the Mormon people westward from their temporary locations on the Missouri river. they founded the famous Ft. in all its phases. thus to labor in unison. build school houses and churches. etc. In 1855 in what subsequently has become Lemhi Co. As early as 185 1 settlements were also founded by the Mormons in Carson Valley. Afterwards the products of the farm came into use as the basis of barter and trade. Having brought with them all kinds of implements. Labor was in the beginning the only medium used to determine value between man and man. Idaho. which in a few years grew to be a flourishing town and is now a noted city of southern California was founded by the Mormons in 1851. and in this manner the foundation was laid for the commonwealth now extending its influence and industries throughout the whole length and breadth of the intermountain region. Yerba Buena. The policy of the Church leaders from the beginning has been to make the Latter-day Saints an industrious and self-sustaining people. and the founding of hundreds of other settlements during the years following. . etc. 1846. The founding of these early settlements of Utah without money as a means of exchange again suggests true communism in its broadest sense. machinery. but the people of their own free will and choice united under a common leadership to construct dams and ditches. and the following year (1876) they located four towns on the Little Colorado River. and Montana. on the Salmon This was the beginning of the river. in California... Oregon. the founding of Provo and Manti in 1849. The saints who came in the Brooklyn also located a flourishing settlement on the San Joaquin River. they soon changed the little insignificant village of Yerba Buena to an American town which was called San Francisco and here was published the first paper of any importance ever issued in California in the English language. took place and the consequence was the founding of Salt Lake City. " Settlements have also been founded by the saints in New Mexico. Texas." In way of correctly representing the situation.. a Mormon Elder. In^ 1853 they founded their first settlement in a tract of country now included in the State of Wyoming. the founding of Parowan in 185 1. His watchword was home-industry and he discouraged idleness and pauperManuscript Article from the Church Historian. It is not generally known that the Mormons to the extent here mentioned practically were the founders of the great city San Francisco. Nevada. it must be stated that this colonizing policy is no mere side issue with the Mormon Church something to which it has been urged by the conditions entailed by the task of settling and subduing a desert country but an — — . encouraging as it may appear on any terms. There was no compulsion in the community. for the purpose of founding a new colony. ism. numerous cities and towns founded by the Mormons in the great Snake River Valley and other localities in Idaho. Brigham Young who ranks as one of the greatest pioneers that western America has ever known. "The settlement of San Bernardino. a tributary of the Columbia. at the little Spanish village. Limhi. It was called the California Star and edited by Samuel Brannan. " In 1875 the Mormons commenced to colonize Arizona by locating a settlement in Salt River.— TEMPORAL SALVATION 143 Brooklyn. This policy was particularly put to its practical test by the late Pres. near where the town of San Jose now stands. in 1847 the founding of Ogden in 1848.

recent address in the great Tabernacle in Salt Lake City. — . years ago. . . where it could receive the kind of energizing influences of which it stood in need. I was very much impressed on a visit to the markets of Paris. he looked about to find the cause. . if it was not excellent. into which we shall pass through the portals of death. radishes. I believe there should be a little more of the individual and intensive cultivation of souls here It is all right to farm on the wholein the great garden of the Lord. and as has been said already in this conference the world. the market gardens of Paris. . sale plan.144 THE REAL MORMONISM essential and primary part of its message and assumed function This is ably set forth in the following from a in the world. June 28. in his garden. that the shade of yonder gable. there shall be an attendant for every not for every patch.. Talmage {'Salvation of the Individual. perhaps more perfectly adapted than ours is here to the conditions and circumstances of the place and of the time. splendid one. . and I talked with some of the gardeners and watched them at their work. fact that every plant that was there brought to market seemed to be in a measure practically perfect. 1913). and the Lord has provided that.. and just how many radish plants they have and just how many turnips And I learned that they gave to each they have in their gardens. the Aim of the Gospel" Desert Evening News. we shall find to be on the same plan and pattern as the organization under which we live here. and discovered. They do not talk about having a half acre of lettuce. — . one their personal and individual attention. . I noticed with interest the splendid display of garden vegeand I was particularly impressed with the tables offered for sale. E. I found there were many peculiarities about their work. I thought all the garden plants onions. the spirit of association. perhaps. . and that organization . but it is not always the best kind of farming. plant and it shall be tended and watched and guarded and properly cultiThe spirit of the Gospel is the spirit of individual developvated. not for every acre. I saw no inferior ones at all. . at least. ment. a half acre of radishes. — . Every head of lettuce that was there offered for sale was a lettuces. it was good. but for every plant. turnips and potatoes. fell upon the plant during the greater part of the morning. and in every organization the good or evil of the whole is but the algebraic sum of the good or evil represented by the several units. If the gardener found that this particular lettuce head did not seem to develop as well as its neighbor. the spirit of mutual help. And I was so much interested in it that I went out to the gardens where these things were grown. will be a real world in which there will be an organization." /.. but they tell you just how many lettuce plants they have. or that tree. and he straightway transplanted the plant and put it a few feet farther out into the sunlight. I remember. but it may be in a measure more perfect.. during a conference of the Church: "The individual Latter-day Saint is the unit in the Church. and shut away from it the sunlight. must have been sorted out.

the wisdom of which policy is unquestionably vindicated in the above showing. in addition to his regular memberThe whole force of ship in the ward and stake organizations. or not.— CHAPTER XI THE PRACTICAL WORKINGS OF MORMONISM As has already been explained in the discussion of the organization of the Mormon Church. Canada. however. holding some grade of the priesthood. As already indicated. Church in the individual member does not end. If a case of need is brought to his notice through the ministrations of the teachers or of the Relief Society. with the benefits accruing to him as the member of a ward. moreover. quorum or community. to the northern states of Old Mexico. to dispense such charity as may be needed in individual cases. if the discussion were concerned with any other organization. They have 20. while the average number of people who own their homes in the United States is something like five per cent. his place in the ranks. 18. it is his duty to investigate further and give such relief as may be needed. the interests of each individual Each one has are by no means sacrificed to those of the mass. in the North. at least so we would be informed. He is followed up in the midst of his troubles.000 of which are free from mortgages and encumbrances. 65-66). and avoid debt. whether the applicant be a member of the Church. It has ever been the policy of the Church leaders to beget in their people an ambition to own their homes and the lands they cultivate. "As a people the Saints are thriving and prosperous. religious or social. such is the liberality of interest of the 145 The . of the whole Church membership own their own homes. or belonging to some quorum. Roberts (" Mormonism: its Origin and History/* pp. it is an essential part of the duties of the ward bishop to inform himself as to the temporal condition of all persons and families in his ward. as well as in the days of his prosperity and strength." B. the Mormon organization is exerted to maintain constant association of individual members. and ninety per cent.000 farms. It is the duty of the bishop. Indeed. and such an arrangement could not fail to promote personal benefit and mutual helpfulness. and are continually extending their settlements throughout the inter-mountain region from the Province of Alberta. H.

the Presiding Bishop is authorized. to widows. As represented by authoritative statements. Dear Brother: Will you please advise us if there are any opportunities in your vicinity for employment. Every sixty days. particularly those who have no friends or connections in the state. not only to relieve temporary embarrassment. asking what opportunities are to be obtained by unemployed men in their wards. as if to make good its claim that our present order must be supplanted by some other offering greater justice and opportunity to the individual. as to tide over a hard winter. wherever necessary. Accurate accounts of all disbursements for charity are rendered by the ward bishops to the Presiding Bishop. Many of our brethren are out of work.146 THE REAL MORMONISM Mormon well-doing that very many outsiders are assisted in their need. the bulk of the expenditures for beneficence go to the aged. make regiilar allowances to the indigent aged and feeble. so that they can ob-J tain a livelihood among our people. work in factories. man] Latter-day Saints are arriving from foreign lands. such as farm work. and we feel it special duty to render them all possible assistance. mills or other similar employment? Enclosed is a blank form upon which we shall be pleased to receive a report from you within the next 15 days. answers to such inquiries are received. to those out of work and in reduced circumstances. J . read this letter at your next ward priesthood meeting. as needed. Many persons are assisted temporarily. ordinary day labor. whose services may be commanded without charge of any kind. although no condition ever attaches to any such advances made by the Church authorities. the infirm and the widows. and we have more applications here at our Employment Bureau than we can fill. as a rule. Very frequently the assistance so rendered is gladly returned. they are assisted to places designated. as soon as possible. It is customary for the bishops to. and if you think it would help in this good work. the Bishop's office regularly sends out forms of inquiry to all the bishops. or when unable to obtain employment. But. The inestimable advantage to persons of this class to be derived by membership in such an organization as the Mormon Church may thus be understood. In the operation of this bureau. janitor service. and unemployed persons directed to places where employment may be had. also. Besides this. The regular forms periodically circulated by the Church authorities are I given herewith: Bishop Ward. but also to maintain a regular bureau for soliciting employment for persons out of work. also. If necessary.

LABOR REPORT Nibley & Counselors. opportunities for securing suitable employment may not always be found for the asking. Dear Brethren We can furnish work in our ward as follows Class of Work and Wages Bishop C. have thought of your locality as a likely place for such people to settle. (Here follows a ruled blank for appropriate entries) Respectfully yours. The blank form enclosed with such letters is as follows Ward Stake 19. Presiding Bishopric. These letters are actual transcripts from letters mailed by the Presiding Bishop. which makes a constant and systematic canvass of all the wards of the Church for the very kind of situations that newcomers may require. Bishop. as it sometimes happens. Dear Brother: It has been deemed advisable to extend our efforts in the matter of assisting our people along the line of their industrial activities. in having available to his needs so well organized an " employment bureau " as is conducted by the Presiding Bishop's office. ever. howthat he can fill to satisfaction. course. and. a man may be supported from the Church funds for some time before finding a position He is greatly advantaged.. Besides this. who come to us from the mission fields. W. In special cases such letters as the following are sent out to the ward bishops.: : : THE PRACTICAL WORKINGS OF MORMONISM Thanking you for the help you may be able to render us cause. 191.. Special Appeal for Of Newly Awuved Families: Unemployed. in this 147 good we are Your brethren m the Gospel. Utah. Bishop Ward. should be properly located and begin their new homes in an environment and under conditions that will be conducive of their best temporal and spiritual welfare. there are many families now residing in the crowded centers of population. It is desirable that our brethren and sisters. and we shall be glad to have you advise us just what the situa- We . Salt Lake City. who would be far better off in every way if they could locate in the country districts.. as may be readily understood.

and possibly some more prosperous brother gave him a cow. what Your brethren in the Gospel. prior to the de- Dear Brother: It has been deemed advisable sisting . To attain the best results in these matters. with a fairly good three room house. another gave him a pig. by asking them to take a fatherly interest in such immigrants until they have established themselves in the stakes of Zion. Eardley. is under the direction of Elder Roscoe W. In the earlier days. 191. Occasionally the neighbors helped him to plow his first ten acres. we are sending under separate cover forms to be filled in and forwarded to this office. It will be our endeavor to assist returned missionaries. purchase. and a general interest was taken in him until he got well started and then he in turn was able to assist some one else. it will be necessary that we have the co-operation of the presiding brethren in all the mission fields. and to facilitate this matter. where necessary. We feel that it is the duty of each member to help his brother as far as possible. and who are in a position to assist those who have emigrated from the fields in which they have labored... late President of the Netherlands Mission. and begin their new homes in an environment and under conditions that will be conducive of their best temporal and spiritual welfare. etc. when a new brother came to reside among us. to secure suitable employment or take up their work where they laid it down to enter the missionary service. one neighbor gave him a chicken.. President Mission. To obtain the successful results hoped for in this movement it will be necessary to have the cooperation of the presiding brethren and the saints as a whole in the wards where new comers locate.148 tion is THE REAL MORMONISM in Can you assist one or more families to get started. will have your hearty support." If there is no such opening. It is especially desirable that our brethren and sisters who come from the mission fields should be properly located. By Special Letter to Mission Presidents in Behalf of Young Missionaries About to Return from Their Fields of Labor. The department. please give us the specific conditions on which such a family could begin. Many of our people have to thank this interest taken in them upon their arrival for their present success and temporal prosperity. having this matter in charge. to extend our efforts in the matter of asour people along the line of their industrial activities. etc. as for instance. " we have in this ward a farm of 20 acres. which a family might take on shares. therefore. We feel confident that this movement meets a long felt need among our people and. who might come is the possibility for a family with a very limited capital? The spirit back of our efforts is the same that has prompted our people from the beginning of the history of the Church. barn. The Presiding Bishopric. with an option to your ward. We will also enlist the services of elders who are returning from their missions abroad. to you with nothing more than a willingness to work and determination to succeed? If so.

These reports are confidential. but. entirely with home capital and home the Deseret Telegraph line in Utah. Pacific also projected and Central Pacific railroads in 1868-69. the accredited officers are faithful in the performance of their appointed and designated duties. if. like every other machine. and not in the organization. The Presiding Bishopric By practice of circulating such appeals to the Church authorialso of advertising in the pubHc prints. organization is kept running. Will you please ask all returning missionaries to call at this office upon their arrival in Salt Lake City. and enquire for Brother Eardley ? We feel confident that this movement meets a long felt need among our people. the organization is there. and therefore will have your hearty support. which was later operated in connection with the great transcontinental system. indicates a laudable benevolent activity. Other more local enterprises were undertaken in precisely the . If such officers do not perform their proper duties and it must be said to their credit that the average of faithfulness is high among them the fault is in them.THE PRACTICAL WORKINGS OF MORMONISM 149 parture of the missionary or immigrant from the field. Young's object This. when help and encouragement. was Brigham in taking the contracts for the building of the Union labor. tions. In any case. as is the current pracIt gains an immense prestige among its followers by meeting them and providing to supply their needs at the very times and at the very crises in their several careers. He and built. temporal and material. however. The We nor yet to auxiliary organizations. the Church itself frequently pro- vides. unlike other religious bodies. is most sorely needed. as is also done on occasions. but also. designed for practical work in the world. and this is that the Mormon Church. — — As previously suggested. as it was intended by its founders that it should run. in other words. it must be kept well oiled and in running order. and may be held to signify no more than a practical application on a systematic scale of the very spirit that inspires all intending benemust not lose sight of one factors of their fellow-men. not only temporary relief for the distressed and for those out of employment. does not leave this highly important branch of practical benevolence to unassociated good intenties. in many cases. as well as spirIf the mechanism of this Church's itual. as previously stated. tice elsewhere. essential feature. Your brethren in the Gospel. has created work for the sake of employing those among its poor who had not been located otherwise. there need be no just charge of unanswered prayers of need and distress. and in the failings common to humanity.

and it could not have come into existence at the time it did if the Church with its means and credit had not backed the enterprise. That this is a very desirable end in our present civiHzation cannot be denied. fact. This famous resort was built in 1893. while all other professed religious bodies have stupidly and culpably ignored it. was undertaken with a view to create labor. on the other That the Mormon Church recognizes this tion is to continue. leaving really humanitarian souls no alternatives other than socialism. from consideration of the teachings of Christ. and a rebuke to its opponents. or some other schemes of so-called sociology or economics. it is clear that poverty and indigence. quite in the line of what Christ evidently had in view. The building of Saltair as a great bathing resort on the Great Salt Lake is another enterprise which has given employment to many people. is too evident to need discussion of any kind. if civilizaignorance. A — — ! . which. Apart. while busying themselves with criticisms and fault-seeking. as well as the vices causing them hypocrisy.I50 THE REAL MORMONISM Thus. and acts accordingly. which are both non-religious and non-Christian. In view of the facts mentioned above. built of cobble stones and concrete. while intended as a protection against Indians. and another high wall. extravagance. caused a high wall to be erected around the Temple Block. at the least helpless indigence. have contrived no effectual rivalry to its practical methods. around same wall intended to the tithing office and his own premises. it would take no very great insight to discern the fact that the Mormon Church has set itself to the very laudable task of actually abolishing poverty. however. as last given. indifference. no matter how much his pretended followers may have ignored and neutralized his teachings. that it is. or of the claims of any organization whatsoever. to give employment to the unemployed he spirit. shiftlessness and must be done away with. also. or. encompass the city. is decidedly to the credit of its founders and leaders. on the one hand. who. and intemperance. even the smallest.

as a rule. If the Christian public in England and America can view the exasperated reaction. While the much-mooted right of female suffrage was first granted under Mormon rule. nor any of the degenerate spirit of " sexantagonism. the rule operates normally. that it will be necessary to give figures and examples to demonstrate the fact that. which has so terribly inflamed our preacher-folk. the moral and ethical benefits of close association would be cheerfully admitted. holding the begetting and rearing of offspring as their highest prerogative. individual and self-reliant. and appreciatively disIn the case of the Mormon Church. at least. however. are. they have no just ground of criticism of a people who have accomplished grand results with none of these grievous and pathological " labor pains. in this case of close association. there was never a ** woman movement among these people. in this particular. to a great extent. The . which is usually understood to connote moderation in the use of alcoholic drinks." so disgustingly rampant in England. it is a sad comment on the sufficiency of the ideals and spiritual influences under which they have been reared. in spite of the fact that it was a recognized institution among God's people of ancient times. the wall cussed. the Mormon influence has been wholly on the side of right. and was not forbidden or condemned by Christ in any unmistakable terms. and the equality of the sexes first openly advocated by Joseph Smith. decency. of prejudice is so high and the clouds of downright misrepresentation so thick." Nearly the most important and typical phase of public morality lies in the matter of temperance. Any person informed in sociology. and. in America." or as an " incident " in the life of nations. we shall find that the women of Mormondom. let alone morals." CHAPTER XII THE MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE In the discussion of any other social and religious system." as a " phase of evolutionary development. Whatever they may think of their own case. also. justice and of intelligent and normal sentiment. while highly independent. nobly womanly. known as the " woman movement. similarly well organized. at the same time. cannot help but recognize that. In our study of the institution of plural marriage.

at all events. for assuming the probability. since the world has seen a sufficiency of high professions and low practices. Among the loosely organized sects of Protestantism. and all are allowed to condemn seriously. hypocrisy and inconsistency in religious and moral professions may be long maintained.' " Then. as well as an effective engine for social and religious benefits to the people included in its " quorums. of the consistency of Mormon claims in this particular: this is. an accepted revelation condemning the pracalong with the use of tobacco. There is one good reason. is beyond doubt — * . to be at any rate exceptionally careful in maintaining the appearance of piety and sobriety and I leave it to my readers to judge whether such solid hypocrisy as this. nearly as admirable as the real thing itself. except in the case of itself and friends. seriously.152 THE REAL MORMONISM Mormons claim considerable immunity from the ravages of this social disease of " gin-guzzling. however. again." because of their belief in the of Wisdom. — . at least. and drunken? As a community I know them. at least. without fear of detection as a matter of experience. his time was mine. and coffee. or in the other-worldly Catholic Church. without knowing anything of the lives of Mormons. No one can deny that some of these people. there is always a liability to discovery and condemnation. that tries to abolish all swearing and all strong drink both by precept from the pulpit and example in the household. of course. from personal advantages of observation such as no non-Mormon writer has ever previously possessed. this is evidently true but where people are constantly associated in their religion. except Mormons. which all agree is undesirable. Word — — We "The Mormons drunken! Now what. adulterous. as are the Mormons. tea. that the principle of strong and close organization is undoubtedly justified as a moral safeguard. amusements and business employments. after all. all of them anxious to show me every hospitality and courtesy." In the matter of indulgence in alcoholic drinks. is not. therefore. and is inclined to discount the former. This claim by itself is. social life. how can any one have respect for the literature or the men who. no argument in favor of their practical consistency. If I wanted someone to go with me to some point of inYet it never occurred to them to show a terest. I was never at any time asked to take a glass of strong drink? If I wanted a horse to ride or to drive I had a choice at once offered me. the following from a seasoned traveler and keen observer is significant: tice. that the Mormons have al"This. stigmatize them as profane. for instance. the fact of the strong and close association of the members of the Church. and gluttony in meat eating. are sincerely consistent in their professions: and such are always liable to ** run amuck " and really denounce hypocrisy. courtesy by suggesting a drink. may understand. can be the conthat though I mixed conclusion of any honest thinker from this fact stantly with Mormons.

72. of the Utah lawyers are Gentiles. only 5 of whom were Mormons. they say. they have both drunkards and profane men among them. Yet in the city prison there were 29 convicts. billiard. he says: "Last winter there was a census taken of the Utah Penitentiary and In the Salt Lake City and county prisons with the following result: Salt Lake City there are about 75 Mormons to 25 non-Mormons in Salt Lake County there are about 80 Mormons to 20 non-Mormons. in the streets of their city. * we might hope to .' " ners and Saints. the consequences. are non-Mormon. All of the bagnios and other disreputable concerns in the territory are run and sustained by nonMormons. and 2 of the 5 were in prison for polygamy. 17 per cent. 239-240). Of the 250 towns and villages in Utah. needed no escort in the streets. But the general attitude of the Church toward these delinquents. first. Mr. Of the suicides committed in Utah ninety odd per cent. an oath never to be heard. Ninety-five per cent. Nor is it any secret that if the Mormons had the power they would to-morrow close all the saloons and bars. as keen to notice the defects this anyone may of Mormon character as its excellencies understand from reading his book. pp. and to be found in other printed records of the times. Mormons had but 5 " Out of the 200 saloon. and 98 per cent. But the fight has gone against them. bowling alley and pool-table keepers not over a dozen even profess to be Mormons. Ninety-eight per cent. In the Utah Penitentiary at the date of the census there were 51 prisoners. for the sake of argument. while the 83 per cent. second. as — . thanks to the example of Gentiles.. of all the litigation there is of outside growth and promotion. p. and then. The courts uphold the right of publicans to sell when and and what they choose . all non-Mormons. because he quotes correctly figures gathered authoritatively. — — — At another page.— ! MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE ways struggled hard 153 to prevent the sale of liquors in Salt Lake City. and of the Utah homicides and infanticides over 80 per cent. and the Mormons. Assuming. outsiders ' had 46 convicts in the penitentiary. Robinson's testimony is quotable. and when our wives and girls. Robinson gives figures to bolster up such contentions as are made above. have now to confess that.' ' Mr. are in themselves proofs of the sincerity in sobriety which distinguishes the Mormons. and the sorrow that their weakness causes in the family circle. over 200 have no 'gaudy sepulchre of departed virtue. of 'outsiders. Speaking of the results of a canvass made in the year of his visit to Utah (1882). except those under Church regulation.^ee the old days back when we never thought of locking our doors at night. that the Mormon professions of opposition to the traffic in intoxicants is perfectly sincere. all non-Mormons. except under strict regulations and supervision. so that the 17 per cent. are perpetrated by the Ibid. of the gamblers in Utah are of the same element. because he was a careful and unprejudiced observer. who could at one time boast that a drunkvisitors without nurnber have borne evidence to the fact ard was never to be seen. let them be Phil Robinson (Sinout ever so late. The jailer stated that — : the county convicts for the five years past were all anti-Mormons except three! " In Utah the proportion of Mormons to all others is as 83 to 17.' and these two hundred and odd towns are almost exclusively Mormon in population. in the county prison there were 6 convicts.

until they are old enough. So far as concerns the influence of this organization on the moral of its young men. As mons numbered about 40. up in an atmosphere in which moral influences repel." the fault is quite as certainly to be found in the method of presenting moral teachings. mission. either in the country or in a city.000 out in this city in 1910. are known as the Salt Lake. against which youth are warned. one is brought to no effective influences at all. It is also a well recognized fact that the initial step in the path of drunkenness. they cannot be blamed either for the existence of all the 130 saloons. examined in three years. are precisely those one would expect to find. and lead such lives as excite respect and emulation. and eventual ruin and disgrace. Beyond doubt. If. along with the strength of will to resist temptation. at the present time. therefore. The attitude of the people toward the liquor traffic is even more satisfactory. to any extent in forbidden pastimes. Of i. to be wicked clandestinely. the result cannot fail to keep a large percentage of young men in the strait way. a stake is a section of territory. Ensign. in which he is brought into constant association with men who make a public boast that they eschew all the vices. analogous to the diocese or see of a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. which. in brief. as in the native depravity of the delinquent himself. the record of the Deseret Gymnasium. or If. Thus. Day. as embodied in the Mormon Church. the greater proportion of crimes flows from indulgence in alcohol. As is explained in place. it is rnerely an ecclesiastical jurisdiction. is either " manly " or " smart. practical. is significant. one is reared and educated in a society. The figures . As such. and Pioneer stakes. which degrades the physical system and weakens the sense of right and wrong. on the other hand. The table on following page shows the number of liquor saloons in the regularly organized stakes of the Church. the physical director. and indulgence. the antithesis between the impracticable. "thisworld" attitude. and allow the notion to grow in the mind that carelessness in speech and act. William R.154 THE REAL MORMONISM noted by Robinson. This is. during two record years.000. the Morof a total population of about 93. without reference to the religious or racial affiliations of the inhabitants included in its confines.ioo applicants for adin Salt Lake City. and the well-organized. instead of half-hearted and womanish attitudes toward the w^orld. is to be traced to bad influences in youth. there are four stakes in the city limits of Salt Lake City. nor for the failure to close them. at least. reports a clean record so far as any evidence of personal immoralities are concerned. as we are informed. rather than excite respect. Liberty. other-worldly attitude of current influences.

. North Sanpete North Weber 4 4 3 2 . . on . Fremont Granite .. . . 4 7 47 77 5 Morgan Nebo Totals — 18 . 3 21 12 9 . . while an increase of such places occurs in 8 cases. .. . Kanab Liberty 9 11 2 . 4 4 25 4 . 1909 1910 Inc. . 12 . . 3 of saloons open in 1909 of saloons open in 1910 Local Increases. Bannock Bear Lake Bear River Beaver Benson Big Horn • Ogden Oneida Panquitch . . . Snowflake South Sanpete Star Valley . the several local increases totaled less than one-third of the total decreases in the same period. . Dec. . show a general trend toward improvement in the matter of liquor selling resorts.. Thus. . . .. MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE Liquor Saloons in Stake. 7 6 . . Cache Carbon Cassia 2 5 11 8 2 i . 56 11 I Davis 4 3 •• San Juan San Luis Sevier Duchesne 7 i 8 i i . . George St. . . . . . 75 . . . Parowan Pioneer Pocatello . Bingham Blackf oot Box Elder 2 7 2 2 3 10 2 2 7 2 .. . with 14 having none in both years. 1909 1910 Inc. 2 i 24 . as shown in 1910 Total decrease from 1909 to 1910 Stakes without saloons in 1909 Stakes without saloons in 1910 Stakes without saloons in both years Number Number 624 512 47 154 112 17 23 14 given in the above table.. 4 14 13 4 14 .. . . . . . . however. Emery Ensign ^ 2 14 17 2 42 . . It has been the claim of the Mormon Church authorities that the Stakes of Zion have always been virtually free of saloons. i . . . . . . . Joseph 94 38 . . . Malad Maricopa Millard Union Utah Wasatch . . 4 3 . Dec. . . It is also notable that the number of stakes having no saloons rose from 17 to 23 in one year. . . . . 155 Mormon Stakes Stake. 47 77 2 . . . . Rigby Salt Lake St.. .. . • • • 8 5 7 • i • 7 5 5 . 4 . . Wayne Weber WoodruflF Yellowstone .. .. Alberta Alpine 3 3 . 2 . Also. . . . 8 . 2 67 2 i . 24 . . 15 6 2 2 . . . and this represents the closing of 112 saloons and beer shops. . 2 22 2 i i i .. . . . 2 .. 40 3 40 . . Summit Taylor Teton Tooele Uintah 23 . . 2 3 2 . . . Hyrum Jordan Juab Juarez 6 i 6 i . . as shown in 1910 Local Decreases. . . . Johns St. . . . . 20 7 . . there is a decrease in 23.

According to the returns of this election. were on the lines of the railroads. populous in non-Mormons. and the remaining 2. respectively. according to the federal records. beer shops and drug stores.780 votes cast against Hcensing the liquor traffic. and that the responsibility of keeping it among them lies.358 against 6. and Tooele (3) ." 9 were in the mining counties of Carbon (3). with the introbriety to be found in Mormon towns. who have remarked on the order and soOf course. The attitude of the people toward the liquor traffic was even better demonstrated in 191 1. leaving 53 a total in the remaining 15 places of 3. According to the official figures for 103 towns and cities. there were 599 places.884 votes for and 1. been frequently substantiated by the reports of travelers of all classes of sympathy. Juab (2). leaving a total of 189 in the remaining 15 towns and villages. as given by the state statistician.681 against license. and 31. the 86 " dry " towns and villages contained. largely of the adventurous classes.710 were cast in Salt Lake and Ogden. out of this total of favorable votes. Of the 17 towns voting " wet. Summit (i). doing a retail business in alcoholic liquors. when the popular vote was taken under the new local option law. 18. In the meantime. out of which 410 were in Salt Lake and Ogden. they could not maintain themselves. on the shoulders of the " gentile " voters in the state. 135 shops and drug stores licensed to retail liquors. According to the figures furnished by the federal excise office. that the votes of this election show conclusively that the Mormons have made good their profession of opposition to the liquor traffic. Furthermore..504 in favor of the traffic. 156 THE REAL MORMONISM the general ground that. there were 40. almost. where " gentiles " outnumber Mormons by the ratios of to 40 and 24 to 10. 6 were in the Salt Lake and Weber counties.898. in Beaver and Emery counties. if not entirely.691 while in the remaining 17 places the license was established by a vote of 22. and is now strongest in the sections of the state having the largest percentage of non-Mormon population. the liquor traffic grew.594 against 13. as there was no business for these This allegation has resorts. distributed through 51 of these towns. duction of outside elements. saloons. 35 of which had contained no such licensed places before the election. it will be impossible on for any really honest and candid person to deny that Mormonism . in these 17 " wet " towns. however. Such data very effectively divide any responsibility that one may attempt to lay at the doors of Mormon voters. The fact is. The no license measure was carried in 86 towns and cities by a total vote of 26.

etc.000 souls. to the general eflfect that the larger proportion of the crimes ever brought to the attention of the authorities in his territory and state. or 71 Mormons to 29 non-Mormons. who wish to be just to their fellow-men. and reassure them that they are succeeding admirably in reforming the Mormons.' * lawless. and to overcome the grosser forms of evil. He says " To fully appreciate the magnitude of non-Mormon that of the Mormons who reside in Utah's second city. These matters. it must be acknowledged that Mormonism certainly ranks near the top as a beneficial religious influence. and the Mormons were rather largely in the majority in most centres. If the aim of religion is. to benefit the public. in any sense.' etc. can be determined only by statistics. the Mormon and nonelements are as 7 to 3.. Here is a delectable repast. in view of the facts on the liquor traffic already noted. are habitually contradicted by such a mass of sectarian misrepresentation that it is impossible to make the public believe even the plainest facts. 1884. however. which no doubt will appetize the local regenerators. both by such writers as Phil Robinson. whom they persistently stigmatize as being * uncivilized/ semi-barbarous. which is the most source of crime and vice among us. and several Mormon compilers. which our traditional sects statistics show that Morhave never succeeded in neutralizing mon communities certainly average far higher in other virtues than communities under other auspices. etc. 18. In several books and periodicals we find statistics. since the bare assertion of travelers and other observers. The figures given at this time are significant from another point of view.: MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE prolific 157 has done its best to oppose the liquor traffic.' brutal. at least. considerable amount of such statistical matter was contributed to Utah newspapers in the early " eighties " by a writer using the nom-de-plume of Historicus. Leaving out of account the hypoand even this may be prefercritical rant about "polygamy" able to the orders of immorality.. This contention seems to derive some element of probability. made good on its claims to propagating a superior order of morality among its people. also. has been committed by the minority of " gentiles " there resident or sojourning. and has.' lustful. apparently authoritative. This statistician furnishes the data tabulated on the following page on the crime record of Ogden to the Deseret — — A Evening News of Sept. the practical accomplishments mentioned in which shows the immense superiority (i to none) of "gentiles" over Mormons in the matter of "cruelty . so far." mind that Mormon - ' ' * In addition the following to list. in it lawlessness over must be borne in a total population of 7. His findings deserve some attention because they have been widely quoted. since the Territory was then less populous than at present.

" Mormons have been 463. when a large must be . it has been the habit in many prisons to make no record of religion. last year been as lawless as the 29 per cent. when the religious affiliations of most people were easy to discover. This objection did not apply so easily in the early days of Utah.158 THE REAL MORMONISM Mormon Crimes (During the year ending December Crime Assault Assault and Battery 31. their arrest product would have in the list. as follows: " Of Now. except in rare occasions. if the 71 per cent. if the 29 per cent. Nor is it so great an objection in that state at present. as been but and not Mormons had 21.621 arrests of their class would have been recorded. it distinctly borne in mind that it is by no means easy to make such bold comparisons on the delinquency of members of different religious faiths. 1883. in addition to those named above. instead of the comparatively small number of 74. the report specified 5 Mormons (none in the brothels) and 52 non-Mormons. all non-Mormons: Burglary Grand Larceny Keeping Brothels i 2 3 Gambling Keeping Gambling Houses Illegal Liquor Selling Other Police Offenses 23 3 11 25 billiard inmates of brothels." the author proceeds to name 17 other crimes committed among 68 offenders. non-Mormons of Ogden City had shown respected and upheld the laws of that municipality with the same 71 per cent. In many cases the arrested person. Historicus then concludes. particularly when accused of a grave crime. And again. In treating of such a matter as this from the public records. For this reason. nonMormons. arrested for various disorders. will falsify on the matter of his religious connection and other personal concerns. employes of breweries. 1. saloons and rooms. as the same exhibit shows.) Mormons Non-Mormons 2 5 6 17 3 Drunk Drunk and Disorderly Disturbing the Peace 25 Larceny Indecent Conduct Lewd Conduct Vagrancy Fast Driving Cruelty to Animals Petit 9 2 5 i 27 97 37 79 36 6 4° 64 3 i 4 395 Totals 74 to animals. fidelity as the doing.

22 I 20 3 31 7 34 2 26 5 4 21 6 22 Residents of Utah .. Various S... Emery Garfield . i 4 29 . Taking the average population. 4 . MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE may 159 proportion of the inhabitants are Mormons. 8 706 II Sanpete Sevier 4 2 2 2 i . or by no other testimony. Utah Wasatch Washington 5 21 2 .. 75 2 1 1 79 .. as an indicator of the law-abiding character of the people of Utah. .. out of which but 377 were of residents of the State of Utah. a total of 1958 commitments to the State Penitentiary. 4 I 27 27 33 149 . 4 4 4 9 50 6 10 32 5 .. we must not make too much of the former.... or about 19. we find that . . or state. the following table has been compiled from the annual reports of the state penitentiary of years of statehood.25% of the whole.19 San Juan . . If by no other method. 1910). and these are Accordto be found recorded in the reports of state prisons. 2 '\ t 355 37 35 Wayne Weber Ct. but convictions for felonies are real indicators. 32 i 31 34 29 52 56 2 I 74 . 2 I Summit Tooele Uintah 2 2 2 10 3 3 I 43 21 . Utah for the first sixteen Convictions for Felonies. we have...000.. Box Elder Cache Carbon Davis .. 1900. ^2 Totals 91 69 67 82 81 79 107 91 108 88 112 131 140 126 137 1581 84 1x6 99 100 99 102 96 131 115 134 109 134 157 166 155 161 1958 The analysis of this table is most interesting. 14 i i .7 4 2 i 3 5 3 8 8 it 63 73 53 SO 8 • • 3 3 2 5 3 ... ingly. 3 2 8 2 6 . as about 286. 23 2 14 U. Average figures indicate fairly well. 12 25 30 33 17 21 17 24 24 26 26 26 29 24 377 Non-Residents of Utah. . .. 2 . 25 . . the character and moral status of a community.... . . the moral character of the inhabitants.. therefore. in the first 16 years of statehood. as given in the last three censuses (1890. may be judged from the police and prison records... 2 Grand Iron i W 25 I* 17 13 ID I I 1 Juab 3 I i 2 Kane Millard 4 1 I Morgan Piute Rich Salt 3 3 Lake . 1896-1911 County Beaver 96 97 i 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 II Tot.. Unless we expect to find angelic perfection.. Apparently. however.

198 of these were committed in the centres of population. of the entire number of commitments. 222 in 1910. 19 22 3 •• 34 n 45 6 130 64 5 193 4 •• . according to the representations of the authorities. According to the reports of the state bureau of statistics. 2..: i6o the THE REAL MORMONISM commitments of residents represent about 1.672 were had for eight crimes and misdemeanors of varying degrees of gravity. 459 in 1904. or a little less than results of the influx of outsiders. Mischief Unclassified 14 57 23 23 14 30 56 19 14 75 7 115 21 i9 19 81 21 23 81 26 32 29 62 11 13 3 5 5 10 3 114 86 291 30 199 loi 57 21 75 2 .. Larceny Pt Larceny Mai. 506 in 1903. the greater number of commitments in any year come from places near railway centres. 280 71 145 8 19 . here bunched together under the head of "unclassified.. 195 in 1909. are given in the following table compiled from the records of the bureau of in these counties. 58 269 162 10 329 52 668 2036 2672 31 75 205 24 482 1198 1745 Totals 353 438 506 360 383 122 195 III Total for Year 339 431 459 520 222 This table exhibits the fact that. which. who are particularly numerous total m % It is also interesting to notice that the figures already given. give a total of 1308. . Utah and Weber counties.32% of the average population during the entire period. or localities in which large numbers of outsiders are likely to be employed. Centres 51 Assault Battery Burglary (Disturbing Peace. there analyzed. The most serious of these offenses. 1... or from mining regions. and a number of others.036 convictions out of a grand total of 2. the total number of convictions in the state courts for all classes of offenses are as follows: 339 in 1900.210 in all." Moreover. as shown by the preceding table. Salt Lake. 1.. 60 . numerically speaking. gave. 431 in 1902. % statistics Crimes and Misdemeanors Commonest in Utah in Seven Years of Record Offense 1900 1902 1903 1904 1905 1909 1910 Totals 16 10 21 Pop. combined with those for Carbon and Juab counties. 58 12 House-breaking Gd. shows the ties. Furthermore. although the or over population figures in the last three censuses are only slightly over one-half of the figures for the entire territory or state. now prevailingly "gentile" in population. The large numbers of commitments from Salt Lake. in the seven years of record. 520 in 1905. Utah and Weber counof the total.

fornication. in the first We — We Crimes of Impurity and Violence in Seven Years of Record in Offense Adultery. show only 377 actual residents of Utah. When we consider that the state of Utah is largely Mormon. bigamy. leaving a total of 838 for evil-doers in the remainder of the state. It is significant that no evidence of florid excess exists in the records.198 were committed in these centres of population. where there are large settlements of people of other persuasions. as in all states. homicide. criminal conversation. therefore. as just given.. Con 4 2 3 8 4 •• 2 3 IS Homicide Totals 9 4 29 3 3 19 6 2 32 20 154 9 67 27 20 19 25 This table shows that of crimes of lewdness 58 out of 131 were committed in the centres of population. 9 out of the twenty homicides occurred in the same region. of all offenses have been committed in or near the great centres of population. with the exception of Carbon. in a total of 1. by their traducers will. Although. unlawful cohabitation. Centres 38 5 15 18 8 2 7 2 6 5 14 I 15 i 12 i 17 . and the "unclassified. and. 1. rape. as would be the case in any other state. Mormons. it is fairly clear that Mormonism is effective in reducing the crime average to some It may be objected that the larger percentage intelligible extent. the greater i6i number of commitments to the state penitentiary i6 years of statehood.958 convictions. The state statistics of the state of Utah give us. also. Taking the figures covering the offenses of adultery.MORAL RECORD OF THE MORMON PEOPLE also. abortion. Juab and Salt Lake counties. but the penitentiary records. Out of the grand total of convictions for every class of crime. of which 1. eight offenses specified. 91 Abortion 3 Rape Crim. analyze the returns in these matters also. significant data on the classes of crimes most often charged against impurity and homicide.745 were had in these same three counties.210 were recorded from Salt Lake. Utah and Weber counties. we have the results shown in the following table. with the entire remainder of the state of Utah. etc 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1909 1910 Totals Utah Pop." 1. as above quoted. during the seven years already analyzed. also. and sections of Utah and Weber counties. in default of data touching the religious or national affiliation of any of the persons con- . leaving a remainder of 927 convictions in seven years of record to be distributed over the also see that.

no figures condemning Mormonism. And The ends his life by suicide! Where reform don't mean a prison. Where water instead of wine is sent To administer the sacrament! Where thieves and blacklegs never go.. Except where Gentiles their customs brought. 1877. . Where And where Where bad the workmen never strike! known. flag that floats is Mormonism '* ! — The Agitator (Buffalo. brothels are naught. find.). every farmer owns his farm all the children go to school.!! ! ! i62 THE REAL MORMONISM We victed of crimes and misdemeanors. so far as its regular residents are concerned. Oct. Y. rumshops. N. at least. The accusations Of evil behavior have been absurdly overdone by the enemies of Mormonism. it must be admitted that the State of Utah shows a very clean record. cannot find a fool Where banks don't break and Ring intrigues Are not as thick as Union Leagues Where women as well as men are sent When Mormons elect their President Where And where you Where no drunkard murders his bride. They are worthy attention as being from the pen of a nonmember of the Church. The following homely verses sum the virtues claimed by Mormons as the consequence of their faith. And tramps and bummers have no show! idle fellows all dislike. "Where courts. And Restelism has never grown! diseases are not Where And every workman has house and barn.

" — Joseph Smith. .Ill THE TEACHINGS OF MORMONISM " It is the first principle of the Gospel to know and to know that we may converse with Him for a certainty the character of God. as one man converses with another.

.

do these accusations come with any very good grace. all parts belong together as elements of a logical system. tional " and " consistent " in a very superior sense. Thus. in view of the hideous absurdities and perversions in several representative systems. it holds to two reasonable principles: (i) that the Author of revelation was competent to express His thoughts in comprehensible language. (2) that revelation is intended to reveal. a definite and intelligent attempt to forestall the numerous questions. 165 . Whether or not. as seems evident. in a very real sense. its doctrines are based upon a new series of divine revelations. and not to puzzle it with evident contradictions and manufactured " mysteries. while asserting its belief in the almightiness of God. also. although indicating nothing more forcibly than the essential limitations in the minds of theological speculators of the past. which may be called " rasary. to furnish the mind with actual information on matters spiritual. since." since so evidently baffling to the reason. and to settle the many problems that have arisen in traditional systems of thought." which. it may be said to be somewhat more " literal " in its interpretation of Scripture than many authorities might consider necesIt holds a position." which represent His being as hopelessly in The which . also thoroughly convinced of the ultimate and sufficient authority of Scripture. Mormon theology is based flatly upon a thorough and consistent belief in divine revelation. it is perfectly evident to the informed and unprejudiced mind that these new doctrines and interpretations were first formulated by a mind keenly and intelligently alive to the current difficulties and contradictions of theological thinking. if it is to be criticized at all. Careful and conscientious study will reveal no trace of the " illogicality " and " irrationality " so confidently attributed to it by numerous critics nor. however. it avoids curious questionings in regard to His ultimate "nature.CHAPTER XIII THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM theology of Mormonism is a consistent body of doctrine. and. as claimed. are impudently recommended as matters for the '* exercise of faith.

composed of a " substance " so utterly foreign to anything evidently real to human thought. known as the Protestant " reformation. These qualities inhere in no other system whatever. therefore. the conditions are all fulfilled in the great disturbance of the sixteenth century." and to make feeble and ineffective attempts to emphasize " righteousness " and the various long-neglected " social — — and moral virtues. the reformers emphasized the doctrine of the " sufficiency of Scripture. since accusations of " apostasy and claims to " restoration " abound in Christian history. and of all that belongs to it. also the vital need of a " restoration " of the Gospel. both logical in thought and practical in applicability to life." tenet of Mormonism is that the system of doctrine and practice embodied in its theology and church organization represents a full and complete restoration of pure. as is amply evidenced by the fact that most of the sects of Protestantism each of them founded originally on the groundwork of somebody's findings and opinions on God. of course. sin. and propounding principles capable of meeting the human mind on its own ground. all of which are mere transitions ** from bad to worse." along with various sentimental and half-fledged formulations on various bases of compromise. The fundamental . than upon their own interpretaHence. as preached by Christ and his apostles. they separated and quarrelled tions of its teachings. a " God-science. This system of doctrine is. it makes no unfamiliar claims or charges." If a system of theology is such in any real sense. etc. however. but. in the last analysis. In opposition to the Roman claim of a centralized and permanent authority. are at the present day rapidly retreating from the old-time theological standards and accepting such " infidel " hypotheses as the so-called " higher criticism and " evolution theologies. in the bitter denunciation of the Catholic Church. supposedly lost and obscured through the general apostasy of all professing Christian bodies and systems throughout the succeeding centuries. They evidently relied less upon Scripture." At this time. the accusation of apostasy. that it seems to be equivalent to nothingness. Without considering all the eccentric and local movements of the first fifteen centuries of our era. In this position." i66 THE REAL MORMONISM contradictory to the " unassisted reason " and. primitive Christianity." which each man was urged to read and digest for himself. were abundantly expressed. avoiding the wretched refinements and speculations of all schools of traditional scholasticism. each of which professed more or less definitely to be the true Christianity restored. located in the Pope." it would not be necessary to accord a secondary consideration to " mere doctrines.

launched a regime of individualism and self-assertion. is not unmistakable evidence of evil qualities or intentions it may even be held to be an evidence of clear discernment and real spiritual vitality. — . there has followed. in a great " measure. and were not moved to attempt any such achievement. therefore. the valuable element of strong organization among their followers. primitive Christianity is a great desideratum of our religious. where others have failed sadly. The consequent either with or without a valid call from God. it cannot be denied that he deserves credit for accurately gauging the needs of the world. It may be logical to hold.THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM among themselves on all 167 hair-splitting points of mere metaphysics. well-intentioned efforts after unity. rather than a " consummation " best efforts " of the '* rationalistic " dreamers of the presof the and repelled — ent or of the future. moral and social life has been acknowledged by numerous representative thinkers and preachers. The discernment and statement of this fact by Joseph Smith. or by any other person. essential and permanent. which have weakened the influence of Protestantism as a movement. attempt to supply the world's crying need of numerous neglepted and dishonored truths and virtues must be judged as proper or abortive. as regards the ethical duties recommended by Christ and so completely neglected by his professed followers. full obedience to the commands of Christ are difficult or impossible. and absurdly divided the forces supposedly assembled to combat evil. who have not hesitated to state that our past performances promise ill enough in the way of preparing the world for a rei^ of truth and righteousness. Thus. as an inevitable result. They neglected. also. without which. and that there is still a demand for real reformaif. it be tion and a genuine restoration of the Gospel any longer rational to consider the Gospel as something funda" mental. rather than an era of restored truth of any variety. indeed. therefore. or promulgating. means and methods which have succeeded. They have also acted most effectively to obscure many vital points of Scripture teaching. as may be considered evident. Whatever one may see fit to say about the origin. even as a simple means of combatting the strongly-knitted It may be seen. character and motives of Joseph Smith. that the work which the founders of Protestantism rashly undertook still remains to be accomplished. that they forces of Catholicism. That a " restoration or " revival " of the pure. and for contriving. solely on the basis of the principles which it embodies and the performances which it renders possible. the heresy-building and sectlaunching activities of the last four centuries.

the direct communication of the will and counsel of God to mankind. 427." There is certainly much in the New Testament that strongly suggests a belief in the constant direct communion of the believing soul and its God. known as the "gifts perfectly restored Christianity should cerof the Spirit. as may living in the days of Christ's earth life. V. must perpetuate the personal presence and communion of God. so by your own mouth you are condemned. so the Church. neither of which statements is warranted in authority. it may be held consistently that it represents a very normal and vital phase of religious development. it postulates the actual restoration of revelation.— i68 ! . one must be touched often and truly by that " childlike outlook. precisely as they were enjoyed by those Whether or not. Thus. 1843. just as the person of the man Christ brought the presence and power of God down to this world. made an entry in his . : . as a means of individual divine guidance." which. with Abraham. which is to say. " as a man speaketh unto his friend. also for imparting the various blessings and endowments. Some six months previously he had journal to the same effect." or hopes. I have the testimony of Jesus I have the Spirit of God but away with Joe Smith he says he is a prophet but there are to be no prophets or revelators in the last days. in which he defends his claim to be the instrument of revelation from God in the following words: " Many of the sects cry out. it proposes to follow the Bible implicitly." tainly give some other account of these matters than to deny merely that they are of operative importance at the present time.' Stop. to talk with God. as follows.. the days of Christ's apostles. With very consistent adherence to many strong suggestions in Scripture. or even New A intelligent. p. like Moses. or to assert that they were reserved solely for the " formative period" of the Christian era. June ii. This point was touched in a sermon preached by Joseph Smith. such an attitude be authorized or Christianly proper. Vol. * . Oh. an element sorely missed among us. looks to find God " at the door of the tent." which have already '* eliminated for many minds all ideals not " rationally consistent with the hypotheses of experimental scientists. in a very real and vivid sense. THE REAL MORMONISM professions of The Mormonism as the actual restoration of Testament Christianity derive a considerable show of plausability in the fact that." History of the Church. founded to continue his work and incarnation. it may be credited with holding that. Even in this day of " material progress " and crude intellectual resolutions of the " religious consciousness. be questioned by some. in its primary teaching. sir The Revelator (John) says that the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

V. without sufficient warrant. "I will inform you that it is contrary to the economy of God for any member of the Church. but if I be a true teacher and witness." . The claim that these acts of violence were originated in resistance to actual " impurities " and other forms of evil-doing are mere pretences. or profession. may have excited the opposition of some minds. Vol. he had written a letter to one Jared Carter. in current estimation. About ten years previously. since the very beginning of their career. if I profess to be a witness or teacher. and by History of the this key false teachers and imposters may be detected. He says: " Respecting the vision you speak of we do not consider ourselves bound to receive any revelation from any one man or woman without his being legally constituted and ordained to that authority. as applying to all presumed or alleged revelations in addition to the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments.. according to John. I should not deny it." which is to say. pp. precisely what the Puritan hierarchy of New England denominated a " wanton gospeler. who. and giving sufficient proof of it. Vol. it must be for his own benefit and instruction. The bulk of the arguments used against him. I must possess the spirit of prophecy. to receive instructions for those therefore you will see the imin authority. in which occurs the following explanation of the recognized limitation in respect to receiving revelations. and any man who says he is a teacher or preacher of righteousness. 338. so also is it the sufficient explanation of the absurd and abominable persecutions visited upon Smith and his people. which is the testimony of Jesus. but if any person have a vision or a visitation from a heavenly messenger. on April 13. should have been the proper channels for any further He revelations that God might be pleased to give to the world. p. the Church are vested in the keys of the kingdom. and the truth is not in him . and denies the spirit of prophecy. being an accredited minister or preacher of no sect whatever. and his influence had the same significance in the minds of the Protestant clergy as has an " unethical '* or " quack " physician to the medical profession. As the doctrine of restored revelation is the fundamental teaching of Mormon theology." Church. in this matter. was. That he claimed to have received revelations. had dared to ** usurp the functions and prerogatives " of the preacher class.— — THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM . entailed by the constitution of the Church government and constitution. 169 "If any person should ask me if I were a prophet. 215-216. as that would give me the lie for. or any one. 1833. government and doctrine of Ibid. I must be a false witness . 18.. in spite of the current understanding of Revelation xxii. therefore. however. an unauthorized preacher. however. for the fundamental principles. the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy . and that constitutes a prophet.. The fact is that Joseph Smith. is a liar. and have not the spirit of prophecy. higher than themselves propriety of giving heed to them. I. have been .

With Mormonism. religion is not merely a totality of beliefs and duties. a " joint heir with Christ. promulgated by Joseph Smith. so widely adall — and condemned by anti-Mormon writers and agitators. Thus. because religion is properly to be regarded as life itself. and its characteristics are thus summarized by Parley P. or of correspondence. the design apparently followed in conceiving and carrying out the details of the wonderful organization of the Church. however. by fair means or foul. dreams. If unfounded. par excellence. Thus. if we may judge from published statements and from the genius of the entire system. sustained and the elements controlled. therefore. also. angels. at least. by means of visions. and the key and power thereof. however." not merely believed. that he was not at the kind of person who could be considered worthy to comworse than the repentant thief mune with God on any terms on the cross. Theology is the science of communication. . in constant communion with God. we find the oftenrepeated claim that. interpretations. and by which worlds are organized. in sum and revelation. therefore. and men. as they devoutly believe. so far as the doctrines of rehgion are concerned. Pratt: " First." Indeed. their truth is not merely accepted " on faith. the accepted teaching is that revelation is continuous and constantly augmenting." as promised in the Scriptures. Such inspiration. between God. " Second. or the spirit of prophecy and affairs of every-day life. worse. "Third. The Mormons live literally." and is to be endowed. but known and understood. conversations. additional to and apart from the a very real sense. with " spiritual gifts. by no means totals the possibilities of association and communication between God and man. Although the leading examples of revelation claimed by the Mormons are to be found in the inspired utterances and commandments in the Book known as Doctrine and Covenants. and in this life. This constitutes the reality of the theocratic rule. inspirations. than Saul on the way to Damascus. They hold that the true believer becomes in a literal sense. It is the science of knowledge. but. it is merely a very devout and human belief that has never been notably misrequited by the accredited vertised authorities of the Church. in addition to the continuous " testimony "of the truth of the Gospel. the higher officers of the Church are the regular and accredited channels of revelations on all matters pertaining to government and faith. sure and certain. and lawful access is obtained It is the science directed. by which the heavens are opened. following on the "gift of the Holy Ghost. That is. spirits.170 THE REAL MORMONISM devoted to proving. theology is the God-science. the proper center of life's activities.

refine or exalt intelligences. at least.the past. the root' Theology. instruct. since the mystical tendency is always effective in imparting a sense of reality to religious experience and authority. Undoubtedly. a system postulating the essential congruity of Divine and human spirits. or of research. and whose minds were prepared to believe that God must speak again to show the true way of life. mathematics. It is the science of life. being. the sick are healed. this essential mysticism was the secret of the wonderful growth of the church in the early days of its history. the properties and applications of the mariner's compass. It is the science of spiritual gifts. architecture. It may be readily understood from this passage that the Gospel of the Latter-day Saints is at bottom a very typical example of theosophic mysticism. the very fountain from which they emanate. by which the blind see. and remission of sins. " Fifth. present as well as ultimate. geography. endless and eternal. by which the living are changed or translated. infinite. Hence. v^hich is to say. " Seventh. emto the treasures of wisdom and intelligence bracing. by a series of examples from Scripture. was welcomed in many quarters. all that is calculated to sustain. and music. there were very many who passionately desired something more vital than the conventional creedalisms of the traditional sects. purijty. "Sixth. astronomy. cleansed. comfort. the announcement of the claim that he had actually spoken. navigation. history. originated by this science. All that is useful. ship-building. It is the science of faith. and blends the knowledge of all matters of fact. It is the science of all other sciences and useful arts. the lame walk. in every branch of art. and the dead raised. they resulted from man's communion with the Deity. the science of letters. It includes. and this science alone. great and good. the deaf hear. in fact. their proper constant association. pp. shov^^ing that God originated the various arts and industries before man ever practiced them. and demons are expelled from the human system. the present. whereby a fallen race of mortals may be justified. and the possibility of their complete harmony.THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM 171 inexhaustible. and of every intelligence therein. and restored to the communion and fellowship of that Holy Spirit which is the light of the world. also. It includes philosophy. languages. the Mormon insistence that the " spiritual gifts " mentioned in the Gospels. edify. Furthermore. the mechanical arts. and the future. — — Elder Pratt then proceeds to justify his claim that theology includes and originates all other sciences. and that at the beginning. " Fourth. 15-16. In this particular it makes a strong appeal to the normal religious instinct. In the midst of the seething unrest in religious circles at the time. agriculture. all the scientific discoveries and inventions. reformation. all other Key to sciences being but branches growing out of this. and in the writings of Christ's apos- . to restore the Gospel and give new directions for human guidance.

. ."— The Articles of Faith. wo be unto the children of men. and others may interpret these words. "The all is vain. may proclaim their testimonies and otherwise utter praises unto God in new and strange tongues. . and early emphasized by Edward Irving. who have been freed from their infirmities through their faith and by the ministrations of the priesthood to a multitude who have voiced their testimony in tongues with which they were naturally unfamiHar. 22fir-2Z7. pp. and the revelations of the Divine will may be obauthority. sometimes with accompanying conditions that appear to be supernatural. and endowments of power and which the purposes of God are accomplished. through tained.' says he. direct communication with the fountain of all wisdom may be established. when such was necessary to the discharge of their duties as preachers of the word of God to many who have enjoyed communion with heavenly beings. This matter is well explained by Elder James E. as a consequence of conforming to the requirements and ordinances of the faith. When so divinely invested. the feeble human intellect may be invigorated by the heavenly touch of spiritual vision and blessed dreams. now growing in our midst. and weak in body. malignant influences overcome. 219-221. and other " miraculous powers. or who have demonstrated their possession of the gift by a phenomenal mastery of foreign languages. THE REAL MORMONISM nay. to manifest his power by the bestowal of a variety of ennobling graces. to see and comprehend things ordinarily withheld from mortal senses. * : . which are properly called gifts of the Spirit. . for it is because of un." are the proper endowments of believers. " Mormon solemnly declares that the days of miracles will not pass from the Church. and it is by faith that angels appear and minister unto men wherefore if these things have ceased. these servants of the Lord will not be lacking in proofs of the Master's favor. They point to the unimpeached testimonies of thousands who have been blessed with direct and personal manifestations of heavenly power. Talmage. may safely regard the existence of these spiritual powers as one of the essential characteristics of the true Church where they are not. the Saints. humble and weak. — — We . is another very essential point of advantage over the sectarian quibble that such gifts were intended only for the early days of Christianity. and dumb. that healing. .' . . gifts here spoken of are essentially . 172 ties. Latter-day Saints claim to possess within the Church all the sign-gifts promised as the heritage of the believer. By such the sick may be healed. actually exist are to be expected. halt. the priesthood of God does not operate.. to the once blind. as follows: " All men who would officiate with propriety in the ordinances of the Gospel must be commissioned for their exalted duties by the power and authority of heaven. for it has ever been characteristic of the dealings of God with his people. and to the Church itself. "The . prophecy. made known through the gift of revelation. In this belief Mormonism antedated by many years the belief. to others who have prophesied in words that have found their speedy vindication in literal fulfillment. . whose growth has been guided by the voice of its Divine Leader. belief. spirits of darkness subdued. These are oft-times exhibited in a manner so diverse from the usual order of things as to be called miraculous and supernatural. . as long as there shall be a man upon earth to be saved * it is by faith that miracles are wrought For.

Such an insistence must make a strong appeal. As a matter of fact." " symboHcal." however. If. Brigham H. Roberts. from the advocates of systems open to even graver characterizations. 161-162. Catholic writers. on the other hand. of other systems. . — — < . until the church was able to make its way without them. therefore. pp. whose assumptions. it is no more than logical that a system of religious teachings " hidden from the wise and prudent and revealed unto babes " (in learning). yet. to dwell upon criticisms. has the following : " Protestant writers insist that the age of miracles closed with the and that after that the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Ghost must not be looked for. Nor is there anything in the Scriptures or in reason . even to the learned. evident. to enlarge upon the superior claims. also so clear and simple that "a wayfaring man. and encouraging to It must be Part H. Mormonism has an immense advantage over its traditional opponents in its insistence that the statments of Scripture are to be literally received. the Church." " sodden materialism. Still explaining the absence of these this plea is made by modern Christians that the extraordinary gifts of the Holy spiritual powers among them Ghost were only intended to accompany the proclamation of the Gospel during the first few centuries. also that there are no time limits to God's promises. accordingly. Nor in the last analysis.— THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM 173 Writing to a very similar purpose. or any of the reported words of Christ or his apostles. it is well to understand that fact. " non-professional theologian." Outlines of Ecclesiastical His. tolerate no evasions based on " typical. It is sufficient to remark upon this that it is assumption pure and simple. ." or " figurative " wrestings of passages " hard " even for the " faith of believers. the acceptance of Scripture as it stands argues to a reductio ad absurdum. insist that the power to perform miracles has always continued in fourth or fifth century. however. this method has drawn the criticism of " dead Hteralism. and then they were to be done away." but insists on such interpretations as the language of Scripture suggests." or. that — — learn it from the statements of alleged " believers. originated primarily as mere bickerings aimed at the efforts of a It is distinctly unprofitable. as alleged. and stands without warrant either of scripture or right reason and proves that men had so far changed the religion of Jesus Christ that it became a form of godliness without the power thereof. that would lead one to believe that they were to be discontinued. Its teachings. are unintelligible. particularly to simple minds these are often the normal minds and is altogether more consistent. Of course. the voluminous historian and apologist of Mormonism. would any informed mind suspect undue prejudice at the basis of the statement that the " subtleties " of traditional theology are derived far more directly from the theories of speculative metaphysicians than from the statements of Scripture. tory." etc.." the " letter that killeth.

addressed in the first instance to simple and unlearned people." which. 'the Reformation* schisms. to rescue religious thought from the toils of so-called philosophy. which. that they are the true Church of Jesus Wonderlands of the Christ. the line of thinking usually characterized as " materialism. So the Mormons claim that they have the genuine article of religion. Even the attempt. which have been obtruded as the real objects of faith. outlining the duties of man to God and to his neighbor. B. found in all traditional systems of theology. The attitude of Mormonism on this matter is well set forth in the following words of Judge A. It is scarcely remarkable. by the perverse habit of placing the greater emphasis upon mere speculative intellectualisms. therefore. even upon God we must the terms of speculative philosophy. which have been " improved " only by substituting others of precisely similar character. as having gone into innocuous first. apparently. With each remove from the Catholic Church desuetude. able achievement. and are the Saints in these latter days. They have gone back to the infancy of the Christian faith and organization. has always ended by inventing even more puzzling and unintelligible situations. a close observer of this system and its adherents: " One trouble about the Mormons is that they are too primitive. As a matter of fact. and then the successive branches. that we hear the familiar Protestant statement of the present day that " theology is not religion. indeed." The truth is otherwise. the plain and simple statements of Scripture. The only antidote for this intellectual fetichism is to accept literally. and fanatically hold on to a literal interpretation of what the Chris- tians generally treat as figurative/ or. the zealous propagandist of each new faith devoutly it is only a restoration maintains that there is nothing new about it of primitive Christianity.— THE REAL MORMONISM 174 though uninstructed. should not err therein/* should be presented in terms that would admit of literal acceptation." * * . as some pretend to argue. 122. or else to reject as unintelligible the prinIt is a desirciples upon which the Gospel is supposedly based." and. to read immense metaphysical refinements into the Epistles of Paul is not justified by the results. p." and witness frantic and largely ineffective attempts to achieve a practical moral and social reform in the sectarian presentation of Christianity. involves all that is the reverse of " spiritual. also the notion that for substitute some sort of blind and impersonal " force " or " law. and sects. since the assumption that all reality is to be understood by the mind as analogous to the order . by habitual connotation. starting out to explain things as they are. This much-condemned " literalism " involves. have been lost to sight. and actually rendered largely inoperative. however. . contemptuously neglected. also setting forth the merciful provisions of God for the benefit of man. Carlton.* . — — — Wild West. off-shoots.

i. spirits and angels that are not material. This object is perfectly apparent in the following statement of Joseph Smith "It is impossible for a man to be saved in ignorance. and can only be discerned by purer eyes. we shall see that it is all matter. cxxxi. the followers of Joseph Smith plead yes to this charge. spiritual things. all realities are to be variously perceived. a man of no mean learning. None of these critics seem able to apprehend the philosophical bearings of the matter. which impresses our mental senses." and that the kingdom of heaven is understood to be made of earth." Joseph Smith as Scientist. John A. coal. Mormon "materialism" and defended by Orson Pratt : since " spiritual things are bodies are purified " spiritually discerned." Nor." Consequently. but when our bodies are purified. but it is more We cannot see fine and pure. All spirit is matter. 6-8. for a God. the whole matter has been ridiculed and travestied by anti-Mormon writers. Of course. which argue to conclusions far different in effect. It is beyond the mind of man to conceive of an immaterial thing. is the mind capable of comprehending any other alternative. who have effectually revealed their own ignorance in such statements as that Smith represented God as a man " grossly material in character. The Absurdities of Immaterialism. and still other varieties of substance of even lesser dignity and beauty. According to the data of the religious consciousness. 12-13. stones. The distinction between the matter known to man and the spirit matter is very great. p. This teaching is explained by Prof. it . however well reasoned it may appear in the writings of speculative Even though the mind be so biassed that the idea of thinkers. Widtsoe. There is no such thing as immaterial matter. is the kind of matter which is associated with heavenly beings." JDoctrine and Covenants. but no greater than is the difference between the matter of the known elements and that of the universal ether which forms one of the accepted dogmas of science. or " sensed " in other words. "matter is the constant basis (or possibility) of perceptive experience. in the last analysis. In Mormon theology there is no place for immaterialism. In one sense. being also perceptible. Spirit is only a refined form of matter." however we may understand this statement are in this sense directly analogous to things understood under the term "material. has also been extensively explained in his well-known work.: : — — " THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM 175 of experiences derived from the world of " material existence may be credited as a distinct and laudable attempt to render things ** unseen and eternal" in some sense intelligible. On the other hand. the things of God are realities in a preeminent sense. Joseph Smith did not teach that the kind of tangible matter. According to life experience. " when our — — .e. in the following words " Mormonism has frequently been charged with accepting the doctrine of materialism.

according to spirit has " thought. but rather because. as in the Athanasian controversy. whereas However. but no extension. that which such philosophers describe as " spirit " is not the same thing as appears in theological literature. It involves an excellent example of rather than over ideas. in the attempt to systematize the universe of thought-experience. touching the divine dignities of Christ. The point of view from which the " materialistic " conception of the universe is attacked is evidently founded in a very prevalent confusion between findings based on an "objective" consideration of the being and attributes of God and spirit." Descartes. we are told. in any sense " personal. And this attitude is assumed. these " two substances " find their sole point of union in the organ of the brain known to anatomists as the " pineal gland " here the " unextended " meets the " extended." mentioned by the German philoso- God thus rejected : pher Hegel. in Greek phrase. and." discriminated by their " attributes. we find " two substances. He is not there. as given in the famous formulations of Descartes. " The telescope sweeps the heavens without finding God " therefore." Now. as some conclude. In the famous phrase. however." Even in the most ** spiritual " speculations about the divine nature. Nor did the " spiritual substances " herein discriminated correspond to any of the " four varieties of negation. we find as a very general rule that the idea is that of a perfectly personal and anthropomorphic First Cause which experimental science is supposed to have ruled out of the universe. and the purely " subjective " considerations treated by others. homo-ousia against homoi-ousia." which are " extension and thought." so-called. the final issue with the Arians reached the point of opposing the statement that He is " of the same substance with the Father.176 THE REAL MORMONISM is inadmissible. that we admit the existence of a God. and " matter. Thus. Thus. there is no evidence that it corresponds to a reality. there is an involved recognition of the fact that " spirit. tangible also. not because the idea of God is unintelligible. are to be dealt with in the same terms. but has no thought " . The moment. All that Des. . so often quoted from the astronomer Laplace. " distinction without difference. as supposed. is " extended. or relegated to the domains of the hopelessly indefinite and unknowable. audible to the ears. Nor is the disagreement on this point other than a merely It is a controversy over words and terms. in the famous Athanasian controversy." rather than "of like substance" merely." socalled. verbal difference." Matter. supposedly. visible to the eyes." that moment we visualize a being in human form.

in the words of Prof. were explained." in which all things material are but the effects of its proper Thus. This expresses Spinoza's solution of the universe. was to discriminate the experiences ("attributes") of subjective and objective. the substance of which above quoted." accomplish any other intelligible result. by the influence of the divine mind upon the human ." or " soHpsism." whose attribute is tion. that " all spirit * is matter. in deep thought or meditaa man knows himself subjectively. constituting " thought " the constant and eternal medium of creation. so also howbeit " the thought of God differs from the God thinks thought of man as the Dog-star from the dog. and which ceases The uniformity of experiences to exist when out of thought. "matter.e. whose logic argues the complete identity of all minds with the One Self as While these effectively as the Adwaita philosophies of India. Nor is there any real avenue of escape from the dilemma.THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM 177 cartes accomplished." indeed. he turns to other activities than those of mere thinking." of Fichte and others. and similar conclusions seem to follow on the logic of very many and by " proper handling. or " extension. in the mind of God and of man is merely a verbal sub- — — — — . apparently. Thus. nearly any conwriters clusion may be reached by a well-conceived line of reasoning the critic of the history of thought is able to discern in the tendency toward " idealism " a series of intellectual inventions or contrivances to enable avoidance of the perfectly evident conclusion that to call spirit " immaterial " involves for the average mind that we call it nothingness. he recognizes that he is also a something extended in space. in effect. we have the idealism of Bishop Berkeley and activity." which he calls ** God. a ** stream of consciousness. Just as a man thinks. as. in resolving the " two substances " into " two attributes " of the one " substance absolutely infinite. in the words i." which is not involved in " thought. Other thinkers attempting similarly to wrestle with the situation have postulated a universe composed entirely of " spirit. He separates the subjective and the objective. William James." Nor does Spinoza. — "to perceive" (percipere)y and its antithesis. but it is more fine and spiritual ' beings consist pure. thus." When. but to acknowledge." Just as a man knows himself as existing in a limited " extension." or thought." whose sole attribute is "to be perceived" (percipi). however. others. which postulates essential " spirit. as may be understood by an example." so God knows himself as existing in all extended space. of course." To say that matter exists only as it is " perceived. From the general tendencies embodied in Berkeley's system arose the " absolute idealism.

justifying teaching about God. even could it be " visualized " " being having his centre nowhere and his circumference everywhere. powers or attributes. unwarranted in sound reason.' The immaterialist ." *' extension " and " thought. The notion of immaterial " spirit " merely confuses the devout mind. Such a conclusion was ably asin reality. etc." acting upon the material universe. and not a mere central " force or law.' The infidel says *God does not exist anywhere. therefore all that exists for it and in it must be. Nor could we sharply discriminate the concept of an " imma** terial human spirit " from the karma of Buddhism all that total of a soul. and supposedly residing in the " world of spirits. is personal and anthropomorphic. when disembodied at death. the other says God is not here or there." is merely a philosophical whimsey. just as a bell of given tone answers the vibrations of another of the same tone. calling Him " formless.— 178 terfuge. thus reproducing and continuing the activities of the first bell. when I have crossed the bar" " subtleties " propounded by theological dreamers. " I hope to see my Pilot face to in spite of the impudent face. to formal atheism. some kind of nothingness. while attracting and. like electricity. The God revealed in Scripture." also to justify to the thinking mind the assertion that God is personal. One says There is no God . The real situation involved in the type of "materialism" under discussion is to provide an intelligible answer to the very reasonable question as to the real constitution of the human spirit. known under another name. thinking) — metal. serted by Orson Pratt. as exalting the idea of God above the comprehension of the human mind." such as is found in stone. The scholastic measure. in a great the ridicule of the skeptic." is really meaningless. echo. any more than he exists now and then. The traditional antithesis between " matter " and " spirit. and thus He remains for the religious consciousness to this very day. Nor has it a direct bearing on the religious consciousness. in essence. One class denies the existence of God in the most positive language the other denies his existence in duration or space. based is : THE REAL MORMONISM upon the assumption that. magnetism and gravity. capable of producing activity in favorable concrete conditions. whatever more may be said of His being. or numerically conceivable valency. the thought it had. which amount. which is the things it did. * ' * . having no " consistency. in the following passage — — — — — — — — "There are two classes of atheists in the world. and of no religious significance." except in the sense of " object " and " subject. because "thought (or immaterial" and. the ' * Self " a mere vortex. passionless and immaterial " for the actual concepts of no Christian people cora respond to any such notion. devoid of authority in Scripture.

One class believes in no God.THE THEOLOGY OF MORMONISM * * * 179 says He exists nowhere. endeavors to hide his infidelity under the shallow covering of a few words. the other believes that Nothing is God and worships it as sxLoh. The immaterialist is a religious atheist.' The immaterialist says spirit. . and fills no space in the same way and in the same manner as matter. * A .^ The infidel says There is no such substance as God/ The immaterialist says 'There is such a substance as God. occupies no room. though he lives and acts. not even so much as the minutest grain of sand. unextended nothing with the powers of a God."— Absurdities of Imtnaterialism. whose declared belief amounts to the same thing as the atheist's. but it is without parts' The atheist says There is no such substance as spirit. p. II. .' The atheist does not hide his infidelity. but the immaterialist. he only differs from the other class of atheists by clothing an indivisible. .

as the Bible remains the recognized standard of authority since the opposing concept is entirely extra-Biblical. which is to say the conception that is humanly intelligible. 18-23. at least." is warned that he cannot see His face. some of the elements are tangible. in other words. " It is a self-evident truth. however. in reference to God. and others invisible. feet. Those which are tangible to our senses. Abraham. Spirit is matter." Mormon writers and teachers insist that the BibHcal mentions of hands. Nonentity is the negative of all existence. xxxiii.. Pratt: "The idea of a God without *body. but that.) Stephen. This negative possesses no property or element upon which the energies of creative power can operate. PP' 49-51 . parts or passions* is not more absurd or inconsistent than that modern popular doctrine. face. or. and other physical parts." Key to Theology. tangible realities. see His " glory." was no found there any advantage to be this teaching. In the capacity of mortals." (Exod. although *' figurative " and " symbolical " uses of these words are often found . all are physical. . and other patriarchs." God would cover him with His hand. Because all things which do exist are eternal realities. " Let us make man in our image. we call spiritual. that something originated from nothing. "To speak more philosophically. allowing him to see only His " back parts. is thus explained in the words of Parley P. declared that he had a vision of the " Son of man standing on the right rhetorical figure. in their elementary existence. while He passed by. God is represented as appearing in human form Moses. all the elements are spiritual.CHAPTER XIV THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD The "materialistic" conception of God. those which are more subtle and refined.. standing " in a clift of the rock. so long. the martyr. which will not admit of argument. as some have done. all are material. is Nor — in criticizing and characterizing — 180 . that nothing remains nothing. we call physical. arms. desiring to to Adam. furthermore. that the primeval suggestion. are to be understood literally. heart. — On the basis of this characteristic " literalism. 43-45. that all things were created from nonentity. or visible. and matter is full of spirit.

very God." " materialistic. but is Much God by Mormon . Christ. since. took Man's nature in the womb of the Blessed Virgin." Doctrine and Covenants. begotten from everlastof the Father. 22. cxxx. were joined together in one Person. 3). by what Scriptural argument could one oppose the following statement given by Joseph Smith? " The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man's the Son also. This statement is explained and defended by Mormon apologists by an analysis of Scripture passages. in the words of the Epistle to the Hebrews. by Christ himself. and very Man. they assert. Thus." because it is precisely the logical development of the doctrine explicitly stated by all the great confessions of faith." or " literalistic. after his resurrection. that is to say. of substance: so that two whole and perfect Natures. What could God reveal to them? . Christ is called the " express image of his person " (Heb. There is certainly nothing of contrary description to be found in the wordy speculations of metaphysical theorizers. all other mentions of God. the same 39). Thus in the Articles of Faith of the Church of England. as ye — me have" (Luke xxiv. also. which ascended also into heaven " for a spirit hath not flesh and bones. after the manner of a body of "flesh and bones. a personage of Spirit. but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones. by prophets." "The Article II. never to be divided. the very and eternal God. Similarly. The crudest concept that demonstrates consistency with authority. whereof is one Christ. is preferable to much else that is based upon some man's intellectual ingenuity. in this matter. the following is to be found ing the her the Son. rather than upon consistency with the terms used in Scriptures believed to be " given by inspiration of God. Father. ." Nor can it be said in criticism of this teaching that it is either " crude. had a body of flesh and bones. i. indicating the idea that " his person " is visible and tangible. little or nothing that can be credited with permanent value to the world of living humanity. probably. must be said of God the see So also. which is the Word of the Father. should be sufficient for any person professing to believe in the actual authority of the Bible but too many of these people have evidently attempted to " improve " Scriptural doctrines and statements from the rich resources of their own minds.— THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD : — i8i hand of God" (Acts vii. and by his apostles. make These facts implicit references to an anthropomorphic God. and expresses faith in its finality. no statement whatever can safely claim exemption from such charges. of the logical development of Scripture teachings about writers would be characterized. Godhead and Manhood." but. and of one substance with Father." For example. 55). as cannot be too emphatically insisted. by the advocates of other systems as " crude " and " childish.

he is a substantial." Chapter VHI." Chapter VHI. Then is not God an exalted man according to your creed? According to this statement of the matter. . So that two whole. the Godhead and the manhood. according to your creed. and widely diffused throughout the universe as some spiritual presence. with the same body in which he suffered. in the womb of the Virgin Mary. . bones. "And now as to there being more Gods than one. tion of the first paragraph of the creed used here. composition. is God. being very and eternal God. Article IV. Jesus has not been dissolved into some spiritual. yet one Christ." The Westminster Confession perfectly similar terms. the scripture teaches that the Son was the express image of the Father's person. the only Mediator between God and man. No. . Jesus. . We believe the Scripture which says that Jesus was the brightness of God's glory. scarcely meets the descripnever to be divided. of spirit. flesh and bone.' . with which also he ascended into heaven. . or confusion. perfect. Indeed your Athanasian creed says * . is. who 'possessed all the fullness of the Godhead bodily'. of course.' that is. And as we know what kind of a person the Christ is. his body are united. • . take upon him mane's nature. resurrected personage. perfected man. *and the express image of his person' (Heb. that is 'without body. when the fullness of time was come. authority of the Father. Section iv. and there sitteth at the right hand of his Father. yet without sin: being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost. Is the Lord Jesus Christ God ? Yes. 3). caviling criticism that the Mormon postulates only a " very large and powerful man " for so certain writers have chosen to travesty the real statement B.* It is enough that I call your attention to the fact that the second part of your creed leads you closely to the 'Mormon' doctrine that God is an exalted. and there sitteth. of one substance. and equal with the Father. I put to you this question : you must answer. at the end of the world. until he return to judge all Men at the last day. . immaterial essence. And since. never to be severed or disunited. when he declared that all power in heaven and in earth had been given unto him. You say that * the Godhead in Jesus 'were joined together in one person. i. . Section ii. and took again his body. just as the Son. and who. we conclude that the Father must be a personage of spirit. I say. were inseparably joined together in one person. wherewith he ascended into Heaven. of her substance. "On the third day he arose from the dead. Son. . the second person in the Trinity. did. expresses the same teaching in Thus "The Son of God. flesh and bone. with from death. Roberts speaks as follows: Answering the familiar conception of — God — " Mark what and manhood' his spirit and Now is said here of Jesus. with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof. without conversion. a united spirit and body . and yet a resurrected man sitting in heaven until his return to judge all men at the last day. making intercession and shall return to judge men and angels. and distinct natures. and all things appertaining to the perfection of Man's nature.: — — — i82 THE REAL MORMONISM " Christ did truly rise again flesh. Which person is very God and very man. — . and he was in the act of sending his disciples into all the world to teach and baptize in the was a resurrected. parts or passions. and Holy Spirit immortal man. This. where God is declared to be not matter. H. . since Jesus.

and very form as a man. logically The foregoing explanations and parallels seem to bring us to the discussion of some other points of Mormon teaching. with a strong suggestion of speculation of higher and hidden mysteries: "As the Father hath power in Himself. and yet the sectarian world believe the body of the Son is identical with the Father's. and. that the drama of redemption. to lay down His life and take it again. the Father is a personage of spirit. 16-17. p. who does not hesitate to postulate a "human element " in the Supreme Being. and the Great God who holds this world in its orbit. such is the Son ' . and is an exalted Man. or of Christ. so He has a body of His own. and conversed with him. you would form like yourselves in all the person. flesh and bone. It is difficult sometimes to discern whether the Prophet is speaking of God the Father. Vol. so He has a body of His own. 426. which are evidently intended to set forth (i) the essential and eternal deity of Christ. pp. talked. united in one person. have evidently appealed strongly to the imagination of the Prophet. but.* just as Jesus is. and walked. as carried out in this world. as well as an essential divine element in the human. so hath the Son power in Himself. and who upholds all worlds and all things by his power." The History of the Church. that is." Answer to the Ministerial Association Review. and the various authoritative passages evidently setting forth correspondences in their respective persons and characters. it follows such as the Son is. such is the Father. more definitely expressed by some other writers. who is called. 190. is a necessary and eternally significant . Both these passages suggest an idea. presents the doctrine of God's body in another aspect. evidently refers primarily to Christ. each one will be in His own body. as one man talks and communes with himself visible.— — — : THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD * 183 that such as the Father is. p. " the Great God who holds this world in its orbit " himself was once as we are now. which. bold in its statements. was to " God sits you were to see him to-day. if make see — him a man in — another. therefore. for Adam was created in the very fashion. V.. such discrimination is often not important. quoted from an evidently fragmentary discourse by Joseph Smith. The equality of Christ with God the Father. are very imperfectly understood by the average critic of the system." Compendium of the Doctrines of the Gospel. If the vail was rent to-day. like I say. of course. and likeness of God. although very widely quoted. image. image. and received instruction from. and (2) the proper divine heritage of mankind. The Son doeth what He hath seen the Father do: then the Father hath some day laid down His life and taken it again. and enthroned in yonder heavens! That is the great secret. These points are involved in the familiar quotations from the sermons of Joseph Smith. 'very God and very man. that. following passage. The following passage. recognizing the deity of the latter.

2(5-29. Any person that had seen the heavens opened knows that there are three personages in the heavens who hold the keys of power. In the resurrection. in the same discourse. yea by the unspeakable gift of the Holy Ghost." Also. . whether there be one God or many Gods. . by the angels. 4)." . " Peter and Stephen testify that they saw the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God. which our forefathers have waited with anxious expectation to be revealed in the last times. should lay down his life and take it again. . the teachings of the " humanity of God " and the divinity of man. It is noticeable that. which their minds were pointed to. before this world was. . are raised to become Gods. who are ministering servants. pp. . Nor does the presence of this word in the teachings of Joseph Smith indicate that he held to a belief in " polytheism.: — i84 THE REAL MORMONISM procedure. . that has not been revealed since the world was until now. not included in the Godhead nor classed as angels. and always involving that a divine personage should assume the full nature of man. thereby. Immediately following the passage just quoted. shall be revealed and set forth upon all who have endured valiantly for according to that which was ordained the gospel of Jesus Christ in the midst of the Council of the Eternal God of all other Gods." Doctrine and Covenants. ." Whether we understand that the word " Gods " refers sometimes to an order of supernal beings. and one presides over all. some four years a previously. he had written as follows statement. . that should be reserved unto the finishing and the end thereof. " Gods have an ascendency over the angels. which has been duplicated in other worlds" and universes from eternity. cxxi. they shall be manifest. Clay county. while emphasizing in all these passages. we find the '' These things are revealed in the most holy place in Temple prepared for that purpose. or whether we understand it as confined to a designation of the " spirits of just men made perfect. and the heaven of heavens could not contain Him. as held in reserve for the fulness of their glory: a time to come in which nothing shall be withheld. Missouri. others Ibid. Joseph Smith speaks further. all thrones and dominions. as follows: "The Scriptures say that there are Gods many and Lords many. and into his immortal rest. but to us there is but one living and true God. provide a means by which the souls of all true believers should be exalted to become " partakers in the divine nature" (II Peter i. 426-427. the Prophet expressly declares his belief in the " one living and true God" and the "Eternal God of all other Gods. while confined in Liberty jail. . some are raised to be angels. and. when every man shall enter into his eternal presence. Thus. "God shall give unto you (the saints) knowledge by his Holy Spirit. either as an actuality or a possibility." or the plurality of gods. principalities and powers. 32." it is equally certain that we have good scriptural authority for the usage. for He took the liberty to go into other heavens.

with wonder and astonishment. 46. The bridge across the gulf separating the human and divine. in Scriptural phrase. of ages long past. I was at the house of Elder H. 185 any further than must any careful student of the text of Scripis determined to interpret faithfully the expressions evidently contains. or. p. . (one in spirit. it is proper to term " gods. as previously mentioned in my first interview with the Patriarch: * — Autobiography Snow). Elder Snow thus explains its origin: who it which " Early in the spring of 1840. and may be held to refer primarily to Christ. 426. Vol.. as will be explained in our discussion of the '* Celestial glory.— ". at least. It is probable. I formed the following couplet which expresses the revelation. " While attentively listening to his explanation." In this connection we may understand somewhat the meaning intended to be expressed in Lxjrenzo Snow's famous couplet on God and man. as it was shown me. when speaking of the husbandman who hired servants and sent them forth at different hours of the day to labor in his vineyard. and the Holy Ghost is God. it evidently sets forth the idea of the necessary incarnation of God and the consequent exaltation of man. . G. and I saw as clear as the sun at noonday. and along with very many others of his Church.. THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD ture. an authoritative utterance of Mormon teaching. as is usually represented. p. the Spirit of the Lord rested mightily upon me -the eyes of my understanding were opened. The participation of exalted humanity in the divine nature is thus set forth by Smith in the same discourse as previously quoted: "The teachers of the day say that the Father is God. prior to my baptism. man may be. seems to have accepted it as the truth of the matter in some very vital sense. As man now is. V. he was endeavoring to explain the parable of our Savior. in mind." According to the suggestions involved in his utterances on this point. that he understood this word to indicate preeminently the proper dignity of the blessed dead. however. as they were one.. the Son is God. already exist in the Celestial Kingdom among those whom. one might be led to suppose that the exalted and glorified saints of other worlds than ours. it is not.' and Family Record of Lorenzo Snow (by Eliza R. and they are all in one body and one God." History of the Church. and ex- — plains Father Smith's dark saying to me at the blessing meeting in the Kirtland Temple. Sherwood. Like the foregoing quotation from Joseph Smith's discourse. God once was As God now is. Although Elder Snow esteemed this conception very highly. in purpose). which has been widely quoted as the authoritative statement of the Mormon doctrine of the Deity. the pathway of God and man. Jesus prayed that those that the Father had given him out of the world might be made one in them.

sets forth a view of the function and significance of the Holy Thus. is found in the functions and activities of the Holy Spirit. mind. possessing a proper personal life in Himself. while in most traditional systems the Holy Spirit is represented as a definite and personal entity. in a very real sense seemingly making Him appear preeminently as the medium and evidence of God's creative and redemptive activities. vitally and evidently present. regularly included in the same volume with the Doctrine and Covenants. with stricter scriptural consistency than is observed in some other systems of theology. also. 21. as a factor in the life of the individual man.. life and activity. of the Divine Nature given by Joseph Smith. and this. and his immediate disciples is. purpose. which is called the Holy Spirit." received. the Divine Life or Presence. and a proper object of worship." which is to say. He is represented as " promised. also. but always and primarily as an active presence. possible to hold that. according to the claims of his followers." human lives. the Holy Spirit is preeminently the community of " spirit. Spirit very closely in accord with that just discussed. not merely as a distant and unknown Creator and Governor of the universe. while called in the Greek original by a term properly translatable as the " Holy Breath. because the unity with God's life which its activity begets is of the same character and description as the unity among (John xvii. " proceeding. it is evident that His significance to the life of mankind is rather that of an emanation of God's power. being the act of rejecting Him. if nothing more. although. along with the Father and the Son. The following passage from the Lectures on Faith." " given. the teachings of Joseph Smith rather emphasize His activities in the work of redemption. This immediate and immanent presence and activity of the Divine Life. perhaps." " dwelling in " sent. in whatever actual or mystical manner we may conceive that the Holy Spirit is properly personal. the writer states in the first sen- . only once It is thus (at the baptism of Christ) represented as visible.." etc. to be shared also by exalted and believing humanmay thus understand why the sin of " blasphemy ity. Thus. Thus. " filling " the souls of men . since.) The description the Persons of the Godhead. determines the individual man as a partaker in the divine nature. certainly a careful and faithful rendering of apparent Scriptural meanings." i86 THE REAL MORMONISM the finite and the infinite. We against the Holy Spirit " is the supreme offense against God. as set forth in Scripture." '' " quenched. perhaps. with whom He is mystically identified. between the Father and the Son. All this is perfectly scriptural." etc. with apparent contradiction. also.

or. governing and supreme. pp. The reconciliation lies in the fact that. matchless." Lectures on Faith. V. in other words. and supreme power over all things. in the second instance. glory. They are the Father the Father being a personage of spirit. . possessing all knowledge and glory. even the express image of him who fills all in all. governing. and that.^ or rather man was formed after his likeness and in his image. the doctrine of the Godhead. glory. received a fullness of the glory of the Father. and these three are one. . possessing the same mind. then proceeds He to state that " these three " constitute the Godhead. mediator for man. sitting at the right hand of power. he indicates that the unity of these two personages consists in the common possession of the " same mind. that bears record of the Father and the Son. but. being begotten of him. these three constitute the great. 54-55). and become one in him. in the first instance he is speaking of the functions and significance of the Spirit. {Doctrine and Covenants. and these three constitute the Godhead. and the Son — — As may be seen in this quotation. in other words. the same wisdom. on earth. power over all things. made or fashioned like unto man. and fullness filling all in all. that are created and made. under the or throughout the immensity of space. and the same kingdom. or. as presented in Mormon theology. and are one. by whom all things were created and made. a personage of tabernacle. or. and all those who keep his commandments shall grow up from grace to grace. and ordained from before the foundation of the world to be a propitiation for the sins of all those who should believe on his name. or being in the form and likeness of man. matchless. in which does He not appear as primarily of personal significance. and having overcome. and power. in the express image and likeness of the Father. glory. the Son. possessing the same mind with the Father." and that this mind is the Holy Spirit. possessing all the fullness of the Father. and become heirs of the heavenly kingdom. and joint heirs with Jesus Christ. or the same fullness with the Father. glory. except in the fact that . And he being the Only Begotten of the Father. and power. the Spirit of the Father. whether visible or invisible. Thus: "There are two personages who constitute the great. being transformed into the same image or likeness. which mind is the Holy Spirit.— THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD 187 tence that " two personages " only " constitute " the Godhead. and power. the Father and the Son possessing the^ same mind. differs in little from the general lines of belief held to be orthodox. power. and is called the Son because of the flesh. Son and Holy Spirit are one. being filled with the fullness of the mind of the Father. . being filled with the fullness of his glory. possessing all perfection and fullness. of the Father. the spirit. he is also the express image and likeness of the personage of the Father. in other words. the Son being filled with the fullness of the mind. by whom all things were created and made that were created and made. even as the Father. earth. who was in the bosom of the Father. full of grace and truth. he recognizes that this mystical element of the Godhead is really and properly personal. which Spirit is shed forth upon all who believe on his name and keep his commandments. whether in heaven. developing the theme. or in the earth.

to further clarify the situation by asserting that the same community of spirit. to appeal 49." It may be said. 20-21. Rom. and postulating Christ's participation in the Godhead in Biblical terms. It is safe to say that we have in this statement all that is humanly intelligible in the accepted doctrine of the Trinity. bones. however much it may be condemned for failure to accord with traditional standards of doctrine. the sole authorities we have in this matter. Roberts writes: " Against the dogma that God was an incorporeal. but sanctified and perfected. life. It may be admissible to assert. wherewith he ascended into heaven. distinct from each other. xv. indeed. passionless being." Instead of the utterly baffling. As the advocates of this Church would doubtless claim. The Biblical authorities for the doctrine are to be found particularly in John xvii. for example. 18. On this point B. as found. also. evidently. that the doctrine of the Godhead found in the theology of the Mormon Church is. It seems preferable. it is in complete accord with Scripture in regarding the Father as the One God par excellence." in immediate coordination with the teaching that one " person " of the Godhead possesses a " body." and whose Godhead and manhood are "never to be divided. is to be possessed by true " believers " in common with the persons of the Godhead. with flesh. untouched by human ingenuity. the Prophet [Joseph Smith] announced the splendid doctrine of anthropomorphism God in the human form. iii. and this is the Scriptural position in the matter. who are not to be " confounded. it is the revealed doctrine. therefore. the doctrine to be derived from Scripture teachings. 29. H. as constitutes the unity of the Godhead. II Cor. rather than to the speculations of the best-equipped metaphysicians of ancient or modem times. and possessed of human qualities. that it demonstrates some sort of approach to a higher authority in the matter in the fact that it attempts. when unmingled with philosophical speculations. in the Athanasian Creed. to the statements of Scripture. In the first great revelation which opened this last dispensation our Prophet beheld Father and Son as separate persons. real revelation — — and the common possession of the " same fullness." as between two personages. formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity.!i88 it THE REAL MORMONISM carefully avoids the evident contradiction involved in the as- sumption of a God " without body. and mind. parts or passions. we find here an intelligible effort to make the essential truths of that doctrine clear to the human mind and this should be the function of a by postulating an identity of mind and spirit. purely and simply. and really meaningless. and all things appertaining to the perfection of man's nature. viii. etc. since. but more glorious and more splendid. I Cor. persons in the form of men. of couxsej — . immaterial.

the Prophet-Teacher. stood forth the counterpart of God in form? But our philosophers have not been willing to let it stand so. justice. and that God possessed human qualities. was like his father then there can be no other conclusion formed upon the passage that says God created man in his own image and likeness. not the full-length ' image of God. the Prophet reaffirms the old doctrine of the Scriptures. Man was created in the image and likeness of God. simple. " The meaning of this language from the 26th. was like God. mercy. but God's * moral image ' ! Man was created in the 'moral image' of God. . straightforward language of Moses. and intellectual and moral qualities. than that man. 'And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years."— The Doctrine of Deity. and all through his discourses. . 22-23. will. the doctrine of all tlje prophets. except that man. in a general way. 176-177. What idea does this language convey to the mind of man. in intellect and moral qualities? And if. after his image. doubtless. All through the revelation received. where it is written. toin a word. — . a Man 'exalted and pergether with power and glory fected. consciousness. and also. Roberts commenting on the statement that created " in the image of God. they say.: THE MORMON DOCTRINE OF GOD 189 than words could describe them to be.' I think it would not be difficult to understand. and called his name Seth.'" Joseph Smith. in form and feature. when his creation was completed. after his image." writes as follows "Now.' What do these words imply. in the image of God ' — and which everybody can understand — means. pp. — — man was In another work. verse of the first chapter of Genesis. They tell us that this plain. and 27th.' it simply means that Seth. and intellectual and moral qualities. asserting that man indeed was created in the image of God. but that Seth was like his father in features. love. in form and features. when it is said Adam begat a son in his * own likeness. if that were untouched by 'philosophy. where it is written. is made perfectly clear when compared with the third verse of the fifth chapter of Genesis. which says that man was created . pp. and begat a son in his own likeness.

verily I say unto you. even the Spirit of Man was also in the beginning with God. Just as the proper destiny of the human race is to attain to union with the divine nature. OF THE FALL. Vol. The keys were first given to him. and earth. and of the significance of the doctrine of preexist190 . with equal propriety. both past and This teaching involves.— CHAPTER XV THE DOCTRINES OF MAN. of course. 23. intelligence which is the "glory of God" (D. as mentioned in the preceding paragraph) is the head." being less than God). will have to give an account of his stewardship. or the light of truth. . 1839: "The spirit of man is not a created being. neither indeed can be. —'Section xciii. nor yet to his origin in the Garden of Eden. Their angels alFather.. Sec. and that it had an actual and. 36) and eternity. had their existence in an elementary state. The same tract idea is still further developed in the following ex- from an address delivered by Joseph Smith in July. a conscious preexistence. in a very real sense. especially the Book of Abraham and the Doctrine and Covenants. that the spirit of future. and by him to . p. Man partakes of God*s image and likeness also in possessing the proper attributes of God." my History of the Church. essential divinity is believed to have been its origin. and am the first-born. was not created or made. from eternity. AND OF THE CHARACTER OF EVIL The doctrine that God made man "in His own image" is confined neither to his physical body. 21. so. Our Savior speaks of children and says.others. Ye were also in the beginning with the Father. water. 29. and organized them. and will exist to eternity. man is self-existent. and C. This doctrine is an essential part of the teachings of Mormon scriptures. I (Jesus Christ) was in the beginning with the Father. xciii.. Anything created cannot be eternal.' — — .. . 387. etc. Of the condition of the spirits of mankind previous to their incarnation. and they to him. uncreated (although "begotten. In the latter book the following passages occur: "And now. He (Adam. that which is spirit. HI. it existed from eternity. and was told to multiHe ply. . Intelligence. truth. The Father called all spirits before ways stand before Him at the creation of man.

inseparably connected. be reunited. the doctrine of an " earthy probation " for the spirits of mankind or " souls " involves that the experiences of life on earth are in some manner necessary for their " perfecting. of the Gospel" Part As — — . away from our heavenly home. prove ourselves worthy in these relationships. we knew that this higher exaltation would be impossible. Without these varied experiences. enjoying. This great."— /4«o». There we communed with Him. I. second. and dangers. (F." Ibid. His fatherly care and protection.. and This is the Christian shall continue in association to eternity. and forgetful of our spiritual life with God. partook of His kindness and mercy. and pains." Why this is true has always been a very real problem to earnest thinkers. Ixxxviii. rulers. A.) explained in the foregoing passage. no one can deny that the explanation here given The following passages conis both intelligible and plausible. xciii. we were not perfectly contented. He desired that we should be fathers and mothers. and toils. first. the sense of these passages may be held to be that the spirit of man cannot by any means attain to its proper perfection until incarnated. But happy and free from care and temptation though we doubtless were. no doubt. third. sons and daughters of God. exalted destiny was closed to us. as well as sons and daughters. etc. And the resurrection from the dead is the redemption of the soul. quite as insistent. This because we were well aware that we had attained to the highest possible point of excellence the greatest degree of advancement of which we were capable in the spiritual state. and suffering. but we knew that that was not the highest and greatest destiny the Father had in mind for us. obtain bodies." however. at the resurrection. But this is no new teaching: it is merely a restatement of a belief that has been common to humanity from remote ages: that the spirit and the body shall. man cannot receive a fullness of joy. His glory. safe from the snares. and enjoyed. pp. ' Principles — "We I. all who were to become its inhabitants were living in the spirit with God. & C. the following is an excellent explanation: " From the little knowledge we have on this subject (need of an earthly probation) we reach the following conclusions: That at the time of the creation of the earth." D. and sins that beset us now. parent and child. fourth. 33-34"The spirit and the body is the soul of man. receiveth a fullness of joy. sin. Separated from its particular methods of expression. fully knew that we must. tion. and spirit and element. M. form the relationships of husband and wife.— — SIN THE FALL OF MAN AND 191 ence to the body of the theological system of this Church. expanding. 15-16. received His counsel and instruction. and when separated. we were in heaven.. endure the tests of a temporary separation from our Father. M. "Man is spirit. as well as children of God. as fully as we were capable of enjoying.. in fact. as well as subjects. Manual 1901-02. True. as the similar query as to why a good God has allowed Whatever may be said in way of criticism or " confutaevil. The elements are eternal. tain the official explanation of the doctrine. Gods. 33-34. as long as we remained in the spiritual condition. in the midst of sorrow.

without abrogating the freedom of the individual will. Adam was chosen by divine decree to become the progenitor and " patriarch " of the human race being then appointed to play his part. also made possible the proThus." in which. should logically be regarded as possessed of a proper body." and. or not. but rather upon itself. Indeed. we may glean the outlines creation of the human species. rather than one merely accidental (so far. whether " foreknown. contrary to what should be. it is capable of explaining in humanly intelligible form the numerous passages of Scripture which have been held to teach the doctrine of foreordination." manifestation of divine . on these terms. in opposition to the expressed commands of the Supreme Intelligence. to justify the " justice of God " to our own minds.192 THE REAL MORMONISM doctrine of the resurrection. not merely an " accidental." as indicating. which has been a great problem among theologians for many centuries. — power — and was participated by Adam. the assertion of the will of a finite intelligence. it is evident that this act of Adam's involved a very real " new order. however. gathered. embracing in Himself the sum of all perfections. as we can derive an intelligible explanation). at least. Thus. we are able. that this eternal union of the spirit and the body is a necessary and essential condition of blessedness. as well as the Egyptian. although in a very real sense a " transgression. as it were. The corollary of this teaching is that the spirits of mankind. in accordance with the purposes of God in inaugurating the plan. Forthwith. by the terms of this system. Coupled with the Mormon doctrine of the " fall " of Adam and the operation of the atonement of Christ. It also enables us to understand. not merely " figurative. in a sense. by free choice. with the acceptance of these passages as literal. why it is that God. who is not also the actual author of sin and evil. the human spirit no longer depends upon the divine will and law for But. in effect. with a belief in eternal preexistence. in a " great council. and in obedience to the decrees of the "great council" of spirits." expressions. it avoids the further troublesome dilemma of a foreknowing and foreordaining God." acquiesced perfectly in all the conditions of earth life. which. of an idea of the significance of the " fall " of man to the divine economy of the universe. accepting at that time the parts they were to play in the drama of time. The '' fall " was foreseen of God as which also becomes a a part of the plan of " redemption " necessary. " sanctioned " by God. Briefly expressed. Mormonism merely expresses what other teachings have always implied. The doctrine of preexistence coupled with this teaching. is of importance in yet another phase of the situation. . as all systems of its guidance.

that. but the God of the living. Thus. prophet unto the nations." but. God used the sin of Adam as the Here.— — " THE FALL OF MAN AND SIN 193 theology argue in some way. them he also called: and whom he called. on philosophical grounds. and Jacob still live. even though dead. here am I. and I ordained thee a . But. prisingly enough." may with propriety be covered by the same statement.'* foreknowing is knowing. 5. is the same which was from the beginning. at the period mentioned. then. as stated in Acts xv. for God. " some men foreordained to everlasting death. them he also glorified. . who " inhabits eternity. 18. 2y). On this view. As exhibiting the method by which individual freedom of choice is represented as combining with the decisions of God. in the words of Christ exists in eternity for God. and the glory be thine forever. whom thou hast commanded in the name of mine Only Begotten. Most of the passages of Scripture supposed to teach the doctrine of foreordination may with equal propriety be held to involve the idea of preexistence also. Moreover whom he did predestinate. called. justified and glorified. saying son. and by no very wide departure from established canons of interpretation. may be quoted as illustration: "That Satan. send me. said unto me Father. as yet unborn into the world of time. them he also justified: and whom he Rom. and I will redeem all mankind." involving that Abraham. as existing for the mind and contemplation of the Almighty: that which exists in time for finite minds If. the fact that. justified. surand angels are . " He is not the God of the dead. and he Behold. even though. as will be explained presently." In this connection it is needless to argue. (Mark xii. the following from one of the leading scriptures of the Mormon Church. that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. wherefore give me thine honor. we read: "Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee. I will be thy came before me. and — surely I will do it. thy will be done. behold. "For whom he did foreknow. predestinated. i. 29-30." Jer. however. a means. as the Westminster Confession asserts." involves for the philosopher that they preexisted in a preeminently real sense. Isaac. and before thou earnest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee. of a higher and completer blessing. however. Wherefore. it is no immense stretching of the sense of this passage to hold that those whom He " foreknew. that one soul shall not be lost. which was my Beloved and Chosen from the beginning. in establishing the things to be accomplished in earth life. and that what He foresees already exists for Him. foreknowledge is not associated with alleged " divine decrees by which. and sought — . literally. he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son. because that Satan rebelled against me. viii. " known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world. His starting point of the work of redemption. my Beloved Son.

lightning from heaven" (Luke x. As embodied in various oriental literatures." that there are grades and degrees of dignity in the eternal world. or Lucifer. learn. but inferior to. Josiah order." Moses iv. with his followers. the failure of this eternal spirit to recognize the infinite exaltation of because accustomed to " stand in God the Father above him " is of the same description of " blindness " as his presence that in which the traducers of the Eternal Son brought about his This sin explains why it was that Satan fell " as crucifixion. the evil creator. concludes as follows A . are in a very real sense ** divine. curiously enough. 1-4. even the devil. the Son of the morning. is presented by several philosophers. which I. and also. the father of all lies. yea. being eternal of this problem. 18).: — 194 THE REAL MORMONISM to destroy the agency of man. I caused that he should be cast down." Of course. God. that I should give unto him mine own power. to deceive and to blind men.. who. xxvii. and introduced at a comparatively late period into the Bible although this fact is no argument against its antiquity the account has varied in differing degrees from the postulation of an eternal " dualism " [as between Ahura-Mazda." or the " rebellion " of a great archangel. the good Creator." The explanation offered by Joseph Smith. as in the case of Gabriel. even as many as would not hearken unto my voice. and to lead them captive at his will. potent over mankind. for some " mysterious reasons. 19). "went and hanged himself" (Matt. etc. contains the suggestion of a wonderfully clear solution learn here that all spirits. Ye take too much upon you. in the system of Zoroaster] to a vague and general belief in the existence of an evil influence in the spiritual world. Royce. 3). although basing his argument on a quite different concept of the universe. and Angro-Manyu. the betrayer." placing the scene of its operation in a preexistent state of some Thus Prof. With these postulates. also. as found in certain beings called archangels. this passage refers primarily to the " origin of evil " by postulating a '' war in heaven. really ultimate and uncaused character of all spirit life. had given him. known as Lucifer. every one of them. and he became Satan. xvi. and uncreated. As may be understood. was a prototype in the eternal world of — — We We We his company (Num. " stand in the presence of God " (Luke learn also that the freedom of the will consists in the i. seeing all the congregation are holy. who. and said. seraphim. Korah and — — very similar solution of the vexed problem of ** free will. we may understand much more readily how that Satan. " gathered themselves together against [God] and against [the Eternal Son]. the Lord God. by the power of mine Only Begotten. and permitted to exist by. also why it was that Judas.

— THE FALL OF MAN AND "The limits this SIN . The following extract from a discourse by Joseph Smith. a creature with just this brain.. If it is right. yet some are willing to build up others as well as themselves. doomed for countless ages to precisely this conduct. your acts are at once from the temporal point of view absolutely bound. And this was the case with . He has chosen this world for the sake of its worth. " Now. pp. but in an act above all time. But you are moral and free because you are in the eternal sense a part of the eternal World-Creator. And when we have power to put all enemies under our feet in this world. as we shall see. In lutely free. which is the world of truth. of whom you are a part. who was to reign until He had put all enemies under His feet. he inherits and transmits to his offspring the habit of subservience to these limitations. delivered in 1843. who never made the world at any moment of time. only one way of looking at truth. and the last enemy was death. are arguing to the same conclusions. Having found them thus associated. and very momentous they are. And in the estimate that eternally chooses. your will. situation to be unraveled in the grand doctrine of salvation. this world you are a fact in time. and from the eternal point of view absoFor you enter into the divine order of two ways. All eternity is before him at a glance. in some unexplained fashion. whereby. insights of modern philosophy. to conceive how that the eternal soul of man. yet an act in which you yourself share. therefore. or otherwise involved in the limitations of time and causation. is the very is involved in sin and death. We may see that both grapple with the problem of a transcendental and eternal essence term it soul. He has chosen not temporally.. spirit. But the whole temporal order is for the absolute Self. to conceive this world which contains you. in this world. 195 only of a relatively untechnical discussion permit . the problem of unraveling the limitation easily appears as very real — — and consistent. mankind are naturally selfish. despite the wide divergence of their terminologies. . So in the other world there are a variety of spirits. your consciousness has its part also. as is the case of Jesus. 433-434. It is not impossible. You are not morally free to change laws in this world. should require the operation of another order of " generation " to regain his primeval spiritual harmony with God. ambitious and striving to excel one above another. with a transcendence of all that This. No person can have this salvation except through a tabernacle. Some seek to excel." Modern Philosophy. . then we are saved. " Perhaps there are principles here that few men have thought of. and a knowledge to triumph over all evil spirits in the world to come. associated with worldly limitations by the operation of natural generation. your time-transcending personality. dim suggestion of one of the deepest The theologian and the philosopher. but whose choice of this describable world of time in its wholeness is what constitutes Spirit of the world of appreciation. continues the line of explanation already undertaken: " Salvation is nothing more nor less than to triumph over all our enemies and put them under our feet.

that they might have joy. and it is said he drew many away with him. In one case. As ficient to . exaltation. and to picture the supposedly blessed state in which we would be living but for the Fall. as a predestined and necessary event. As it is. were allowed to possess the bodies of a herd of swine. God had in mind only the larger blessings of the race. with the notable exception that. not from sin. From Father Adam possibilities and its God-given freedom of action. as (II Nephi ii." so familiar in Scripture. V. negatively saved. thinking to thwart the decree of God. Hence he was sent down. not caring that he had got merely a stolen body. whereas our first parents are entitled to our deepest gratitude for the means of winning glory. 6). sinless through no effort of their own. He sought for things which were unlawful. they are heirs to the mortality." and.) follows " It has become a common practice with mankind to heap reproaches upon the progenitors of the family. by going up and down in the earth. as will be remembered. the '' demons " cast out of a maniac." fell that men might be The explanation of this principle is given. " Adam and men are." It is fact that herein regards the significance of the " fall " of man. eternal lives. Vol. as the best available substitute for a human " tabernacle. incapable of winning the honors of victory because prevented from taking part in the battle. seeking whom he may destroy any person that he can find that will yield to him. This is his punishment. But for the opportunity thus given. in foreordaining it. — perhaps unnecessary to call the reader's attention to the we have merely an explanation. so the transition of the human spirit into an environment in which this order of knowledge is necessary and obtainable. 387-388. he is always liable to be turned out of doors. and take possession of the body and reign there." History of the Church. Just as the sins and evils. The devil steals a tabernacle because he has not one of his own. in the words of Joseph Smith. and the greatness of his punishment is that he shall not have a tabernacle. incident on the flesh. but from the opportunity of meeting sin. pp. is really the first step in the way of a " higher progression. he will bind him. 25. and by-and-by some one having authority will come along and cast him out and restore the tabernacle to its rightful owner. the spirits of God's offspring would have remained forever in a state of innocent childhood. for the cases of " demoniacal possession. but if he steals one. and as salvation is " nothing more nor less than to Triumph over all our (spiritual) enemies. as in other formulations of theology. on the battlefield of mortality." Thus may we understand the meaning of the Book of Mormon principle. it is sufsay that we find it represented here. and their legacy to posterity. and C.: — THE REAL MORMONISM 196 Lucifer when he fell. with its immeasurable birthright of Adam's descendants. cxxxi. glorying in it mightily. So the devil. and so often discussed by Christ Himself. appear to be in a very real sense the inevitable accompaniments of life in this world. — — . " it is impossible for a man to be saved in ignorance" {D. because of this fact.

he would not . . after they were created and they must have remained for ever. he obtained the First Presidency. but he would have remained in the Garden of Eden. May it not. also. as in Gen. however. the * fall ' must be which IS only another way of saying that the transition from heaven conditions to earth must be made. . i. 38-39. must have remained in the same state which they were. a descending below all things only that there might be a rising above all things. the steps backward in order to gain momentum for the rush forward . though there will be real losses in the adventure. The Priestis an everlasting principle. In no way else could this earth department of God's great university for Intelligences be established. Adam was the delegate of God in the consummation of an important part of the grand scheme of salvation." The Seventy's Course in Theology. for they knew no sin. in this matter at least. to the ultimate " exultation " of the spirits of mankind. And all things which were created. . Talmage {The Articles of Faith. riences^ ' "To — The teachings developed in these passages Book of Mormon. He had dominion given him over every living creature.: : : — SIN . pp. in the main. Therefore. 22-24. by the proper use of which knowledge man may become even as the Gods. Roberts develops the same idea as follows bring to pass these conditions essential to man's earth-expeon which is to be builded future progress. Fourth Year. the person of Adam has been accorded an exalted place in the world of mankind. The fall is to eventuate in the advantage of God's children. from some points of view be regarded as a misnomer. also with the Ancient of Days mentioned in the seventh chapter of Daniel. But behold." II Nephi ii. . then. p. in the origination of sin and evil in the world. have been done in the wisdom of him who knoweth all things. at least to some. spoken of in the Scriptures. THE FALL OF MAN AND we have inherited all the sarily incident to the 197 ills to which flesh is heir but such are necesknowledge of good and evil. all things cence. It is but the crouch for the spring . are stated in the have fallen . . The view of the " fall "of man. and doubtless to the benefit ultimately. as follows " If Adam had not transgressed. . 27. as set forth in these passages involves in a very logical sense that. Adam is identified with the Archangel Michael. hence. although recognizing the sad consequences of the "fall" in many particulars. and emphasizing the involved necessity of redemption. . Joseph Smith writes thus about him "The Priesthood was first given to Adam. ancj . According to the authoritative literature of the Mormon Church. by taking the first step essential to the incarnation. He 26. He obtained it in the Creation. this ' fall ? certainly it is but an incident in the process of rising to greater heights. and held the keys of it from generation to generation. . — is hood Michael the Archangel. Such the benefits to arise from the fall. of most of the Intelligences that participate in earth-life. before the world was formed. ." James E. and had no end wherefore they would have remained in a state of innodoing no good. 73). . and existed with Qod from eternity. 28.

and presides over the spirits of all men. Michael. in the mind and conscience of any rational man. and His justice. text of Scripture asserts boldly that by eating of the Tree. in which the performance of the other command would have been impossible. xv. he means the oldest man. precisely. HowThe ever. When they are revealed from heaven it is by Adam's authority. thus " disobeying God. is appointed the " patriarch " of the human race under the direction of God. our Father Adam. 385-387."— History of the Church. as is held. it is recorded that Adam. He (Adam) is the father of the human family. is called the 45. Nor is Mormon theology the first connection in which we find the doctrine that these two commands were. he played so important a part in the origination of the world in which the spirits of mankind should have opportunity to attain to their proper exaltation. His mercy. Adam delivers up his stewardship to Christ. 22. Adam is — . and there is given him glory and dominion. without beginning of days or end of years. Vol." and to forbear eating of the Tree of Knowledge. alternatives of action. The interpretation here given has the advantage over all others whatever in the fact that it gives humanly intelligible explanations of the counsel and predestination of God. which is to say explanations that do not impugn His love. impossible of performance by the same Neither is it the first connection in which we enindividual. human As developed in other connections. that which was delivered to him as holding the keys of the universe. III. In the further consideration of the exalted position ascribed to Adam in Mormon theology. we cannot but take notice of the bold comparisons made between him and Christ. The keys have to be brought from heaven whenever the Gospel is sent. On his to " increase installation in Eden. and all that have had the keys must stand before him in this grand council. pp. This may take place before some of us leave this stage of action. he was given two commands and multiply. he will call his children together and hold a council with them to prepare them for the coming of the Son of Man. supposedly. it is needless to reason upon alternative explanations. "Daniel in his seventh chapter speaks of the Ancient of Days. as the first holder of the Priesthood among mankind. that the command was given as the condition of maintaining his state of primeval innocence. but retains his standing as head of the family. The Son of Man stands before him. The Saviour " Second Adam " (I Cor. man became " as gods knowing good and evil which may be held to be the first step toward the very perfection postulated as the ultimate proper destiny of mankind in this system of theological teaching. 47) . in a very real sense.198 THE REAL MORMONISM will to eternity. counter the situation that God must have given the prohibition against eating of the Tree of Knowledge with full understanding It is not unreasonable to insist that He would not be obeyed.

14. is presented in Joseph Smith's explanation of the obscure passages in Daniel vii. and glory. and came to the ancient of days. and languages. . judgment was given to the saints of the Most High and the time came And the kingdom and dothat the saints possessed the kingdom. which shall not and pass away. " I saw came with in the night visions. nations. 22. into the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman. It seems evident that the " dominion and glory " are given up to the Son of man by the Ancient of days. 27. known as the " Ancient of Days." who came to him. And there was given him dominion.— : THE FALL OF MAN AND called SIN 199 v. and there bestowed upon them his last . 14). whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom. as set forth by others. that all people. the passages in Daniel vii. since in this case Adam is represented as God's agent in the work of redemption. . and they brought him near before him. In the second it is said Christ himself " delivered up the kingdom to God. . as well as in achieving Indeed. in fact." This passage is "the figure of him that was to come" (Rom. who were all High Priests. and a kingdom. 13. vii. Mahaleel. with the residue of his posterity who were righteous. behold. even before their birth. since. minion shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High. . and. the interpretation making him Adam. . It is evident that. the the '* fall " of man. although there is no clear clue to the identity of this personage in the text. if we may use a term recognized in theological systematizations long previous to the rise of the Latter-day Gospel. and Methuselah." as a means merely of proving all mankind guilty of his sin. and supposed to explain the fact that all mankind are justly involved in the guilt of Adam's transgression. . 24-28. . and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. the two being. already foreknown by God. bear some sort of analogy in idea to that contained in I Cor. according to the text a yielding of authority to a Higher Power by one who had held it as vicegerent. it has usually been held that God Himself is referred to. even the Father. should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion. as well as its " federal Head. Thus the interesting in this connection. . Enoch. and all dominions shall serve and obey him. Cainan. However. . may be held to be justified in part by the reference to " one like the Son of Man. Jared. . Thus one like the Son of man the clouds of heaven. becomes and with equal propriety." The belief that some such " vicegerency was actually awarded to Adam by divine decree is set forth in the following passage: — — "Three years previous to the death of Adam. " federal headship " of Adam. he called Seth. or some other vicegerent. xv. instead of a delegation of power from God. Enos. consecutive. attains a new emphasis. in this view." Dan. which. justification for the view that Adam is the actual '* Prince " and " Patriarch " of the human race. and rather a better one. describing the throned personage.

As we shall see later. as frequently urged by hostile critics. " the only God with whom we have Whether or not Young actually intended to convey the to do. which is very far from the truth of the matter. It is an excellent thing to investigate sufficiently to discover what a man really says. before proceeding to condemn it for " harmful errors. has given rise to the popular idea that Adam is really identified with God. the Prince. or merely did not realize the possible connotation of his words. while President Young denied that Jesus was begotten by the Holy Ghost/ he did not affirm. THE REAL MORMONISM And the Lord appeared unto them." also. I have set thee to be at the head a multitude of nations shall come of thee. Jesus. as it seems.: — 200 "blessing. predicted whatsoever should befall his posterity unto the latest generation. or a system really teaches. who. is. truth-telling. the Archangel. you will discover that." ascribed to this system. it is altogether certain that the Mormon Church holds to no doctrine by which Adam is represented as anyone other than a being eternally inferior to God the Father. being full of the Holy Ghost." The allegation in regard to the alleged " Adam-God doctrine " is thus discussed in a letter. 53-57. — The peculiar regard for Adam manifested in Mormon theology* coupled with the terms in which he has been mentioned by some of their authorities. 1912. and that Adam is the father of Jesus Christ and not the Holy Ghost. thus giving the wanton enemies of this Church the opportunity to accuse it of teaching polytheism. and called him Michael.. our elder brother. and notwithstanding he was bowed down with age. and intelligence. Vol.' and you say that Elders are challenged by certain critics to prove this. Thus. like other ^* obnoxious doctrines. These things are all written in the book of Enoch. more properly a matter of words than of ideas. this identical situation is involved in the use of the word " gods " in this theology . And Adam stood up in the midst of the congregation. had been reproached with this doctrine by opponents speak of the 'assertion made by Brigham Young that Jesus in the flesh by our father Adam. in so many words. which mean minds have ruthlessly advertised. and they rose up and blessed Adam. as must be acknowledged in the simple cause of justice. that Adam is the father of Jesus Christ in the flesh. was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the Garden of Eden and who is our Father in Heaven. in the Journal of Discourses. under date Feb.* He said. and thou art a prince over them for ever." Doctrine and Covenants. 20." ideas that his words suggest.' Who is our 'Father in Heaven'? Here is what * * * . addressed by the First Presidency of the Church to one of its missionaries. without any investigation whatever. President Young once said that Adam is " our father and our God. "You was begotten of the Father " If you will carefully examine the sermon to which you refer. And the Lord administered comfort unto Adam. and said unto him. and are to be testified of in due time. I. cvii. Undoubtedly this alleged doctrine of Mormonism.

34-36). in the name of the said about spirits that ever were or born spirits in the eternal Young to come. as must be admitted in all honesty. and who is (jod the Eternal Father of us all.THE FALL OF MAN AND President SIN 201 him : * Our Father in Heaven begat all the ever will be upon this earth. the Ancient of Days. of whom are all things. who is at our head. making him the ' Only Begotten in the flesh. it is not uncommon to hear mention of the ** Great Presidency in Heaven.' Was He in the Garden of Eden? Surely He gave commandments to Adam and Eve. ' there be gods many and lords many (whether in heaven or in earth). but begotten by his Father in Heaven. of the exalted idea of the sacredness of organization held among the Mormons." Although. rather than of any tendency to deify a man. Adam is called in the Bible 'the Son of God* (Luke iii. Section cvii. and who was also his Father by the Virgin Mary. according to the holy patriarchal order. being * Michael the Archangel.* The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints worships Him. " When President Young asked. 26-35. and particularly by Christ (John x. ' is the Father ' ? he was speak- Son who was — — ' Who ing of Adam as the father of our earthly bodies. they worshipped Him. therefore. nevertheless. 9-14). this statement is a perfectly candid and straightforward presentation of the Mormon position on this much discussed issue. who will stand in his place as ' a Prince over us forever. even as stated in Brigham Young's much-discussed remark.' as each family will have to do with its head. the progenitor of the race of men. Then the LxDrd by his power and wisdom organized the mortal tabernacle of man.* and that he was not fashioned from earth like an adobe. difficult to make the matter entirely clear to a non-Mormon mind.' and with whom we shall 'have to do. Our father Adam. will be the being who will carry out the behests of the great Elohim in relation to his posterity (Daniel vii. to whom the Savior prayed.* Read Luke i. our Father in Heaven was the Father of the Son of Mary. it is. and they were world. that the position of Adam. " While. and a very logical one. unto us there is but one God the Father. the Ancient of Days. In that sense he is one of the gods referred to in numerous scriptures. . . as revealed in Doctrine and Covenants. 38). and taught their children after the fall to worship and obey Him. that is. as did our earthly father Adam. It was our Father in Heaven who begat the spirit of him who was 'the Firstborn* of all the spirits that come to this earth." which. The Holy Ghost came upon Mary. is merely a corollary. as Paul puts it. even of the spirit of life. perfected and glorified as a god. stands at our head. Thus. He was their Father in Heaven. It is their belief that the organization of their diurch is merely a duplicate of the organization of the universe of spirits. and one Lord Jesus Christ by whom are all things. " But President Young went on to show that our father Adam. verses 53-56. whom He worshipped. like the Presidency of . our earthly father.* . who is the Father of Jesus Christ. in discussing the doctrine of the Godhead. and Him alone. and her conception was under that influence. Where is Jesus called the 'Only Begotten of the Holy Ghost ? He is always singled out as the ' Only Begotten of the Father. It must be said. whom Adam worshipped. He is the great Patriarch.

which is sin. how many we do not know. as surely as effect follows cause. and the joy of our redemption. . H. Michael. Thus. and the one with whom our race would most immediately have to do? What sacrilege is there in this thought? Is it not reasonable that it should be so?" Answer to the Ministerial Association Review. " when the keys of Gospel ordinances are revealed from heaven. if the * ' . p. wholly true. his wife. Upon this principle depends the dignity and majesty of law. however. and foremost holder of the Priesthood on earth. Take this fact away from moral government and your moral laws The . " The Scriptures represent in many places the existence of a plurality of divine personages. and never should have known good and evil. the " fall " of man. for because of my transgression my eyes are opened. is composed of Three Personages. 17. lo-ii. is among that number of exalted. was an integral part of the divine plan for man's exaltation. in a sense. since the fact of Adam's sin and the need of an atonement are in no sense lost to sight. it is by Adam's authority. Since.— 202 — THE REAL MORMONISM the Church on earth. But we hear of God saying. what more fitting than that the father of the human race shall become the great presiding patriarch of our earth and its redeemed inhabitants. Continuing the discussion of the atonement given in a former quotation.' The last a passage of the Psalms. he judgeth among the Gods' *I have said Ye are Gods. heard all these things and was glad. as already seen. expressions so far given very closely suggest that this accepted teaching on the " fall " is quite in harmony with the This is not findings of current optimism in theology and life. And now. and it does not matter. knowing good and evil congregation of the Mighty." the Moses v. divine souls. * ' . quoted and defended by the Savior as a justification of his own claim to sonship with God. and began to prophesy concerning all the families of the earth. and the eternal life which God giveth unto all the obedient. or Adam. . or who have already exIn this capacity. and violation of law involves the violator in its penalties. therefore. and all of you are children of the most High. involves that he is a factor in a great organization. Roberts proceeds as follows: " But Adam did sin. personally under B. * . In accord with the " patriarchal " concept of the government of the universe. great archangel. "And Eve. saying: Were it not for our transgressions we never should have had seed. who exist on earth. also. saying: Blessed be name of God. Let us make man in our image the man God standeth in the has become as one of us. and in this life I shall have joy. He did break the law. the view that it was a distinct benefit reaches its height in the following passage from the Pearl of Great Price: "And in that day Adam blessed God and was filled. and again in the flesh I shall see God. he discharges his functions as the first isted. Roberts explains the matter as follows: his direction." there is an involved suggestion that the holders of priestly authority are. The " federal headship " of Adam. which is composed of all the spirits of mankind.

Man when he sins by breaking the laws of God. he is doing no more than he ought to have done from the beginning and doing his duty now and for the future can not free him from the consequences of The individual man. for his violence to the honor of God. Therefore. I repeat. and if now. For individual man from the beginning was as much in duty bound to keep the law of God as Adam was. commits a crime against the majesty of God. In the reading of these passages the informed reader must recognize their consistency with commonly-received opinions on the subject of Christ's atonement. in the present and for the future he observes the law of God and remains righteous. "Man is just as helpless with reference to his own. and made necessary the Atonement for man. — — . it was followed by certain moral effects in the nature of men and in the world. although with the obvious difference that the Mormon Articles of Faith distinctly aver the belief " that men will be punished for their own sins. discord ruled.) for Adam's transgression. as Adam was for his sin in Eden. — — — . then. 98-99. sins of course against divine law.— THE FALL OF MAN AND SIN 203 become mere nullities." {The Seventy's Course in Theology. if the integrity of the moral government of the world is to be preserved. and thereby dishonors him." Ihid. and his redemption. much in need of a satisfaction being made to the justice of God for his individual transgression of divine law. as was Adam for his sin. 39). but satisfaction must be made for the sins of every man. And man is just as helpless to make adequate satisfaction to God. " Not only must the sin of Adam be atoned. and not (Article 2. as Adam was with reference to his sin." "The Atonement. and is just as hopelessly in the grasp of inexorable law as Adam and his race were after the first transgression. notwithstanding Adam fell that men might be. p. The harmony of things was broken. individual sins. changed relations between God and men took place . pp." . sin and death world. and that in his transgression there was at bottom a really a motive that contemplated nothing less than bringing exalted motive to pass the highly necessary purposes of God with respect to man's yet his transgression of law was real he did existence in the earth brave the conditions that would be brought into existence by his sin. the wages of sin ness. for his insult to the majesty of God. moral and intellectual darkstalked through the death. is just as his past violations of God's law.

in the words of Brigham Young: "There never was. being possessed of the power of the resurrection in his own person. 36-37. It is the same in all ages of the world and will be through all the ages of eternity.. be resurrected . Thus. but of his posterity. not only of Adam. incomprehensible way. AND PERSONAL RIGHTEOUSNESS The doctrine of the atonement. not only to all believers and all who obeyed the law of God. will.: — — CHAPTER XVI THE DOCTRINES OF ATONEMENT." Mormonism. we cannot rise above all things. as did our Lord and Master. Jesus assumed the responbut which sibility which naturally would have devolved upon Adam could only be accomplished through the mediation of Himself. It is all to answer a purpose. and never will be. by bringing to pass the resurrection from the dead. through His mediation. Jesus Christ also released men from the bondage of their own sins on condition of their acceptance of the principles of His Gospel. He bore the weight of the sins of the whole world. who. having died without law. as well as to the heathen. but to more than one half of the human family who die before they come to years of maturity. and in doing that. 204 . and by taking upon Himself their sorrows. Its operation also is set forth in no uncertain terms. pp. its Origin and History. The operation of Christ's atoning power is thus explained by Roberts " To bring to pass the redemption of man from the Fall the effect of which was to subject the race to the power of death and the bond of a Redeemer was provided in the person of Jesus Christ. Without descending below all things. that redemption and exaltation might come to man. In a manner to us incomprehensible and inexplicable. — — President John Taylor gives the following: " In some mysterious. The gospel of salvation will never change. a world created and redeemed except by the shedding of the blood of the Saviour of that world.. a reality in which all men born into the world will ultimately participate. ." " Wilford Woodruff" {Cowley) pp. assuming their responsibilities. and bearing their transgressions or sins. as explained by Mormon preachers and writers. RELIGIOUS DUTY. Adam subjected himself to the conditions of this world. and obedience to the laws and ordinances thereof. opened the Kingdom of Heaven. the secsin ond personage of the God-head. 447-448. broke the bands of death and released man from the power thereof. who. I know why the blood of Jesus was shed. is eminently reasonable and beautiful.

Section 18. even above a death of torture and ignominy. that he might bring all men unto him. ordained from before the foundation of the world to be a propitiation for the sins of all those who should believe on his name descended in suffering below that which man can suffer. Therefore. demonstrate to man and God alike the possibilities of God-assisted humanity. showing thereby that it is in the power of man to keep the law and remain also without sin. But. . and worth. as the Apostle Paul informs us. — and Covenants. and thus participate. in the blessings of his atonement. or. transcend the limitations into which they have been born. subjected to the limiting conditions of material earth-life. which inevitably involve the existence of sin and death." And this is the sum total of all that is sin." which is to say. in other words." "Mediation and Atonement. Yet. " in all points tempted as are we. that by him a righteous judgment might come upon all Lectures on Faith. notwithstanding all this. his reconciliation." and distinct logical consistency is manifest. also a perfected man he alone could achieve the mastery of conditions common to humanity. Through all of these explanations of this august doctrine a The souls of mankind. flesh. V. suffered greater sufferings. The following explanation occurs in the writings of the Prophet . gradually tend to forget God and the "glory which [they] had with him before the world was. that all men might repent and come unto him." "For. as a consequence of his " atonement. because he was. 11-12. of all his dignities and powers." pp. wherefore he suffered the pain of all men. and remained without sin. etc. works. because of the vividness of sense experience." Doctrine . that God's "experiment" is not a failure." emptying himself. the Lord your Redeemer suffered death in the flesh. It is obviously impossible. The logical consequence is that an " intervention " must take Thus it is that the Son of God himself becomes a man. according to their capacity. and also. he kept the law of God. and rising above them. on conditions of repentance. the to have been " forgiven " through Christ. Joseph Smith: "The Son . behold. and was exposed to more powerful contradictions than any man can be. And he hath risen again from the dead. that they could. . achievements of Christ have brought to a demonstration the truth that man's nature was not irretrievably ruined by the " fall. and be judged without law. 148-149. even as man. by and through their own efforts. and is thus said In other words. therefore. and becoming poor for our sakes. place. Human nature in . .— THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY 205 — without law. the sin and " fall "of Adam ceases to appear in the eyes of God as an obstacle or barrier to man's restoration to spiritual life on a plane of higher development. They become blinded and incapable in respect to spiritual things through the domination in their minds of considerations gross and sensuous..

all humanity stands before Him in the same relation. without exception. to. or special. as follows " believe that through the sufferings. might be used to symbolize the atoning act of Christ but the following from Professor John A. If a person. as formulated by the New England reaction against Calvinism. If for any reason the wire is cut the city becomes dark and all machines driven by the current cease their motion. avoiding the extremes alike of the doctrine of universal salvation. discriminates the action of the atonement into two distinct and separate channels of application. Explaining the universal application of Christ's atoning power. and atonement of Jesus Christ. as a result. application. all men whose hearts are set into and whose trust is in Him. by Christ's act in restoring the broken circuit between God and man. The human race has been reborn according to the generation of the " Second Adam." Science and the Gospel. p." Thus. has succeeded in doing the work for many. and unites them. the Lord from heaven. however. as given above. even if not required of. in his anxiety to restore the city to its normal conditions. and not for Adam's transgression. as that occupied by Adam before the fall. And here comes in the personal. he probably will receive the full charge of the current Yet. harmony with God's There are many figures that . blotted out and forgotten by God. — electrical current. 119. Professor Orson Pratt writes." Furthermore. Widtsoe will excellently suffice: " Conditions that may be likened to the atonement are found in will. In accordance with the analysis of the doctrine. which may be described as the general and the particular. perfectly restored. death.: . the light and power will return to the city in his body. is power and Mormon theology. from henceforth and forever. and the traditional teaching that mankind are doubly burdened with their own and Adam's sins. from the endless banishment and curse We . is done away. the general application is concerned with God's view of the matter. and one man by his action. body and spirit. seizes the ends of the wire with his bare hands. that every man must " work out his own salvation " by obedience to the law and ordinances of the Gospel. supplying a whole city with passing through a wire. all mankind. are to be completely and fully redeemed. however. From the foregoing we may see the force of the article in the Articles of Faith announcing that " men shall be punished for their own sins. by these two lines of application there is struck a surprisingly beautiful balance. with the exception. 2o6 THE REAL MORMONISM the person of Christ has stood the uttermost test and remained And this same test is possible faithful to the heavenly vision. Suppose an light. and consists in virtually neutralizing the effects of Adam's sin. which. science.

is effected without any conditions. which is the plane of intelligent comprehension. whether they are baptized or unbaptized . each man for himself. whether they repent or remain impenitent . it will make no difference in relation to their redemption." " total depravity. or be baptized. It is noticeable. which is supposed to insure salvation. have acted in many instances to discount the value of even the commonest social virtues and to encourage. that is. or do anything else. and they both alike will be redeemed from that curse without any agency or conditions on their part. even with the commission of mean and unethical sins. These appointed ways are (a) compliance with the "ordinances of the Gospel." life Because Christ. were both placed under the same curse without any transgression or agency of their own. which assert man's impotence to do God's will. and through association with Him in the appointed ways of achieving a complete restoration of spiritual harmony with the Father. It is a sad comment on the logical sense of most formulators of traditional systems that they have neglected to follow the plain Scriptural teaching that in the God-led Christian life a man is to be endowed with power to fulfill the moral and ethical law to a sufficient extent to please God. from the penalty of Adam's transgression. The most righteous man that ever lived on the earth. in the world of earth experience." and (b) the fulfilling of the law of righteousness. in order to be redeemed from that penalty for whether they believe or disbelieve. that the common line of teachings on " human disability. He made available to mankind the means of finding God. and the most wicked wretch of the whole human family. they are not required to repent. or to obey the positive commands given by him. in the commonly-received Protestant doctrine of " salvation by faith " (assent) the supreme virtue is made to consist in the mere act of believing a given line of teachings." on the plane of earth experience. avoiding the extremes of several systems of theology. their actual neglect. " brought and immortality to light. ." and the like. which seem to have set an exaggerated estimate upon the divine requirements in this particular.. THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY 207 to which they were consigned by Adam's transgression. through His death and resurrection. however. in eflfect. and that when he fails notably in this matter it is because he is more devoted to the world and its concerns than to the commands of God. who knows his limitations. which are only too common among all peoples to require designation. Thus. whatever. on their part. both soul and body. whether they keep the commandments or break them. whether they are righteous or unrighteous. as he professes. and that this universal salvation and redemption of the whole human family from the endless penalty of the original sin. In the teachings upon the matter of fulfilling the law of righteousness we find a healthy consistency with the conclusions of life experience and sound reason.

James E. any more than a perfect animal of any species according to the standard that may be adopted in any given case approximates at all to characteristics usually classed as " human. in ultimate constitution. also." and the like. therefore. with the long train of " solutions " of an utterly unreligious character. Nor are these only the line of virtues usually classed as "moral." Whether or not. 17-18). has this: " Inasmuch as salvation is attainable only through the mediation and atonement of Christ.. that a " perfect man " in the eyes of God's law is not of necessity an archangel. writing of faith as a consequence of accepting the teachings and work of Christ. which are to be requited by Him. mercy and truth " the avoidance of the sins of pride. faith in Jesus Christ is indispensable to salvation. without " collateral." rather than an incidental too often. in this matter. it remains true that they are enjoined upon man as emphatically as is faith itself. been sufficiently logical to recognize the true Scriptural teaching in this matter.. and the development of a spirit of indifference to the sufferings of humanity. the fulfilment of the very duties most emphasized by Christ and most often neglected in Christian performance." as in James ii. and since this is made applicable to individual sin We — — — — — — only in the cases of those who obey the laws of righteousness. and as the test of the reality of belief." Had the clever formulations of the Calvins. self -aggrandisement. the amassing of useless wealth. it is given to those only who show by their sincerity that they are worthy of it. covetousness. for their normal continuance. according to the faith and devotion which they demonstrate (" show. Talmage. good works can merit salvation. and others of similar tendencies. therefore. As is fitting for so priceless a pearl.2o8 THE REAL MORMONISM must consider. God has declared that they are acceptable to Him as duties done and demands performed. and who give promise of abiding by its dictates. ." those relating to ** purity. The question of their intrinsic worth is not to enter into the discussion . that the teaching of religion should emphasize righteousness as a duty. The simple truth is. the " weightier matters of the law " " justice. though . a negligible quantity. whether as mere promises of payment. both the individual and the social order presuppose." " temperance. This is true because. but those usually classed as " ethical " also." or coin current at full face value. or " faith. Although faith is called the first principle of the Gospel of Christ. we should have had a nearer approach to Christ's advocated standards of right living and fewer serious " social problems " to confront us at the present day. equal at least with the act of believing. which latter is a notable mark of what is usually labeled " aristocratic. as is denied by the traditional " confessions " and creeds. since.

pp. 112. and his imperfect judgment is not sufficient to guide him aright. his human strength alone is not sufficient to make him equal to the task of living in harmony with the divine law. Faith is a passive sense. This truth was clearly set forth by Christ and the apostles. Under this companionship and its influence man begins the work of characterMorbuilding. par- . At this point we may understand how that belief in the reality of "spiritual gifts" is highly logical and practical. yet even faith is preceded by sincerity of disposition and humility of soul. ** While it is true that the Mormon Church. I John ii. nor furnish excuse or palliation for persistence in evil practices. Saviour taught that works were essential to the validity of profession and the efficacy of faith. God knew this would be the condition of man. vii. as a consequence of faith. which at the last shall prepare him to dwell with God. by reason of which he may hope to overcome the world. p. 209 it be in fact the foundation of all religion. however. and some of God's strength imparted to him. which. 21 John xiv. does not sanctify or blanket subsequent ill-doings. sectarian dogmas have been . and hence provided in His gospel the baptism of the Holy Ghost through the ordinance of laying-on of hands. that is achieve as mere belief. its Origin and History. iio-iii. human inclination to sin still drives man on toward error. By this baptism of the Spirit man's life is brought in touch with the spirit life of God. furnish a sufficient refutation of these false teachings. . The Scriptures cited and man's inherent sense of justice tion. and the privilege of perpetually walking within the circle of His influence. which involves a sense of sin and the desire for forgiveness. According to Mormon teachings. and concludes: "Yet in spite of the plain word of God. Roberts writes thus: " But after forgiveness of past sins the human weakness still remains." so also is the ability to fulfil the law of righteousness a g^ft of the Spirit. 38. as faith is declared to be a " gift of God. James ii. an unction from the Holy One. Talmage then proceeds to justify his contention by quoting such passages of Scripture as Matt. — Dr." monism. whereby the word of God may make an impression upon the heart . This latter end is achieved in the rite of baptism. is inefficient as a means of salvation. an anointing which. 21 . by which he may know all things. will teach him all things. by which this baptism is eff'ected. the flesh and the devil." Ibid." Articles of Faith. 3-5. He receives in the companionship of the Holy Ghost. other. the acceptance of the truth of the Gospel must be followed by repentance. quite as much as any would be inclined to discount the Godward value of works done by unregenerate men " emphasizing as it does — the need of performing the divinely-ordained ordinances. and the vigor with which it was declared may be an indication of the early development of a The most pernicious doctrine that of justification by belief alone. p. But." This act. 14-18. is held to be " for the remission of sins. if it abide upon him. promulgated to the effect that by faith alone man may achieve salvaand that a mere profession of belief shall open the doors of heaven to the sinner. as with John the Baptist.— — — THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY .

That it is essentially a social system is demonstrated in its " hierarchic " organization. are held to be notable evidences of their " apostasy " they have ignored the divine institutions of society. in all that the expression connotes. " salvation of the earth. giving him such assistance. This element of strong organization and close association undoubtedly begets a sense of fellow-feeling among men the very thing most needed in these days of social perplexities. 20-21)." " salvation of the total man. which it declares necessary to salvation. the element of close and constant association of each member of the Church. moral and temporal. also moving him to form the habit of helpfulness to others. for the glory of God and the salvation of mankind. The claim is that this very organization was revealed for the purpose of achieving the development of superior personal and social righteousness. requiring the development of social virtues. in effect. and allowing such sad perversions to result from and we see enough of this sort of thing nowtheir neglect should have provided a mechanism in His Church that adays should be capable of assisting materially in the work of fulfilling His commands." It would seem reasonable. the failure of traditional systems to counteract social and moral difficulties. admission to the higher glories of the Kingdom of God —or it elaborate provisions for ensuring the end of righteous living. Thus. he founded his Church. among its people. with all others. Nor is the claim that a stable and vital organization. as a part of his religious duties. then. as is claimed. and through it with all other quorums." it expresses a wider and completer idea of salvation than that of the individual soul merely. but he as thyself " makes the most — — — — — — talked about it very much oftener. If. Indeed. when working to achieve such ends. as is explained in the section dealing with this organization. and have thus lost the power of the " priesthood. Christ put the " duty to the neighbor " *' Thou shalt love thy neighbor second only to the " duty toward God " .Szib THE REAL MORMONISM "^ ticularly baptism. quorum. it would seem nearly inevitable that he . doing as much as seems humanly or terrestrially possible to enable the living of a righteous life by all its members. impossible without some such device. and frequently came near to identifying the two (I John iv. makes him a factor in a strongly organized machine. with authority to preach his Gospel and administer the ordinances of religion. to the very highest. in its familiar phrases. directly evidences its own divine authority and origin by any means absurd. which. that God. indeed. spiritual. as he may require." '* salvation of society. first with the members of his own. as well as the familiar derogation of formal righteousness. reorganizes human society on a religious basis. Indeed.

whose object was to realize practical cooperation for the common good." and. nearly the first act of Joseph Smith. and offers no encouragement.THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY should endow stantly 211 it with the proper means of fulfilling his conurged commands regarding the ethical duties. until the day of Joseph lost to sight for eighteen hundred years. no one. after the foundation of his church. who denounce any public. Because the Mormon gospel stands upon this evident New Testament basis of emphasizing temporal and social well-being. was one of the most interesting and significant sociological movements of modem times. complacent self -righteousness. Traditional religion leaves society utterly unorganized. Indeed. Its discontinuance as a practical reality by no means eliminated the ideals which it embodied. as against the present absurd and brutal social order which speciously harbors. the whole organization of the Church still maintains loyalty to this noble ideal." In broad contrast with these performances. and its restoration. fatly thriving on worldly advantage and solaced with the alleged " blessed assurances " of a debased " Qiristianity. Indeed. as we must confess. reformer or otherwise. This Order. it supplies an excellent model for such a reorganization of society on a religious basis as shall insure the happiness and well-being of a goodly majority. simply because their own sects have demonstrated their complete futility in their impotence before the great moral and sociological complications of violently ties in . black despair. as the highest type of divine righteousness in human society. which should redeem society from its " problems " and perplexities. was to inaugurate the United Order. is confidently expected. social and industrial activia professedly religious body. Mormonism has always had a very important " temporal side. thought of it as a necessary element in Gospel administration. or Order of Enoch. so that neither interferes with the other. It is a sad thing that we must record that this evident truth was that. and Smith. except for those who may be " Lured by hope of some diviner drink To fill the cup that's crumbled into dust. while making no attempt to remodel the customs of society." which has drawn railing accusations from its critics. and the virtues upon which these depend. or lack of performances. filthy vice and degrading poverty. on the one hand. It would be difficult to see how the organization of the " hierarchy " could operate otherwise than to the temporal and moral advantage of all concerned. on the other. which attempted to carry out on a consistent scale the community of goods practiced by the ancient saints at Jerusalem.

Sept. its this-world-religiori of cooperation and brotherhood-of-man seems to have been and to continue and why should we not all admit to be good for the Mormon people. The only question is what have these alleged frauds done for the good of mankind? Christianity has shed more blood than all other systems and powers on earth. It has always been a cardinal teaching with the Latter-day Saints. all admit. Out West. .' and while it has never * — been realized as anticipated. what is it doing? Christianity has given martyrs to its cause so has Mormonism. Below it is the theological belief that this world. and so wel. that a religion which has not the power to save people temporally and make them prosperous and happy here. . * It was the doctrine of Joseph Smith. Owing to the many adversities against which the Church and people have had to struggle the principle of cooperation may be said to be yet largely latent. through that endless life upon which they will enter ' in Brigham the resurrection. the original revelator of Mormonism. Smith writes as follows " No sacred system of government. according to the New Testament standard." The Truth about Mormonism. that land the Church sells on easy terms to its immigrants. comes them by cooperation and brotherhood. " Whether Mormonism is right or wrong. . but it is deeply rooted in the minds of the people that the time is sure to come when cooperation will exist wherever it can be made practicable among Mormons. having in view the salvation of the bodies as well as the spirits of men. . Yet his work was all done to carry out this Mormon idea of an eternal life on this very world. Says Charles Ellis: " I do not care for these cries of fraud against Smith and Mormonism any more than I do for the same cries that have rung down the centuries against Jesus and His religion. and Mormonism has given help. even against bitter opposition by gov- ernment officials and anti-Mormons in general. What has Mormonism done. Very early in the career of the Mormon Church the principle of cooperation was set up as the line along which the Church should work for 'the brotherhood of man. several attempts have been made that have been at least partially successful. as will be explained later. In this one particular.. Why? Because they.— THE REAL MORMONISM : ' 212 the times. On this point President Joseph F. . is thus the first body claiming to be the true Church which has promulgated the theory that this claim must be made good. is to be the home of the people who lived upon it in mortal life. . 190S. His policy has been followed. could buy vastly more advantageously than individuals could. cannot be depended upon to save them spiritually. Young. for their peoBut ple.' and cooperation will then be the rule. as well as in Mexico and Canada. . home and happiness to many thousands of Christians who would have known neither without its helping hand. 242. — . can successiully accomplish its mission without being temporal as well as spiritual in character. . p. was a wonderful colonizer. The Mormon leaders have bought land for the Church in most of these mountain states and territories. practically as it is now.* that the spirit and the body constitute the soul of man. and The Mormon Church — ' * civilization has come in spite of it. the Mormon gospel contains a real and valid message and example to the whole world in these days of social and moral unrest. that a tree is to be judged as good or evil. and exalt them in the life to come. according to its fruits.

and the evident crudities of style and expression found in the writings of some of its prominent exponents in the past. Sec. in its sanctified and immortal state. "This earth. and future. This grand idea is expressed among some " important items of instruction. But they reside in the presence of God. but also the earth itself. or all kingdoms of a lower order. every now and then. upon the return of the Lord Jesus Christ and the resurrection of the righteous. THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY the fact? this 213 Mormonism is a practical every-day religion of this life and world looking upon the advancement of its people here as the best preparation for that eternal life they expect to live on this same world 'in the resurrection. He is to figure forth the divine life in his own person. It will be. in short. it strikes me that among religious sects Mormonism has achieved sufficient success to give it a pull strong enough to withstand all ministerial and political misrepresentation and abuse. appears as an essential element in a consistent and far-reaching scheme of salvation that is to include. this salvation. one catches. which. or redemption. of a grand and admirable philosophy. whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom. shall be transformed. but a world of refined. strange as it may seem to the casual reader. in spite of the partial explanations given by most authorities. will be manifest to those who dwell on it and this earth will be Christ's. sure glimpses. is to be found the most perfect equilibrium of natural forces in matter." — and Mormon Doctrines. which. perfected. will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants who dwell thereon. apparently. is to be the eternal home of the blessed.' All peoples have equal right to form and hold their opinions as to the meaning and purpose of this life and that which is to come. and all things for their glory are manifest are continually before the Lord. pp. a fitting habitation for the sons and daughters of God. — . a material world." Doctrine and Covenants. and is to make the earth the habitation of a redeemed race. purified material. as follows " The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth. as in the form of a crystal. behind and beneath all its principles. in which. so as to eliminate all traces of the strife and stress under which it has suffered hitherto." given by Joseph Smith. of the earth from the " curse " need not wait wholly upon the miraculous interposition of God: man himself is the appointed instrument of its achievement. and. this " materialism " of which we hear so much.: — . 6^. where past. this " this-world religion " of practical ideals and standards. Christian If I were a Mormon I should not be uneasy as to the result. Thus. according also to very many Bible commentators other than Mormons. The place where God tesides is a great Urim and Thummim. cxxx. therefore. on a globe like a sea of glass and fire. as it seems. present. Furthermore. 32-35. not only the spirits and bodies of mankind. In the study of the Mormon system.

it is. In view of the principles just explained. and in may see. The virtues commanded by the law of God are included in the law not because God chose to call one thing good and another unlawful. for after it hath filled the measure of its creation. 15-20. each particular note. His instruments in perfecting the work of creation. that those which express the " duty to man. traditionally neglected to so large an extent. Holy Ghost " nevertheless. Sec. mutual helpfulness. that it may be prepared for the celestial glory." justice. and the redemption of the soul is through him who quickeneth all things. In contemplating this noble ideal of the earth's destiny. and for this intent are they sanctified. or uncannot deny that there has been.— 214 THE REAL MORMONISM " The spirit and the body is the soul of man. Thus. in current estimation. a man " joins rescue. also. we gain a new insight into the essential relation between righteousness and the service of God. temperance. It is a real revelation to the world. the perfectly attuned to its part in the total effect harmony is imperfect so each human element in God's grand symphony of redemption must take its part perfectly. the importance of the moral virtues. and the like. brotherly kindness." Ibid. as in every harmony. etc. that. in whose bosom it is decreed that the poor and the meek of the earth shall inherit it. that bodies who are of the celestial kingdom may possess it forever and ever. even with the presence of God the Father. each separate instrument. must be otherwise. derstanding. it remains true. this proclamation that man must be perfected socially. And this work must occupy all their time and efiforts." It is — — We — — We . for. His coadjutors. it shall be crowned with glory. hitherto. for this intent was it made and created. and others are inconsistent. Ixxxviii. certain acts are consistent elements in the grand perspective of human and terrestrial perfection and redemption. are of no lesser importance or significance. Therefore it must needs be sanctified from all unrighteousness. purity.. and having as their greatest obligation to feel a gratefulness to the Author of their Thus. And the resurrection from the dead is the redemption of the soul. that. the Church " for the sole purpose of " saving his soul. its passengers receiving their seats and titles to safety through " grace " or favoritism. while complete harmony with all others. but because. but. altogether too much of a tendency to picture the Church somewhat under the similitude of a lifeboat filled with the salvage of a shipwreck. literally. Mankind are not merely God's beneficiaries. in an order such as the present one. as our bodies being " temples of the very real forms of piety cannot be too highly estimated. it seems reasonable to assert that we find in this system an idea of the essential nature of the Church of God which contains notable elements of improvement on the one existing in popular acceptation. as well as personally: it had been almost altogether forgotten.

he becomes a " new creature " and a " partaker in the divine nature. as Christ spoke in plain and comprehensible terms. and endowed with peculiar gifts and capacities for fulfilling the duties specified in this law. the actual theory of the Church. and that actually. to the image of His Son. With evident apprehension of some such idea." Nor should it be only.THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY 215 needless to state that the Biblical authority for this view is extremely imperfect. in the ordinance of the laying-on of hands of the ture. Mormonism postulates directly that the preparation of the individual soul to discharge the functions of a true son of God must consist in literal exercise of the spiritual endowments specified in ScripThus. henceforth to dwell in him. instead of a crowd of cowering refugees or survivors from some calamitous happening. the Church should be considered rather. and to be distinguished from one another by no evident moral or spiritual orders of superiority. the qualities involved in kingly and priestly dignities. and foreshadowed in the law of Moses. Higher Priesthood." chosen by God for precisely as He chose a special work and mission in the world and to be favored with special the descendants of Abraham instructions for their guidance. an order of " kings and priests unto God. which involves that the divine life is imparted to him. as in the words of John the Revelator. the formal — . resulting in the refined susceptibilities and the " lofty sentiments. as found in Scripture. in order that each child of God may be " conformed Thus. in some measure." the true and vital Theology is tiie "God-science. As a is a conscious and rational being. not formally or by imputation merely. apart from their mental and physical attributes but should evidently embody reasonable and effective means for rendering them actually capable of embodying. and as it is " impossible to be saved or through any merely " unconscious " and in ignorance " — " chemicalizing " action or influence it follows that the principles of the Gospel must be consciously learned. in the estimation of its members and it should not be so called. after all that has been said. Nor does this indwelling of the Holy Ghost involve merely an unconscious formative influence at work in his inward parts." which are so habitually associated with the word " spir- — — — — man ituality" in the deliverances of the average religionist. being that of a " peculiar people. assimilated and observed." The awful responsibility involved in this new creation of his being must be expressed inevitably in the discharge of the duties and obligation specified in the commands of Christ. considered in this light. In other words. merely. a man is believed to receive directly the gift of the Holy Ghost. just as one race advocates is called Mongols and another Kaffirs.

(3) of knowledge.: . This course of instruction includes a recital of the most prominent events of the creative period."— The House of the Lord. comprises instruction relating to the significance and sequence of past dispensations. the period of the great apostasy. tolerant and pure. (2) (4) of life. spiritual gifts. ". pp. in addition to the special ordinances for the living and the dead. . their disobedience and consequent expulsion from that blissful abode. patriotism to nation. Talmage writes. as administered in modern temples. such as covenant and promise to observe the law of strict virtue and chastity. earth may be made ready to receive her King. — In addition to the covenants and blessings of the endowments. (6) of other sciences and useful arts. the institutions of the Church were organized and are maintained. In every detail the endowment ceremony contributes to covenants of morality of life. For the purpose of several classes under instruction at one time. each devoted to a particular part of the course. as above quoted. in calling theology the science of (i) God-communication. and the importance of the present as the greatest and grandest era in human history. benevolent. 2i6 THE REAL MORMONISM And it is presentation of the truths of life and of religion. as is claimed. This explains the meaning of Parley P. if he comes duly accredited as of worthy life and conduct. With the taking of each covenant and the assuming of each obligation a promised blessing is pronounced. as follows "The Temple Endowment. and a strict compliance with Gospel requirements. an essential part of religious life. This is regularly administered in the temples. effecting this grand result. ". James E. 9^101. as will be explained at a later place. the condition of our first parents in the Garden of Eden. and (7) "of all which are piously regarded as the communion of divine and human all spirits. we find the ceremony of "endowment" is prescribed. the absolute and indispensable condition of personal purity and devotion to the right in present life. consecration of person to high ideals. contingent upon the faithful observance of the conditions. Of the " endowment " ordinances. (5) of faith. . the plan of redemption by which the great transgression may be atoned. the temples erected by the Latter-day Saints provide for the giving of these instructions in separate rooms. and allegiance to God. their condition in the lone and dreary world when doomed to live by labor and sweat. " The ordinances of the endowment embody certain obligations on the part of the individual. to be charitable. The blessings of the House of the Lord are restricted to no privileged class. to devote both talent and material means to the spread of truth and the uplifting of the race . every member of the Church may have admission to the Temple with the right to participate in the ordinances thereof. however. devotion to truth. . As a special help. Pratt." originated and imparted through of creation. to maintain devotion to the cause of truth and to seek in every way to contribute to the great preparation that the the Lord Jesus Christ. which are built for this purpose. the restoration of the Gospel with all its ancient powers and privileges. and by this provision it is possible to have . .

THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY all 217 men are expected to enter the priesthood. It is as follows: " Not by commandment or constraint. particularly in the matters of using artificial stimulants and in the excessive eating of meat foods. in reality. as some argue. it will be needless to do more here than to remark that the institution is nowhere unmistakably condemned or forbidden in either the Old or the New Testament. at last. and may be shown to have been recognized by Christ himself in his discussion of marriage and divorce by perfectly evident consistency with the Mosaic law. but as it is fully discussed and explained in another place. The " hierarchy " of the Mormon Church is the masterpiece of the ages. achieves a most desirable esprit de corps. and similar pestilent concomitants of civilization. and is thus. the institution of plural marriage. and be continued by regular successive ordinations to higher and higher functions. a most effective means for transforming life. the world itself. As acknowledged by all unbiased observers. and. as is desirable. temperance and the social virtues. As provided by the regular grading of offices and functions. are virtually unknown in communities controlled by them. cannot fail to give a reality to all religious teachings and encouragement in the performance of prescribed duties. thus effectually identifying themselves with the Church and its interests. . of purity. and engaging to live in accordance with the requirements of the Gospel. It literally brings religion into intimate touch with everyday life. and an argument for the proposition that the commands of Christ are capable of being obeyed to the letter. at least a high ideal of temperance and abstinence. until the highest office in the gift of the Church may be attained. as will be explained in place. Of course. society. This excellent arrangement. both very desirable in civilized communities. the Mormon people are most serious and earnest in following the law of righteousIn no connection is this more evident than in the matter ness. with a boy of twelve or thirteen years of age." which expresses.* The most valued and oftenest mentioned revelation among the Mormons is the so-called '* Word of Wisdom. if nothing beside. or polygamy. Drunkenness. if not remarkable scientific foresight. but by revelation and the word of wisdom. Nor is this anything other than a distinct evidence of the reality of their faith to these people. showing forth the order and will of God in the temporal * Se« Note 2 at the end of this volume. as is the rule. this " official " service of God may begin. will be^ mentioned as an example of something quite different. from the lowest in the Aaronic order to the High Priesthood of the Melchisedek order. prostitution. which.

and use of man. nature. Amen. or famine. unlike many other people who claim the name of Christian. This is exampled in the fact that. only in assembling yourselves together to offer up your sacraments before him. and shall run and not be weary. shall receive health in their navel." bears a singular analogy to the Mosaic commonwealth. that inasmuch as any man drinketh wine or strong drink among you. verily I say unto you. 7-13. flesh also of beasts and of fowls of the air. walking in obedience to the commandments. all wholesome herbs God hath ordained for the constitution. that the destroying angel shall pass by them. who are or can be called saints. and every fruit in the season thereof.— 2i8 salvation of ise. . Section Ixxxix. Every herb in the season thereof. I have warned you. pleasing unto me that they should not be used only in times of winter. According to the claim. Yea. And." it is held that the essentials of the Mosaic legislation have been specifically reenacted in the Church of to-day. again. the Mormons believe that the severe penalties prescribed for certain offences under the Mosaic law should." nants. behold it is not good. and is not good for man. and marrow to their bones. as is frequently stated and retributions have " never been In a certain very real sense. thus saith the Lord unto you. consequence of evils and designs which do and will exist in the hearts of conspiring men in the last days. because " bereft of all just excuse. still be administered. tobacco is not for the body. " Behold. And. neither for the belly. but is an herb for bruises and all sick cattle. I. since in in their literature. again. in justice and righteousness. or of cold. . hot drinks (tea or coffee) are not for the body or belly. . And all saints who remember to keep and do these sayings. that the truth of God has been the same in all " dispensations. and not slay them. the Lord. verily. give unto them a promise. the Mormon Church repealed. and forewarn you. THE REAL MORMONISM all saints in the last days. . And. the Lord. but which it is the duty of the follower of Christ to understand in its true relation to the everlasting Gospel. . have ordained for the use of man with thanksgiving nevertheless they are to be used sparingly and it . In the matter of formal righteousness it seems evident that the Mormon polity contemplates a literal obedience to the moral law. . therefore. strong drinks are not for the belly. again. since. . And. is . neither meet in the sight of your Father. by giving unto you this word of wisdom by revelation. to be used with judgment and skill." — — . In both cases the theory is that heinous offences against God and the social order must be severely requited. . Given for a principle with promadapted to the capacity of the weak and the weakest of all saints. as formulated by Moses. . such laws both the severest penalties are advocated for the gravest offences. 2-5. but for the washing of your bodies. all these to be used with prudence and thanksgiving. as Doctrine and Covethe Children of Israel. 18-21. and I. again. this follows only but and this point must be borne in mind after the utmost provision has been made to cultivate righteousness of life and to render its exercise easy and " natural " to all. and shall walk and not faint.

among the " sons of Perdition. having denied the Holy Spirit after having received it. those who open their hearts to the Holy Spirit. as is argued with good consisttions ency." which must literally doom its perpetrator to endless banishment from the presence of God." Doctrine and Covenants. having learned the power of God. of course. to be overcome. and those who commit murder. concerning whom I have said there is no forgiveness in this world nor in the world to come. after the sufferings of his wrath. Although for offences of lesser gravity than murder offences in which restitution can be made. and suffered themselves. these are they of whom the Savior has declared that it would be better for them had they never been born. with the devil and his angels. unless He has been already received. and having denied the Only Begotten Son of the Father having crucified him unto themselves. as we may assume. through the power of the devil. or imparted. visible But because. all those whose wickedness is irredeemable in all ages of the world. afterward renounce it. and then put the Lord to a mockery and a shame by denying it." Talmage has the following: "These are they who. . These are they who shall go away into the lake of fire and brimstone. The matter is also explained in the authoritative scriptures: — " Thus saith the Lord. the only ones who shall not be redeemed in the due time of the Lord. doomed to suffer the wrath of power God. p. for that very reason various sins and crimes in its members must appear all the more heinous. while preaching a doctrine as nearly like ** universal salvation " as would be possible in consistence with reason and the claim is that the " Gospel is a message and Scripture " the strongest denunciasalvation. it is definitely held that such defilements of the person and of society as adultery and harlotry. apparently there is distinct provision for forgiveness. — 31-38. it is obviously impossible to sin against the Holy Ghost.THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY 219 Thus it is that. even after — — ." These accursed ones represent. and to deny the truth and defy my they are vessels of wrath. For. In writing of the " sons of Perdition. Ixxvi. even the gravest sin is to be compared with the guilt of this offence. . in the light of knowledge. — . the Church is regarded as the body and representative of God on earth." after having received His blessings and presence into their lives. and put him to an open shame. concerning all those who know my power. should be punished with death. and have been made partakers thereof. 62. and because. and the only ones on whom the second death shall have any power yea. only because in violence to the fundamental laws of being and of human society. verily. not of condemnation — of — have been launched against the " unpardonable sin. with the devil and his angels in eternity. wherein they shed innocent blood. those who have " sinned against the Holy Spirit. those who sin wilfully. even as the law of Moses prescribes. . Under other conditions." The Articles of the Faith. as well as murder.

under the title of " blood atonement. and that the law might have its course. If represented as a part of Scripture interpretation. occasionally in picturesque and pointed sentences. it may be stated without hesitation that there is no such doctrine. that the smoke thereof might ascend to heaven as an offering for their sins. and if they had their eyes open to see their true condition. Vol. for the purpose of evidencing false charges against the Mormon Church and its teachings. and for himself the very sin of Adam even after it had been blotted out by Christ's atonement that sin which entailed banishment of every real sort from the presence and favor of God. it may be explained and justified from authoritative sources. except as God's law specifies. a man repeats in his own person. Hence. thus neutralizing Christ's work and contemning his love. "And furthermore I know that there are transgressors. by persons professing acquaintance with the Bible. and the smoking incense would atone for their sins. also garbled and mutilated. who. This teaching has been expressed several times in the sermons of Brigham Young and President Jedediah M. the belief that *' there is a sin unto death is consistently maintained. p. they would be perfectly willing to have their blood spilt upon the ground. also a love of truth and justice. . or in that which is to come. In it. as the Bible unto death " may not be included under the benefits of Christ's atonement. yet men can commit sins which it can never remit. . as has been done too often.: 220 THE REAL MORMONISM " several commissions. the teaching is that. "It is true that the blood of the Son of God was shed for sin through the fall and those committed by men. which. . that the smoke thereof might ascend to God as an offering to appease the wrath that is kindled against them. and the only condition upon which they can obtain forgiveness." has been wilfully and wantonly misrepresented. In this connection emerges the doctrine. and made the occasion for monstrous and unprovable charges against the Mormon Church. whereas if such is not the case. 53-54- . in a this " sin — — Young " There are sins that men commit for which they cannot receive forgiveness in this world. IV. they (the sins) will stick to them and remain upon them in the spirit world. even after repentance. If represented as a teaching justifying murder and bloodshed. a fresh example of ** ultraliteralism. which have been widely quoted. The following is the teaching in the words of President Expressed states. as it were. few words. Grant. Nor may such sin be forgiven or atoned. the sole hope of forgiveness for such a man lies in the shedding of his own blood as a *' sin offering " to God." possibly. according to the standards set up in Scripture."— Journal of Discourses. if they knew themselves. or apparent repentance. I will say further I have had men come to me and offer their lives to atone for their sins. would beg of their brethren to shed their blood.

abrogated and fulfilled in the atonement of Christ. . as taught. . as developed in the Mosaic law. It was not the shedding of the blood of goats. according to Bible docThis may sound very horrifying to some people. and this doctrine was practised by the people before the law of * . whatever. — . Moses was given. the penalty for its transgression being expressed in the words. the blood of every individual man and woman is not required. According to traditional Christian teaching. and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul. even. to mention and explain it among the teachings of this system. " read into " any passage. The theory in both cases is precisely the same as expressed in Leviticus xvii. it is the doctrine of the New Testament atonement or sacrifice was based on this. and the reason for it. This is involved in the first great commandment to Adam. It is the doctrine of the Old Testament. each individual would have had to have his blood shed. the efficacy of this law of sacrifice is fully recognized. also. it is necessary to go further. doctrine all the same. sheep and bullocks upon the altar that made the atonement. merely. but it is Bible trine.: THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY Were it 221 not for the prodigious mass of misrepresentation of hands of avowed enemies of Mormonism. justly and normally. this doctrine is entirely scriptural. Here is the cardinal principle that without shedding of blood there is no remisof the law of God sion of sins. "All those sacrifices which were offered up before Jesus Christ. "for the life of the flesh is in the blood. the practice and teaching of vicarious sacrifice was established. although. we find the following from Charles W. 'The life of the flesh is in the blood. now one of the First Presidency of the Mormon Church "Here you see the doctrine of blood atonement laid down. the same sentence. and the blood of an animal victim was shed to atone for the sins of the repentant transgressor.' and it requires this doctrine at the the shedding of blood to make atonement for the soul." Commenting on the foregoing. if Christ's blood had not been shed. the penalty of death. and being in no sense. which is held to have been typified by the previous slaughter of animal victims. our Redeemer. being evidently derived from faithful and literal interpretation of the text of the Bible. however. and demonstrate that. so far as the formal statement is concerned. came into the world were typical of the atonement that He was to work out. and pass on to the next subject item. .' But. because of the atonement wrought out by Jesus Christ. 17). If there is any consistency whatever in the Bible upon the matter of sin and transgression. under the Jewish law. Under present conditions. Penrose. . Therefore. . also. ii. there is nothing more evident than the teaching that all transgression of the law of God entails. 11. it would be necessary. in the sacrificial cults of " heathen " religions. " In the day that thou eatAccording to est thereof thou shalt surely die" (Gen. but this was typical .

as the case may be. . . but it is an old doctrine to the Latter-day Saints. and made members of His Church. an unholy thing. 14." etc. There All is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it. and make all the restitution that lays in their power.— 222 THE REAL MORMONISM of the atonement of Jesus Christ in the future. and you can find it laid down distinctly and clearly in the Bible. pp. wherewith he was sanctified." Blood Atonement. many commentators have concluded that " heresy " and apostasy were speand there is room for some such interprecifically referred to tation and have made these offenses capital crimes. : sorer punishment. 4-6). judging by the words. if they shall fall away. there is a complete chain of teachings to uphold the allegations here made. to represent the atonement wrought out in the past. shall he be thought worthy. " they crucify — — . as some may argue. "No murderer hath eternal life abiding in him" (/ John iii. who hath trodden under foot the Son of God. the massacres of alty.. . 28-29). and which. This explains the persecutions of the Middle Ages. to renew them again unto repentance seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh." as involves the eternal wrath of God. involves the infliction of the severest penances. x. after having been washed and made clean through the blood of Christ. suppose ye. again commit sin. having tasted of the good word of God and the power of the world to come. explained by Elder Penrose. He quotes the following passages: " For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened. that. What about them? Why. After receiving the Gospel and entering into sacred covenants with God Almighty. vi. He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses of how much Biblical . "If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death. unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death. and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost. 13.) Although. " But there are persons who. . and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. 16-17. 15). the Son of God afresh. and have tasted of the heavenly gift. and have tasted the good word of God. just as we. even in the Catholic Church. . That may be a new doctrine to many people of the world. 26. they do not necessarily involve the death pen- however. if they truly repent. he shall ask. As . . or wine. and put him to an open shame" {Heb. 16-17. . which claims the power to forgive all sins. It is well to reflect. they may be forgiven. and hath counted the blood of the covenant. and the powers of the world to come. . "For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth. have a piece of bread and a cup of water. But there are some sins that can be committed from which they cannot be cleansed by the blood of Christ. the " sin unto death " mentioned in these several connections may indicate such "moral sin. if there is to be any forgiveness whatever. there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins." (/ John v. if they commit certain sins they cannot gain the remission of those sins through the blood of Jesus Christ. and hath done despite unto the Spirit of Grace?" {Heh. after having been enlightened by the spirit of truth. when we partake of the Lord's Supper. they may be cleansed again.

as tice " here. Huguenots. So the scriptures say. — "But I want to carry this subject a little further." THE ATONEMENT AND DUTY 223 Anabaptists. but if their blood is shed as an offering for their sin. "*To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh." it is not inadmissable to argue that any fulfilment of the law of God. etc. and then. Brigham Young understood it perfectly. nor of the power of the world to come.' "I wonder how much our modem Christian friends understand of that doctrine. There have been suggestions also. according to this doctrine of the Apostle Paul. as though I were present. the Corinthian saints understood Here was a man who came into the church. and those who came into that church and afterwards fell away. have judged already. became much worse than people who had never tasted of the word of God. Now. will be seen in the following from Elder Penrose's pamphlet: "In the ancient church of Christ some apostatized. even though there can be only " jusThis is the teaching of Mormon commentators. he went into corruption. What The life of the flesh is the blood. 3. Ghost. just exactly as the Apostle Paul teaches here. and committed a gross transgression for which he could not have forgiveness such a one was to be delivered unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh. 5) I need not mention. but he says: as absent in body. for which they will have to suffer the penalty in the world to come. involves an opportunity for divine mercy to act in the world to come. and that he is particularly worthy of death if he has been enlightened by the power supof God and knows the full extent of that great transgression posing we admit that for the sake of argument the next question that — — . that the '' martyrdom " of the " heretic might mitigate his sin in the eyes of God. their spirits might be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus." Although such an interpretation of Scripture may seem " fantastic. Why? Because he had made as much atonement as he possibly could for his sin. received the Holy it. the Inquisition. and other criminals. concerning him that hath done this deed. Suppose we grant the position that a murderer is worthy of death.. is life? He was delivered over to the buffetings of Satan that he might be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. Some have even stated that the real object of destroying heretics was to '* save their souls. Paul understood it. it seems. and other truculent doings. in the text I have read to you. that if that man was destroyed in the flesh there would be some chance for him to be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. about a gross sin that " * For I verily. The Apostle Paul writes (/ Cor. This is the same as the doctrine taught by the Saviour. but present in spirit. had rejoiced in the truth. violated the covenants he had made to be true and faithful to God by ceasing from sin. He had given his life. that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. through temptation and wickedness. was made partaker of the heavenly gift. v. even in the matter of dealing with murderers. He says there are some sins men may commit for which they cannot get forgiveness. John Calvin's destruction of his friend Servetus. that the spirit might be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. although not definitely promulgated doctrines.

as he understood it to be. or that which pertains to the celestial law. rather than what he in- tended to do himself. indeed. and the grave. or. were in force. have forgiveness in this world. Who is to inflict the penalty? I will refer section you to a passage a little further on in the same revelation — — xlii. Christ raises them up wickedness and ignorance of the nations forbid this principle's being in full force. behold. This is the word of God Almighty to the Saints. I have seen scores and hundreds of people for whom there would have been a chance (in the last resurrection there will be) if their lives had been taken and their blood spilled on the ground as a smoking incense to the Almighty. we shall understand that he was stating what should be done. . You know it is represented abroad that the Latter-day Saints believe in killing in a great many different directions. "The time has been in Israel under the law of God. nor in the shalt not kill. in spite of the garbled quotations his sermons. who have received the Holy Ghost. but — . I kills shall not speak unto the Church. in order to atone for their sins. die. who are now angels to the devil until our Elder Brother Jesus The . and he that world to come. . conquers death. But here is the law of God to the Church by revelation. for remember that he hath no forgiveness. as we have seen already. hell. Then. but the time will come when the law of God will be in full force. that if a man was found guilty of adultery. the celestial law. but he that killeth shall die. as in justice.— : : 224 arises THE REAL MORMONISM Who on is. This law is given to people who have been baptized. I say. for it is one of the laws of the kingdom where our father dwells.'" Blood Atonement^ pp. 22-23. Thou " Here is the law of God to the Church. . I will refer you to section xlii of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. and the wild and unfounded charges of bloodshed and murder instigated by him. Thou shalt not kill.' again. that if any persons among you shall kill. " I could refer you to plenty of instances where men have been righteously slain. 29-30. we may understand on reading the whole of the sermons referred to. 219. pp. .' But that does not answer the question. or He says in way of inflicting vengeance on the sinner."— /oMrMo/ of Discourses. he must have his blood shed. but he that killeth shall "'And. had done. Vol IV. That the foregoing correctly represents the position of Brig- ham Young upon from the matter. who have been made partakers of the heavenly gift *Thou shalt not kill. . they shall be delivered up and dealt with according to the laws of the land. if God's law. 220. Thus he deplores the fact that the laws of the nations at the present day prevent the fulfillment of the righteous laws of God. and the eighteenth verse "'And now. which were framed quite as truly in mercy. verse 79: "*It shall come to pass. and it shall be proven according to the laws of the land. is to inflict the penalty? What do our Church laws say this subject.

and much good work has been begun in various quarters. he was probably the first man of modern times to found a stable and equable social order on a religious basis. also there is. so we are told. in some aspects of the matter. The Dispensation of the Fulness of Times is charactenzed by a complete restoration of the Gospel after a universal apostasy 225 . when we remember that the Mormon Church represents a serious attempt to found an order of social righteousness and equity. consisting in the work of the Gospel restored by revelation to Joseph Smith. it remains true that. beginning with the ministry of John the Baptist and continued in the work of Christ and His Apostles. (d) the Abrahamic. It will be interesting information for people working along these lines of effort to learn that the Mormon Prophet anticipated their movement by over three-quarters of a century. (e) the Mosaic. It is also the only one of all so-called Christian bodies that includes this social ideal as an essential element of Various persons in other bodies at the present time its creed. the strenuous insistence on the Mosaic law of retributive justice might seem needlessly severe. (f) the Dispensation of the Meridian of Time. however. in dealing with human nature. a " general awakening of We the social conscience. RESURRECTION AND SALVATION Although. with the result that the standards of right and truth come to be less seriously considered." etc. " Love " and leniency are often confused with laxity and complacence. the restoration of the Law is only a part of their grand doctrine of the unity of the Gospel throughout all time. and that.: CHAPTER XVII THE DOCTRINES OF RESTORATION. known as " dispensations " (a) the Adamic. whatever their future success. are doubtless attempting to retrieve the historic neglect of this branch of effort. With the Mormons. they divide history into seven separate periods. can understand some of this insistence. and to continue until the end of the world. As a corollary of this doctrine. (c) the Noachian. (g) the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. (b) the Enochian. a law that is all '* love " and no severity is no law at all.

into which all past dispensations of divine power and authority like rills and rivers run. xlix. upon which to found all further argument or theory in relation to the Saints (Mormons) and their religion. and for the events preceding the " last times. that is. with Columbus in their van. children of Abraham. is no figure of speech. hidthe wall of waters over which. They hold that it is no strain upon revealed truth to believe that the blood of the " dispersion of Israel. accounting. . believed by them to be the land of Zion. they say. to unveil the^ hidden — — — — hemisphere. and. their fellows. false and fa- — * — . is. they are a "peculiar people. the Nephites and Lamanites (as recorded in the Book of Mormon). as a basic fact.' Next came the Gentiles. Upon this land. 13-17). say the Saints. Whitney. they . and the Lord's latter-day work founded and fostered on Columbia's chosen soil. a means of preparing the world for the return of Christ as visible judge and ruler. 22-26. these Latter-day Saints. presumably from the days of the Assyrian captivity. is a cardinal doctrine of the Latter-day Saints. tribal and — — — — Apostle. moreover. This gathering of Israel. it is the purpose of Jehovah. The loss of their their scattered state among the nations whence the Gospel. in effect. a Jefferson and other heaven-inspired patriots to win and maintain the liberty of the land. that the land was held in reserve. . which declare that Ephraim *hath mixed himself with the people*.claim. the God of Israel.— THE REAL MORMONISM 226 of the church. This inspiring belief. climbed Joseph's * fruitful bough. as it does for their world-wide proselytism. to gather His scattered people from their long dispersion among the nations. as follows: "It must be borne in mind.'— the closing period of our planet's mortal probation. " Israel's gathering in the * last days.* And all this that Zion might here be established. * The Dispensation of the Fulness of Times. and occupied for ages by his descendants. Deut. identity. concerning which so many of the prophet-poets of antiquity have sung. with other nations. . given him by the Almighty in the blessings of Jacob and Moses (Gen. is to arise the latter-day Zion. and their migrations from the ends of the earth to the American Continent. that they sincerely believe themselves to be literally of the blood of Israel. is a step preparatory to the 'gathering together in one* of 'all things in Christ.' both in heaven and on earth." This is explained by Orson F. New Jerusalem. xxxiii. which they hold to be the inheritance of Joseph. is explained to them by the Scriptures. Yes. a land destined to be free from bondage. the wanderings abroad of their Apostles and Elders in quest of the seed of Ephraim. but is accepted as a literal and an essential fact. has begun to gather them. as spoken of by Paul the mostly of Joseph through the lineage of Ephraim.' a figurative spiritual ocean. It was for this purpose." The Mormons are taught that. as such. like most of their tenets. and weld in one vast chain the broken links of the fated house of Abraham. then a Washington. Isaac and Jacob." is demonstrated in those who accept the " fulness of the Gospel." the " lost tribes of Joseph. Hke the ancient Israelites." called to a lofty and wonderful mission in the world. They believe. den for ages behind Atlantic's waves in Lehi and his colony. that in this age." as revealed on earth in these " latter days.

after all. solution of the question as to how the promises of God to Abraham and his seed are apparently fulfilled.' "— History of Utah. which. But the missionary duty entailed upon believers in the Latterday Gospel does not stop with the " dispersion of Israel. at least the statement that *' God is love. no less than the scriptures. 66-69. It achieves yet other heights and depths in the stupendous doctrine of salvation for the dead. (a) those who lived when the Gospel " was not in the earth. even if not a true and authoritative. that the " Chosen People of God " are. *' after the flesh. was founded for the express purpose of favoring the growth of what the world terms Mormonism. . seems to have been literally " cut off. — . for the advantage of " gentiles. * "But This. and ever the real heralds of His will and law. instead.* (I During the three days. His spirit was in the world of spirits preaching to those who had rejected the teaching of righteous Noah. also the return of the lost Ten Tribes from the north country. actually believe that the greatest and most liberal of earthly governments. 21. Nor does it seem presumptuous to hold that it actually illustrates the " loving-kindness " of God." and (b) those who failed to hear it truly preached in their life-time. Thus. then." is both inspiring and illuminating. " From a remark made in the writings of the Apostle Peter we learn that after the Messiah was put to death in the flesh 'he went and preached unto the spirits in prison. * . the gathering of Israel is to include the whole house of Jacob. hold that Christ went into hell and preached to those there held in ward. Not only is the mere fact of Messiah's going to the spirits in prison stated in the scriptures. It follows. meantime. then. Vol. I. and justifies to human reason. the first care with Him. iii. that of the United States. . who have ever " despitefuUy used and persecuted " the Chosen Nation. This merciful and comforting doctrine offsets effectually the hopelessness of the situation of those who have died unrepentant or unconverted.RESTORATION AND SALVATION natical as the 227 view may seem to most." nor yet with the nations of the world. is significant as being a wonderfully ingenious." To hold that all who accept the Gospel in its fulness are actually of the blood of Abraham. not merely the half -tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh. when once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah. The Christian traditions. like other Mormon doctrines." through the " dispersion " of the " lost Tribes. 18." or non-Israelites. the extensive and persistent missionary activities of this people are found to be only movements to assist in the gathering of the Lord's chosen from all parts of the world. prior to the acceptance by Judah of the Gospel and mission of the crucified Messiah. pp. but the purpose of His going there is learned from the For this cause was the gospel preached also to them same source. It involves the restoration of the Jews and the rebuilding of old Jerusalem. that the Messiah's body Pet.) lay in the tomb at Jerusalem. which sometime were disobedient." The special application of this doctrine is to two classes.

or as men in the flesh will be judged. to obtain even the promise of eternal glory. As the children — . upon which consideration the following reflection forces itself upon the mind: viz. if the dead rise not at all? are they then baptized for the dead?' In this the apostle manifestly refers to the practice which existed among the Christian saints of the living being baptized for the dead. live according to God in the spirit. Roberts {Mormonism. or why the necessity of being baptized for them. . and the necessary union is effected through baptism and associated ordinances for the dead.— 228 but THE REAL MORMONISM that are dead. surely those who lived when it was not upon the earth or who. The manner in which the hearts of the children and those of the fathers are turned toward one another is made plain through these scriptures. and argues from the existence of that practice that the dead must rise. will much sooner come to — salvation. how much sooner will it be presented to those who never heard it who lived in those generations when neither the gospel nor the authority to administer its ordinances were in the earth. "The manner in which the ordinances of the gospel may be administered to those who have died without having received them is plainly stated by Paul. or for any other person who died without knowledge of the Gospel in its This is explained by Elder Talmage. "The plan of God provides that neither the children nor the fathers can alone be made perfect. it is likewise indispensable to the redemption of the dead. the children here shown.) festly means that the spirits who had once rejected the counsels of God against themselves had the gospel again presented to them and had the privilege of living according to its precepts in the spirit life.. "The redemption of the dead will be effected in strict accordance with the law of God. and of being judged according to men in the flesh.' This mani(I Pet. Seeing that those who had rejected it had it again preached to them (after paying the penalty for their disobedience)." B. H. . etc. when it was upon the earth perished in ignorance of it. . . If the gospel is preached again to those who have once rejected it. . doing for their progenitors what is beyond the power of the latter to do for themselves. except on condition of obedience to the laws and ordinances of the gospel. . in the flesh or disembodied. 6. involves that some living believer shall be baptized as proxy for some one of the dead. according to the degree of their faithfulness to the precepts of the gospel. It should be observed from the foregoing scripture that even to those who have rejected the gospel in the days of Noah it was again presented by the ministry of the Lord Jesus Christ. iv. that they might be judged according to men in the flesh. And. as baptism is essential to the salvation of the living. that is. Writing to the Corinthians on the subject of the correcting those who said there was no resurrection resurrection * he asks Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead. which is written in justice and framed in mercy. It is alike impossible for any spirit. — — : Why The practice of this doctrine which claims the same authority as the Catholic doctrine of Purgatory. The necessity of vicarious work is the living laboring in behalf of the dead. This passage of the scripture of itself is sufficient to establish the fact that such an ordinance as baptism for the dead was known among the ancient saints. either for one from among his or her own ancestors. 50-52). as follows: fulness.

who administers the rite. with the names. concluding a brief tion for the dead. and the departed. and accepted in the spirit world by those for they are performed. their faith will be kindled.— : — — ^229 RESTORATION AND SALVATION learn that without the aid of their progenitors they cannot attain perfection. preaching perhaps the gospel to the spirits of their forefathers. ' ' . They will accept or reject. while others of the same family are officiating in a similar behalf on earth?" Articles of Faith. but the work so done for them on earth will be of avail when wholesome argument and reason have shown them their true position. both in this world and in the world of spirits. 152-156. 53. 156.' This work that can be done for the dead enlarges one's views of the gospel of Jesus Christ. will make them a potent means of salvation to the dead. stricken down by the shafts of death. and of exaltation to the living. p. results of such labors are ta be left with God. or identities. . Speaking of the twofold character of this work. — The ordinances for the dead are performed in the temples maintained by the Latter-day Saints. p. and are frequently attended to by persons known as ** temple-workers. When one considers the absurd and ignorant criticisms made . of all departed beneficiaries. The work of vicarious baptism is always superintended by some elder. whom we count among earth's fairest and best. since the latter become in very deed * saviors upon Moimt Zion. according " The to their condition of humility or hostility in respect to things divine. of men whom One begins to see indeed that it is the everlasting gospel for it runs parallel with man's existence both in this life and in that which is to come. nor that they are in the least hindered in the exercise of their free agency. and complete records are kept of all ceremonies. Roberts. seemingly in spite of the power of faith and the ministrations of the priesthood of God! Yet who of us can tell but that the spirits so called away are needed in labor of redemption beyond. It is not to be supposed that by these ordinances (baptism. These ordinances attended to on earth by the living.. laying-on of hands and the 'higher endowments') the departed are in any way compelled to accept the obligation.. learning from the ministers of the gospel laboring among them. for the redemption of their dead. will seek to sustain their still mortal representatives with faith and prayer for the perfecting of those labors of love. and good works will be attempted. although any members of the Church in good standing may enter the Temple and fulfil the ordinances for his deceased ancestors and other relatives." Articles of Faith. remarks: " There summary of the doctrine of salvaall must be a sealing and binding together of the generations until the family of God shall be perfectly joined in holiest bonds and ties of mutual affections." Mormonism." who are regularly " set apart " for this form of service. Talmage writes "How often do we behold friends and loved ones. pp. assuredly will their hearts be opened. that they must depend upon their children as vicarious saviours.

if. The Church has not for a single day lost sight of this work. that put this spirit into the hearts of the Latterday Saints? Who was it that has performed this wonderful work the turning of the hearts of the fathers to the children. And in many instances this^ was the case before the converts had heard of such a thing as salvation for the dead. have devoted his time and attention to the living. why should an imposter bother himself with such a work as the salvation of the dead? Let the world cite an instance of an imposter engaging No. the hardships he suffered. " One day while in England I met an old gentleman who told me he had traveled over seven thousand miles in the hope that he might obtain the genealogies of his deceased relatives. in order that they might become their saviors. and tens of thousands of dollars and years of precious time have been spent by the Saints in searching for the genealogies of their deceased relatives. It is that of a young woman and her mother who embraced the gospel in Switzerland and came to Utah a number of years ago." Thus. the '* sign of a divine and spiritual grace. His faithful labors were rewarded.5230 THE REAL MORMONISM by persons professing a knowledge of Scripture. He urged it strongly upon the Saints. For years this old man had lived the life of a sheep herder. we find that " the hearts of the children are turned to the fathers " in a very real and inspiring sense. Joseph Smith had been an imposter he would in such a work. that just as soon as they accepted the Gospel. "Another case comes to my remembrance. with not a human being to speak to him. I ask. and began to partake of its spirit and blessings. For over two years these faithful souls lived almost on bread and water in order to save means to send back to their native land to pay for genealogical work. so that he could perform the work for them in the temple. held in the very highest esteem among the LatIt is to them a veritable sacrament of grace. It is the testimony of thousands who have embraced the Gospel of Christ revealed through Joseph Smith. that it is a teaching of the on it this doctrine will greatest vitality. officiating in behalf of his departed kindred. out on the desert in all kinds of weather. " Who was it. They were rewarded with a record of a thousand names. the redemption of All this time his thoughts were upon one thing his kindred dead. The following examples of the vital character of this beUef are significant : me ask those who look upon Joseph Smith as an imposter. " Many similar instances could be cited. for days alone. declaring that they without their dead could not be made perfect. But the redemption of the dead was one of the most important parts of Joseph Smith's mission. and since his return to Utah has been working in one of the temples. instead of the threats of hopeless perdition for those who have not heard the Gospel in this world. just so soon did their hearts turn to their fathers who had died without having heard of the restoration of the gospel. and the hearts " Let — — . He obtained hundreds of names. ter-day Saints. seem surprising. The loneliness he endured. doubtless. were swallowed up in the joy he felt as he looked forward to the day when he would have sufficient means to enable him to go back to the land of his forefathers to gather genealogies. Temples have been erected at enormous cost and sacrifice in which the ordinances necessary for the redemption of the dead have been and are being performed.

Morton {Young Woman's Journal. let His name be praised. It was He who sent Elijah the prophet to Joseph Smith with the keys of this blessed dispensation. without encountering the difficulties of " Universalism. difficult or impossible to reconcile with humanly intelligible notions of divine love — : and justice. Because. This included the Saints and Prophets As . The doctrine of the condition of the blessed in the eternal life. must also be sealed by proxy in eternal marriage. One widely accepted teaching on this matter is thus set forth in the words of Parley P. or against the authority which bases it. It was He who devised the glorious plan of salvation for the dead. September. it is taught that there are three separate resurrections of the dead." cannot fail to render belief in a future life unusually real and certain.RESTORATION AND SALVATION 231 of the children to the fathers? Was it Joseph Smith? No. it may be said to teach uniqualification. there can be no doubt that it represents as true and inevitable. under the conditions specified. 1913. a prelude to the final conditions of all mankind. the rite of eternal marriage may be celebrated only in the temple. attain eternal life. as well as of the Church's divine mission and authority in this. and at the hands of the priesthood of God. coupled with that of the " eternity of the marriage covenant. contrary to the opinion expressed by some other writers. it would have been impossible for Joseph Smith or any other man to have done such a thing. — This doctrine. all this vastly enforces belief in the reality of a future life. pp. Whatever objections one may urge against this belief. and at the same William time let the name of the Prophet Joseph Smith be glorified. versal salvation. Pratt. and the descendants with their remote ancestors. and have There can be no doubt that their children sealed to them also. also. precisely the sort of immortality that most people of really human sentiments sincerely hope may be theirs. It involves that. it follows that those ancestors who have been made partakers in the benefits of Christ's atonement through proxy baptism. without imposing statements of doctrine. as with very many of the other " Mormon " doctrines. not only shall those at present alive. as held in the Latter-day theology is an elaborate and inspiring one moreover. "The first general resurrection took place in connection with the resurrection of Jesus Christ. without either evasion or Briefly characterized. 553-554). however. who. believes that the first resurrection is already past. it seems to be founded on the same implicit belief in the literal truth of Scripture statements. but also that their family relations shall be perpetuated the fathers and mothers with their children to all eternity. great families in the Everlasting Kingdom. if faithful to the Gospel." A." and to teach the eternal punishment of the finally reprobate. It is the Lord who has done it. Therefore.

and will be immediately succeeded by the coming of Jesus Christ. 40-42." Key to Theology. This resurrection will include the Former and Latter-day Saints. for we saw and heard. " For this reason. 21) and who have been made one with the Godhead. their condition is determined in the kingdom of God. with all His Saints and angels. the last term indicating Paul's reference to the " glory of the stars " the word. " telestial " being derived." after the authority of Christ's words in John x. or. from the Greek word. and will embrace all the human family not included in the former resurrection or translations. meaning *' fleet. will then receive an inheritance on the earth. evidently. even as Christ and the Father are one (John xvii. soil. "The third and last resurrection will take place more than a thousand years afterwards. the earth will undergo a change . in its physical features. darkness and ignorance will pass away. 138-140. referring to the vast number of stars.. The Celestial Kingdom is. also. in other words. 10). and to fulfill certain promises made to the fathers. . . all those who died in Christ before His resurrection. its valleys exalted. in power and great glory. and all those translated. These are called. while its burning deserts and its frigid polar regions will be redeemed and become temperate and fruitful. "partakers of His holi- and degrees of — ness" (Hebrews xii. and the rule of sin and sorrow and death will give place to the reign of peace and truth and righteousness. The conditions requisite for an inheritance in this " kingdom " are as follows "And again we bear record. accordingly. which are designated in Pauline phrase as (i) the Celestial Glory. " Its mountains will be leveled. the Former and Latter-day Saints included in the two resurrections. 21-23). as indicated in I Corinthians xv. who shall "see Him as He is" (H John iii. of course. its swamps and sickly places will be drained and become healthy. from Adam down to John the Baptist. and will build upon and improve the same for a thousand years. the last of which takes place at the end of the world and the beginning of eternity. 2) to whom it is granted to sit with Christ upon His throne (Revelation iii. war will cease. 34-36. Here. According to the position of individual souls in one or another of the resurrections here specified. oppression and idolatry will be at an end. and in connection with the glorious coming of Jesus Christ. " Kingcraft and priestcraft. all those who have received the Gospel since the former resurrection. 4). and this is the testimony of the gospel of Christ concerning them who come forth . tyranny. the highest of all. " The second will take place in a few years from the present time." " flock. and in its political." etc. moral and spiritual government. " gods. including all those of whom it is said they shall be " partakers in the Divine Nature" (II Peter i. productions. . . " In the resurrection which now approaches. pp. (3) the Telestial Glory. there are grades of glory salvation. climate. telos. (2) the Terrestrial Glory.: — 232 THE REAL MORMONISM of both hemispheres.

but rather let him glory in God.— RESTORATION AND SALVATION timony of Jesus. to reign on the earth over his people. which the Father sheds forth upon all who are just and true. where Christ and God are the judge of all." is inherited by those who have lived righteously without the law of God and by those who have not earned the fullest blessing by hearing the highest testimony under Law and Gospel conditions. These are they whom he shall bring with him. whose glory is that of the sun. Ixxvi. They are they who are the church of the first born. being buried in the water in his name. and believed on 233 in the resurrection of the just. These are they who are come unto Mount Zion. who have received the fullness of the Father. and of the first born. the holiest of all. Behold. they are they who received the teshis name and were baptized after the manner of his burial." Doctrine and Covenants. These are they who shall have part in the first resurrection. wherefore let no man glory in man. These are they who shall come forth in the resurrection of the just. as explained in the following from the same revelation as quoted above: "And again. all are theirs and they are Christ's and Christ is God's. we saw the terrestrial world. — — The highest glories and exaltations are all reserved for those counted worthy to inherit the Celestial glory. and here all the powers and capacities of the human spirit shall receive the greatest development of which it is capable. sons of God or things present. when he shall come in the clouds of heaven. These are they whose bodies are celestial. and who overcome by faith. who shall subdue all enemies under his feet these shall dwell in the presence of God and his Christ for ever and ever. They are they into whose hands they are they who are Priests and the Father has given all things Kings. wherefore. these are they who died without law. and . which was after the order of the Only ing the their sins. the heavenly place. and also those who are the spirits of men kept in prison. and are Priests of the Most High..^ Begotten Son. whose glory differs from that of the church of the first born. or things to come. they are Gods. these are they who are of the terrestrial. whether life or death. whom the Son visited. The Terrestrial Glory. These are they whose names are written in heaven. It is the Heaven of the Blessed par excellence. that by keep- commandments they might be washed and cleansed from all and receive the Holy Spirit by the laying-on of hands of him who is ordained and sealed unto this power. after the order of Melchisedek. and of his glory. and behold and lo. And they shall overcome all things. which was after the order of Enoch. corresponds to the " glory of the moon. who have received of his fullness. — >. These are they who have come to an innumerable company of angels. which. to the general assembly and church of Enoch. who wrought out this perfect atonement through the shedding of his own blood. These are they who are just men made perfect through Jesus the mediator of the new covenant. and unto the city of the living God. the highest of all. as it is written. 51-70. and this according to the commandment which he has given. even the glory of God. even the wherefore all things are theirs. even as that of the moon diflfers from the sun in the firmament. according to the understanding of Paul's words in I Corinthians xv. and are sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise.

that they might be judged according to men in the flesh. . until the last resurrection. wherefore they obtain not the crown over the kingdom of our God. even as the glory of the stars differs from that of the glory of the moon in the firmament. who were blinded by the craftiness of men. for they shall be heirs of salvation. or who are appointed to be ministering spirits for them. we saw the glory of the telestial." Ibid. These are they who are not valiant in the testimony of Jesus. . These are they who suffer the wrath of God on earth. but afterwards received it. who received not the testimony of Jesus in the These are they who are honorable flesh. and not bodies celestial. until the Lord. which glory is that of sins the lesser. In other words. the doctrine of salvation as here developed. but of the Holy Spirit through the ministration of the terrestrial. and shall have perfected his work. caught up into the church of the first born. These are they who receive of his glory. '* until the resurrection. and differ in glory as the moon differs from the sun. and also the telestial receive it of the administering of angels who are appointed to minister for them. the divine element in each soul "being realized in life as far as the conditions in which he has lived on earth will permit. only in the Celestial Kingdom is the direct presence and glory of God to be enjoyed. These are they who received not the gospel of Christ. kingdoms. and sorcerers. These are they who deny not the Holy Spirit. and the terrestrial through the ministration of the celestial." Howbeit. These are they who are liars. and it is confidently expected that all who desire to live to In the other please Him shall strive to earn this exaltation. Telestial Glory is inherited by those who have committed and crimes. even Christ the Lamb shall have finished his work. These are they who are thrust down to hell. but not of the fullness of the Father. not of an unpardonable description. wherefore they are bodies terrestrial. is that all mankind shall receive of God " as they are able. until the fullness of times when Christ shall have subdued all enemies under his feet. to be . These are they who are cast down to hell and suffer the wrath of Almighty God. 102-107. but not of his fullness. 81-S8. These all are they who will not be gathered with the saints. and received into the cloud. In all these states which are designated as " kingdoms " or " glories.— Ibid. and whoremongers. when he shall deliver up the kingdom." it is understood that the inhabitants shall reside in a state of blessedness and happiness to eternity. while the inhabitants enjoy evidences of the love and . These are they who receive of the presence of the Son. These are they who suffer the vengeance of eternal fire. and whosoever loves and makes a lie. These are they who receive not of his fullness in the eternal world. and adulterers. men of the earth. and who have suffered the wrath and just punishment of God. in the following words " And again. even the wine-press of the fierceness of the wrath of Al- The — mighty God. These are they who shall not be redeemed from the devil.: — 234 THE REAL MORMONISM preached the gospel unto them. and present it unto the I have overcome and have trodden the wineFather spotless. 71-79. saying press alone. neither the testimony of Jesus." as is explained in the same revelation as is quoted above.

except for the fact that all men in the Latter-day theology are considered to be proper sons of God. irredeemable and incorThese are the ones described and (Cf. for the heavens wept over he was Lucifer a son of the morning. and who was in the was thrust down from the presence of God bosom of the Father and the Son. unless irredeemably rebellious and guilty of the sin which " hath no forgiveness. to be overcome. who have committed grievous sins. for they are vessels of wrath." is comparable to the somewhat merciful concession of mediaeval theologians." they are not admitted to His Presence. concerning whom I have said there is no forgiveness in this world nor in the world to come. for all the rest shall be brought forth by the resurrection of — . nor do they see Him. and not — to come. Jude." Because. and suffered themselves through the power of the devil." From the point of view of the most ideal piety. as explained. with the devil and his angels. and having denied the Only Begotten Son of the Father crucified him unto themselves. of a lesser quality than that of the Celesat all that which the pious soul is naturally the presence and favor of God. And we saw a vision of the sufferings of those with whom he made war and overcame. for thus came the voice of the Lord unto us. These are they who shall go away into the lake of fire and brimstone. and to deny they are they who are the sons of the truth and defy my power perdition. this theology.: RESTORATION AND SALVATION 235 mercy of God. however. of whom I say that it had been better for them never to have been born. rather than of ideas. he maketh war with the saints of God.) rigible. in the following According to words "And this we saw also. who rebelled against the Only Begotten Son. and was called Perdition. after the sufferings of his wrath. and put him to an open shame. the only ones who shall not be redeemed in the due time of the Lord. . with the devil and his angels in eternity. he is fallen! is fallen! even a son of the morning. tial Kingdom. and encompasses them round about. and a very real reserved for the unpardonable. concerning all those who know my power. the " lightest degree of damnation " of mediaeval theologians. the " easiest room in hell. as specified. verily. And we beheld. and bear record. appears here as the " lowest grade of salvation. the levissima damnatio. " not unto death. that an angel of God who was in authority in the presence of God. and the only ones on whom the second death shall have any power. and him Wherefore lo. having denied the Holy Spirit after having received having it. neither in the world happiness is. The Telesmoved to desire tial world. . whom the Father loved. yea. since the soul is shut out from sight of God. and heirs of life. Their therefore. not of condemnation. also. Christ's Gospel is a message of Salvation. Thus saith the Lord. the distinction is one of terms. neither in this world." one. through the "ministering of angels. and have been made partakers thereof. 11-13. there is a hell. composed of those. doomed to suffer the — — . — wrath of God. specified in the great revelation above quoted.

44-46. who was in the bosom of the Father before the worlds were made. the width. the glad tidings which the voice out of the heavens bore record unto us. and to cleanse it from all unrighteousness. nor their torment no man knows. that he came into the world. through the triumph and the glory of the Lamb. the height. he saves all except them they shall go away into everlasting punishment. "And this is the gospel. wherefore. . depth.. neither is. except to them who are made wherefore the end. where their worm dieth not. which is eternal punishment. ." Ibid. 29-42. neither will be revealed unto man. to reign with the devil and his angels in eternity. which is their torment. neither was it revealed. neither the place thereof. 48. even Jesus. 25-27. that through him all might be saved whom the Father had put into his power and made by him. : . neither any man except them who are ordained unto this condemnation.— 236 THE REAL MORMONISM the dead. they understand not. the partakers thereof: . and the misery thereof. to be crucified for the world. and the end thereof. and the fire is not quenched. . . who was slain. .

wisely and faithfully practiced."— 5«M Young Gates. . INSTITUTIONS " The great problem of humanity . will be a grand factor in bringing to pass this millennium of usefulness and happiness. . That polygamy. . I sincerely believe.IV MORMON MARRIAGE . . . the development of each individuality to its highest possibility.

.

for the world in general preit was. to the " Saints " themselves. speak of plural marriage as a "holy order. in the beginning. This fact cannot fail to be a surprise to the general reader." an eminent means of blessing. or. a veritable " stone of stumbling and rock of offence. and its provisions were actually being obeyed by many leaders of the Church many years before its formal promulgation in Utah in 1852. we find that devout Mormons.CHAPTER XVIII PLURAL MARRIAGE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN AMONG THE MORMONS The Mormon institution of polygyny. its establishment must have seemed to be the worst possible tactical blunder in the leaders of a people. this institution occasion of opposition sorest however. very many systems of religious teaching. as well as many systems of civil law." Indeed. and always has been. founded in obedience to the commands of a divine revelation to the Prophet Joseph Smith about 1832. We know that there are. or polygamy. women as well as men. that have not only " allowed " the practice of polygyny. Although this revelation was not committed to writing until over ten years later. its principles were imparted to several of the Prophet's close associates before that date. the and criticism of the Mormon Church and its members. Except for it. 239 . something. and have been. closely analogous to the several sacraments of traditional Christianity. as history records. both personal and social. "plural marriage." was. but have provided distinctly for its maintenance. It remains. the task of appealing for justice for them at the bar of conscience would have been unspeakably easier: their many excellent traits would undoubtedly have compelled the respect of fair and candid minds long before Undoubtedly. But there is a difference between merely asserting that it is right for this date. as we are told. cisely what. However. who had already suffered as much persecution as could be possible in Nineteenth Century America. in fact. as it is preferably termed. if the doctrine and practice of this " principle " were not believed to be of divine origin. is.

that the conditions of this law are these: made. They partake. just so. contracts. Section cxxxii. The doctrine of plural marriage among the Mormons is also a part or incident of a really grand and impressive concept. whose leading attribute is the possession of Because. There is much in such a teaching to appeal strongly to the imagination and the sentiments of normal minds. xvi. but also that those so married for eternity shall become the progenitors of multitudinous blessed offspring in the world to come. it is easy to see how that parenthood could be made to assume the aspect of a high virtue. and of the world. they consider it an act of eminent piety to provide for the birth of a human soul under the fullness of Gospel influences. bearing date July 12. and entered that are not covenants. it is evident that the only available means by which a worthy man could multiply his offspring would be by taking to himself a plurality of wives. . . 19). is to be found in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants. bonds. with " this aim in view. therefore. of the average woman is limited. . the child-bearing capacity the divine Spirit. as an instrument in God's hands in the grand work of populating the world with a race. is the usual cavilling charge of " sensuality in such a relation at all well taken. both as well for time and for all eternity. as applied to the supreme authority of the Church.240 THE REAL MORMONISM a man to have a plurality of wives and the apparent attribution of a very real form of blessedness to such as take them. obligations. Not only does this doctrine involve implicit belief in the promise that " whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven " ( Matt. is an evident corollary to the high importance attached to life on earth in the teachings of the Mormon system. of him who is anointed. Nor. The crucial passages of this document are as follows: "And verily I say unto you. an eminent instrument for the salvation of souls. Just as they hold most strenuously to the doctrine of salvation of the dead by means of proxy baptism. The truth of the matter is that the Mormon estimate of this institution makes it an actual means of grace. in the creative function of Deity. whom I have appointed on the earth to hold this power (and I have . — All . even with the authority of the Priesthood of God. The revelation embodying the doctrine of " Celestial Marriage. as already explained. however. into. by the Holy Spirit of promise. That the birth of as many souls as possible under such conditions will hasten the redemption of humanity. . . with the belief in preexistence. involving that a person who had brought many souls into life was entitled to honor. In this aspect of the matter. and sealed." or marriage for eternity. 1843. the eternity of the marriage relation for all such as are joined and " sealed " by the authority of God's priesthood.

. and he covenant with her so long as he is in the world. . . Go ye. and of the fruit of were to continue so long as they were in the world. my servant Joseph. because they continue then shall they be above all. . . and from henceforth are not gods.. if ye were to count the sand upon the sea shore. . and others of the prophets who had the keys of this power. . wherein he glorifieth himself. . which are set there. have an end when men are Therefore. Then shall they be Gods. to minister for those who are worthy of a far more. . and ye shall be saved. without exaltation. which glory shall be a fullness and a continuation of the seeds forever and ever. therefore shall they be from everlasting to everlasting. and as touching Abraham and his seed. in the next resurrection. it shall be eternally bound in the . also.. because ye are of Abraham. but remain separately and singly. saith the Lord. and powers. . shall be sealed in heaven and whatsoever you bind on earth. in my name. and by my word. to their exaltation and glory in all things. they are not bound by any law when they are out of the world. because they have no end. unto you. their covenant and marriage are not of force when they are dead. *' . save in the case of Uriah and his wife. therefore. when they are out of the world. virtue or force. therefore they cannot be enlarged. and she with him. which angels are ministering servants. and the keys of this Priesthood. are of no efficacy. and when they are out of the world. . nor by my word. for ever and ever. — from whose loins ye are. dominions. and by this law are the continuation of the works of my Father. and an eternal weight of glory. . and shall inherit thrones. and received his portion. kingdoms.— which . of me. This promise is yours. because all things are subject unto them. . that whatsoever you seal on earth. out of the world they should continue. on whom this power and the keys of this priesthood are conferred). and shall be of full force when they are out of the world and they shall pass by the angels. And verily. they neither marry. . if a man marry a wife by my word. . received promises concerning his seed. and if it be after the first resurrection. .. nor are given in marriage. principalities. and it is sealed unto them by the Holy Spirit of promise. and he shall not inherit them out of the world for I gave them unto another. in their saved condition. and. and do the works of Abraham enter ye into my law. he marry her not by me. both in the world and out of the world should they continue as innumerable as the stars or. therefore he hath fallen from his exaltation. ye could not number them. which is my law. saith the Lord. and in none of these things did he sin against me. in and after the resurrection from the dead. . PLURAL MARRIAGE 241 appointed unto my servant Joseph to hold this power in the last days. and through all eternity. to all eternity. namely. in time. therefore. for these angels did not abide my law. and there is never but one on the earth at a time. as hath been sealed upon their heads. if a man marry him a wife in the world. by him who is anointed. which he made unto Abraham. all heights and depths . verily I say but are angels of God. and the promise was made unto Abraham. unto whom I have appointed this power. therefore. it shall be done unto them in all things whatsoever my servant hath put upon them. by the hand of Nathan. and dead. and it shall be said unto them. for all contracts that are not made unto this end. . but are appointed angels in heaven. "Abraham his loins. my servant. and by the new and everlasting covenant. " David's wives and concubines were given unto him. and an exceeding. verily I say unto you. But if ye enter not into my law ye cannot receive the promise of my Father. and the Gods. ye shall come forth in the first resurrection. And again.

and have vowed to no other man. grave questions involved in the relations of the sexes must one day be met and grappled. vested in the ancients. Quite apart from the religious or moral significance of this " principle. and they are given unto him. . These were among the temporal or tangible reasons put forth. (2) that such authority and promise was given to the ancient patriarchs. also. should continue to increase in eternity. under existing conditions. which. and they are virgins. which in monogamy. " concerning his seed . is yours. THE REAL MORMONISM heavens . . Among these were specified " The right and privilege of every honorable woman to be a wife and mother. . " And again.. was virtually denied: the extirpation of the social evil. therefore is he justified.. For. that traditional notions have not evidently contributed to any permanent solution of the involved The Mormon solution presented several conspicuous difficulties." O. for they belong to him. preponderance of women over men..: — 242 . . advantages which will be appreciated by the sociologist. the production of a healthier and the physical. as pertaining to the law of the Priesthood : If any man espouse a virgin. (4) that the promise to Abraham. etc. then is he justified. he cannot commit adultery. disinclination of men to marry. and begetting a numerous and godly offspring. That polygyny. (3) that the priestly authority. and whosesoever sins you retain on earth.. mental and moral improvement of the race. That these advantages are of a real . and if he have ten virgins given unto him by this law. for they are given unto him. it furnished a good working solution of the so-called " sex problem. for he cannot commit adultery with that that belongeth unto him and to no one else. Whitney (History of Utah. also." It is evident that the leading points set forth in these passages are: (i) that a contract of marriage " for time and for all eternity " can be ratified only by the authority of God's priesthood. because ye are of Abraham. as innumerable as the stars." which is a serious consideration in all rational humanitarian minds not dominated by unreasoning dogmatic tradiSuch candid minds know perfectly well that the many tions. that the highest evidence of God's blessing on earth lies in obeying the primeval command to Adam. and if he espouse the second. which has been restored in and through Joseph Smith. and restored in Joseph Smith. 212.. also. unless all indications are misleading. shall be retained in heaven. also. as it did. Vol. as among the patriarchs of old time. . I. and desire to espouse another." there can be no doubt that it is a " social phase " of eminent interest. p. can permit a restoration of polygynous marriages. .) posterity. as practiced by the Mormons." Holding. F. he cannot commit adultery. actually embodied these very desirable advantages is a fact to which competent observers bear testimony. this teaching formed the basis of a very real religious impulse. specifically to Abraham. and the first give her consent.

" but they are. commonly known as " sex-consciousness " among wanton deed. published in New York City. thus merely complicating the sorrows and difficulties of an already unstable social order by antagonism to nature's arrangements. while. which is both preposterous and deplorable. Both the physiologist and the sociologist know perfectly well that with the normal woman the supreme demand is for maternity. to be withheld by the " selfishness of men. women first agitators. under Morreceived the right to vote. . mutual improvement. nurture the common vice of asserting the " cause " of woman against man. The constantly increasing number of unmarried women. often driven to seek unnatural substitutes for the normal occupations of life. whether or not secured by polygynous relations. As an illustration of the grounds on which Bishop Whitney and others claim that the practice of plural marriage operated to " extirpate the social evil " the following quotation is eminently In the Mormon. must be dubious in- however." Mormonism has achieved the virtue of mutual confidence and cooperation between the sexes. the first impulse to combine in distinctively feminine organizations for charity.PLURAL MARRIAGE 243 and universally intelligible character. also that a woman devoid of maternal instinct is a sad and pitiable being. otherwise. which. as a rule. inevitably derived from those who have not properly experienced it. while. The virtual abrogation of this right under prevailing social institutions has worked unmixed misery to multitudes of good women. particularly in America. supposedly. and other activities. Not only do the women of this people average high in all qualities classed as " womanly. nor any agitation for the ** rights " of the sex. trained and educated to independence and self-reliance. indicates a condition by no means healthy or desirable. The outlook for the race. and always have been the strongest advocates of the " plural order. and is rapidly becoming a matter of prime gravity to society as a whole. can be denied by no sociologist whatever. and has provided to avoid the monstrous perversity. there never was a " woman movement " among these people. they have maintained a nearly uniform enthusiasm for home duties and the training and rearing of children that might well be advertised as '* worthy of all acceptation. that." as the perverse expression has it. mon influences. March suggestive. Such women. also. filled with the false ideas of life. apart from any good sought or achieved. It is interesting to note. The assertion of the right of every good woman to the hallowed joys of wifehood and maternity is alone inestimable. whose mothers are maturing under such an influence. expend their energies in the various feminist movements of the day." Also.

It appears that she had been the extra wife of each of these gentlemen for some time. and ride to death the free " Pegasus.: 244 ' THE REAL MORMONISM 24. ' Monogamy Illustrated. a very little in Cincinnati. or adulteress. and treats them kindly and impartially. with great magnanimity on the other hand. provided by law for following * : On Tuesday morning last." To show the writer his mistake we will compare his notes with Mormonism. " Monogamy floods society with illegitimate children having no ostensible father. unprotected. Herald. on the one hand. and. Mormonism. Mormonism unclandestinely makes four women the honored wives of one honorable man. if honest. of liberality. to be provided for by orphan asylums. " One woman clandestinely becomes the dishonored wife of four dishonorable men. she sought to establish her home in the house of either one of them. under the above heading has the woman. but owing to the prejudices of the age. they are cut off from Mormonism. 1855. holds the adulterer. who was sent to the county residence. in everything that shall qualify them to become honorable men and women in society. and has two children belonging to the quartette.' "The goat. where the results of monogamic laws make their cause more tolerable. and turns the rest out of doors to suffer unsheltered and unprotected: Mormonism provides for them all. for claiming the support of her children. and unprovided for: Mormonism requires that every man shall provide for his own offspring. We : We . throws the mantle of charity over adultery. and united in a complaint against Henrietta. what of your other acknowledge all of our wives and all associations unacknowledged ? of our children we don't keep a few only and turn the others out as outcasts. Mr. "Monogamy puts a Henrietta in the county jail. of the kind specified in this article. " Monogamy keeps one wife in the house. 'Don't take the advantage. open and above board.' instead of * Mormonism Re" vised. contracted matrimonial relations. at the hands of their father. he will no doubt see his mistake. or to turn out vagabonds on the street to help increase the fearfully growing evil. " Monogamy. and permitted to depart immediately to those countries. liberal in its matrimonial relation. no are all honest. uneducated.' President John Taylor ilar effect. under Mormon * the legal restriction of Monogamy. and thinking it her right. will head his next article of like character. I writer must be wofully ignorant of Mormonism. or being him- self a monogamist. shrinks from the responsibility of his darling institution by making Mormonism his scape- would say to him. the four wives made a common cause of it. and allows the father Mormonism allows the freedom to continue his clandestine operations right to a mother to claim the support of her children at the hands of : their father. Our actions have no gambling hells. this may be found under the caption " Mormonism Revised " " The Boston Herald of the 15th inst. as follows: is quoted as speaking to precisely sim- "You acknowledge one wife and her children. : owing to its narrow. charged with having attempted to force herself into a permanent residence at the houses of four different married gentlemen. " If this brief contrast meets the eye of the writer in the Herald. offenders. to be worthy of death (according to the laws of God). was brought before Judge Spooner. Henrietta Podaf ew.

(1882). quoted by Mrs." Quoted in Utah and its People. no infanticides. — — exist. thus avoiding the sad results of misuse. It may be objected to this line of reasoning that the wayward tendencies. rather than any theory as to what should social evil. ally denied that the wisest policy is to contrive for some method of maintaining natural tendencies on the lines in which the Creator evidently intended that they should be expressed. instead of being guided in proper and normal channels. which The inevitable all right-minded people cannot help but deplore. should be discouraged and reprobated. believe in the chastity and virtue of woman. with assumed consistency to a lofty ideal of right.PLURAL MARRIAGE Our wives 245 drunkenness. The thought most immediately occurring to the candid mind is that this good result followed from Mormonism's frank recognition of the facts of life. There is not to-day in the wide world a place where female honor. no houses of assignation. chooses to decree that the inborn tendency of the individual to beget his kind. as well as among uncivilized and heathen peoples. requires some further explanation. Some such idea as this is developed in the following passage. we must blame the stupid short-sightedness of society for the result. also that the most wicked and abandoned individual cannot be blamed It cannot be rationfor all the evil which he or she commits. In this particular the assumed revelation to Joseph Smith is dignified by its analogy to the consistent policy of the Mosaic Law. and. rather than to manufacture sin and crime by foolishly attempting to ignore nature. nor are our wives and daughters corrupted by designing and unprincipled villains. by observ- ance of nature's decrees. are not afraid of our intrigues and debauchery. often found in the male human. misery. first. virtue and chastity are so well protected as in Utah. conclusion must be that prostitution and other orders of perversity are recognized and established institutions of society. An evident answer to this must be that. disease and death. the facts of life demand attention. no prostitutes. second. rather than considered in any dignified light. We — This claim that plural marriage operates to neutralize the which seems to have been more or less borne out by the testimony of numerous observers. and that the sanest and wisest policy is to recognize and justify it. which is only another way of saying that polygny is even if not polygamy a general practice among civilized and Christian. If society. by a Gentile. and maintain them. which made every concession to human frailties and propensities before decreeing punishments that often seem unduly severe. shall be allowed to involve conditions that end in social ostracism. Helen Mar . that the evils of society quite as frequently result from attempts to achieve artificial virtues as from any real native depravity of human nature itself.

and a greater purity in the marriage relation. . .' "This is correct reasoning (says Mrs. Hence it is that I am called by the justice of God and the sufferings of humanity to appeal to every honorable sentiment in mankind in behalf of a greater freedom to marry. So a woman can never know the purity and sincerity of a man's conjugal love for a plurality of wives. His experience does not teach him. by reason and observation. . Such a line of reasoning will undoubtedly be met with grave and displeased objections by a very large number of readers. from a work Philosophy of Marriage: History and "*A woman's instincts revolt against the thought of a plurality of husbands. in concealing facts.' " Why We — Practice Plural Marriage. Let us have such marriage laws. . There is no use. and judging his feelings by her own. . Let us have either an honest monogamy or an avowed polygamy. . "'Great men are always polygamists (continues the quotation). is unspeakably superior to any other whatsoever. And is it not a sad pity. but they are not brave enough. But if my life depended upon giving a true testimony concerning my belief and practice in the order of plural marriage. . even if that marriage itself. ensuring the happiness and wellbeing of as many women and children as possible. and he will hear and judge. but must still acknowledge the truth of them.•246 THE REAL MORMONISM entitled. . Her love for one man exhausts and absorbs her whole conjugal nature: there is no room for more. she cannot see how a man can want. as the result of supinstitution be plural . or admit it upon the testimony of honest men. and a fearful wrong that our laws are such that men cannot A . 50-52. Whitney) but I confess that it has been a very great puzzle to me and only by using my reasoning faculties and by the testimony of my husband and other honest men could I bring myself to admit it. that whatever relations any honorable man shall determine to form with the opposite sex can be honorably formed and honorably maintained. and brought into harmony with those of God and nature. except by similar observation and reason. she must attain it by the use of her reason. which does not always contrive to protect such persons from misery and death. there can be no doubt in any honest mind that an institution. They have no just right to practice their polygamy in in the dark. or at least can love a plurality of wives. that our noblest men would yield them the most prompt obedience. . These great men are brave. and it is a shame and a pity that our social laws cannot be so amended. and avow their children? The wrongs of these women and children are crying to God from the ground. no matter under what social system they may live. except imperfectly. and. it is one in which we must be aware that our feelings cannot guide us. man can never know the infinite tenderness and the infinite patience of a mother's love. for the sake of upholding even the most attractive theory. whatever may be one's prejudices or predilections. a Mormon writer. His paternal love does not resemble it. acknowledge their mistresses. But. Whitney. And if she receives the truth that his nature is capable of a plural love. pp. Her conjugal love is unlike it. even though they transgress the laws of ordinary social life. as this point involves a constitutional difference of sex. a burning shame. however. I could not now contradict these statements.

This fact is ably set forth in the following quotation from W. pp. or not. It is a sad and sickening comment on our alleged sense of right that any intelligent person can accept the unspeakable conditions of our present social order. " Under these circumstances. as inevitable." History of European Morals. E. essentially exclusive nature of marital affection. and the happiness and goodness of society are always The in very great degree dependent upon the purity of domestic life. they manifest solely in detestable types of individuals. while creeds and civilizations rise and fall. blasted for the sins of the people. and not a few who. . type of the state. who is scorned and insulted as the vilest of her sex. On that one degraded and ignoble form are concentrated the passions that might have filled the world with shame. the fact remains that they continue to be committed. it is evident that " scriptural consistency " cannot be urged as a valid argument against it. think of her with an indignant shudder. would have known the agony of remorse and despair. Vol. That unhappy being whose very name is a shame to speak. the eternal priestess of humanity. and the natural desire of every man to be certain of the paternity of the child he supports. or not. sins against the august nature of the procreative instinct. the English historian: "There are two ends which a moralist . there If the fact that a nominally Christian writer can thus enlarge upon any condition existing in a social order also nominally Christian. appears in every age as the perpetual symbol of the degradation and the sinfulness of man. upon which the eye of the moralist can dwell. vice. for the most part. she is ultimately the most efficient guardian of virtue. is tolerable to any person possessing one spark of . Herself the supreme type of But for her.— PLURAL MARRIAGE 247 posed wrongdoing. and whether. Whether. and doomed. who counterfeits with a cold heart the transports of affection. 284-285. and that they form already a menace to the life of civilization itself. II. including the dreadful crimes of infanticide and foeticide. Yet it would appear as if the excessive force of these passions would render such incursions both frequent and has arisen in society a figure which certainly the most mournful. render incursions of irregular passions within the domestic circle a cause of extreme suffering. She remains. and in some respects the most awful. and displays the impudence to declare unrighteous and intolerable any institution that gives any promise of neutralizing these. When we consider further that the Bible contains not one unmistakable word in condemnation of plural marriage. will especially regard the natural duty of every man doing something for the support of the child he has called into existence. and the preservation of the domestic The family is the center and the archecircle unassailed and unpolluted. to disease and abject wretchedness and an early death. H. in pride of their untempted chastity. Lecky. and submits herself as the passive instrument of lust . . is — inevitable. the unchallenged purity of countless homes would be polluted. are damnable in all their phases.

according to the righteous statute of the Mosaic Law. cryptogamy. of Adam tJie requisite for insuring progeny * * . polygamy or polygyny call it what one may shall be established and enforced: this is that the father of any child that may be proved to be his shall be compelled to acknowledge and provide for it and its mother. . In this connection. we rapidly outride the limits of Mormonism or anti-Mormonism. there is no more to be said. and which render polygamy a positive All sensuality in the married state is strictly forbidden beyond necessity. to seek a similar blessing. conceive no suspicion that there is something radically wrong with our standards of right and justice? In the discussion of such a matter as the present one. contubernium. the practice. . they have at least chosen the lesser evil. therefore. with their terrible consequences. and the absence of that uncleanness and licentiousness which distinguish the cities of the civilized world. and the physical. it is proper to affirm that true civilization must inevitably achieve the heights of intelligence and sanity in which one form of plural marriage. finds a multitude of supporters. They boast that.: 248 THE REAL MORMONISM sentiment. The theory announcing that the man is not without the woman. infanticide. and emerge upon a basis of fact in which the rights of mankind and the stability of the social order are the paramount considerations. their superior freedom from maladive influences. The texts promising to Abraham a progeny numerous as the stars above or the sands below. and that a woman cannot enter the heavenly kingdom The chaste and plural marwithout a husband to introduce her. that they practice openly how full is society of as a virtue what others do secretly as a sin that their plurality has abolished the necessity these latent Mormons of concubinage. finding such results involved in Christian society. and sharp as a two-edged sword. Mormons declare that it is at once fornication and adultery a sin which absorbs all others. who. The Mormons point triumphantly to the austere morals of their community. in fact. and shall not put her away all his days. What are we to say of persons." The claim that Mormon plural marriage was conducive to " the production of a healthier posterity. mental and moral improvement of the race" is partially elucidated in the following passage quoted from a capable and unbiassed observer of the workings of the Mormon system human — — "The literalism with which the Mormons have interpreted Scripture has led them directly to polygamy. — — — . if it be an evil. celibacy. " He shall surely endow her to be his wife. and that "in his seed (a polygamist) all the families of the earth shall be blessed. marriages du treizieme arrondissement.'' induce them. his descendants. — ! — — * . The antiriage. and so forth that they have removed their ways from those whose end is bitter as wormwood. however.' is by them interpreted into an absolute command that both sexes shall marry.' being once legalized. nor the woman without the man.' " There are rules and regulations of Mormonism I can not say whether they date from before or after the heavenly command to pluralwhich disprove the popular statement that such marriages are ize made to gratify licentiousness.

The anomaly of such a practice in the midst of civilization is worthy of a place in Balzac's great repertory of morbid anatomy: it is only to be equaled by the exceptional nature of the Mormon's position. come back and sit down. 427-429). has departed so far from the discredited and footless principle of '' other-worldliness. . demure little girls that will be their wives some day. To precisely similar import is the following passage from another observer. of their rural towns along the tree-shaded streets. or body of people. by strong organization and cooperation and a consistent advocacy of lofty principles of righteousness. perched two together on the bare backs of horses. The same custom is practiced in part by the Jews. so far as is possible." Richard F. and only a bit of rope by way of bridle. on either hand. and followed to the letter by the best among them. half smothered in blossoming fruit-trees.' degraded. and to a lactation prolonged for two years. if petual succession of gardens. p. He writes " Physically. pp. I say. 97." as actually to profess a vital interest in the improvement of the human race not only socially and morally. preached and advocated by Mormon teachers and authorities. so sane and hygienic an order of continence as that mentioned by Mr. is a truth which can not be denied by any candid and unprejudiced — — investigator. and always has been. the Faith wants a race of warriors. with water purling along beside you as you walk. est continence — (City of the Saints. and enforcing. Look at the urchins that go clattering about the roads. claiming a standing as Christians. Burton and Abraham. but even physically. and the clear breeze from the hills blowing the perfume of flowers across your path in gusts. unprejudiced and careful. you can. equally candid. Spartanlike.' impure.' " Phil Robinson {Sinners and Saints). and in whole by some of the noblest tribes of savages the splendid physical development of the Kaffir race in South Africa is attributed by some authors to a rule of continence like that of the Mormons. Take note of their fathers' daily lives. Mormon plurality appears to me to promise much of the success which Plato dreamed of. with the cottage homes. That this line of conduct is. and it adopts the best means to obtain them. and a perthen.: — PLURAL MARRIAGE . Look at the rosy. 249 During the gestation and nursing of children. also by advocating. . . the mothers at their work. Go into their homes and see And then as you walk home through one . — * ' — The sociologist can feel no emotion other than real joy in learning that any sect. to call this people * licentious. the strictrather for a on the part of the mother is required hygienic than for a religious reason. Burton. healthy outdoor work. and Utah about the best nursery for his soldiers that he could have found. his past fate and his future prospects.

who in a discouragingly large percentage of cases have been of the highly-educated and finely-sensitive stock of the "best families of New England. as shown by the testimonies of its women. of would-be saviors uttered by women of the so-called " lower classes. any of these well-intentioned meddlings. second." All this argues very definitely to several evident conclusions: presumed religious basis. as they assert. However." they whose ignorance of life and general dependent condition would render them convenient tools of an " ambitious and tyrannical priesthood. the " downtrodden sisters " of Mormondom. an immense amount of unsolicited sympathy has been lavished upon the presumed sufferings of Mormon plural wives.CHAPTER XIX WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE As is familiar to anyone who has read the current literature on Mormonism or the ** Mormon problem. deceived by the false opinions circulated by biassed observers and professional anti-Mormons." the other hand. that the institution — — 250 . and in movements. of these humble souls have emerged from their lowly surroundings to " root " for their " priests. bearing impassioned and eloquent testimony to what. or even secretly conniving at. that the institution evidently involves actual and valuable whatever may be the disadvantages advantages for womankind being in no sense rooted in the selfishness and self-indulgence of man. if any. have frequently united in petitions to Congress. far from welcoming. upon which rests the of plural marriage." so-called. the strongest utterances of the On kind have come from the women of prominent families. that. have invariably protested as emphatically as could be possible. The women of America." Few. the claims of Mormonism to restoring first. with the sole intent to deliver their " downtrodden sisters " from the thraldom of an institution. are the positive benefits of the instituNor were these protests against the efforts tion to womankind. as variously alleged. intended to be benevolent. is really and vitally religious. third. on their behalf. popularly classed with slavery as the " twin relic " of barbarism.

aims. will dwell . through satiety. or more fraught with the certainty of vexation. Among other reflections that force themselves upon the candid mind is that it is. That such unhappy consequences were rare among Mormons constitutes a very strong and definite evidence that their claims to religious consistency and pure. than the effort unceasing and resultless. her growing affection for the young wife. that no heart given into Would — — — . . and who then helped her to gradually rise from under Mother Eve's curse. with the most doubtful propriety imaginable. He. such interfeminine disagreements must be seriously aggravated by his own present feelings of preference or distaste in any given Thus. The care of a large family naturally increases a man's anxieties and capabilities and it is these very forces which unite to ennoble and elevate any man who accepts them cheerfully and fulfills enter heaven. and defections. ordinary man. a daughter of Brigham Young. like My frank opinion is that men will necessarily be god- the purer and better part of humanity. suffer in giving up a share of that time and attention that had been all her own. if one may judge from the sentiments of the to adjust and reconcile the conflicting claims average woman and inevitable quarrels of several openly-acknowledged wives.WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE 251 woman to her proper place in the social order have some elements of justification. Touching the mutual relations of husband and wives in these polygynous unions. What woman's respect would not deepen for the man she saw guarding her own feelings tenderly while still gentle and kind to the young wife recently taken beneath his roof who would measure every act. the polygynous household must quickly disintegrate case. in her turn was sinking selfishness in this struggle for the highest and the best would he not feel that God had blessed him above his expectations? sarily suffer? weigh every word. she certainly would. and find that life had also problems. also would he not find his loving devotion deepened every hour for the noble woman who had consented to this thing that they might be spiritually blessed thereby seeing her kindness. and paths for her in which to awaken and develop the gifts and talents given her by a wise Father. few prospects could be less attractive. the following from an article by Mrs. who where woman. that the male portion of a community could be credited with any intelligible worldly advantage from the inauguration of such an From the point of view of the institution as plural marriage. normal sentiment in these unions are — — amply justified. his keeping might unnecesshe not reverence the man who sought to soothe every heartache and bind up every wound made by this new order of things? She might. is significant: "The statement that polygamy will make a god of a man argues nothing to me. who. her for^ bearance. but her love and esteem would deepen for him who had asked and obtained her willing consent. them " faithfully. Susa Young Gates. mutual quarrels. Should the public relations of any man of ordinary calibre with several women be primarily other than normal and righteous.

to compensate. The affections of the people twine around their chosen head. together with such data on their intelligence and experience. they choose a man because of his honor. upon the consistpossible. having taken up this cross. — — . to undergo the inevitable sorrow of sharing the husband. p. The Mormon wife was willing. March. In the course of such an inquiry we shall discover frank acknowledgments of the fact that the practice of the institution.) While it is necessary to a complete understanding of the institution of plural marriage to explain the religious basis upon which it was professedly founded. no court of public opinion. and consequent debasement of the wives. by thousands into willing exile. either for or against the facts alleged. with greater blessings. It is scarcely remarkable. which alone served to vitalize it. from a strong sense of right and duty. if he is worthy. " In connection with this idea of the undue exaltation of the husband. at the start at least. To be true in this life through trial and separation is preferred by these faithful people to the breaking Women of solemn covenants. integrity and superior intelligence. 1890." but nearly uniformly the testimony follows that. or in any other women is immaterial: it demonstrated the power of religion to strengthen the human spirit for patient suffering. whom she loved. In the same way Mormon women select a husband. This allegation follows. The point of greatest interest. also. and his presence is welcomed and courted everywhere. for the things shared and the sentiments sacrificed. (North American Review." displayed the glory of womanhood at its highest reach. for the sake of her religion. was a " burden grievous to be borne. cheer them in this determination." Family Life Among the Mormons. to such a one is the effect of the practice upon the women involved. Men go by hundreds into prisons. of course. " made perfect through suffering. When a body of American people unite as a State and elect a Governor. It is so with Mormon husbands. this is by no means the most interesting phase of the matter to the average reader. rather than sacrifice the hearts of their beloved companions. separating for this life in the glad hope of an eternal reunion. as would give a clue to the competency of their testimony. undoubtedly. which no law. ently religious regard for the institution. otherwise. so thrilling. can ever deny them. 348. that we hear the familiar tribute to Mormon wives " the world never saw such women before " quite as though their characters. and so divine as it is here in Utah. and to battle with the impulses of jealousy and resentment. therefore. the ultimate consequence was a compensation of greater joy and peace than had seemed. let me offer an illustration. and their opinions of its operation. with yet other women. even of an intrusion fully permitted and connived at. Whether such a sacrifice was necessary in them.— THE REAL MORMONISM 252 " Nowhere on the face of this wide earth is the love of husbands for their wives and wives for their husbands so intense.

as well as my husband. I had given to my husband five wives. that it would be all right. The reality of religious conviction is demonstrated solely in its power. he counseled the sisters not to trouble themselves in consequence of it. powers. the doctrine of . pp. Smith is significant. I heard the prophet give instructions concerning plural marriage. as one of the apostles . Smith. But we must not forget that any effort to " live religion " inevitably involves sacrifice and suffering. for that matter. like Sarah of old. started on a mission to some of the Eastern States. principalities and . virtuous. . and having a fixed determination to attain to celestial glory. the Mormon wives and mothers suffered no more under the regime of polygyny than at the hands of their sectarian persecutors. I heard the prophet Joseph charge the twelve with the duty and responsibility of administering the ordinances of endowments and sealing for the living and the dead. As a notable example of the nearly mystical exaltation in which some of the earlier Mormon wives entered into this " order." The Women of Mormondom. and loving him very much. and believing that it was for my husband's exaltation that he should obey the revelation on celestial marriage." she gave her husband " five wives. .: — WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE 253 This must be to non. thrones. honorable young women. within the last year. this law is not abrogated." the testimony of Mrs. Certainly. long before such an institution was dreamed of among them. firmly believing that I should participate with him in all his blessings. and forget the story of the " higher compensations " achieved through these." she has nothing to say about them. She writes " Immediately after my marriage. introduces wifely devotion in a new and strange light. He returned in the fall. " like Sarah of old. 319-321. that the doctrine of a plurality of wives was from God. . virtuous. {Tullidge). and the result Being thoroughly conwould be for their glory and exaltation. soon after which we were blessed by receiving our endowments. or of any other social custom. under any or all circumstances.Mormon readers nearly the strangest thing about the whole matter. I felt to embrace the whole Gospel. Whatever may have been her pangs when. of the Church. They all had their home with us. who was. my husband. as noble and thoroughly Christian soul as ever lived. knowing him to be a man of God. that he might attain to kingdoms. If from this institution arose the only crosses ever laid upon the back of woman. . vinced. The testimony of Mrs. good. I had joy in having a testimony that what I had done was acceptable to my Father in Heaven. .. Even with the abolishment of polygyny. I being proud of my husband. Some of them will undoubtedly balk at the story of sorrow and crosses. and were sealed under the law of celestial marriage. . we might well condemn it. and believing he would not love them less because he loved me more for doing this. if we may judge from her record. glory and honor accordingly. Bathsheba W.. Evidently. but the case is far otherwise. to lend the ability to suffer and achieve. good. honorable young women.

with scarcely his equal on earth. called to protest against the proposed provisions of the Cullom bill. at least. I wrestled with my Heavenly Father in fervent prayer.. In 1870. sit still and see our husbands and sons. and died a martyr for the truth. As soon. and from that time to the present I have faithfully sought to honor the patriarchal law. Shall we. verily no! God has revealed unto their deliverance? lis the law of the patriarchal order of marriage. she spoke as follows " Whatever may be the final result of the action of Congress in passing or enforcing oppressive laws. as I became convinced that it originated as a revelation from God through Joseph. . Of my husband I can truly say.. She is quoted as follows the principle of polygamy was first taught I thought it the I ever heard of . It is evident that this Mormon institution is valuable in teaching us some new and surprising facts about human nature and its capabilities. 413-414. consequently I opposed it to the best of my ability. . may dwell with them and our children in the world to come which guarantees unto us the greatest blessings for which we were created. . it is our duty to stand by them and support them by our faith. Peace was given to my mind. who also accepted the plural ** order. whom we know are obeying the highest behest of heaven. as wives and mothers. and trust in the God of Abraham.— 254 : : THE REAL MORMONISM eternal marriage afforded her some valuable consolations. the first wife of President Wilford Woodruff." and gave her husband several other wives. prayers and works. as closes this quotation. power for suffer for their religion. unless their relations. through every dark hour." Ibid.. He has been faithful to God and his family every day of his life. . apostles and leaders of We . My respect for him has increased with our years. without exerting ourselves to the extent of our No. I will of God. and knowing him to be a prophet. in the plural order. Isaac and Jacob to defend us and all who are called to suffer for keeping the commandments of God. that we obey it. however. for the sake of our religion. Nor were Mrs. and commanded us to are sealed to our husbands for time and eternity. The love of the Saints for him will never die. could have been made by a noble and intelligent woman. as regards the next world and its glories. it my was the " Of Joseph my testimony is that he was one of the greatest prophets the Lord ever called. had been in all particulars. pp. life. Quite as affecting is the fervid testimony of Phoebe Carter Woodruff. I have found him a worthy man. that he lived for the redemption of mankind. upon the noble men who have subdued these deserts. and my desire for an eternal union with him will be the last wish of my mortal life. as a partial compensation. unto the end. until I became ill and wretched. both inspiring and exemplary. to be guided aright at that all-important mo- "When most wicked thing ment of knew The answer came. on the occasion of a mass meeting of women. Woodruff's expressions of devotion confined to the mystical anticipations of bliss in the life to come. for her sorrows and sacrifices if she so viewed them — — in this. If the rulers of this nation will so far depart from the spirit and letter of our glorious constitution as to deprive our prophets. . No one could possibly believe that such a tribute to a husband.

which was one of the greatest trials of my life. or a sister ? In what academy of women was he tutored. also that I have had peace. or what.— : — : WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE 255 citizenship. She writes " In the spring of 1871. my husband. and I praise the Lord that I have so far overcome. and was revealed for the exaltation of the human family. it has been a source of joy and pride that we were counted worthy to have such noble girls enter our family. It tried my spirit to the utmost endurance. who has ever stood at the head of his family as a wise and just man. the women of Utah have paid too high for their present position. to make their prisons large enough to hold their wives. 1879. veneration and faithfulness are her peculiar attributes. " My husband has since taken two other wives. that I know by the power of the Holy Ghost which bears testimony to my spirit. she died December. desirous of keeping all the commandments of God. King. 398-399. for where they go we will go also. Hannah T. I wish to bear testimony to my descendants. and tell this of this people non-descript to defer 'the bill' until he has studied the character of woman.. . Cullom & Go's bill. She left me a beautiful boy who seems as near to me as my own. the women the sisterhood of Utah rise en masse. .. . Sophia lived with me nearly seven years. their brothers and their sons? . and to all who may read this sketch. to take to himself another of the daughters of Eve. — — Among further accounts of the personal experiences of Mormon wives under the regime of plural marriage. the testimony of Mrs. that God is her refuge. with the brotherhood of Utah that God is their father and their friend that into his hand they commit their cause. and their noble future. such as God intended she should be. I have loved the wives of my husband as I would have my own sisters. and felt that it was time we obey that sacred order. with my full consent. The two last were my counselors in the Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association of our ward. and that. With his help. is the creature who framed this incomparable docuWhat isolated land produced him? What ideas he must have ment? Had he ever a mother. . Jane Granter by name." On the same occasion. and his servants her oracles. pp. saw fit. The Lord knew my heart and desires. . to succumb to so systematically — — mean and foul a thing as Baskin. also speaking of the proposed provisions of the Cullom bill. . let them grant this. 400. p. hand and brain. and have had many proofs that God will pour out his blessings upon those who keep . Mary A. joy and satisfaction in living in that Order such as I had never known before. a wife. their present light and knowledge. I could as willingly have parted with one of my own daughters. and was with me to overcome the selfishness and jealousy of my nature. ! commands the women of this people to turn traitors to their husbands. that the Patriarchal Order of Marriage is from God. Mrs. Let us. spoke as follows " Who. added to the great kindness of my husband. or to what school does he belong. a faithful man. Freeze bears unmistakable evidence of true conviction. Let him learn that they are one in heart. Ibid. then he will discover that devotion. and imprison them for obeying this law." Ibid. a good and worthy girl. that instead of feeling it to be a trial. especially. I soon obtained peace. realizing that the power of the Holy Priesthood that has bound us together for time and eternity is stronger than kindred ties. but I always believed the principle to be true. . our last request. that he so coolly and .

: : — 256 THE REAL MORMONISM his laws. or the attainment. is undoubtedly true and certainly adds materially to the evidence already cited. The peaceful. of real advantages to humanity at large. one and all. for he will be sought after by his children. and are. also for the propagation of unfamiliar and noble forms of virtue. and having no children of my own was very desirous that my husband should take other wives that he might have a posterity to do him honor. Crocheron adds the following comment. and thereby received a better understanding of my religion. each of them a recognized leader among her fellows. of higher blessings in the world to come. own upon Mrs. which brought me peace and happiness. the Lord gave me a mother's love for them. as believed. that the real issue is precisely on the question as to how far institutions claiming religious authority should be allowed to control human behavior and to neutralize the selfishness and other shortcomings of the " natural man. repetition which seems worthy and the other mother hand. Louis Felt." To this testimony Mrs. She writes " I became a member of the Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association." was an experience even loving. they seemed as if they were indeed my own. In similar vein we find the testimony of Mrs. p. so closely were all these three true hearts united in love. of celestial marriage." for the sake.. When we consider that every one of the women giving these testimonies belongs to the intelligent and self-respecting class. 58." — Louie — would its little mother in this family rocking her babe to sleep. such as I had never known beI also became thoroughly convinced of the truth of the principle fore. and they seem to have the same Ibid. {Augusta — Joyce Crocheron) . to which they victions. plural wives *' the rule. So. but when we see an eminent example of it. the conclusion is inevitable that we have here records of actual experiences and honest conIn considering the sorrows and trials. love for me that they do for their own mother. who has been for many years president of the Primary Associations of the Mormon Church. that polygynous marriage may present opportunities for valuable unsuspected consolations. we do not want non-Mormon self-denial. confess. Representative Women of Deseret. we complain and condemn. and it would quietly resign itself to sleep. and after he took another wife and had children born to him. both by the wives them- . also. cohabitation and association of sufficiently common to be called Many tales of this are told. it must be carefully remembered that such experiences are by no means peculiar to a polygynous order of marriage. We hear a great deal of talk about the virtue of self-denial. seeking him yvith full purpose of heart. which must seem nearly unique to the reader. Felt's experience. 54. either. p. or lay her " I have seen the real sit beside her and hold one little head. after all. persons of the highest character.

nor have we ever wished to be. it is a familiar experience to hear the lament. 470-471. In reading these testimonies the conclusion is inevitable that in them we have to do with pure and noble women. Peterson. 467.— : : WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE selves. is unusually : interesting in this connection " In the fall of 1857 husband added another wife to his family but I can truly say that he did not do so without my consent. This did not disturb the peaceful relations of our home. and one of the reputed widows of the Prophet Joseph Smith. instructed me in regard to it. Sarah A. Zina D. p. although I felt it to be quite a sacrifice. I gave my consent to his taking another wife. pp. Young. These children we have raised together. have eaten at the same table and raised our children together. Nov. whose highest worldly aspiration was to become the mothers of a perfected humanity. In addition to these accounts of personal experiences. and she felt the same way toward me and my children. The following quotation from the account written by Mrs. my — mondom. and becoming entirely convinced that the principle is not only true. but we still live together in peace. by whom he had a large family of children. Nor can there be the slightest doubt that the basis of this judgment was the sane and exemplary continence mentioned by Mr. 16. 257 and also by first-hand observers. 1878." Ibid. held in Salt Lake City. I encouraged him in so doing. a wife of President Brigham Young. A few years afterwards my husband married another wife. we find that the women of Mormondom were completely convinced that the institution of plural marriage was an eminent means of begetting a noble posterity. the second wife and I lived together in harmony and peace. and even to nurse and take care of her children.. my family. I felt it our duty to obey the commandment revealed through the prophet Joseph. Mrs. hence. nor with any other motive than to serve his God. Elizabeth Birch writes with similar conviction and " In 1858. and each contributes to the utmost for the support of the . Although not so very well supplied with house-room. I felt it a pleasure to be in her company. In these days. and have never been separated. effect husband having become convinced that the doctrine of celestial marriage and the plurality of wives was true. but also with the consent and encouragement of his family. but the same kind feelings were entertained by each member of the family to one another. On the occasion of one of the several mass meetings of women." Women of Mor. by whom he had one daughter and again in i860 I consented to his taking another one. Burton. but that it is commanded. Our husband has been dead two years. We have now lived in polygamy twenty years. " Why could they not have left us alone? We were hoping to beget the noblest and best race of people that ever lived on earth. after the " righteous wrath '* of the American people has succeeded in suppressing plural marriage as an institution of society." In harmony with these convictions we find the testimony of Mrs. and I love them as if they were my own. she Spoke as follows .

and we know that it is of him. Eliza R. The rapid progress of the age finds ready disciples in Mormon wives. and this sacred principle of plural marriage Mormonism's . who shall live to the age of a tree. It is a well-known fact here in Utah that there are fewer physical defects and greater intelligence in plural homes than in the same grade or class of monogamy. Their marital relations make this an easy matter. of art. Gates. United States. in common with many women throughout our broad land. the Congress of the . look out into the broad world and choose such enterprise as she feels herself adapted to.. for the complete elevation of woman. that through us a race of men and women may grow up possessing sound minds and bodies. from her own threshold. "The principle of our religion that is assailed is one that lies deep my heart. yet withal have ample time for the development and cultivation of every faculty within them. known as " high priestess. The woman will always be the head and genius of the home. or could so legislate that virtue could be protected and cherished as the life which heaven has given us. and the brave men who possess the spirit of a Washington to hear what I am about to say. as follows "I believe in the principle of plural marriage just as sacredly as I believe in any other institution which God has revealed. it is heaven born. " Content in knowing herself beloved. the plural wife may. . The principle of plural marriage is honorable. fewer criminals. who feel the natural craving for home life and children satisfied. We." and another of the Prophet's plural wives. God revealed it to us as a saving principle we have accepted it as such. for the fruits of it are holy. They are beginning to move out on independent lines of business. . and wedded to a man whose purity of mind and body is equal to her own." The strangest thing about the whole doctrine and practice of plural marriage will probably seem the fact that it is seriously recommended as the best means. but whether it is a corollary that she shall forever wash dishes and scrub floors has become a grave question. in the article already quoted " Statistics will bear me out in saying that there are fewer paupers. because we know its true worth. for such is the deliverance that woman needs. This claim is set forth by Mrs. We In similar vein the noted poetess. defends the institution. and of the professions. . would hail with joy the approach of such deliverance. his wisdom a rock upon which to lean in every emergency. and we want our children to practice it. Could I ask the heavens to listen could I beseech the earth to be still. fewer insane among polygamous than among monogamous families. . it is a principle of the Gods. I believe it to be necessary for the redemption of mankind from the low state of corruption into which it has sunken. . while his intelligence is one degree higher. Would that . Snow. the lawmakers of our nation could produce a balm for the many evils which exist in our land through the abuse of virtue. ever made available. " The Mormon women are working grandly on the sex problem of the nineteenth century.: : 258 in THE REAL MORMONISM . Virtue is the foundation of the prosperity of any nation. the twenty years of her middle life spent in the care and rearing of her chil- . purity and holiness. . . tends to virtue. are proud of the principle.." .

every woman must have a husband. It deserves. At the end of her child-bearing period she may. " He * writes: ' woman's rights aspect of polygamy is one that has never been theorized on at all.— WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE 259 dren the while she is quietly studying and preparing herself for that further mission. or need the artist care for the blind man's theory of color? " Indeed. Phil Robinson dwells on this matter at even greater length. however. the wise care and rearing of dependent childhood. launch out into her chosen vocation. he was often amused and sometimes not a little disgusted to find that instead of his discovering the Central Africans. and wellbeing of all God's children. and then in the case of accidents have all other rights as well. March. Can the deaf. 347. are they to be grateful for the guidance of stragglers in the rear? They laugh at such sympathy. but they consider marriage the universal birthright of every female. to start with. can they be expected to accept emancipation at the hands of those whom they are trying to elevate ? Thinking themselves in the van of freedom. happiness. That polygamy. just as a brave man would laugh at encouragement from a co>yard. For the plural wives of Salt Lake City are not by any means waiting for salvation at the hands of the men and women of the East. they say. they consider their interference as a slur upon their own intelligence. And everybody else should insist on that claim being recognized. special consideration by But the those who think that they are elevating Mormon women by trying to suppress polygamy. while aiding her own and her husband's family with her wisdom and experience." Mormons (North American Review. and the peace. on this very subject of woman's rights! To send out from Utah exponents of the proper place of women in society. or wealthy landowners at a pauper's exposition of the responsibilities of property. they ask. pp. Other privileges ought to be hers lest marriage should prove disastrous. wisely and faithfully practiced. and render union unendurable. could any position be imagined more ludicrous for the wouldbe saviors of Utah womanhood than this. but so protected by law that she can act in an independent sphere if he abuse his position. then. therefore. She is hardly worth calling a woman if she is single. it has been in contemplation to evangelize the Eastern States. But in the first instance she should claim her right to be a wife. but union with man is her first step towards her proper sphere. and an encroachment upon those very rights about which monogamist females are making so much clamor. " On the contrary. and to teach the women Woman's true of monogamy their duties to themselves and each other status I am quoting from their organ is that of companion to man. the Central Africans * ' ' ' ' — — * ! ' . That problem is the development of each. tell musicians anything of the beauty of sounds. " Now. I sincerely believe. The rest is very important to fall back upon. individuality to its highest possibility. Unconscious of having fetters on. First of all. that the slaves whom they talk of rescuing from their degradation should be striving to bring others up to their own standards ? When Stanley was in Central Africa. claim all that women elsewhere claim. and how. they evince no enthusiasm for their noisy deliverers. be mar' But ried.' They not only. throwing further valuable light upon this curious phase of the subject. 349. It possesses also a general interest for all. 1890). They look upon themselves as the leaders in a movement for the emancipation of their sex. ready to add the mite of her experience to the great problem of humanity. will be a grand factor in bringing to pass this millennium of useFamily Life Among the fulness and happiness.

. Mormon-eaters are perpetually denouncing the scandalous freedom ' and ' independence ' extended to Mormon women and girls. but he found none willing to be 'released. . in order to let the women of Utah 'fight their oppressors at the polls. Nor would they say it if they knew personally the women who write thus. Something very like this will be the fate of those who come to Utah thinking that they will be received as shining lights from a better world.000 victims together. like the old Inquisitors who burnt their victims to save them from heresy. and the intruding ' chamipions ' of that cause will find themselves attacked with their own weapons.000 women to leave their husbands. and whether they like it or not they are to be compelled to leave their husbands or take the alternative of sending their husbands to jail. considerable attention. then.' The franchise was then clamored for. then. There will be no stampede of downtrodden females. Yet they have said and done "Mormon "A ' ' ' ' . " Monogamist reformers. and the world looks upon these women as slaves about to be freed from tyrants. and. ' With the sceptre of woman's rights the daughters of Zion will go down as apostles to evangelize the nation.' a title which is everywhere recognized as indicating independence of character and an elevated sense of the claims of the sex. that can carry them on with the courage and industry so conspicuous in this community. *' is she that looketh forth as the morning. and hoisted with their own petards. . Governor once went there specially instructed to release the women of Utah from their bondage. are emphatically 'woman's rights women. They are to-day in the free and unrestricted exercise of more political and social rights than are the women of any other part of the United States. But they do not choose as a body to court the follies and vices which adorn the civilization of other cities. An Act has been passed to compel some 20. . having twice failed to persuade the wives of Utah to abandon their husbands by giving them the facilities for doing so.' and the Mormon * tyrants ' took the hint to give their wives votes. Says the Woman's Exponent: 'If the women of Utah are slaves. they are going to make women wretched in order to make them happy. . . and the first use these misguided victims of plurality made of their new possession was to protest.! 26o THE REAL MORMONISM insisted on * discovering ' him. fair as the moon. 20. They will not find the women of Utah waiting with outstretched arms to grasp the hand that saves them.' To-day it is an act of Congress that is to set free these worse-than-Indian-suttee-devotees. And the two charges of excessive freedom and abject slavery seem to me totally incompatible. their bonds are loving ones and dearly prized. and terrible as an army with banners?" The Who daughter of Zion ' wives. nor to barter principles of tried worth for the tinsel of sentimentality or the gratification of passion. And I venture to hold the opinion that it is only women who are conscious of freedom that can institute such movements as this in Utah. . and as inferring exceptional freedom in action. against the calumnies heaped upon the men of Utah 'whom they honored and loved. . "This aspect of the polygamy problem deserves. the clarion of woman's rights will be sounded. I think. . Sua si bona norint is the excuse of the reformers to themselves for their philanthropy. and only those who are enthusiastic in the cause. clear as the sun. On the contrary.' " It is of no use for Mormon-eaters ' to say that this is written 'under direction.' and that the women who write in this way are prompted by authority. are now going to take their husbands from them by the force of the law. Moreover.

know. and so the women of Utah are." The following from Mrs. the Hon. just as freely as men. . "How can one help thinking woman will have some vital part in the great work of redeeming her own sex. all else failing. having finished the part assigned her and made restitution. so it will be at the close of the most sublime drama ever introduced upon any stage. If you ask why. pp. her triumph. The foul blot of a servitude which the serfs aver does not exist is to be wiped out by declaring 20. except there must necessarily always be a first. Redeemed from the curse. in their daily conduct that they consider themselves free and happy women. . and the man is first. her song of victory will be greater and loftier far than Miriam's .' women have always voted in all Church assemblies. suffrage is in keeping with the institutions of Mormonism and in harmony therewith. there are numerous testimonies available from the pens of prominent and able women. . In connection with Mr. first in the Garden of Eden. In fact. Wells. passed a bill giving women equal suffrage. a paper filled with aspirations for the elevation of the sex. Abraham O. and the Hon. Emmeline B. the daughters of Eve. Sinners their households illegal. Smoot (father of Senator Reed Smoot) was the man who introduced the bill. and even more than could have been expected. or Deborah's of old. They are constantly declaring in public speeches and by public votes. Robinson's explanation of the position of women in Mormon communities. and the moment woman suffrage was talked of. The legislature then in session in the winter of 1869 and 1870. is interesting "We believe in redemption from the curse placed upon woman. And the man and the woman will be equal. and as in the great drama of the world woman is and has been a vital. in books and in newspapers—above all. S. to monogamy which brings with it Again and again they have infidelity at home and prostitution abroad. therefore it was not strange that equal . to be saved from themselves. . and was signed by the Secretary of State. and we Woman will be redeemed from are working to bring it to pass. in petitions to individuals and petitions to Congress. . when she has played so conspicuous a part. active force. he favored it.000 wives mistresses. * suffrage should be accorded to our women at an early period. then Acting Governor in the absence of the Governor. to assure the world that they have neither need nor desire of emancipation. as you doubtless Mann. . that curse. . and for over thirty years editor of the Woman's Exponent. but the zeal of philanthropy will not be gainsaid. which passed. as they honor their husbands. protested.: WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE 261 all that could possibly be expected of them. President of the Women's National Relief Society. and prefer polygamy. as sure as the sun shines or the Lord lives. 103-109. woman A . on all questions relating to temporal or spiritual matters. we will tell you it is a part of our religion. with all its conditions. woman in her purity and magnanimity will rise victorious.' But the enthusiasm of reformers takes no heed of their protests. that 'their bonds are loving ones and dearly prized. and their future children bastards " ^ — ' ' ! — and Saints. Brigham Young was one of the most progressive men of the age. which argue very closely to the conclusion that only in such communities do women have the slightest promise of real '* elevation. " In the Church termed Mormon.

we liberty as they do. for she is a gift from God. Lum). for every man we met would be a brother and a Quoted in Utah and Its People by a Gentile {D. God's creation.— '262 : : THE REAL MORMONISM "Mormon women are the happiest I a whole. know them in in politics." beings of full as all enjoy much precisely similar strain before the Another prominent woman.' " — Ibid. The Lord. December 1907 January 1908. and are happy in knowing that their husbands are true to their marriage covenants. only they are better supplied with what is needed. if necessary. called to protest against unjust federal laws aimed at settling the so-called " Mormon problem. and a great deal more. who must be credited with a degree of education and intelligence above the . we are some of us colonizers. we are a very independent body of women. we know this is not so.' They would have the world believe us the most degraded and neglected — — * . And I can positively assert that in no place on earth are chastity and virtue in women more honored and protected than among the people called ' Mormons. Mrs.) and we feel as if it belonged to us. taken as intimately. whether they have one wife or more. protests were uttered by several women physicians. not only for the fervid eloquence of the speakers. our young people marry and go out into new lands. seeing the wickedness and corruption on the earth. women in the world. Isabella Home. we vote. (some of us were a sort of pioneers. mothers. we believe in homes. 1886. and woe will be unto the man that degrades woman. we attend political primaries and conventions and take part in them. This occasion was conspicuous. March 6. . argued in same meeting. north and south." (Woman's Exponent." Mrs. when the judicial injustices perpetrated under the provisions of the Edmunds Law were under discussion. with all their boasted civilization." " Why a Woman Should Desire to be a Mormon. as follows " The cry has ever been the down-trodden women of Utah. Indeed. we enjoyed more before they kindly introduced so much of their vaunted civilization into our midst. friend. Woodruff is quoted. without fear of insult. in their homes. We most other women. . in his Wisdom has revealed the principle of Plural Marriage. the strongest also for their high average of intelligence. Probably the strongest protest ever uttered by the Mormon women was in the mass meeting at Salt Lake City. to purify society and elevate woman from the degradation in which man has placed her. as follows " You say that you would like to know how the Mormon women do They all know that they are honored wives and I will tell you. and know as well how to use them as any of our compeers in the eastern cities would. feel. D. tions. Phoebe C. acknowledged in society with their children.) In a public speech before one of the numerous meetings of women. we have helped to make this country. Now. The day has been when one could walk the streets of Salt Lake City at any hour of the day or night. we are home-makers. but Indeed. We enjoy all the rights that are accorded to our sex anywhere. in their organizahave more actual freedom than religion. and build up new settlements somewhat as we did when we came here.

fathers. happy in the rearing of an . "And a pertinent question arises in speaking of abandoned women. and politically she has the suffrage raising her from the old common-law monogamic serfdom. evident in their remarks. mothers and sons are such that we challenge the production of a better system of marriage and the records of more moral or purer lives. may not each family be a realization of the beautiful picture of one father and one mother. Rights of property are given her so that she. would it not lay the ax at the root of the greatest evil that has ever cursed the land? " If the same ceremony seals each wife to her husband. wives in the monogamy of the world are more faithful a thousand to one than the husbands. would there be so many abandoned? The fidelity. The union for all eternity is the keystone sentence of the ceremony. each the equal of the other in that family. virtuous. The Mormon marriage covenant is as binding on the man as the woman. * "Our faith and confidence in the chastity and pure motives of our husbands. In Church she votes equally with men. for it is the perfect union of heart and soul. honor and be faithful to husbands they absolutely know are faithless to them? Thank God that by virtue of woman's inherent goodness. eternal. can hold |)roperty in her own individual right. . as a married woman. The bonds. and what God hath joined together let no man put asunder. of these plural families are true.' Can the children of men who daily pollute themselves in the society of abandoned women be a righteous seed? Can wives love. which we regard as spiritual death. powers and privileges. The marriage covenant is eternal. welded by power given of heaven. Hand in hand with celestial marriage is the elevation of woman. and is equal to each wife in all its blessings. for God has said * He will raise up unto himself a righteous seed. The Latter-day Saints regard plural marriage as an extension of all the privileges and good results arising from single marriage. then. as each is equally faithful and worthy. Has not every woman the undeniable right of fulfilling the end of her to be an honorable wife and mother creation. do the deliverances of level of the common schools. If it had been possible for them to become loving and beloved wives. sanctified by mutual consent and sealed by God's holy ordinance. these ladies betray any such fact as that they were merely desirous of maintaining their prestige with their patients and the Something closely akin to real conviction is public generally. and do not the circumstances of life and statistics prove this to be impossible under the monogamic system? And were this the acknowledged law of the land.: WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRIAGE dead 263 Nor. On this occasion. .* * ' — . Dr. the hallowed sacredness and dignity of each wife's family hearthstone can be abundantly verified among this people. to political equality with men. The consciousness of mutual and eternal affection? intelligent and God-fearing family is the very essence of the reason for the revelation of celestial marriage. And it is dependent upon the covenants the sinner has made whether he can ever be readmitted as a member again. Romania B. Women are not thrown off in old age as has been most untruthfully and shamefully asserted. for any departure from the marriage law is a deadly sin and is punished with us by excommunication from the Church. Pratt spoke as follows " A true marriage cannot be productive of evil.

The evil results of these practices we have personally observed. Instances of wrong-doing may be found in families of plural households. consider virtue and chastity the crowning ornaments of a woman's character. There is one last . that plural marriage is entered into as a rule from sensual motives. fortitude. Dr. spoke on the same occasion with equal emphasis and effect. we find New York with thirty thousand women leading lives of prostitution. . not. . Ellis R. are a temperate. when they could avoid all this. where fallen women seek the shelter they cannot obtain from those who should have protected them instead of throwing them and their offspring upon the mercies of a cold. It is self-evident that it is not the case with the women. in the language of a distinguished man of the world. in order to stigmatize a small handful of inoffensive people called * Mormons. Boston and Cincinnati each ten thousand. because so contrary to their own sinful practices. as follows us." the protests of these same " victims " are always on file for the information of the intelligent reader. particularly in the hospitals of the world. as asserted. pp. and their lives are constantly characterized by acts of nobility. and other cities with a like ratio according to the number of inhabitants. By consulting the national statistics. God-fearing. but because we are convinced that it is a divine revelation. pp. certain tenet of our religious faith our opponents cannot countenance. a record of the opposite sex is not kept. " strange that the rulers of this nation should overlook the glaring and palpable evils that so thickly beset themselves and traverse thousands of miles. cares and expenses of a plural family. unfeeling world. and. We We How ! — Although American " philanthropy. and we find in this principle satisfaction.' who have already been driven to a desert land where it was supposed they would soon perish and die from starvation and exposure " Ibid. law-abiding people. " Unfortunately. however. . Shipp. " are accused of being down-trodden and oppressed. " Let our works speak for us. Chicago twenty thousand. "True we practice plural marriage. 37-38. Another woman physician. or whose most delicate and refined feelings are so respected as here in Utah." usually so " busy elsewhere " when real evils are to be corrected with no opportunity for notoriety and a chance to obtain huge credits for sanctified generosity. has decreed. . 29-31.'" "And this is our grierous oifense. deny A We We the charge for we know there cannot be found a class of women upon the earth who occupy a more elevated position in the hearts of their husbands. because we are compelled to. Our ladies are educated and refined. *be like the rest of Mormon Women's Protest. contentment and more happiness than we could obtain in any other relationship. There is nothing in our plural marriage system that countenances any such thing. but the exceptions are not the rule.— 264 : THE REAL MORMONISM . the weight of good results of the majority should be the standard of judgment. and succeeded in enforcing the decision that the women of Mormondon must be '* saved from themselves. The very nature of the covenant forbids it. yet revel in sin. and usefulness. and it is unreasonable to suppose that men would bring upon themselves the responsibilities. It cannot be true. .

but persist in trying to improve their monogamous sisters? How is the missionary going to begin. about true love and married bliss. — The . Even Phil Robinson discriminates carefully between happiness and " content. the former was not available in plural marriage therefore. could not possibly be happy. That is that the Mormon plural wife. with and members of Parliament. 'two souls with but an evil in itself. and their publications use the very same arguments that strongminded women have made so terrible to newspaper editors in Europe. Wells. and in one of its issues Lillie Freeze. Wells. he proceeds to enlarge upon another " singular feature " of the matter.* ment with their lot. * * a single thought. two hearts that beat as one. whose experience of love and marriage was confined entirely to the plural " order. 98-100. " polygamy " is . . as follows "The advocates of woman's rights are a very strong party in Utah. and only among the despised Latter-day Saints will the true foundation of social happiness and prosperity be found upon the earth. Emmeline B. however.' and as womanly and pure as ever words written by woman. . having published several volumes of verse. pp. God has revealed a plan for establishing a new order of society which will elevate and benefit all mankind who embrace. The nations that fight against it are working out their own destruction. comes this paragraph " In proportion as the power of evil increases.: WOMAN UNDER PLURAL MARRLVGE argument against 265 this " principle " that is still used with an evident intent to justify our previous injustice to these people." She is also one of the most graceful poets among her people. Wells has always been a leader in movements for the elevation of her sex.' for it speaks of article by a Gentile in a Gentile 'courtship' and 'lovers. and is widely known as an advocate of " equal suffrage.' " Now what is to be done with women who not only declare they are happy in polygamy. Presently. highly esteemed for sentiment and imagery. as well as for elegance of diction.' and has the quotation. Yet the writer is speaking of polygamy! In the middle of this article written * for love's sweet sake. in spite of her statements to the contrary. Her husband was Daniel H. for instance. written by Mrs.' and all the other orthodox pretty things. with Lillie Freeze ? " and " question of the attitude of woman toward this " principle no better concluded than by the quotation of the followcould be ing verses. Thus the Woman's Exponent 'the Rights of the Women of all Nations* for its motto publishes continually signed letters in which plural wives affirm their content'Hints on Marriage. Sinners and Saints." and concludes. for their house is built upon the sand." Mrs. and one of the cornerstones is already loosened through their disregard and dishonor of the institution of marriage.' signed But for a sentence or two it might be an lady's paper. but in order to realize that state we must be guided by principles more perfect than those which have wrought such dissolution. a disregard for the sacred institution of marriage also increases among the married until this most sacred relationship will be overwhelmed by disunion : — ' strife. because according to his understanding. one of the First Presidency. — — .

To prove immortal love could not forget Some tears of And seems to me that were I dead. truest joy it is to live. It me shed sorrow. Would bud or blossom. Stronger than life. thou in sympathy should'st o'er When my grave.266 THE REAL MORMONISM "THE WIFE TO HER HUSBAND "It seems to me that should I die. bursting into leaf. And this poor body cold and lifeless lie. And once again gaze on thee as before. Through which the soul will be refined. And thou shouldst touch my lips with thy warm breatK. That in my earnest longing after thee. bless And and comfort me^ while here on earth. the cool fragrant evening zephyrs wave. I do believe who love hath known. an anchor firm to be. intuition which we recognize As foretaste of immortal paradise. blessing rich or great compared to this? do believe true love to be element that in its tendency Is elevating to the human mind. That this poor heart in grateful constancy. madly rushing back again. The life-blood. will all trials and all grief endure. highest tone. That every pearly drop that fell in grief. Bring the glad spirit from the isle of aeath. I do believe that round do believe that should I pass Into the unknown land of happiness. Would softly whisper back some loving thought. An An — Musings and Memories. . Would wildly. I I do believe my faith in thee. A That perfect trust implicit and secure. Should'st thou in friendship linger near the spot. And thou should'st wish to see my face once more. Planted in thine integrity and worth. or of sad regret. Hath tasted of the cup of ripest bliss. And drunk What I Hath known the the choicest wine life hath to give. quickened in each sep'rate vein. Or sublime friendship's purest. And breathe some tender words in memory. I would come forth in joyful ecstasy.

pastors and teachers. 11-13. prophets. and some. and some. and of Ephesians v. and some. the knowledge of the Son of God. for the work of the ministry.V THE MORMON ORGANIZATION "And he gave some. evangelists. for the perfecting of the saints." — . apostles. for the edifying of the body of Christ: till we all come into the unity of the faith.

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upon which the ultimate and perfectly effective religious influence must be organized. As a matter of fact.CHAPTER XX THE ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH fact about the Mormon Church is efficient organization. and when religion shall be expressed in an organization. in its In fine. alike. furthermore. That the organization of the Mormon Church is a very real and very remarkable masterpiece cannot be denied. harmonizes these apparent contradictions. the organization of the Church furnishes operation. and in this respect. Nevertheless. the Mormon organization accords well with what is. and binds its people into a wonderfully close solidarity. This organization has been compared to that of the Society of Jesus. of its vitality and of the grand results. ethics and religion alike. is a postulate liable to be suspected somewhere toward the close of a thorough study. in the fact that it is a curious blending of perfect democracy with a very distinct recognition of a strong centre of authority. which permits it to achieve results impossible to virtually all other religious bodies. furnishes an explanation. the model and prototype. That it is. evidently approximated. That it is also a wonderfully efficient engine for achieving grand results. even if not fully realized. even one professing the same interest in human and visible concerns of life. that it could be copied or adapted to any other system of religion. consideration of the utmost significance to sociology. also. The fact that the Mormon Church actually embodies these requirements. the obvious conclusion in regard to the ultimate solution of the troublesome problems of civilization: that our problems may be met and solved only when society is organized on a basis distinctly religious. both social and moral. The latter supplies a purely theocratic element. the Jesuit Order. giving full and complete recognition to matters distinctively social and human. however. It differs from all such. must be evident after examination of the facts. is highly doubt269 Probably the it best known that embodies a singularly . to army organizations of the most efficient type. after all. whose organization is essentially military.

who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings. unto whom even the patriarch . and allowed it to lapse with the deaths of their original apostles. always filling vacancies created by death. without descent. on the other hand.: : 2^0 f ul . and inseparable from it. of The " sixth of the thirteen " Articles of Faith " of the states Mormon Church We Church. called respectively. pastors. the organization of this body presents several interesting points of correspondence with Mormonism. has maintained its apostolic " quorum " as a permanent institution. For this Melchisedec. who organized the so-called Catholic Apostolic Church. and to himself. Beyond doubt. consider how great this man was. that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. in point of functions and dignities. The Irvingites. and blessed him. was erected in the day and through the agency of the Prophet Joseph Smith. and after that also King of Salem. place. as was Aaron. . prophets. particularly in starting with a body of twelve apostles. The organization of the Mormon Church includes two orders of priesthood. . which is King of peace. to his disciples.: apostles." Several historic sects have postulated similarly. Nor is this discrimination of two priesthoods without warrant in Scripture. abideth a priest continually. The Mormon Church. The authority commonly quoted is in the following passage from the Epistle to the Hebrews " For every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things pertaining to God. do not regard the Twelve as a self -perpetuating council. to-day have I begotten thee." and the Aaronic. Thou art my son. as speedily as possible. THE REAL MORMONISM it seems to be an institution inevitable to the peculiar genius Mormonism. or other causes. priest of the most high God. the Melchisedek. Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec. Now ." so-called. the entire edifice of the Mormon "hierarchy. and was formed on the type let down from God. King of Salem. . interact with perfect harmony. however. nor end of life but made like unto the Son of God. without father. although distinct. with numerous scriptural dignities and offices unfamiliar in Christian history. evangelists. but he that is called of God. To the unprejudiced non-Mormon it is a noble monument to his superlative genius as an organizer. In fact. without mother. or " Lesser Priesthood." Thus two orders. As he saith also in another . So also Christ glorified not disciples of . believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive viz. etc. if we may judge from his statements. to whom also Abraham gave a tenth part of all. first being by interpretation King of righteousness. having neither beginning of days. notably the Edward Irving. himself to be made an high priest. but he that said unto him. it is merely the restoration of the Church as founded by Christ Himself. And no man taketh this honor unto himself. teachers. or " Higher Priesthood.

in the church. received tithes of Abraham. who is made. i. And this greater Priesthood administereth the gospel and holdeth the key of the mysteries of the kingdom. and not be called after the order of Aaron? For the priesthood being changed. And verily they that are of the sons of Levi. of which no man gave attendance at the altar. According to the interpretation here offered. throughout all their generations which priesthood also continueth and abideth forever with the Priesthood. but out of respect or reverence to the name of Supreme Being." Heb. and was by them transmitted to others in the Church. James and John. called that Priesthood after Melchisedek. they. And it is yet far more evident. even the key of the knowledge of God. of which tribe Moses spake nothing concerning priesthood. though they come out of the loins of Abraham: but he whose descent is not counted from them. the power of godliness is manifest. Why the first is called the Melchisedek Priesthood. and Aaronic. there is made of necessity a change also of the law. (for under it the people received the law. and is without beginning of days or end of years. not after the law of a carnal commandment. or Aaronic. — . and without the ordinances thereof. two Priesthoods. have a commandment to take tithes of the people according to the law. to avoid the too frequent repetition of his name. and the authority of the Priesthood. in the ordinances thereof. was restored in modern times in the same persons. a step toward the higher and complete priesthood. but restored in modern times through the instrumentality of John the Baptist in the persons of Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery. i-6. it is believed. If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood. is because Melchisedek was such a great High Priest. which is after the holiest order of God. that is. who receive the office of the priesthood. 11-16. including the Levitical Priesthood. or the Melchisedek Priesthood. the Melchisidek. v. The Melchisedek priesthood. . 1-7. priesthood. but after the power of an endless life. who received Which Priest. of their brethren. belonging properly to the children of Aaron. — 4-7. . and blessed him that had the promises." — Doctrine and Covenants. as it were. the church. it through the lineage of his father.. " after the order of the Son of God. These matters have authoritative statement as follows "There are. All other authorities or officers in the church are appendages to this Priesthood. or Levitical priesthood. For it is evident that our Lord sprang out of Juda. after the order of the Son of God.) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec.— : ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 271 Abraham gave a tenth of the spoils. the Levitical. through the instrumentality of the Apostles Peter. Before his day it was called the Holy Priesthood. the power of godliness is not manifest unto men in the Abraham . is. in ancient days. For he of whom these things are spoken pertaineth to another tribe. even till Noah.. namely. And the Lord confirmed a priesthood also upon Aaron and his seed. and the other is the Aaronic. " cvii. received the Priesthood from Melchisedek." although many persons ordained into it rise no higher. Therefore. vii. hood continueth in the church of God in all generations. for that after the similitude of Melchisidec there ariseth another priest. one is the Melchisedek but there are two divisions or grand heads Priesthood.

occupation or profession. each one partakes of the dignity of her husband.— — 272 flesh. in temple ordinances. the letter of the gospel tism of repentance for the remission of sins. unless they are of such a nature as to demand his entire in that case he is paid a salary proportime and attention tionate to the needs of his family. moreover. 14. whether also an officer in any Church organization or not. cvii. and. Therefore he took Moses out of their midst. is to hold the keys of the ministering of angels. The power and authority of the lesser. every male member of the Church becomes a priest in some degree: pracWhile tically. women are not regularly ordained. Theoretically. as a matter of fact. According to the established rule." Ibid. which priesthood holdeth the keys of the ministering of angels and the preparatory gospel. and the lesser priesthood continued. and to enjoy the communion and presence of God the Father. 18-20. class holding the priesthood or ministry." a distinct religious A and dignity. or Aaronic priesthood. and live. — of religion. It is a right conferred on men to officiate In the ordinances of the Gospel. or professional. Ixxxiv. the general understanding of the duties and privileges of the priestly office is quite similar to that postulated elsewhere. of the men hold the priesthood. they discharge some of the most important functions significance ing. as in other bodies. man holding any degree of priesthood among the Mormons may occupy any position in the community. and to the bapadminister in outward ordinances. Although. The accepted definition of priesthood is given in the following passage in one of the accredited text-books of the Church " Priesthood is power and authority given to men to act in the name of the Lord. is to hold the keys of all the spiritual blessings of the church to have the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven to have the heavens opened unto them to commune with the general assembly and church of the first born. and to advocate the principles thereof. 17-26. but they hardened their hearts and could not endure his presence. : THE REAL MORMONISM for without this no man can see the face of God. and the Holy Priesthood also. or make his livelihood by any trade. "The power and authority of the Higher or Melchisedek Priesthood. and yet possess." Ibid. even the Father. in the Mormon Church. or " setting-apart. Now this Moses plainly taught to the children of Israel in the wilderness. receives remuneration for his services to religion. about 90 per cent. and. and Jesus the Mediator of the new covenant. In addition to his regular secular callhe is an authorized and accredited minister of religion. and sought diligently to sanctify his people that they might behold the face of God . there is no distinct. etc. by virtue of his ordination. In other . therefore the Lord in his wrath (for his anger was kindled against them) swore that they should not enter into his rest while in the wilderness. which rest is the fulness of his glory. in very many cases.. no priest. agreeable to the covenants — — — — and commandments. works for the Church and its interests quite as hard and as long as for himself.

— ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH words. it is difficult to discriminate the two perfectly. to specify the fact that both orders of the priesthood may be divided in two ways: first. for the benefit of their fellow expression. — — 13-14. and God acknowledges such acts as if they were His own." but never dress "The second priesthood is called the priesthood of Aaron." which may rank him above others of his grade in point of authority or dignity. as to specific offices. is set apart to some particular office or " quorum. involving certain definite duties and functions. or spelled with a capital Melchisedek. Occasionally. This in the nature of a preparation for the dignities of the is suggested in the revelation previously quoted. and His Son Jesus Christ"— Joseph B. since in many cases a man." leaving them only the lesser priesthood. order. 1-2). It is that which places man in a condition to receive the ministration of angels. Priesthood signifies 'the holy order of the Son of God. In usage the word 'Spriesthood " may designate the dignity of any person holding an ordination to office. those ordained to office are called " eld" the former term being usual in aders " and " high priests " priests. and the Holy Priestwrath hood also. Why it is called the lesser priesthood. and has power in administering outward ordinances. for the sake of clearness. it will be necessary." However. In order to explain the matter as clearly as possible. although the word " priest " is properly used to designate only one holding the rank in the Aaronic order. Keeler {The Lesser Priesthood. or Aaronic. Priesthood is 273 Divine Authority by which men perform acts men under the law of the Gospel. from the lowest to the highest. the term applies in usage with equal propriety to all the varying degrees and digpities in which the service . is because it is an appendage to the greater or the Melchisedek Priesthood. However. according to successive ordinations. In a large sense. in being ordained regularly to some specific grade or dignity. cvii. etc. Because the children of Israel " hardened their hearts and could not endure his (God's) presence. second. throughout all their generations. the lesser priesthood being considered an "appendage" to the Higher.. . and to enjoy the presence of God the Father. . which " holdeth the key of the ministering of angels and the preparatory Gospel. of religion is expressed.' which He holds in connection with heavenly beings." "Doctrine and Covenants. the following classifications may be given. because it was conferred upon Aaron and his seed. According to the best understanding of established modes of and it is here preferably the term Priesthood indicates the dignity of the higher. . In the Melchisedek order. as to degree. therefore the Lord in his took Moses out of their midst. at the start. pp. or dignities. the lesser. order seeming to be — — somewhat higher.

the fulness of which was invested in John the Baptist. man holding the grade of teacher may exercise (i) any of the functions of a deacon. and invite all to come to Christ. Accordingly. the former as " standing ministers of the Church. who holds the Aaronic order. each class with its proper duties and quorums. 30). but. The next higher grade is the priest. (2) to collect money and supplies for the poor from private sources. (4) to render such general services as may be required by those above him in office or authority." The lesser priesthood." Neither the teacher nor the deacon may officiate in any of the ordinances of religion. and to admonish such. (3) to act as "policeman of the Church. to his own grade. the deacon is set apart (i) to care for the poor. As to offices." in searching out and discouraging " iniquity " in all its forms . Ixxxiv. (2) teachers. (3) the patriarchship . (3) deacons. (3) to care for. as distinguished from the traveling duties of members of the Higher Priesthood. properly enough. the eldership proper and the bishopric are considered as " appendages " to the High Priesthood . (4) to act as peacemaker between members of the Church who have disagreed on any matters. not even in the initiatory rite of baptism. properly local. particularly in temporal or outward matters. "to watch over the Church always. being. or involves eligibility to: (i) the first presidency. In point of definite functions." exerting himself to be of personal assistance to any of its members. also. nities: The Higher — A expound. (5) "to warn. (2) the duties of a standing minister. (4) stake presidencies and high councils. particularly in urging them to attend services and to remain faithful to their religious duties. exhort and teach. and all others who may lapse from the straight way of righteousness. (2) the apostleship. with which the bishop is evidently associated and identified. regular assistants to the higher grade. for building and maintaining houses of worship. The grades of teacher and deacon are called " necessary appendages belonging to the lesser priesthood " (Doctrine and Covenants.: : 274 THE REAL MORMONISM Priesthood contains three distinct degrees or dig(i) high priests. the latter term applies in general usage to any person holding this Priesthood. clean and repair such houses and their grounds . according to New Testament analogy. who have been properly qualified and elected. involves three proper degrees of its own (i) priests. His duties are authoritatively set forth in the following passage . to none above his own. (5) the bishopric. (3) elders howbeit. the Higher Priesthood contains. (2) seventies." the latter as involving the " presidency of the lesser priesthood. but either of them may ordain candidates.

The office and dignity of a bishop forms a true connecting link between the two priesthoods. In addition to the strict rule that he shall discharge all the functions of his office as assistant to an elder. as might be expected. and an " appendage" to the Higher Priesthood. 46-52. and to those who follow after His " order. since the bishopric is at once the presiding authority over the lesser priesthood. and he may also ordain other priests. and exhort them to pray vocally and in secret." the " outward things of religion " and in temporal affairs. he is only to preach. who represented the culmination of the " Old Order. and baptize. and visit the house of each member. this sharp discrimination between the two priesthoods. expound. who has direct control of the temporal affairs and of . teachers." since this is a right belonging exclusively to the higher priesthood. illustrates the statement of Christ regarding John the Baptist. sharing with him the " higher Similarly." " baptism of the Holy Ghost " belongs exclusively to the Son of God. who Hence. and attend to all family duties. and attend to all family duties. and deacons. represents an order prior. and bapand administer the sacrament. rather than the duties prescribed under the Mosaic Law. when such a person is present in any case. However. The scriptural consistency of the latter regulation is obvious. 275 priest's duty is to preach.— ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH "The tize. confirm new members by the " laying-on of hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost. He may not. The bishop. the shall baptize with the Holy Ghost and with fire. xx. . and visit the house of each member. that *' he who is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. hence baptism is a rite proper to the priesthood to which he belonged but he himself testified that " one cometh after me. exhort. but is invariably a high priest of the Melchisedek Order. it cannot contain the fulness of the Gospel of Christ." according to scripture. peculiarly reserved for the participation of the Higher Priesthood. And he is to take the lead of meetings when there is no elder present. historically." all these duties the priest is to assist the elder if Doctrine and Covenants. teach. also. however. although here incorporated in the Christian Church and discharging duties peculiar to it. however." His Apostles and other authorized servants. there are two distinct ranks of bishop: The Presiding Bishop. when we consider that the Aaronic priesthood. Again. the lesser priesthood ministers in priesthood. is not chosen from the ranks of the lesser priesthood. In occasion requires." John baptized. but when there is an elder present. as distinguished from the higher rites and mysteries of religion. power of imparting the gift of the Holy Ghost. expound. to the manifestation of the Hence. exhort. in point of authority and powers. exhorting them to pray vocally and in secret. teach. the priest may act as a teacher or as a deacon.

the dignity first awarded to Aaron. officiate in all the lesser offices. shall be a priest of the Higher Order." operative. act without the usual two counselors. provided he is called. they have a legal right to the bishopric. ** except in a case where a President of the high priesthood. as they would be called in other connections is to combine the duties of pastor and administrator. and. otherwise they are not legally authorized to officiate in their priesthood but by virtue of the decree concerning their right of the priesthood descending from father to son. local or general.— 276 : THE REAL MORMONISM the lesser priesthood in the whole Church. as specified in the Doctrine and Covenants. in a very actual sense. if at any time they can prove their lineage. While most of the striking provisions of the Doctrine and Covenants apply most directly to the former officer." in line of heredity from father to son. Ixviii. whose function in the several wards. cvii. and they shall be appointed by the First Presidency of the Melchisedek priesthood. they may claim their anointing. and ordained under the hands of this Presidency. the restoration and continuation of the Jewish High Priest. (i) specified duties of the Presiding Bishopric include: presidency of the whole body of the lesser priesthood. since no descendant of Aaron has ever claimed the bishopric. "a Hteral descendant and the firstborn of Aaron " is the only person having "a legal right to this office" of Presiding Bishop." when filling the office of bishop. may. and set apart and ordained unto this power under the hands of the First Presidency of the Melchisedek Priesthood. the general bishop. and if they be literal de- — — scendants of Aaron. is invariable. the rule that each man holding the bishopric. intried. it is quite evident that. in this office we have. with the The . but as a High Priest of the Melchisedek Priesthood has authority to. as " the firstborn holds the right of Presidency over this (the lesser) Priesthood. And a literal descendant of Aaron. In another passage (Sec. is Such rules are. except they be literal descendants of Aaron. the above named Presidency. for the firstborn holds the right of the presidency over this priesthood. he may officiate in the office of bishop when no literal descendant of Aaron can be found. if they are the firstborn among the sons of Aaron . No man has a legal right to this office to hold the keys of this priesthood. 15-21. must be designated by this Presidency. or to his prototype in the early days. except he be a literal descendant and the firstborn of Aaron. also. parishes. and anointed. and the keys or authority of the same. after the order of Melchisedek. Since. however." . and transmitted by descent to his sons. or do ascertain it by revelation from the Lord under the hands of Doctrine and Covenants. and the numerous ward bishops. and found worthy. y6) it is specified that a "literal descendant of Aaron. contrary to the general rule. to sit as a judge in Israel. as will be seen later. Jhe authoritative law relating to bishops is as follows "They shall be High Priests who are worthy.

also to the kings of Israel. or to try causes based upon accusations against any persons in his ward. Although. (Cf. this priesthood was taken away from the Children of Israel. even from the earliest times. cxxxii. It seems reasonable. (3) necessary money disbursements for the relief of the poor.) Dispensation of the Fulness of Times should include all previous dispensations. — by . This court has the power to excommunicate any lay member or any holder of the lesser priesthood. to decide disputes between persons under his charge. or chapel. (2) conducting regular services. as specified in passages already quoted. that an order should be recognized. including the building and care of houses of v^rorship. even in cases involving members of the Higher Priesthood. who. This Priesthood is not hereditary. like himself. as should be the highest which office. 16 and cvii. which was recognized as superior to the official priests. precisely as the Gospel is held to relate similarly to the Mosaic Dispensation. are High Priests of the Melchisedek order. sitting with his two counselors. the bishopric should properly be held by a " lineal descendant of Aaron " (cf. he acts in council with. when similarly convicted of grave offences. on the assumption that the 39. 70) but is imparted the direct authority of God. (4) inquiring into the needs and conditions of the people. therefore. involves implicit harmony with what may be held to be the real sense of Scripture. specifically set apart. In virtually all matters. whose members " have the privilege of receiving the mysteries of the king- Doctrine and Covenants. as representing the consummation and inclusion of all that is contained in the lower order. The duties of the ward bishop are concerned with (i) maintaining the ward meeting-house.ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 277 the superintendence over all business and ordinances within its sphere. and held by. and distributing such aid as may be required. (5) presiding over all priest's quorums in his ward. even in theory. — Ixviii. He may also act as special judge. however. as direct agents of God. the sense of authoritative utterances seems to be that it was imparted to. in the lesser priesthood. (3) collecting the tithes and other offerings of the people. (2) the receiving and caring for all the property of the Church. but may only dis fellowship a member of the High Priesthood. when convicted of grave offences. (4) the superintendence of all Church enterprises for the purchase of lands and the building-up of settlements upon them. who evidently exercised some authority. and under the direction of the First Presidency of the Church. Doctrine and Covenants. at least. some of the various prophets of Israel. because of unbelief. The theory and constitution of the High Priesthood. He is also judge of the ward court.

elder has a right to officiate in his stead when the High not present. and also the but the deacons and teachers should be appointed to watch over the church. Keeler {The Lesser Priesthood. But no High Priest acts in a presiding capacity until he is called and inducted into office. and Cov. and to enjoy the communion and presence of God " in other words. The High Priest and elder are to administer in spiritual things. as it were. etc. It will be remembered that none of the keys of the Priesthood are exercised ex: cept through office.) teacher. Every High Priest. And in many instances and at divers times has the Lord given his servants the keys for special purposes. (of the Levitical order.. according to the commandments and revelations of God. in prescribed fashion. either as bishop or stake president. unless he hold some such office." Section cvii. or any other presiding office in the Priesthood. there are certain powers and dignities which belong exclusively to the offices." Sec. we understand the . as follows: " Jesus said to Peter : * I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Sec. and also the elders. iii. 2). 19. "The High The several grades or degrees of priestly or ecclesiastical dignity having been thus outlined and described. by which. An Priest is 10-12. ber. XX.. to be standing ministers unto the church. Joseph B. provided he be " called and sustained . Ixxxi. have a right to officiate in their own standing.' (Doc. 5-13. and they have a right to officiate in all these offices of the church when there are no higher authorities present." Section Ixxxiv." 74). The respective duties of the High Priest and the elder are set forth in the Doctrine and Covenants. However. — Priests should travel. as follows: "High Priests after the order of the Melchisedek Priesthood. and he has all the general authority he needs to act in any of the positions named.' (Matt. {Doc. The meaning of this term is better explained by illustration. xvi. Sec. even the most exalted. priest. 45..'' or official gifts or dignities. xxvii. under the direction of the Presidency. agreeable to the covenants and commandments of the church. the Melchisedek Priesthood entitles one holding it to fill any office in the Church. dom of heaven. This is explained. . for instance. lesser priests.— 278 .) " The Priesthood gives a man general authority to act in the name of the Lord. "The elders are to conduct the meetings as they are led by the Holy Ghost. deacon. as distinctly specified. is eligible to presidency. and mem. and Cov. although. and may not be exercised by any elder or high priest. — — " THE REAL MORMONISM . This right or authority to exercise special powers or functions in the Church comes by virtue of certain " keys. the doors of divine favor may be opened. p.) And he said to Joseph in a reve* lation Unto you I have given the keys of the kingdom. in administering spiritual things and also in the office of an elder. to fill the place of the prophets recognized in all older dispensations. the keys of the Priesthood give him the special authority to act or administer in any particular office or calling.

Also. high or low. as it is given according them their duty The president is (Doc. or primarily associative or educational. quorums may be official and administrative. we find. in the fact that he is also a member of some particular " quorum. The matter may be best explained by outlining the organization of all such quorums. local or nuquorums — — merical. and Cov. as real authoritative head. " to sit in council with them. from top to bottom of the scale. Consequently. or secretary. in great measure. as by usual understanding. — member is elected clerk. by a president and two counselors. as before. that every holder of ecclesiastical — — dignity. as must be evident. to a voting majority. all activities of the quorum are under the superintendency of the bishop of the ward. also all Church societies and associations. . acquainted with all situations involved in given cases.ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 279 if such metaphor be proper several varieties of material which may be arranged and correlated to constitute the organism of the Church. this is a class or company of a specified number of except in the case of the High Priests' members for each grade having a definite individual designation. beginning. is related to others of his own grade. cvii." as here used. serving to divide responsibility. each with its own officers and members. also to the Church as a whole. to the whole membership in any given case. All quorums in the Church." to be assisted by two counselors. is to promote mutual agreement and cooperation in the performance of the duties of deacons. twelve deacons form a quorum of deacons one of them being chosen president. also chosen from the twelve." As understood in the Mormon Church. as a primary unit of association. Thus. even a gradation of dignities or degrees. and its own The word. and teach edifying one another. Classifying all ordained members of the Church by quorums. " quorum. and local quorums.) to the Covenants. For. outside of the priesthood organizations proper. who is the responsible and ciation. 85. except the several councils of the Seventies. the three composing the presidency of the quorum. Consequently. and not. also. can constitute no stable unity. in assisting the presiding officer with constant advice and counsel from perfectly sympathetic persons. Another . we have several orders of such bodies. belonging to some ward or stake organization. are presided over in similar fashion. Thus. refers specific functions. at the bottom of the scale. there may be general quorums. unless individuals are properly associated and classified in permanent fashion. This arrangement is a wise one. The object of this asso- above specified. affecting the whole Church.

) ficers. as already stated. as well as at home. that of the priests of the Levitical order. from the number of whom are chosen. There are also local or ward divisions. however. fundamental principle of organization holding in this rank or Its quorum consists of seventy members. the stake and ward of(Keeler. teachers. whose membership is not limited. All the The term " Seventy " indicates the as the Seventy. also. It is also subject to the direction and superintendence of the ward bishop. priests and elders include. unlike the others. discipline. " the standing ministry of the Church " and their assistants. and such other spiritual development as shall prepare them in every way for the ministry of their holy calling. these organizations have a president with two counselors and a secretary. The quorums of deacons. However. religious or administrative. organized for convenience. presidents and bishops. The next higher quorum. over by a presidency of seven presidents. are regularly selected and ap- quorums thus far described are composed of persons keep them at home. pointed. and is presided office. whose calling includes the duty of preaching the Gospel abroad. two counselors and a clerk. in precisely similar fashion. for the furtherance of local Church affairs.28o THE REAL MORMONISM The quorum of teachers consists of twenty-four members. Above the elders' quorums are those of the High Priests. selected from the members. chooses no president and counselors from its number the bishop . but may include as few or as many men holding this dignity as reside in a given stake or district." From these quorums. and this is whose duties. a president. and to discuss methods of performing their duties. in which ninety-six elders (or a few more or less) have their residence. chosen from their number. another rank of elders. usually associate. when at home. the elders resident in a given ward." Each quorum of ninety-six elders has its own president with two counselors and a clerk. Such quorums are regularly organized by the stake presidency in any district. among whom the president first ordained or chosen to the known . The teachers' quorum has as its object to promote cooperation among those holding this grade of the ministry. or of persons not engaged in work abroad. Like all other quorums in the Church. but. consists of forty-eight members. The object of the High Priests' quorum is " self -culture. under the general supervision of the bishop. There is. but these are in no sense independent of the stake or district quorum. himself being its presiding officer in his capacity of "president over the priesthood of Aaron. more or less informally.

and there is a call for more laborers. since. we read. is the supreme rule that the increase may be " until The authority of the exalted. . is. and even until there are one hundred and forty-four thousand thus set History of the Church. . — . 93-97. cvii. . some others." first quorum of the Seventy is even more by special law. The seven times seventy " seems to have been modified by later authority. in all matters pertaining to their work and office.— — ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH office is 281 the presiding officer at all meetings or deliberations. or district. In the Mormon Church it has always proved an efficient and valuable institution. . by which it was almost indefinitely extended. and also unto the Jews. and to be especial The seventy are witnesses unto the Gentiles and in all the world. a general. it will be the duty of the seven presidents of the first Seventy to call and ordain other Seventy and send them forth to labor in the vineyard. showing the then to the Jews. until. as required. if needs be. under date May 2. having the power of appointing other council in the order. under the immediate supervision of the Council of the Twelve Apostles of the Church. . 34. The organization of the Seventy was first formed in the Mormon Church in harmony with the act of Christ (Luke x) in appointing seventy of His disciples to go " two and two before His face into every city and place. . such as The Seventy Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical History (Chap. and acts through its own presidency. . Vol. to whom they belong. 1835. as opposed to a merely local. body. The presidency of the first quorum of Seventy. however. ii. and are to preside over them. . and the seventh president of these presidents is to preside over the six. Thus. it is equal in authority to the Council of the Twelve Apostles. and also other seventy. apart for the ministry. Although many scriptural commentators believe that the seventy disciples thus sent out did not constitute a permanent body. as follows: seventies. 221. that they should have seven presidents to preside over them. in building up the Church and regulating first unto the Gentiles and all the affairs of the same in all nations And it is according to the vision. if the labor in the vineyard of necessity requires it." and Covenants. p. until seven times seventy. chosen out of the number of the seventy. under the direction of the Twelve or the traveling High Council. And these seventy are to be traveling Doctrine ministers unto the Gentiles first. to act in the name of the Lord. as follows: " If the first Seventy are all employed. order of the seventy. and these seven presidents are to choose other seventy besides the first seventy. whither He himself would come. they set apart seven times seventy. 25. The outline of its institution is thus set forth: " The seventy are called to preach the gospel. according to Joseph Smith's record. . xii) argue to a contrary conclusion. This is specified.'* to herald the Kingdom of God.

These two quorums act together in a very large number of instances. The word apostle is used several times in authoritative Mormon documents before the formal establishment. another primitive order." as originally established by Christ. however. otherwise there can be no appeal from their decision. cvii. its restoration. in a revelation dated in June. 26. xviii. the Presidency shall act in council with a jury of twelve high priests as advisers. or reestablishment. This is vested to a certain extent in the Council of the Twelve Apostles. Paul maintains the unchallenged claim to apostleship. which constitute the spiritual authorities of the church." Doctrine and Covenants. as specified by law. for you are Doccalled even with that same calling with which he was called. Thus. They are the soldiers in the sense. of And The duties of the Seventy. as well as special movements. In their quorum of the Twelve Apostles the Latter-day Saints maintain. on the contrary. and of significance only for the early Church. or outward. as a permanent institution. if not inevitable." Ibid. The Mormon claim that. rather than administrators in any proper the Church Consequently. of the Twelve. cvii. which traditional bodies have supposed to be merely temporary. having the supreme authority in directing campaigns. as they claim. even as unto Paul mine apostle. 32. "And in case that any decision of these quorums is made in unrighteousness. it may be brought before a general assembly of the several quorums. from the fact that St. was to be permanent and self -perpetuating. are primarily evangelical. In the organization of the two highest quorums of the Church we arrive at the point where authority in both religious and temporal. was intended to persist. 1829. except in certain judicial sessions. Oliver Cowdery is addressed in the following double authority . in which. 9. seems logical. words "I speak unto you. They are preachers and witnesses. thus suggesting his On the theory that this body election to fill some other vacancy. this " quorum. and completely in the First Presidency." trine and Covenants. is field rather than the governors and commanders. although the First Presidency has such wide powers that the cooperation of the Apostolic Quorum is virtually never obligatory. their part in the organism of largely auxiliary to the more nearly executive functions of the Apostolic quorum. gains some probability from the act of the eleven survivors in electing Matthias as successor to Judas Iscariot also. . affairs of the Church is centered.: — THE REAL MORMONISM — — 282 " they (the Seventy) form a quorum equal in authority to that the Twelve special witnesses or apostles. with the restored Church.

to fill the . xviii. and the Twelve are they who shall desire to take upon them my name with full purpose of heart. thus differing from other officers in the church in the duties of their And they form a quorum. by the laying on of hands for the baptism of fire and the Holy Ghost. and they shall take upon them my name. . . . behold. . and the giving of the Holy Ghost. and watch over the church and to confirm the church by the laying on of the hands. Cowdery. — enants." in regard to the or- ganization of the Church. or special witnesses of the name of Christ in all the world. — — . they are called to go into all the world to preach my gospel unto every creature. to be the and to Oliver Cowdery. and if they desire to take upon them my name with full purpose of heart. . my is written. 1830. grace is sufficient for you you must walk uprightly before me and sin not. an apostle of Jesus Christ." The following formal command to organize the quorum of the Twelve Apostles was given in June." Doctrine and Cov. and to take the head of Doctrine and Covenants. 2-3. . xx. . The Twelve being sent out. "And now. and referring to the " will and commandments of God. 1836. — . who shall have the desires of which I have spoken.. baptize. .— — : . and also unto David Whitmer. . . . . expound. church. even Twelve. equal in authority and power to calling. 26-29. . under the direction of the Presidency of the church. holding the keys. according to that which And now I speak unto you the Twelve Behold. . 1829. xx. 31. that you shall search out the Twelve. according to the power of the Holy Ghost which is in you. as follows "An apostle is an elder. who was called of God. and to administer bread and wine the emblems of the flesh and blood of Christ and to confirm those who are baptized into the church.. . and to teach. and it is his calling to baptize. according to the scriptures. and according to the callings and And now. exhort. and regulate all the affairs of the same in all nations first unto the Gentiles. agreeable to the institution of heaven to build up the church. to be the second elder of this Doctrine and Covenants. behold. who was also called first elder of this Church of God. and the Twelve shall be my disciples. 37-39. . jun. to officiate in the name of the Lord. and ordained an apostle of Jesus Christ. The Twelve are a traveling presiding High the three Presidents. behold. in a revelation dated in April. when they need assistance. both unto Gentile and unto Jew yea. 32. and they are they who are ordained of me to baptize in my name.. ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 283 Similarly. you are they who are ordained of me to ordain priests and teachers to declare my gospel. . all meetings. Council. It is the duty of the traveling High Council to call upon the Seventy. and by their desires and their works you shall know them and when you have found them you shall show these things unto them. 3^-44. the following passages occur: " Which commandments were given to Joseph Smith. — : . And. although the organization did not take place until February. there are others who are called to declare my gospel. The duties of the Apostles are also fully explained in several passages. to open the door by the proclamation of the gospel of Jesus Christ and first unto the Gentiles and then unto the Jews. . and secondly unto the Jews. I give unto you Oliver gifts of God unto men." "The Twelve traveling counselors are called to be the Twelve apostles.

cvii. at the Stakes of Zion. to the quorum of the Presidency." Ibid. shall have power to open the door of my kingdom unto any nation whithersoever ye shall send them. 33. which is the recognized medium of divine authority. although certain other quorums. by the voice of your brethren. Whosoever ye shall send in my name. to the Quorum of the First Presidency. cxii. . and that.. cvii. are in the several divisions what the Apostles are to the whole Church. instead of any others.: — THE REAL MORMONISM . as we shall see later. 36-37. as already suggested. form a quorum may seem A equal in authority. and Cov. Instead of being contradictory. . equal 30-33). under certain definite conditions and within just limits of authority. as to how the First Quorum of the Seventy could be equal in authority to the Quorum of the Apostles. yet. duly recommended and authorized by you. or to the traveling High Council. however. All such nominations. nominations for offices originate in or are approved by the First Presidency. . may be equal to those ranked above them. 58. the Twelve Apostles " form a in authority and power to the three Presidents." their activities are always directed by the Presidency. The matter is still further aggravated by the law regarding the stake high councils. It quorum. they are abroad. in all their decisions. the rulings and decisions of the higher quorums are respected and accepted from the fact that. In this case there is no appeal from their decisions. — 2S4 several calls for preaching and administering the gospel. form a quorum equal in authority. they partake of a measure of divine authority proportionate to the digThus.. as the Traveling High Council. as is the accepted belief. Thus "The standing High Councils. in the affairs of the church. a strange fact that. . which. The High Council in Zion. 21." Doctrine and Covenants. question would logically occur to any mind. Although. that the three bodies should interact with good harmony. the higher quorums hold " keys " to powers and dignities. there should be several quorums with specified equal authority. the Twelve. the matter is really surprisingly logical. 35. except upon allegation and proof of " unrighteousness" (Doc. and. and. The explanation of the matter lies in the fact that peculiar duties and dignities attach to the several offices. It is the duty of the Twelve also to ordain and set in order all the other officers of the church. and also exhibits most effectively the real genius of the Mornion Church. in so stable and well-working an organization as that of the Mormon Church. in all their decisions. not shared by those beneath them in the scale. that. except when. nearly uniform regularity. as stated above. in the affairs of the church. 38. in turn. Consequently. with nity of the quorum from which they emanate. 23-24. however. cii. to the Councils of the Twelve at the Stakes of Zion.

in any given dignity. But if you know of transgression. rather than another. from time to time. because they have full confidence in the wisdom and righteousness of those set above them officially. . in short. the accusation of unrighteousness. also. even the First Presidency of the whole Church. at least). Leaving this out of account. February 26. that the general vote to establish or " sustain " any man in an exalted office is obtained by " fear " (of ostracism. without the belief in the divine authority back of the higher quorums. . at the organization of the Liberty Stake of Zion. It also overlooks the fact. it is not only your right but your duty to vote against them. If you do not know of any crime or sin against the men. the equality in authority of . you know better than this. of our conferences. is. In short. that the belief in the divine authority of the " keys "of office in the Church is perfectly sincere and vitally real in the minds of these people. you are free to vote as you choose. This principle is set forth. your right to vote for or against the person or persons presented. They assert. However. Numerous critics of the Mormon system. February 27. Well. From another point of view. my brethren and sisters. have argued that this curious cooperation of theocratic authority and democratic autonomy is nothing other than centralized absolutism with a pretence of popular government. regularly ** sustained " by the people of the Church. or for withholding a vote to sustain any one already in an office. evidently moved by a desire to find fault rather than to represent matters truthfully. freely accorded. is always recognized as a sufficient reason for reconsidering any nomination. and that voting of the Mormons was a sham. or in any Deseret Evening News. Let not personal feeling move you to oppose any presented before you to-night. in an address by President Anthon H. It is to nominate. The people vote together. furnish a ready source of disagreement and partisan politics. Lund. in no sense. Such a criticism could be based only upon utter ignorance of this system. with such singular unanimity. as follows. a study of the organization of the Church shows most definitely that the theoretical equality of the several governing quorums must. because they recognize that the faithful discharge of official duties is a matter of greater importance than the consideration of preferring one person. under any other conditions. evident upon proper examination." ' . and. 1904.— ' ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 285 are voted upon. The order of the Church is that the Priesthood has the right everything is done by common consent. or else upon deliberate misrepresentation. also. but. be careful not to oppose them. as shown by indulgence in any sin or crime. Some have accused us of all voting the one way. 1904: and " In voting. the system could not work at all.

chosen by himself from the number of the Apostles or High Priests. the Apostles ruled the Church for three years after the death of President Taylor. and proceeds. These counselors participate in the authority and dig" Presiding High Church. accordingly. holding title to all general Church property. holds the presidency over both priesthoods and of all quorums in the Church. the two counselors of the President taking their places in the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Officially and personally. as soon as possible. if not. The supreme authority in the Church is vested in the President. seer. After the death of President Young. was ratified by the entire body of the Church membership. . with the Council of the Twelve Apostles. the three forming the First Presidency of the Church. like any other President of any organization or quorum of the Church . who. assuming its equality of authority with the First Presidency. s86 THE REAL MORMONISM the several governing quorums is a wise provision the offices of the Church could always be completely filled. he may act in the capacity of lawgiver. habitually. In both cases the choice of the successor was by the exercise of the power of receiving revelations. " prophet.. and may officiate in any and all functions of either His relation. Upon the death of the President. both spiritHis dignities include. voting in public meetings. therefore. are also known by the title of president. to the priesthood. and is recognized as the directing head of all activities. this is precisely the contingency distinctly provided for in the organization of a new First Presidency. he succeeds to the " keys and powers inherent in the office." the authorized medium for imparting the will and counsels of God to the Church. should he so desire. — withdrawn from the Twelve. and these are. in short. if they had been Apostles. thus determined. although the bearer of such great and numerous dignities and authorities. executive and judge. however. revelator and translator. His counselors. that of ual and temporal. the First Presidency is dissolved. to form a new Presidency. As a matter of fact. In the event that a new President is " chosen and sustained by general vote. then transferred to the Apostolic Quorum. regularly acts^ with two counselors. for two years. or. The Twelve then become the governing body in the Church. Church as a whole is that of Moses to the Israelites. and authorizing all disbursements. but the choice. the Priest over the High Priesthood of the the " keys " of all the " sealing ordinances " Trustee-in-Trust of the Church. The President." holding all . accordingly. with his counselors. also. in the extraordinary event that some catastrophe should eliminate the First Presidency and the Apostles. in their proper High Priests' quorums.

and knowledge. holds his office " during good behaviour. except in the temporary absence of the President. in holiness. that " every member in each quorum must be agreed to its decisions. patience.) entitled to the same blessing which the decisions of a quorum of three Presidents were anciently. if these things abound And in them. or both. are to be made in all righteousness. he shall be had in remembrance before the common council of the church. the Council of the Twelve Apostles in their decisions are equal to the First Presidency. and were righteous and holy men. when circumstances render it imposUnless this is the case. The decisions of these quorums. cvii. in case that any decision of these quorums is made in unrighteousness. the matter is definitely treated in the following laws: " And inasmuch as a President of the High Priesthood shall transgress. against his character and behaviour. godliness. in a very real sense. in order to make their decisions of the same power or validity one with the other. The curious blending of theocracy and democracy in the government of the Church achieves its most surprising climax in the provisions that the regularly appointed agent of divine authority may be displaced on the proof of charges based on merely human testimony. imparted with the g^ft of the Holy Ghost and other endowments. and lowliness of heart. The definite and extended provisions. It examples the fact that all believers partake of the divine authority of their highest officers. However. The proviso is made. in spite of the exalted character of his dignities. meekness and long-suffering. made to meet the contingency of his failure in this respect. . 27. It also exhibits to a marked degree the actual influence of the rank and file in matters governmental and administrative. (A majority may form a quorum. who are ordained after the order of Melchisedek. it may be brought before a general assembly of the several quorums." Doctrine and Covenants.ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 287 nity of the President only through official association with him. or any member of it. when they may discharge some of his administrative functions. They are not properly vice-presidents. his conduct must always be above all reproach. The President. nor do they continue in office after his decease. Thus. also. however. their decisions are not sible to be otherwise. these quorums should suffice to constitute a case against the Quorum of the First Presidency. That the unanimous decision of either. as already specified. or either of them. temperance. is evident. otherwise there can be no appeal from their decision. and in faith. — 32. sufficiently exemplify the fact that the Mormon idea of theocracy involves no notion of monarchic absolutism. and the same is true of the decisions of the first quorum of the Seventy." since. brotherly kindness and charity because the promise is. and virtue. which constitute the spiritual authorities of the church. they shall not be unfruitful in the knowledge of the Lord.

The general officers of the Church exercise their authority and leadership through the several orders of district and local executives. and beneath these. that all things may be done in order and in solemnity before him. organized for this pur' ' — presided over by the Presiding Bishop of the Church. or bishop. pp. composed of the bishops and their counselors. Thus. a Presidency of the Nauvoo Stake of Zion. cvii. it shall that is. in the fact that they ties. William Law. who is also President of the Church. Frederick G. however. and powers of the Presidency. {The Lesser Priesthood. & C. rights. to whom he must render regular accounts of his stewardship in business In such concerns the bishop. and three other High Priests. himself not approved. or a common council. March 17. and he that learns not his duty and shows Ibid. none shall be exempted from the justice and the laws of God. Sept. . and Sidney Rig- — don. 1844. (D. is directly responsible to the Presiding Bishop of the whole Church. 76. nine High Councillors of that Stake. .— 288 THE REAL MORMONISM who shall be assisted by twelve counselors of the High Priesthood . a council or court of twelve High be before a common council Priests. The law and order of the Church is. the extreme penalty would be severance from the Church and a less penalty might be the withdrawal of the keys. — The procedure outlined as to be followed in such an extraordinary case is follov^^s: " It will be observed here that even a President of the Church may be impeached or tried for transgression. with his council. A High Council. and their decision upon his head shall be an end of controversy concerning him. the ward bishop. Keeler. at least.) . But in the spiritual matters of the ward the stake President." Joseph B. "If condemned by such a court. however. the stake Presidency.) pose is sec. far as concerns outward and temporal affairs. are the ward presidencies. a double capacity in relation to the people in their charges. The law has been made to reach officers and members alike. 1844. is tried. to the extent. 1839." 82-84. was held before Bishop Whitney. that the affairs of one ward bear relation to others in the stake. . and also in general matters. that when a President of the High Priesthood. as far as concerns spiritual and general administrative affairs. Three counselors to President Joseph all Smith were rejected by the Church and afterward tried and excornmunicated on the charge of apostasy and treachery: namely. Williams. April 18. 107. shall not be counted worthy to stand. directs the actions of the ward president. He that is slothful shall not be counted worthy to stand.. as local president of the lesser priesthood. according to truth and righteousness. for example. The district subdivision of Church government. The trial of Sidney Rigdon. 100. each of whom has definite powers and responsibiliThus. reports through matters. etc. 97-98. directly beneath the First Presidency are the Presidency and High Council of each separate stake. again. " 8. consisting.. known as the fill So . The bishops owe a double allegiance to superior authorities.

to the First Presidency of the whole Church." is in many particulars analogous to one of the separate Just as each state has its govstates of the American republic. and in holiness her borders must be enlarged. neither shall any of the cords thereof be broken. ernor. so a separate centre of power and authority is represented by this word.. Again. upon mature consideration of the character and fitness of the candidates. and the Council of the Twelve Apostles. thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation. This is explained as follows: " Isaiah uses it (stakes) as a figure of speech in which he makes Jerusalem a tent with its stakes and cords stretching out the curtains." (Isa. 62-63. " Look upon Zion. The For Zion must increase in Lord uses similar language in a revelation beauty. and Cov. of course. The implied comparison in this metaphor is that the stakes and cords mark off or broaden the boundary of their habitation." to indicate a subdivision of territory. Ixxxii: 14). " stake.' (Isa. ficers. have. Just as a tent is held up by cords attached to stakes driven in the ground. and may be vetoed by the vote of the people. etc. and. * : : ' : . lengthen thy cords. when once properly elected by popular vote. he says the place of thy tent." The use of the word. and they shall be called Stakes for . the stake is the " Church in miniature. consisting of the President and his two counselors. B.' (Doc. within his limits of authority. The stake President and his two counselors. the city of our solemnities. upon allegation and proof of charges sufThese officiently grave to constitute definite disqualification. prophesying of Israel Enlarge when in the latter times they would need more room. as well as the high council of twelve members. corresponding. 'Until the day cometh when there shall be found no more room for them and then I have other places which I will appoint unto them. to the Presi- dent of the tjnited States. Keeler. a judicial authority within their own district . her stakes must be strengthened. pp.) {Ibid. and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habitations: spare not. corresponding to the Federal Congress. as indicating a source of strength and stability to the total structure of the Church. The choice of the First Presidency is made. corresponding. so each separate stake of the Mormon Church has its presidency. and then voted upon by the people of the stake in their stated conferences. ci: 21). and the High Council of twelve High Priests. as has been often remarked. liv. a tabernacle that shall not be taken down not one of the stakes thereof shall ever be removed." — /. are nominated by the First Presidency of the Church. Indeed. respectively. 2). the curtains or for the strength of Zion. and strengthen thy stakes. just as each state has its legislature of two houses. and is based on a metaphor found several times in the Old Testament scriptures. as already specified. xxxiii: 20).ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH ** 289 stake..' {The Lesser Priesthood. is peculiar to the terminology of the Mormon Church. and the stakes marking off the boundary of space the tent occupies.

. priesthood and laity. and other general authorities. such as those of the High Priests and elders. and. and belonging to the stake. the selection of home missionaries within the stake. their names being presented. and matters of doctrine and stake administration are discussed and acted upon. which is a sort of stake senate. Apart from general administrative affairs.290 THE REAL MORMONISM (Doc. including the recommendation of missionaries for foreign work. At such meetings the people of the stake. and voted upon by the entire membership. who correspond to the parish priests of such bodies. who thus enjoy the advantages of association with others outside of their own wards and quorums. it is one of the most effective means for promoting mutual understanding and maintaining a spirit of unity among members of the priesthood.) The stake Presidency has authority over the spiritual and educational affairs of the district. At the priesthood meeting. are regularly nominated by the First Presidency. cvii:36-37. may exist within the limits of a ward. spiritual and temporal welfare of the people. also in their relationships to the ward presidents. While distinctly a deliberative. or bishops. as occasionally happens. these being regularly organized under stake auspices. also. They act somewhat as the bishops of prelatical churches in the scope of their powers. and the direction of the latter. that affect them spirAmong such matters are the elections of itually or temporally. a legislative body. and Cov. all matters relating to the moral. both of which are important functions in the religious and community life of the district. The stake Presidency also exercises direct regular supervision over all stake quorums. although. men and women. are received and read. as tion. the reports of the bishops and communications from the First Presidency. rather than to the ward. general and stake officers. one or more quorums. to a considerable extent. also. Of scarcely less importance. and then submitted General and stake ofto the votes of the people in conference. '* in these ficers already in office are also regularly " sustained if for original elecconferences. In short. who. as previously explained. as of elders. and of somewhat greater interest to the general public is the quarterly conference of the entire membership of the stake. the stake Presidency regularly presides at the monthly priesthood meeting and at the quarterly conferences of stake membership. equal to that of the general authorities of the Church. exercise the right of voting upon all matters in discussion. the monthly meeting is of primary importance in promoting mutual understanding and cooperation among persons holding the priesthood in the stake.

Also. and the people have no choice but to ratify or reject their candidates at the polls. after all. and this procedure has resulted in no conspicuous miscarriages of judgment. their functions gradually became merely formal. not wholly an improvement on the original plan. the right of nomination is not vested in the ranks. and not the gratification of personal or party ambitions. and this is the penalty that we must pay for the doubtful privilege of choosing our executive officers more or less directly. is chosen by popular Originally. whether the " Mortedious process. give clear indication of the feelings of the people. which certainly works very far toward the end of incurring faithful and competent officers in important positions. this is true must be obvious. as the delegates or representatives of the peoBut. the President is chosen by the College of Electors. mon " system. but this appears in some real senses a distinct contribution to stable and That effective government. when we consider that the moral end of government is proper administration of public affairs. freedom of choice. To be sure. the President is elected by the Senate. we have no right of voting periodically to " sustain " or displace any unfaithful or unworthy officials. is so very undemocratic. unofficial cliques and " machines " largely engineer the nomination and election of public officers. also of the continued faithfulness of the officers. for example. or an unmeaning performance. or even of failure to sustain him formally. Undoubtedly many people in the Church have strong personal objections to some of those set over them in office. Nor. rather than by popular vote. therefore. with ple. Furthermore. who left the matter entirely to their judgment. is the voting of the Mormon people in any sense perfunctory. and in no way really undemocratic. any officer whatever. as contemplated by the United States Constitution. in France. which. or the failure to sustain him in any given stake. rather than initiate in this matter. in other points of view. the growth of partisan politics. Thus. however. We . occurring four times in a year. At present. would be made the subject of serious investigation and earnest efforts at reconciliation. which ratify. in case of non-proof of charges made.ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 291 Such opportunities to " sustain. the rule is strictly observed that only proved unworthiness or unfaithfulness in an officer is sufficient ground for impeachment." or reject. There can be no doubt but what such disaffection as would lead to nonelection of an officer. Our party government scheme is too often tainted with considerations quite foreign to real statesmanship. in turn. the members of this College had complete vote. the impeachment or removal of such an one in a high office being a difficult and may judge.

and rendering such advice and assistance as may be required by any in his charge. are regularly formed and accredited branches of general bodies. the several quorums of the lesser priesthood. and the Sunday School organization. They will be treated and discussed in the proper At many — — place. and through the recognized channels. associations. also. They are efficient helpers to the bishopric. Under the immediate supervision of this presidency. it is the organization that most intimately affects the individual. superintending all religious rites and offices in his ward. the bishop exercises the general functions of pastor. constitutes its presidency. presides over tions. is presided over by a bishop. also. also. issuing recommendations for persons wishing to enter any of the temples. receiving the tithes and other offerings of the people. This. in fact. the Primary Association. who fre- quently assumes the chair by courtesy. matters relating to the life and welfare of the people are regularly introduced and voted upon. its delibera- . who. religious and intellectual welfare of the people. the bishop also convenes the periodical ward conferences. a ward ReSuch ward ligion Class. Under the direction of the stake Presidency. in matters spiritual and ecclesiastical. being closer to his personal life and interests than either the stake or general authorities. or bishopric.292 THE REAL MORMONISM the quarterly conferences of the stake membership. or to remove to other wards. as already explained. are. often useless and acrimonious but it is rather a contribution toward efficiency. according to the often-recommended principle of " doing all things decently and in order. directly responsible to them. In addition to these numerous responsibilities. The ward is. in the absence of a higher authority. if submitted in the prescribed manner. come the authorities of the several wards. Each ward. as previously explained. and. while under the supervision of the ward bishopric. and. Moreover. both in dispensing relief to the needy. and in promoting the moral. the ward branches of the official Church societies and organizations. is an excellent plan. with two counselors." Beneath the stake authorities. Such matters may be introduced by any member. the ecclesiastical unit of the stake. to which it is related precisely as are the separate stakes to the general authorities of the Church. whose activities affect the whole Church. also. These latter are the Women's Relief Society. the Young Men's and the Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. in no sense abrogatory of personal rights unless the most conspicuous element in such is the precipitation of discussion.

a decision agreed on by the Bishop . These courts. and the Traveling High Council of the munity Twelve Apostles." in case of disagreement between his counselors. the stake high council. consists of the Bishop in event of the absence of the counselors. with two High Priests. and event of the absence or disability of both counselors. courts. convened usually to decide important difficulties arising outside the organized stakes of Zion. The three latter are: the Presiding Bishop's Court. The ward court two counselors. also take cognizance of matters in dispute between such members in good standing. The decision is rendered in writing. The three former are: the ward bishop's court. of course. and empowered to disfellowship or excommunicate the guilty. the Bishop having the "casting vote.ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH At these 293 both general. and bringing them into close association. however. what the quarterly conference is to the stake. Although. to formally try a member accused of public crime. Thus. similarly chosen. are elected or " sustained " affairs. and under exceptional conditions. it is an efficient instrument for promoting local action among the people. convened specifically to try charges against a "presiding high priest. or. either in matters criminal or general. It is to the ward. if guilty. effective only in transacting ward business and defining the local attitude toward general Church and com- ward conferences all officers. In no case have such courts attempted to review or reverse the decisions of civil It is the rule. with any High Priest acceptable to the litigating parties. in short. . and represents the majority opinion of the three judges. while convened usually to try and decide causes based upon charges against the character or conduct of members of the Church." in addition to their organization and quorum work. The system of Church courts is closely related to the general organization of its government. and to administer to such the rebukes and disabilities available to Church authority. as a sort of " committee of the whole. ward. stake and ward business is transacted. The trial of any cause before this court proceeds in recognized fashion. usually convened to try exceptional causes. by the taking of testimony and the argument of the case on both sides." the Council of High Priests Abroad. in the of the Ward and his or disability of either selected by him. There are three regularly organized courts and as many special tribunals. and reports from local organizations and quorums are received. and the general conference to the whole Church. and the Council of the First Presidency. which cannot be reconciled by the offices of the teachers and others representing Church authority.

This body may sit as a court of original jurisdiction. however. and Cov. as distinctly specified {Doc. and the case must be retried. since it is concerned only with disputes and causes arising between members and organizations of the Church. whether the testimony be objected to or not. In such matters it does not infringe on the jurisdiction of the civil courts. or. erroneously called . the High CounThe Council cil may direct a new trial by the Bishop's Court. except where considerations of general importance emerge. None of the Church courts will take cognizance of cases involving disputes between members and non-members of the Church. or as an appellate body reviewing the evidence and decisions of any lower court. when sitting as a Council. and Cov. between the authorities of separate stakes. as specified.) This Council is not inclined. or where there has been evident irregularity in the original trial. the First Presidency may act alone (i. modify or confirm the decision of the Bishop." the Council may try the case over from the start. or as an appellate court. and so does in all stake matters. sitting as a court. cvii:79. The High Council may review any case already tried by a ward court. It has exercised its prerogative most often on matters affecting claims in dispute. and one of {Doc. On the ground of irregularities or of new evidence. may also hear causes. sitting as a High Council. as if at original hearing.. but the practice of so doing is concerned wholly with considerations on the importance of the given case. Although. of appeal. either regular or special. or be appealed to the High Council of the stake. such as would warrant this General Authority in assuming the function prescribed for the ward or stake authorities. or any one or several of their six " alternates " filling vacancies. of " unrighteousness. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction. or " exceptions. The quorums of the Church organization. etc. and may reIn case verse. either in the first instance or on appeal. for the review of cases already tried in any of the ward courts. the Council of the First Presidency may order a retrial on the ground of In the irregularities. consists of the twelve High Councillors. and may sit as a court of original jurisdiction. the First President and his two counselors) or with the assistance of twelve High Priests. The Stake High Council. based on objections. cvii:36). stands the First Presidency. but in case both counselors disagree with the Bishop. as on property rights. Above all other Church courts. and is presided over by the Stake Presidency. the authority of the stake high councils is such that its decisions admit of no appeal. to interfere in cases." hearing of any cause. of the Twelve Apostles.294 THE REAL MORMONISM his counselors is valid.e. there is no decision.

who are regularly inducted into the grade of deacons.382 49.450 11. of the total male membership. In 1914.159 92.722 Quorums of Aaronic Priests Quorums of Teachers Quorums of Deacons Total Aaronic Priesthood Total Quorum Membership 42.103 .944 8.112 27. about 90 per cent.607 22.: ORGANIZATION OF THE MORMON CHURCH 29$ the " hierarchy. beginning with boys of twelve or thirteen. the official figures for the quorum memberships were as follows Quorums of High Priests Quorums of Seventies Quorums of Elders Total Melchisedek Priesthood 11.830 10." includes. according to general estimates.

" Like the several quorums of the Priesthood proper. also. the relations between these branches being merely associative. and the connection with a general headship being rather In 1877. and consisting almost entirely of Mormon members. which operate under the immediate In addition Mormon supervision of the Church authorities. 296 . the first association for the systematic distribution of During the earlier years of Mormon occupancy of beneficence. however. founded. could be in close touch with the central authorities of the Church. in any great calamity its name has always been conspicuous among generous dispensers of relief for the needy and impoverished.CHAPTER XXI " AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS ** to the priesthood quorum organizations of the Church. which assumed control of work in the several wards. there are several associations and societies. in turn. It was the first regular organization of women in the world. it distributes benevolent assistance with an exemplary impartiality. called collectively " auxiliary organizations. which. stake societies were loose and undefined. and in 1880 a general presidency was established. This society was founded by Joseph Smith at Nauvoo. They example notably the Mormon tendency to organize and cooperate for mutual advantage. March 17. 1842. While organized by. the Seventy. the best known of these auxiliary organizations is the Women's Relief Society. these organizations have their separate and individual governing and administrative bodies. Indeed. 111. The earliest. as is believed.. Indeed. Utah the work of relief was largely in the hands of ward organizations. and also. The advantage of the last step in the development was that the work of benevolence could be pursued in obedience to a systematic directorate. now an organization of national scope and associated with the National Council of Women. as for example. so intimately are these auxiliary bodies associated with the religious and community life of the Mormon people that it is perfectly correct to include them in an exhaustive account of the Church proper.

. who. All of these together represent a membership of over 40. The members of the branches meet constantly in sewing circles. They also distribute clothing. assisted by a clerk and treasurer. assisting the bereaved. Next to the Relief Society. come the Mutual Improvement Associations. in which clothing. being intended to form centres for personal training in matters pertaining primarily to the conduct of life and the principles of religion. carpets. presided over. known.000 annually. Precisely as in the organization of the Church in general. in turn. in the usual fashion." AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 297 Each ward branch. that have ranked it among the most practical agencies of benevolence in the world. and medicines. financial or otherwise. While by systematic work in ferreting out cases of need and reporting such to the bishops for prompt relief. The ward officers regularly report their work to the stake authorities. who visit the people of the ward. stakes. etc. Relief is then dispensed through the ward bishop. The reason for the foundation of these organizations lay in the conviction of the authorities that there was an actual " necessity for a general organization of the young people into societies for . the Relief Society is instrumental in distributing about $200. and the central presidency similarly visit the stake organiThere are now over 700 ward societies included in 64 zations. entertainments of other varieties to raise funds for charitable purposes.000. respectively as the Young Men's and the Young Ladies' associations. it is a valuable adjunct to the practical work of the Church in affording a center for the sympathetic association of women in the practical activities of the community. which is thus kept in close and constant touch with the entire mechanism of the organization. the stake officers of the Relief Society regularly visit the wards under their direction. and ascertain their needs. and other calamities. and unite in in the homes of the poor. food. are made for use in Church buildings and They also hold fairs. regularly enlist the services of several teachers. Certain of the women are regularly set apart to serve in the capacity of workers. by a president and two counselors. These organizations are largely educational in character. report to the central presidency. it has also figured on generous scale in contributing to the relief of the sufferers by the San Francisco fire. and these do noble and unselfish work in caring for the sick. and about 100 Relief Society organizations maintained in connection with the important missions of the Church throughout the world. In addition to the practical relief distributed by this society. and caring for the dead. quilts. both in point of age and also in importance in the life of the Church and of the community.

which were gathered into stake and general associations with a strong central authority The fact that local societies. . representing a membership of more than 2." In the case of both organizations the original impulse came from the local societies formed for the purposes specified." H. taking pattern after the early efforts in Salt Lake City. This association was not discontinued. which they performed so thoroughly that. to consider the importance of organizing Meetings were themselves into a society for mutual improvement. That the idea of the authorities was to found organizations *' separate from the priesthood " shows an intelligent comprehension of the fact that religion. while pervading all the affairs of everyday life. less widely distributed throughout the Church wards. literary societies. were formed to instruct the people by theatrical exhibitions and dramatic performances. The development of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association is thus outlined by its former general secretary: " In 1873 it became the rule in some of the more thickly populated settlements of the Saints for the young people to form associations for entertainments and improvement. November. it was divided into four Other associations of like character were early formed in the setcity. and . debating clubs. as it does among the Mormons. but when the general moveone in each ward in the ment was inaugurated. The first of the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations was formally organized in Salt Lake City. 1897). Improvement Era. . within a year from that date. about a dozen young men met. and. Anderson {The Past of Mutual Improvement. . or any other name that indicated the object of the gathering. 1875. should have an individual application. and yet so organized that they should be under its guidance. In the following December two elders appointed to the task of organizing such associations in the various stakes entered upon their duties.000. In Weber county. June 10. The numbers grew until in a short time the association was compelled to move into the City Hall to accommodate the membership. more or to direct all proceedings. simple rules being adopted to govern the same. as well as one essentially official and organic. and for its strength. and improvement associations and literary societies had also been organized in several wards of Salt Lake City. 1873. also. — Edward in other places previous to the general movement in 1875. . formed the real origins of the general body in each case examples the — Mormon instinct for organization. . D. thereafter held weekly. young men's clubs. on the 20th day of April. at the invitation of Apostle F. . and a small mutual assessment was levied on the members to cover the expenses. Frequently they were solely for amusement.— 298 their THE REAL MORMONISM mutual improvement associations that should be separate from the priesthood. in his home. the general desire of the people for advancement and improvement on educational and practical lines. These were called night schools. tlements of the county. The ward branches. over 100 branches had been formed. Richards.

The subjects of study in the ward associations included theology. "The main function of the General Board is the supervision of all the Improvement associations throughout the world. the recognized organ of the Associations. pp. continued as separate organizations. and issued annually. . and are helpful to. look after the recreations and amusement in the wards. Keeler {The Lesser Priesthood. in 1880. "The Problems in Economics." Joseph B. a monthly magazine of literature and subjects of interest — The regular work of the associations to the general reader. in connection with local authorities. nally. with a general association holding regular meetings at stated times. for which regular In text books were provided and reference libraries selected. history. "The Development of Character Success" (1911-1912). in new stakes and in outlying territory. included some of the following practical and profitable subjects: "Spiritual Growth Lessons on Practical Religion" (19081909) ." pamphlets specially prepared for instruction along These manuals have definite selected lines. with a general superintendent and two assistants. " The Making — of Citizen Lessons in Economics" (1910-1911). including: "The Acts of the Apostles" analysis and explanations (1907Lessons on Conduct" 1908) . science and general literature. " The Making of the Man " (1909-1910) . In 1897 was begun the publication of the Improvement Era. " Stake officers supervise the work of the local organizations. and labor with. The ward presidents [superintendents] conduct the class work of their respective associations. conventions and other meetings to establish and conduct missionary work among the young. to organize. etc. a general central board of direction was created. The membership is about 34. " The Development of Character a — Making — — — Lessons on (1911-1912). and to undertake and carry on many other things that tend to promote good citizenship and general welfare. to recommend. a music director and a board of thirty-four " aids. regular manuals for the "junior classes" have been issued. and administered as stake organizations. committees. etc. publish and furnish other literature for the various associations. include also selected reading courses of literary. .." stake and ward organizations are similarly presided over each by a superintendent and two assistants. boards. a treasThe urer. etc. 1 89 1 the general authorities began the regular issuance of " manuals. scientific and . to formulate and arrange programs and outlines to provide for the holding of conferences. Agriculture and of a Citizen Public Finance" (1911-1912). to encourage and foster the study of the Scriptures. assisted by a secretary. until 1878.. who directed the work for the entire Church. 155-156.).— " AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 299 then formed. when the work was placed in the hands of the several Fistake authorities. In addition to these.000. the young men in their several jurisdictions.

Assistant. The movement first for the organization of this association was among the the first daughters of his own family. The Bishop's Shadow. Tale of Two A Hypatia. for their spiritual and intellectual development. The Last of the Mohicans. industry." he began the work by a direct appeal to the higher intelligence among them. am weary of the manner in which our women seek to outdo each other For instance. Ancient America. for 1907-1908. Prudence. she must have quite as many dishes as launched by President Brigham Young. and charity. . Captain Bonneville. as follows for 1906-1907. Courage. Great Truths. The Castle Builder. " which should provide them with a training school. 1869. The Strength of Being Clean. for 19071908. True to His Home. Wild Animals I Have Known. he made the following explanation of his position in these matters: "All Israel are looking to my family and watching the example set by my wives and children. Widow O'Callighan's Boys. Brewer's Citizenship. for 1910-1911. Having in mind the formation of an organization among the young women. Secret of Achievement. for 1908-1909. for 1911-1912. which should rebel at the growing tendencies toward extravagance and frivAccordingly. in eating and even in speech. a meek deportment.300 THE REAL MORMONISM practical books. Timothy Titcomb's Letters. The Young Man and the World. if a sister inin all the foolish fashions of the world. Cortes. John Stevens' Cities. Hapgood's Life of Lincoln. The Crisis. The time has come when the sisters must agree to give up their follies of dress and cultivate a modest apparel. Cities of the Sun. Good Hunting. for 1910-1911. I desire them to retrench from their extravagance in dress. and to I set an example before the people of the world worthy of imitation. Boy Wanted. for 1911-1912. as does the Young Men's AssoIt began. For this reason I desire to organize my own family first into a society for the promotion of habits of order. Heroism " Lorna Doone. Cooperative Retrenchment Association who formed . as it were. while fulfilling the same function in the educational and social life of the young women of the Church. Silas Marner. for 1 908-1 909. in fact. : Courtship. for 1909-1910. John Halifax. Our Inland Sea. Tom Brown's School Days. Among these may be mentioned the following selections: for 1906-1907. at a meeting held in his home on Novemolity. ciation for the men. had an entirely separate origin. for 1909-1910. ber 28. not so much as an educational agency as one for promoting character and efficiency. vites her friends to visit her. coupled with firm religious conviction. " Friendship. Similarly well-selected lists have been prepared for the junior members. Alfred the Great. The Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Associations. The Young Forester. John Marvel. above all things. Dry Farming. and. Rasselas. Emerson's Essays. thrift.

appearance toward the Grecian bend. 8-10). . Not to make yourselves unhappy. and I want you to vote to retrench in your dress.' a burlesque on the natural beauty and dignity of the human female form. I want my daughters to learn to work and to do it. our daughters are following the vain and foolish fashions of the world." of her plagues. ** Resolved. wherein you have been guilty of silly. And also. . . It is not right. . in your speech. inasmuch as cleanliness is a characteristic of a Saint. but to live so that you may be truly happy in this life and the life to come. nor half as good. and the poor groan under the burden of trying to ape the customs of those who have more means. again.: — — " AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 301 her neighbor spread on a former occasion. This silly rivalry has induced a habit of extravagance in our food. . Retrench in everything that is bad and worthless. extravagant speeches and light-mindedness of thought. Then. . and if we waste that we are bankrupt indeed. It is displeasing to the Lord. . it has involved fathers and husbands in debt. that inasmuch as the Saints have been commanded to gather out from Babylon and not partake of her sins. and indeed she must have one or two more in order to show how much superior her table is to her neighbor's. but can the mind picture where we should have been. Following on this eloquent plea by their father. pp. the young daughters of President Young adopted a set of resolutions. to be a beacon light to all nations. We women are no better than we should be to-day. we shall discard the dragging skirts. folly and fashions of the world. it is our duty to set examples for others. if the training and check of these associations had not been given? No one will deny that the women of the Church have been magnificently disciplined by their various organizais " It good for us The spirit . as fast as it shall be expedient. Gates gives the following fervent testimony to study the words and acts of those early days. instead of seeking to pattern after them. and improve in everything that is good and beautiful. . and set the style for all the rest of the world who desire sensible and comely fashions to follow. and it has made slaves of the mothers and daughters. I should like you to get up your own fashions. and an imperative duty. just to clear the ground in length. without ruffles or panniers or other foolish and useless trimmings and styles. of worldly pleasure and vain fashions was rapidly creeping into the ranks of the daughters of Zion. and exercise our united influIbid. nay. pp. and the workmanship of your own hands. . Let your apparel be neat and I want you to set your own fashions. which I want you all to join. We are about to organize a Retrenchment Association. in your tables. garments plain. 11-12. containing among other matters the following sentences: " Resolved. Not to spend their time for naught for our time is all the capital God has given us. feel that we we pride. we shall adopt the wearing of home-made articles. We ' * Commenting on the work of the Associations founded in the excellent resolutions quoted above. ence in rendering them fashionable." Susa Young Gates (History of the Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association.' and whatever approximates in the boot tops. . Make your comely. Mrs. and will not disgrace our persons by wearing them. that they may receive not should not condescend to imitate the And inasmuch as the Church of Jesus Christ is likened unto a city set on a hill. and for decency's sake those disgustingly short ones extending no lower than also regard panniers.

As at present organized. Home. directing work in the wards. as the Ladies' Cooperative Retrenchment Association Mary I. 35-36. literature and history. (5) the theological Department. thority. and later among the further stakes of Zion." The membership is about 35. The Sunday schools of the Mormon Church are graded for classes of various ages. when. the Primary Association. and (6) the Parents* Department. Largely through the earnest efforts of Eliza R. having a general presidency controlling stake presidencies and these. which works through stake and ward organizations. The auxiliary organizations. pp. or *' departments. The spheres of usefulness of both were greatly widened.000. All of these. have their own separate organization."— Ibid. first in Salt Lake City. in 1880. THE REAL MORMONISM beginning with the Relief Society. It would be a blind if not an ungenerous historian who would not consider the cheering conditions which obtain among us to-day as the result of these early struggles. (2) the Primary. in the art of public speaking. All in all. the among the members and the Young Ladies' Retrenchment Association. the General Church Board of Education and the Religion Class. . or organizations separate from the quorums of the priesthood. are the Sunday School. (4) the Second Intermediate. Snow and society thus founded by President Young of his own family was extended. (3) the First Intermediate. covering two years of instruction. The organization is much the same as that of the Young Men's Association. usually formed along the lines indicated in the Each one has a strong central ausocieties already described. and the membership much increased. in turn. for advanced pupils. the work of the Young Ladies* Mutual Improvement Associations embraces the study of theology. known. " Opportunity is also afforded members in the practice and management of deliberative assemblies. and in work demanding self-effort along the channel of general culture.302 tions. domestic science. There are six grades. covering four years. also covering four years. whose instruction in religion varies accordingly. all were united in the present organization. with a central presidency under the immediate direction of the general authorities of the Church. thus securing complete uniformity and efficiency in the work. The courses of instruction. physiology and hygiene. while under the direction of the general authorities of the Church. and it would be a much easier thing for a great reform movement to sweep through our midst to-day than it was thirty-five years ago. The branches organized by these ladies were divided. respectively. according to membership. covering four years. into senior and junior departments. there is much to encourage the sociologist in the steady improvement and progress of the women of the Church." as follows : ( i ) the Kindergarten.

George Q. Jr. Smith. The house in which the school was held had been erected by Mr. is 179. subsequently organized. may be mentioned Brigham Young. Campbell.781. 1849. or adobes. Wells. Calder. now being in its forty-eighth volume. Sherman. with the courses of study rather mixed. In 1866. in the Rocky Mountain West. Maiben and John Morgan. The Book of Mormon and the Doctrine and Covenants are included in these courses. with all schools graded and otherwise fully equipped for the most successful training of the young and old in the ways of the Lord. noted events in Jewish and New Testament history. schools having been organized in prac- — — . although the work was not formally organized until the year 1849. partaking of the dual nature of Sunday and day school. It was built of sundried brick. old and young. include graded and analyzed lessons in the Scriptures. About twenty-seven years later. Cannon. For the first few years. under the editorship of George Q. Utah. regular plans for class work were formulated and the work throughout the Church was systematized and made universal. was beg^n. and contained two rooms. " Among those prominently identified with the Sunday school work in its infancy. prepared by the authorities of the Deseret Sunday School Union gives the essential facts: "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has from very early in its history made Sunday school service one of the very prominent features in its organization. Edward L.254. Albert Carrington. but with moral and religious training predominating. Sloan. " In the third year of the occupancy of the Salt Lake valley by the Latter-day Saints. This became the official organ of the Sunday schools of the Church and is still being published as such. a lifelong worker in the service of the Master. Brigham Young. The following article. Wilford Woodruff. in Salt Lake City. the Robert Raikes of Sunday school endeavor. From an extremely modest beginning the first organized school having a membership of less than thirty the Sunday schools of the Latter-day Saints have developed with remarkable rapidity until to-day the total enrollment of officers. there being present about twenty of his neighbors. located in twenty counties in Utah and two counties in Idaho. December 9th.. John B. as also the doctrines peculiar to the Mormon Church. Robert L. was somewhat experimental. Cannon. teachers and members. Later." AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS '* 303 which are regularly laid out by the General Board of the Sunday School Union. one of the Presidency of the Church. with some help from his friends. It is a magazine of eighty pages and is the medium through which general instructions and class-work outlines are disseminated. David O. in addition to Richard Ballantyne. and by references to literature and recognized text books for the elder pupils. called the Juvenile Instructor. on Sunday. with 1247 schools and an average attendance of members of 60 per cent. according to the latest compiled statistics. the first Sunday school to be held in the Rocky Mountain region was organized by Richard Ballantyne in Salt Lake City. George A. illustrated by stories and songs for the younger pupils. the work of this school and of others. having a total membership of 14. the publication of a Sunday school journal. Ballantyne's own hands. George Goddard. Daniel H.998. being Richard Ballantyne. a total of 190 schools had been organized. " By 1872. there were 982 schools and the enrollment totaled 119. William H.

The General Board is made up of a superintendent. serve without financial compensation. The Stake organization is composed of a superintendent. in common with all other Sunday school workers. largely after the order of a teachers' institute. senior theological and into the parents' department. secretary and treasurer. general treasurer and associate members. secretaries. second intermediate. They are fully organized and graded and pursue a regular course of study. "The Sunday schools themselves enroll all persons of 4 years of age and upwards who can be interested in the service. one year of the subject. the beginner at 4 years of age. there were 1247 schools. usher and department supervisors. chorister. there usually being at least twenty-two of the latter. one year of Book of Mormon stories. and the stakes correspond to counties or smaller divisions of thickly populated sections. first and second assistant superintendents. or even somewhat earlier. or ward. The schools are officered by a superintendent and two assistants. In some few schools. and every depart- day and day A — . According to the latest official report. President of the Church. interspersed with topics of general and special interest. The stake board conducts regular and frequent meetings of all workers within its jurisdiction for the purpose of instruction and lesson study. the primary. there are Stake organizations directing the work in their districts and these Stake boards the insupervise and direct the operation of the Ward organizations dividual schools. a normal or teachers' training department is maintained and quite a number have an advanced-theological department for those who do not care to identify themselves with the parents' class. all of whom. organist. two years of Book of Mormon history and two years of Old Testament history for the second intermediate department. and the students pass successively through that department. "The Apostolic Age. general secretary. two years of Old and New Testament stories and one year of Church history for the first intermediate department. librarians. " The directing head and supreme authority. librarian. covering a period of sixteen years in the grades and an indefinite time in what The kindergarten department takes is called the parents' department. organists and ushers. assistant secretary and treasurer. under the Presidency of the Church. junior theological. The present course of study includes appropriate kindergarten work for that department. composed at present of thirty-six representative men from almost every walk and avocation in life and including the President of the Church and his two counsellors.304 THE REAL MORMONISM tically every ecclesiastical district. The Union itself includes every Sunday school organization of the Church. The present general superintendent is Joseph Fielding Smith. "Jesus the Christ." one year of the subject. while the parents' department considers all subjects vital to the home and family relations. choristers. of the Sunday school movement is the General Board of the Deseret Sunday School Union. rather remarkable showing and an indication of the interest taken in Sunday school work by the Latter-day Saints. first intermediate.000. of the Church at home and Wherever the Latter-day Saints located and commenced the reclamation of the desert. with a total enrollment of practically 180." one year of Church history and one year of doctrines of the Church for the theological department. they organized Sun- schools. first and second assistant superintendents. in many of the missions abroad. two years of Old and New Testament stories for the primary department. treasurers. The average weekly attendance is 60 per cent of the enrollment. Under the General Board. The wards comprise small towns or divisions of large towns and cities.

' Fourth of July. Singing. Humane day. Concert recitation of Scriptural extracts. Prayer. — Sacrament gem in concert. Prayer. "At regular intervals. identical with that of those with the body of the Church. Among these latter may be mentioned. Singing practice. instruction and lesson study. where practicable. every officer. The finances of the Deseret Sunday School Union are managed by an executive committee. As an example of the work done each Sabbath day by the individual Sunday schools of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.' Bird day. The individual schools provide for their own expenses. Utah. M. and certain days are designated for their consideration.1 : " AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 305 ment of the school has a supervisor and one or more teachers. appropriate topics are considered in open assembly and in each department of every school in the Church. teacher and member of every Sunday school in the Church is expected to contribute five cents each to the general fund.45 — — Reassembly (if Remarks Singing. twenty per cent goes to the support of the Stake organizations and the remainder to the general fund. within recent years by the inauguration of the parents' class movement. The organization of the schools in the foreign missions is. Local board meetings for consultation. The aims of the new department and the details of its organization are set forth in the following " Letter of the General (Sunday School) Superintendency. Singing Sacramental. Sacrament thought by individual. the Sunday School organization is complete and efficient.' Pioneer day. this work usually being in the hands of an amusement committee. to bring about a closer relationship between the — . — — Roll call. Administration of Sacrament. for closing exercises. are held weekly. This is the sole collection made for the^ general Sunday school cause.' Thanksgiving and Christmas.' Arbor " day.' ' * * * * * * ' ' * the other activities associated with the Mormon Church and people. Of the total so contributed.' Washington's birthday. The book store is able to furnish everything in the way of supplies necessary for Sunday school workers and does a large volume of business. 10 o'clock School called to order. and secondly. Its usefulness has been greatly augmented. 9:30 A. the Deseret Sunday School Union owns and operates a fully stocked book and stationery store at its headquarters in Salt Lake City. which still further extends the sphere of religious instruction. desired). how^ever. which provides profit-making entertainments from time to time and thereby makes the school self-sustaining. On the third Sunday in each September. JDepartment work. and made up of all school officers and teachers.' Lincoln's birthday. to aid parents in general culture. following five minutes of instrumental music. " In addition to publishing the Juvenile Instructor. the following programme of a regular session is given Prayer meeting of officers and teachers. first." issued in 1906: Like all "The object of parents' classes is. Abstract of minutes. 10:45 1 -.

"Topics pertaining to the environment of the home. as hereafter explained. parents' classes aim to establish unity between the home and the Sunday school. to the power of love as a disciplinary factor in the home these and many kindred topics will aid the parents both as individuals and as heads of families. and in memory work. the children. the parents' class should march to the room specially provided for its class work. These. able. therefore parents should join the children in the opening and closing exercises of the school and participate It is very desirable. "2. and to be regular in attendance. One or more assistants may be chosen to aid the supervisor. and above all. the place of meeting may be obtained. who will direct and control the exercises and discussions in a wise way. where conditions are favorin the spirit thereof. and this can only be acquired by attendance at the Sunday school and partaking of its influence. to the influence of rewards and punishments as incentives to action. A "A "It is desirable that the parents' classes be held at no other time but during the Sunday school hour on Sunday. not connected with other classes. by one or more persons. " The parents' classes are primarily for the Latter-day Saints. In some places the Bishop of the ward or one of his counsellors is serving in this capacity with excellent results. "The Stake Boards should also have one or more workers to look after this branch. " In the co-operation of the home and the Sabbath School. suitable person should be selected as supervisor. that parents will impress their children with the importance of preparing lessons. it is one of the objects of parents' classes to aid the members to render practical assistance in the matter of home preparation. to the effect of one family's actions upon another's. or have other duties in the school. should be enrolled in the parents' class. and then a full and free discussion should be entered into upon the subject presented. The discussion of the topic should not consume all the time. Roll call. personal canvass of the ward should be made and an explanation of the objects of the classes given. ** After the general opening exercises of the school. though non-members of the Church are invited and should be made welcome. In brief. but a few minutes at the close of each recitation should be devoted to a summary of one or more important truths. Papers or addresses should be rendered on the topic before the class. that parents may give more efficient aid work of the Sunday school. and the — school. It is the purpose to imbue the parents as far as possible with a genuine Sunday school spirit. unless they are officers or teachers. to take an active part in the singing. it is desired that parents will manifest an interest in getting children to be punctual. in order to benefit the parents. to induce the parents to join.3o6 home and in the general THE REAL MORMONISM the Sunday school. where the following suggestive plan may be successfully followed: " I. except in the matter of statistics. All parents attending the Sunday school. In this respect. and a department of the Union meeting should be established for it In short: parents' classes should be considered as an integral department of the Sunday school and treated in the same respect as the other departments. a room in a house adjacent to class. that a room be provided in the meeting house for the use of the Where this is not practicable. the members of the class should de- .

359. from the General Board to the smallest ward organization.459. not only the excellent principles for which it was founded." women who have a vital interest in the affairs of the organizapupils. " Perfect freedom should be encouraged in asking and answering questions pertaining to the subject in hand.290. 22. It serves to inculcate. .484. 26. literary and general topics and also such amusements as socials.303. are the ** mothers and daughters of the Latter-day Saints communities. street roaming and careThe means employed for achieving these excellent less habits. but also to instil into the growing mind the habit of association and the instinct of solidarity.656. The Primary Association has a threefold object: (i) to promote spiritual development in the children. It is nearly the most admirable expression of the instinct for organization and mutual association. there is another organization having in charge the instruction of the young." movement. in the Theological Department. as well as on the truthful- The importance of the activities represented by the Sunday Schools of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints may be understood by the following figures. In that year the total number of schools in all the stakes and missions of the Church was 1." AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 307 termine to introduce into their home lives. This is known as the Primary Association. (2) to educate them in the ways of the Lord. the class supervisors may prepare special work. and in the Parents' Department. by improvement in home government. For Fast Day and an occasional fifth Sunday. which is the first step in real morality and valid religion. teachers and Of these the total number of officers and teachers was 20. so conspicuous in all Mormon affairs. 32. The officers of the Primary Association. in the Primary. the total number enrolled in the graded departments was 136. Just how to do this will be prompted by the nature of the subject. in the Second Intermediate. The Fast Day exercise may consist of testimonies on the effectiveness of the parents' class ness of the Gospel. 25. In addition to the Sunday school organization in the Deseret Sunday School Union. given for the year 1912. concerts and dances. In the Kindergarten department were enrolled 29. it may be by improvement in personal habits. " Three lessons will be provided for each month. ends include both class instruction in religious.152 persons. in the First Intermediate.081 were between the ages of 4 and 20 years. which represented a total enrohnent of 181. including officers. (3) to encourage industrial occupations as an offset to idleness. which is an organization of children officered by women.325. if the words of Christ are to be accepted as a guide in any real sense.396. The members who think and act are those who get most good out of the class work.695. of which 113. or by assisting the children in the lessons for the next Sunday. 23.

as shown in the fact that he applied himself vigorously to the study of Hebrew. the Legislature passed an act incorporating the "University of Deseret. by a general board. THE REAL MORMONISM and whose children are being benefited by its influence. General Superintendent of Church Schools: " On February 28. against Joseph Smith and his earliest associates by no means explain his own thirst for knowledge. . An appropriation of $5. including religious instruction.000 children are enrolled whose parents. was furnished by Mr. as exampled in the Mutual Improvement Associations. geology.000 a year was also made to maintain it. The following outline of the educational system of the Church. nor yet the enthusiasm for better education begotten in the minds of some of his most forceful. Over 3. law and other learned branches. and extending their activities to the stakes. astronomy. It is not strange. 1850. engineering. the Primary Associations throughout the Church include a membership of 60.849 boys and 35. from the General Presidency to the w^ard assistants. 24." and that a ** man is saved no faster than he gets knowledge. According to authoritative figures compiled in 1912. constantly and persistently reiterated. should ultimately crystallize in the establishment of the Church Board of Education." and these principles. The curriculum provided for ancient and modern languages. The Primary Association conducts an excellent and well-edited children's magazine. There are two other important organizations. has always been a matter of prime importance among the Mormon people.. were also opened in Salt Lake City and all the principal settlements. since the settlement of Utah. to find that the general enthusiasm for knowledge. including two of collegiate grade. Cummings." now the Utah University. which conducts and controls the operation of thirty-one distinct schools. There are also 9. and others. whose class instruction is divided into five distinct grades. although little learned associates. which. in view of these facts. The Children's Friend. chemistry. agriculElementary schools ture. are among the most firmly accepted The overdone charges of ignorance beliefs of the people. controlled. The former is concerned principally with the matter of general education. like the others.3o8 tion. in spite of the unfavorable reports constantly circulated. are not members of the Mormon Church. These are the Board of Education and the Religion Class. and other branches of science. either one or both.278. Among the most famous sayings of the Prophet Joseph Smith are those to the effect that the " glory of God is intelligence.. Horace H. "At first a tuition was charged students of the University as well . from the earliest days to the present.726 officers of various degrees.429 girls. about two and a half years after the Pioneers arrived in Utah.

" AUXILIARY ORGANIZATIONS " 309 as the pupils of the elementary schools. it has several times become desperate. domestic art. the latter being endowed by its founder. during the next decade. and very little is given even in the home. but the academies still persist. besides the branches taught in the public schools of like grade. but as population and wealth increased they all became free. "The seminaries. perhaps. or for half pay. theology was required. the moral and religious instincts are correspondingly neglected. and did all in their power to render them efficient "As religion was not taught in public schools the church continued the original practice of maintaining church schools. branches which were not taught in other institutions at that time. While the intellect is now being trained. "The problem of financing the church schools has always been a serious one. Thus a most excellent system of public schools was provided by the Mormons who gladly maintained and patronized them. His labors came timely. " Under the wise direction of the General Church Board of Education. for the growth of the church and the increased number of its schools demanded more perfect systemization and his peculiar ability had a unique field in which to operate. " In all these schools. and the spirit and atmosphere of the schools made to conform to the ideals of the church as far as possible. manual training. 1875 and the Brigham Young College at Logan in 1877. "To accomplish this purpose they offer the usual courses in cultural and intellectual subjects. did not continue many years because of the great expense to educate the vast number of children of elementary school age. the curriculurn of this school should include instruction in what are now known as agriculture. and seminaries for elementary work in the most wealthy wards. Thus the head. "The Latter day Saints regret the present absence of religious training for the young. the first principal of the Brigham Young Academy. therefore. is to make to put them into proper relaLatter day Saints of the young people tions with their Heavenly Father and their fellow man. The chief aim of the church schools. October 16. Maeser. the heart and the hand arc trained together. — ." . however. as missionaries. An Academy to do high school work was established in each of the most populous stakes. though several discontinued during the financial depression of the early nineties. both as a teacher and an organizer. etc. was also chosen as the first General Superintendent of the church schools. domestic science. "Dr. Karl G. In many instances the devoted teachers have willingly given their services free. and under the guidance of the General Church Board of Education the peculiarities of the present school system were developed. or whatever amount the people could give them. the usual subjects then taught in colleges. and in times of business panics or serious persecutions. or mechanic arts. a system of church schools was established throughout the principal stakes of Zion. to which is added a goodly amount of industrial education and thorough courses in theology. as never before in the history of the race. since the only sources of revenue are tithes and voluntary contributions. whose name it bears. He had great ability. but which have since become so important. Public schools do not allow it churches are not supplying it. The Brigham Young Academy was founded at Provo. with a valuable tract of land near Logan The deed of trust granting this endowment provided that besides City.. and he originated many excellent features that are still peculiar to our church schools and have proved to be of the highest value.

first founded in 1890. The work of . is the organization of the Religion Classes. drawing lessons from real life as found in biography. precisely as are all the other activities of the Church. learning sacred songs and hymns. prayer. Keeler {The Lesser Priesthood. The practical training of the children in personal duties and requirements of the Gospel.. p. There was therefore room for the oranization. as testimony bearing." /. was not sufficient time to devote to religious instruction as an offset to worldly and other detrimental influences.3IO Distinct its THE REAL MORMONISM ing from the Board of Education. but largely supplementwork. B. tion having general the Religion Class is conducted by an organizaand stake boards. "The object as explained by the promoters of the organization was to furnish a means for the religious training of children of school age who do not regularly attend Church institutions of learning. It was created primarily to fill an educational need of the great mass of children of Latter-day Saint parentage. — — etc. the field was extensive. the committing to memory of important passages of Scripture. as well as Church government these are some of the leading and concrete ideas that best express the character of the Religion Class. Two or three hours a week spent in the Sabbath Schools and like gatherings. 162). so it was urged. becoming acquainted with forms and ordinances of the Church. the soil rich and deep. the fruitage ought to be abundant.

and they dared not let their own know what Mormonism really was. followers Simplv because the Evangelhas Mormonism been so much misunderstood? churches saw in its success their own downfall. lest they should embrace it" Charles — . JUSTICE AND MORMONISM "Why ical Ellis.VI TRUTH.

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so contemptuous of law. and up to this hour the let them alone. If President Buchanan had allowed Col. or otherwise compel respect for the ninth commandment in any other element of the American public.: CHAPTER XXII ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS Despite the beams in our own eyes. the Rev. gave vent to the following " Mormonism will resist through the courts as long as possible. so infuriate against the United States Government that nothing that Congress has yet done will move the abomination the thousandth part of an inch. and it is high time that this fact should be brought to the attention of all. The following passages and extracts have been selected as fair examples of " Christian. and of the In this spirit. Talmage." 313 ." " American " and " righteous " utterances " evoked by Mormon misdoings. as reported by several newspapers. that polygamy will never be driven out of Utah except at the point of the bayonet It is well to try peaceful legislation at first. A." However. the Mormons promising to behave well if the United States Government would fall back and Our government fell back. the late Rev. Dr. truth-respecting and justice-loving people." If they are the sort of things acceptable to decent. mage once shrieked from the United States artillery to " thunder the seventh commandment into the people of Utah. he never asked for any other arm of the service to thunder bayonet. but it is well enough to know that Mormonism is so thoroughly intrenched. glibly and contemptuously borne unceasing false witness against the Mormon people. T. S. and captured 800 oxen and forthwith the United States Government went into treaty. they are here conveniently at hand for any such who may wish to memorize and declaim them. De Witt Talpublic generally. he and many others of his profession have merrily. we have gallantly volunteered to remove the motes from the eyes of Mormons. but the over-married Mormons cut off three of our supply trains. sabre. polygamy would have been dead a quarter of a century ago. and then it will go into bloody encounter. Thus. In 1882. Johnston to go ahead with his army in 1857. I am more and more persuaded of the truth of what I said two years ago in this place. organized libertinism of Utah is master of the situation. after he had arrived in Utah.

no one acquainted with this gentleman's type of habits of thinking would expect to find him a consistent exponent of the " scientific method. but also two senators from that State. 23 Rev. and without telegraphic or railroad communications. and 500 more teachers are needed. Col.: 314 THE REAL MO^MONISM course." New — We . misquotes this speaker in several particulars however. It has increased until to-day it covers that whole Territory. Johnston was not sent to Utah to extirpate polygamy. who.800 miles away. for twenty-three years a missionary in Utah. and the people dare not disobey him. or to Idaho Send such a man as delegate to Congress.000 Mormon children in the day schools of Utah taught by missionaries who are exerting untold influence. what is to be said of the inferences he draws and the advice he gives? The Salt Lake Tribune of January 24. In Colorado even he can dictate who shall not only be congressman. to Arizona. ." but it is somewhat surprising to find how fully his zeal against the man of straw. Sheldon Jackson. . Wyoming. President Buchanan. John Taylor says to Utah. and Guiteau is now lauded to the skies by these people. "The only means of avoiding this is to educate the children. and the seed now sown will solve the Mormon question without the aid of arms or law. not only among children. 1882 contains the fol- Of mind and lowing " : York. and." bHnds him to the real facts of history." Nor did the interference of individual bands of Mormon scouts and Indians with the army supply trains necessitate Johnston's failure to " smash the Mormons. This is evidently a fragmentary newspaper report. Last summer when all Christendom was praying for the recovery of the beloved President (Garfield). enough. He said: Twenty-five years ago Mormonism. Alaska and other parts of the North-west. powder and drilling militia in the back part of Utah and preparing for a rebellion which is inevitable. appeared on the horizon of Utah. This work can be done by Christian women teachers. John Taylor is the governing power in Utah. Jan. but also among Mormon women.000 Mormons. urged on by religious fanaticism. are determined soon think that we make the to rebel and then fight to the death. which he has christened '' Mormonism." If a preacher's " facts " are so distorted. like a little cloud. Arizona. Ever since the 27th of September Mormon bishops have been flaunting their prayer They are now securing arms and test in the face of the Gentiles. " Nearly one-third of the United States is occupied by 150. and New Mexico. all Mormondom was praying for his death. but to put down a rebellion falsely reported to exist there. and holds controlling power in Utah. did not forbid him to " go ahead with his army. but the officials appointed to Utah by the President are mere figureheads. likely note. Idaho. There are to-day 3. 2. laws which govern the territories. preached last night in the Central Presbyterian Church on Mormonism. and almost in the state of Colorado. In ten or fifteen years these children will be voters and citizens^ of Utah. that people always complain of being '* misquoted" — .

who speak from prejufield's — — dice. were it only possible. not one single remark derogatory to the eminent sufferer. it was scandalous that John Taylor alone. The Mormon people received no very tangible benefits from Garfield's hands. on any assumption. It seems to have been first made in a religious newspaper of Boston. should have controlled the votes and representatives of five states. but. 1881. when the Mormons are " determined soon to rebel and then [suicidally] fight to the death." but the honest historian would joyfully record. with the intention of qualifying to speak honestly on Mormonism. as alleged. (It had probably become a " matter of faith. although it was no missionary's business." Posterity would have gained a higher idea of our civilization and our people. although widely challenged. expressed or implied. carefully searched through the files of all leading Mormon and pro-Mormon newspapers and magazines. political or sectional. and failed to find one single remark. It is curious. was neither substantiated or retracted. The same accusation has been made by others. quite as " honorable men. the assassin. not one single remark in any way favorable to Guiteau. when McKinley was assassinated. and quite the kind of thing that has served to inflame the popular mind against Mormonism.") The present writer. that indicated the hope that Garfield would die. even though back-biting missionaries had missed the opportunity they have so industriously exploited. course. 27. The arms and powder and drilling . not Mormons. as did many people." and are " securing arms and powder and drilling militia in the back part it is not indicated on the map of Utah. and some perhaps many individuals among them may have expressed opinions similar to that mentioned above. when New York." but it is utterly and absolutely mendacious. to the skies. or offering excuse or extenuation for his crime. Pennsylvania." wherever that may be that eastern backers of mission enterprises are urged to send five hundred women teachers to brave the terrors of this turbu" " Of — — lent and immoral territory. that this widely traveled gospeler repeated the groundless slander that all Mormons prayed for Gardeath and lauded Guiteau. But in neither case can all the people justly be blamed for the unwisdom of the few. that all the venal and worthless creatures ever sent to Utah by the Federal Government had been mere " figureheads. however.ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS when they read their silly sayings in print 315 is — but it a typical anti-Mormon deliverance. issued between the dates July 2d and Sept. and New England are divided among and " with difficulty controlled by numerous corrupt political '' rings and " machines. It is probable.

and like that reef. he shows that he is a good practical engineer. would seem — A this occurs " Dr. fluences of society are expected to restrain the indurated characters and consciences of criminals in vain. into howling harpies or The following passage. Like Hell-gate at the entrance of New York harbor (!). (He had been sent to Utah from the Northern New York conference.) As a matter of fact. it has its foundations deep and strong. and by violence alone can they be repelled. and yet fresh concubines are in . Sanpete County. where. taking hold of the bottom rocks of depravity. and thereby gained high esteem as veritable Damiens. self-exiled among the "moral lepers" of the Rocky Mountains.) Both these gentlemen related their " sad experiences to appreciative eastern audiences. another Presbyterian missionary in the late " 70s " is quoted as saying that his life was in constant danger in. if it is to avail. *' the only means of avoiding this. Thus. and this gentleman is quoted as having acknowledged as much privately. probably accompanied by vague threats of violence by a gang of loiterers. There are 500 bigamists in the penitentiaries of the various states. Crosby says that Mormonism ought to be dynamited. and in so saying. as stated. From the depths of sodden imbecility the abuse of Mormonism rushes to the shivering heights of barbarous truculence. 1881. covering itself in a garb of religion and indulging in a mixed dialect of cant and cursing. They proceed to violence." In this event. which the writer callous barbarians? found quoted in a Utah newspaper of 1881. is the witchcraft in this system that so often transforms people. otherwise decent and righteous. What. his pulpit methods were not wholly acceptable. on account of the violence and " uncouthness " of his expres" sions. pray.: 3i6 THE REAL MORMONISM to indicate a more or less immediate intention to " resort to violence. Mormonism is lechery. All the moral inyield to anything but force. the education of the children. In the Interior (Chicago) for April 28th. Methodist missionary in the northern part of the territory had a similarly narrow and " miraculous " escape from death in the performance of his "duty" of abusing the Mormons' religion in the hope of inducing enthusiasm for his own sect. no more murderous assault had been attempted than verbal insults. it will never Crime never does." must needs be hurried amazingly. (Excellent conditions for evoking spiritual and convincing discourses. and that he was obliged to preach with a Bible in one hand and a pistol in the other. (A " hurry call " to prospective contributors!) Jackson's accusations are of a kind with those of numerous other missionaries in Utah. seemed so utterly impossible that he presents it only after verifying its presence in the files of the Presbyterian journal that first disgraced itself by printing it.

entitled to no rights which a " civilized man " should recognize. but are waging an open and avowed warfare for the possession of the surrounding territories. and to establish themselves there in ninety days after the word go is given. The United States army is not large and it has enough to do without defending these outlaws. so dangerous to the peace and safety of the country as are the white savages of the Mountain Meadow (massacre). spoiled?) even with the red Indians. The people in the vicinity of Nauvoo." if only " with a morsel of Calvin. and that the use and occupation of Mormon property for a year is to give a pre-emption title. when " savages " are deThe Government was more considerate than this. who are (Does seeking homes. Not only is he terior contemptuously obUvious to the fact that the federal courts. There are enough young men in the west and south." before he penned his intemperate and brutal tirade. The Mormons. to fumigate the territory. Pizarro. as such. . down in the scale of decency as the Mormons if in paint and on the warpath. after a thorough threshing-out of the matter. in perpetrating the Acadian atrocity. had absolved the leaders from complicity in the Mountain Meadows masand brought to justice the only men upon whom the crime could be fastened. Mormon — — the crime of robbery find extenuation. rose in their righteous wrath." — — ' ' It seems fairly evident that this trenchant editor of the In- had neglected to emulate Rev. and other "pioneers of Christian civilization. Deprive the Mormons of their property " without due process of law " change and turn it over to the chaste the Constitution. are the worst savages in the land. The British. There is not a savage tribe in America so low nor would they all be. Let us then take an arrow from the full quivers of the Spanish conquerors of America: they have created the precedents. sacre. and has been indorsed by the august examples of Cortez." It is a shame that such " savages " as the Mormons should be allowed to possess " lands and tenements. but he openly and shamelessly advocates the commission of an enormity of even huger proportions. and gave the criminals a short alternative between hemp and a hegira. That seems to be the correct attitude toward savages. who not only defy law." even though these have been created by their own industry and enterprise. Let the lands and tenements of the Mormons be thrown open to original entry by civilized settlers. who are seeking homes. and. Let it be understood that the army will keep out of the way in Utah for four years. he tells us.ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS 317 process of shipment by the carload through Chicago for the supply of these leering beasts. Illinois. All the government needs to do is to let civilization have the same chance at the white savages that it has always given to settlers in dealing with the comparatively innocent red men. but that is no superlative indorsement of its policy. if necessary and exemplary "young men in the west and south. to finish up the pest." and would not hesitate to steal them. John Cotton's example and *' sweeten his mouth.

J. in Missouri. with a taking detachment of the army in a new and showy uniform. also. with a detachment of United States troops en route for California. Roberts: New York "In August. it is said. rebellion. significant some " editorial writer of the Herald embalmed it. when women and little boys were shot to death by an anti-Mormon mob. however. has not fought the " Mormon monster " single-handed. sadly characteristic of army camp life. It furnished a good except. H. It indicates the way. During their stay. The astonishing results of the expedition of Col. The religious press. by female desertions to the standard Christian regulation of one wife apiece. too. if. and consequently. and which is never remembered by those who verbigerate about the Mountain Meadow. for the abolishment of the peculiar institution of Utah. example appeared 1855. chance for anti-Mormon invective." Very generally." But this Presbyterian editor all the Mormon people. the President were to send out to Utah at this crisis of impendthat Mormon women significant. Steptoe." 3i8 THE REAL MORMONISM merely transferred a population from one location to another one considered " more appropriate." (And all this for the " glory of God " !) When we read such a screed we are better able to understand how was perpetrated by clerical instigation the brutal massacre of Haun's Mill. touching this nest of Mormons. A particularly aggravated 15. driven from their homes into the alkali deserts to live or perish as predestined by " divine decrees. to measure the worth of a religious profession that can in any way justify the cowardly assaults on the people of Nauvoo. and at the end of two or three months order them off to California and replace them by a new detachment at Salt Lake City. in local newspapers. and very is ment of the regular army are ripe for a greater terror to the patriarchs of the Mormon Jerusalem than Indians or drouth or grass-hoppers. do most distinctly suggest the future policy of the government. and so on until those Turks of the desert are reduced. perhaps. even the " wronged women " and the jolly little children. and that as follows: It shows a detach- . but remained in Utah until the following spring. withal. Lieutenant-Colonel E. in this view. also. Unquestionably. it would have escaped editorial comment. having lost caste among their trayers to California I former associates. that members of the command prostituted a of squaws and also seduced a number of white women. have now and then evinced anxiety to be "in at the death. followed their be- This incident. is really Had it occurred elsein no particular whatever. This the is momentous news. where than in Utah. who usually avoid issues of this kind. in the is The occasion Herald for September thus related by B. 1854. these " lay " attacks wants are as ill-judged as they are vulgar. however. good-looking soldiers. Steptoe arrived in Salt Lake. number The latter. Even secular editors. It is to send out to the Great Salt Lake a fresh detachment of young.

who evidently considers his own a judicial type of mind. . also. therefore. new and women are ripe for rebellion. was " only whether or not the writer of this filth whether he merely considered his style witty. . 1881. a corps of regular disciplined women's rights women. and thus remove a galling spectacle from the sight of evangelical believers. recommend. is the fact that the same or similar suggestions have been made in dead earnest by a host of other anti-Mormon It IS quite evident that. delivers himself thus: A " Apropos of the new and petty war recently started by the municipal . The mention of " women's rights women. . who find the propagation of virtue a much more serious business. in order that virtues irregularly derived neutralized. to lay down the law to their sisters among the Mormons." or These people. the downfall of a few unfortunate women could possibly prove that " the Mormon women are ripe for rebellion " is past the comprehension of any- The was a labored How one not a " Mormon-eater or a humorist. howspecial canons of logic. they would soon compel the patriarchal authorities of Salt Lake to an exodus to some other region beyond the reach of our gallant army." have deliberately advocated the introduction of immoral characters and practices into the comparatively unworldly writers. . "What Utah Needs." it flippant style of this editorial might almost suggest that effort at humor. the policy of detailing another detachment of troops for Great Salt Lake City with the auxiliary force of half a dozen regular women's rights women whatever the cost. in fun.frequent re-enactment of this sort of tragedy in every city and village in Christendom was a proof '* that " Christian ever. knowing." also. " proOvercome evil vide things honest in the sight of all men. . and our heroic warriors in petticoats who know their rights. We apostles. One might as justly suppose that the ail-too." some critic of Mormonism. but the " humor " that makes them possible accessories to a proposed systematic debauchery of their " unawak- ened sisters " is dismal. there is here an undercurrent of earnestness that is a sad exhibition in any person having access to the columns of a great newspaper. Sadder. and. must be adopted when dealing with such exceptional people as Mormons. with good. even should the grasshoppers fail to conquer the territory in the expulsion of the Saints. dare maintain them. seems sadly out of place." Probably. as well as new standards of morals. This class of agitators have some serious failings.ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS 319 ing famine. forgetting the divine principle. the work may be done among the wives of the . may be settlements of Utah. to the President and secretary of the Interior. Under the caption. choice example of this sort of thing appears in the Salt Lake Tribune of March 6. and thus.

Why the editor of the Tribune quoted this trash from " one of the enemy.. and perhaps harder still to maintain. not even itself. getting drunk. anything to break the shackles they were born in. saloons. is [And so on at last the freest and most prosperous nation in Europe. The national convention spared nothing in Heaven or in earth. they will be free. At the very least. At all events. to compare great things with small. one of the enemy said to us the other day "' It may be a hard thing to say. Some of them will go quite to the bad. it is to me tolerable. which. " friend. The Tribune was the recognized organ of the anti-Mormon . and be all the stronger for the knowledge of it.] This editorial is noteworthy only because of its stupidity and shameless advocacy of vice and immorality. because it appears to offer the only inducement strong enough to entice men out of slavery into freedom.' " Probably our friend was wrong." ad nauseam for the remainder of the column. . the liquor dealers and the gambling fraternity. will soon weary of vice and dissipation. running with bad women. that in my opinion his freedom is cheaply won at the cost of some familiarity with low life. or even the Tribune. and houses of ill-fame are more powerful reforming agencies here in Utah than churches and schools. It shows merely to what desperate extremes the opponents of Mormonism had come. of the roaring. and that every so-called religious or virtuous influence only makes the stronger. It seems amazingly like the typical disowned child of one's own brain. which involved all forms of human slavery in one smoking bloody ruin.. and the sooner the better. I rejoice when I see the young Mormon hoodlums playing billiards. should be discouraged by all people layits mon ing claims to decency. beheaded the king. and of its vanity. in order to cure them of their grave attack of slavery. What the young Mormons want is to be free.: 320 THE REAL MORMONISM * government on the women of the town. but it is better so. Most of them. after a century of revolutions required to perfect the work then begun. and from that memorable date France. and decimated itself time and time again. And while it is not desirable in itself. but it reminded us. and since there is no good reason why they were begun for. but within its brief term of three years it recovered itself. If the several vices prescribed for Moryouth. it matters not much to what or to whom they are. conquered Europe. for they are made of poor stuff. fathers off upon some anonymous. and likely fictitious. so we are accustomed to assume." if he did not entirely endorse it is not clear. in the fury of madness it dethroned God. which one modestly. however." probably because he is ashamed to acknowledge it himself. would have effected anything. let them soon be done for. So long as they are slaves. why not recommend that they be included in the " education '* of all young men ? It might help to develop the true American spirit of independence. flaming hell through which the French nation broke its chains. but I believe that billiard halls. are to be so effective in their cases. Nothing short of that unparalleled upheaval. and they can be nothing. and it is of such vital consequence that a man should be free. although rather stupidly.

No protest from its clerical allies against any of its utterances ever reached the eyes or ears of the public. at least." the moral condition of the territory would have been hopeless. shame. Mormons complain of the agitation of this subject by gentiles. t Italics ours. "gentile" vices are declared to be the great desiderata * " Poem on Universalism. Thus. It noticed Mormon meetings only in abusive and burlesque articles. including. as if one wrong justified another. In February. It is in the children of these unnatural unions that nature works her revenges. Superstition is invoked to weave its benumbing influence around a woman before she can be made to accept polygamy. but for " gentile influence. men sometimes make brutes of themselves and women lose their womanhood. . in an editorial printed in the issue of February 25. that is. it only shows that the system has made such men dead to either a sense respect for law. for example. They will with one accord. in the other walks of life." by John Peck. . that pride. We for virtue would have been the death of the soul. The result upon the progeny of such women is thoroughly understood by scientists. . and when men seek to justify it on the ground that. vices of several varieties are recommended to neutralize virtues rooted in slavery. It 321 was read and quoted by all anti-Mormon missionaries." * and attend some evangelical conventicle. . Run panting to the Lord. . just nine days before the one just quoted.ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS party in Utah. Although in some moods the Tribune recognized that its " sacred cause " was so desperate that the Mormon youth must be seduced from their innocence by an introduction to " real life. " the end justifies the means.^ . in March. and it is so apparent already in this city that a reformatory institution is called for. the preposterous remarks of " Elder Adam T. . . the following occurs: "One favorite defense of polygamy on the part of our church contemporaries is to charge almost universal licentiousness on the part of those not in polygamy. in the case of the Mormons. women and dead here now. respect for ." and other silly satires. It printed full and appreciative reports of the conclaves and sermons of members of their several sects. 1881. The system means of justice or sense of shame.'* and " That though men serve the devil and lust." People unfamiliar with life and conditions in Utah at this period would obtain a somewhat vague idea from reading newspaper editorials. Ramp. the editor thinks that. In one week a reformatory is needed for Mormon juvenile delinquents. that could they have kept gentiles and gentile Influences altogether away from Utah until this day. Some of them actually endorsed its shameless opinions. if she is a real woman. presumably holding that. . in the next." other methods of attack were used occasionally. When tired and done with such sweet fun. tell them in all sincerity.

to the best of their lights. . By a Gentile. fills our ears with clerical scandals and our criminal courts with Christian' defaulters. in their minds." — : 322 THE REAL MORMONISM of its social and religious life. but their property not beauty. That such persons were no others than those familiar American pests." Utah and its People. and very different. It is not their wives. that pride. they are after. respect for the opinions of men. The reason for this is best explained in the words of one of their number writing in 1882: " The Mormons shrink from a civilization that introduces the brothel with its advance guard." however. shame. is suggested in the following passage " The end and object of this whole system of hostile measures against Utah seems to be the destruction of popular rule in that territory. How else can you account for the struggles they are now making to get possession of all the local offices in the territory. and leads to a prevalence of foeticide and infanticide which. but I do most devoutly believe in the hunger of political adventurers for spoils of every kind. I have not much faith in political piety. In their efforts to convert the Mormons from their " errors. fills our papers with unmentionable advertisements. appeared probably the ** cause of true religion and sound morals" and such has ever been the slogan of persecutors there is very respectable evidence for the contention that they were in reality being kept in a condition of chronic inflammation by persons having other. and makes of every city a sink of iniquity. respect for women and for virtue would have been dead In criticizing the utterances of the Tribune. but booty. and all depositories of public money? If they do legislation . — — — — care a straw how much or how little the Mormons are married. even if only as the " lesser of two evils. that elevates Restellism into a social institution. auditor. And this is the way in which " we tell them in all sincerity. and their recognized organs. might well fill us with horror and dismay. honestly bent on achieving lasting benefits for the Mormon people." But. while the Protestant clergy. the corrupt politician. the hungry " carpet-bagger. that could they have kept gentiles and gentile influences altogether away from Utah. if its extent were known." and the sufferer from insatiate greed." They may have wished to '* let bad enough alone. they met with nearly insuperable discouragements. we ! must not forget that many of the " Gentiles " in Utah at that time were good and earnest men. I may be wrong for I can only reason from the fact that is known to the but I do not think that the promoters of this fact that is not known were ceaselessly agitating what. including the treasurer. objects to achieve by the enactment of coercive and sumptuary legislation for Utah. * Probably such considerations as the foregoing were powerful in confirming the Mormons in preferring polygamy. however. a civilization that converts women to prostitution faster than it does to Christian life.

" while waiting. really nurtured any such ambition. Black. 24. But the dream of the leaders is much more extensive in its range. why do they reach out their hands for such a grab as this?" Judge Jeremiah S. and the fact could be proved. apparently. while introducing this accusation of " disloyalty " only as a " filler. as the leading anti-Mormon organ. 2y. Another healthy example of anti-Mormon utterances is the speech of Judge Jacob S. Colorado and New Mexico. for some new happy thought of sensational and slanderous character. we find the fol- lowing with caption. 323 not want to rob the people. an effort to fan the dying flames of prejudice. 1880. which they seem to consider a very effective condition for glorifying God. 1882. under date Oct. the fact remains that " polygamy " was not the real and fundamental objection against Mormonism." . so his dream is that before he dies he will have the casting of the decisive vote in not only Utah. The Salt Lake Tribune.— ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS the Territories. Cannon. Thus. nor the real occasion against the Mormons. and to bring it under the control of the Mormon church. Arizona. Cannon is now able to direct from his office in this city how every Mormon in Utah shall vote. "The Real Object": " Polygamy is not the worst curse of the Mormon church." — — This is the " armed insurrection " scare again. so it is the dream of the poorest and most abject Mormon to sometime have a 'happy family' of two or three wives of his own. 8. but Idaho. every convenient method of attack that promised any advantage against these people was worked to its full extent. The leaders cling to polygamy because it is a bait to catch and hold the gfudgeons of their faith. Because the real occasion against the Mormons was precisely Mormonism itself. Judge Boreman was one of the numerous " noted jurists " appointed by the Federal Government to " help the Mormons solve He is described as *' a kindly and high-minded their problems. Montana. or any other leader in the Mormon church. '* Allah! Allah! Allah!" until they actually induce a phrensy. p. Boreman before a meeting of the Ladies Anti-polygamy Society in a Salt Lake Methodist chapel on the evening of Feb. As there was never a poor white in the South in the old days who did not dream of sometime being able to own at least one negro. His idea is by a balance an empire in extent of power to absolutely carry all this region beyond the control of the United States. If Mr. Federal Jurisdiction in Whether Judge Black's suspicions were correct or not. it would seem a waste of space to abuse polygamy so often and at such length. ran the full chromatic gamut. As George Q. It was merely a convenient word to be used much after the fashion in which the howling dervishes shout the Arabic name for God. The methods of this newspaper are the very best evidence of the utter futility of its charges.

but the masses will find that the Commission. he never published any complaint. he was undoubtedly fully aware of the meaning and probable influence of all his utterances. " When Garfield was here the Mormons gave out that they had swallowed him.' " Now they did not swallow Garfield. We are bound to the priests and want them broken up." . that he fully consented to father the statements attributed to him. and the priests fattening at their expense. It is a sad exhibition of the way in which sectarian prejudice and the conceit of righteousness will aggravate the habitual depravity of our most " unruly member. What blasphemy to say that these men are in league with God! We don't want a lot of sheep to be driven about as the leader dictates. even Utah territory. But now what a beggarly picture this a lot of knaves and trembling widows and orphans. When these white-headed old rascals get revelations the people have to bow. and a member of the Methodist church. it is time that they turned it over to Americans for a while. We may assume. you can see what Americans can do for a place. And they do not rate him very high. and let us see what we can do with it. as follows when you compare Kansas with this territory [Utah]. Now let's see how they did it.000. Then the children of the present generation will rise plan. I think. The twelve apostles and John Taylor are now running this country. They have run the territory into the ground for forty years. and you can see what inspiration can do for it. Had Utah been settled by Americans these barren mountains would be now pouring forth their treasures of gold and silver. We want a few men of common sense and honesty to run the country. We are afraid to say this openly.000 pairs of eyes looking at them. with 50." The judge was evidently not '* greater than he that taketh a city. The leaders will be disappointed. he told me that while traveling in Utah men slipped up and whispered in his ear." As a man sufficiently informed and experienced to hold the office of a federal judge. According to this jurist. " When up and call it blessed. It is the leaders who are getting all the good. We can't run it any longer on the European ' the [polygamy investigation] commission comes polygamy will be a thing of the past." His deliverance before this virtuous conclave is reported in part in the Salt Lake Tribune of February 28th. therefore. and I don't think they are getting Arthur down very fast. and now. will be the best friends they ever had. will knock the shackles from the wrists of the people of Utah and make something out "Now — We of them.: yt4 THE REAL MORMONISM Christian gentleman. but. Don't believe a word the lying priests say. and be careful to do the square thing all around. They will thoroughly understand their position. and a few men will be playing checkers behind the bars of the penitentiary. the Mormons are not "Americans. " Such a commission will do nothing blind or rash. if he was misquoted in any particular. They won't want another Guiteau to crow over very soon." Mr. and not the Mormons. For the Lord's sake help us. Justice Boreman probably read this report in the Tribune. Walking down Main Street one day.

therefore. is " gold-digging. protested that he preferred to be called what he was. sought to found a secure community in the territory before opening the mines." and all Mormons on the verge of precipitating an armed revolt against the Government. Garfield's national repute is an adherent of this faith. Is it evidence of some sinister influence of even graver import? Quite in line with the other falsehoods circulated about the Mormons." Judge Boreman has allowed his Methodist proclivities to lead him blindly into assisting the efforts of other Utah ** gentiles. that the " people can not eat gold and silver." ANTI-MORMON ACCUSATIONS 325 Although very many of their early leaders were of the " best blood of colonial New England." not peculiarly Methodist. and whispered pleas against " priestly domination. a certain preacher. But Brigham Young." could have spoken only from some " ulterior motive. Had the Mormons been Americans. is the amusing habit of the religious and sensational press of " discovering " that nearly every" notorious criminal of Guiteau." All this furnishes a very clear explanation of the kind of men who " slipped up " to President Garfield in various parts of Utah. or rather his alleged membership in the Mormon church was adduced as " explanation " of He. and no very great gain to his own repute." The highest reach of true American effort. things which usually constitute very good evidences of right to the title " American. who had con- . denied this " soft impeachment. In any other people similarly situated. '* these barren mountains would be now pouring forth their treasures of gold and silver. was largely spurred by the visions of a land " out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. more interested in prophets than in profits." They were almost as credulous as the editorial writer of the New York Herald. we would have heard of the great wisdom of this course. Even more recently. that the peace has always been kept fairly well in Utah. assassin." However. Evidently a profession of Mormonism acts as an " estoppel " to all claims in this direction. as the Israelites of old are said to have dealt with the Philistines. when both Mormon men and Mormon women are " ripe for rebellion against the " priesthood. who gaily announced that " the Mormon women are ripe for rebellion. whose zeal to deal with the Mormons. who stated." Garfield and Boreman seemed to have thought these whisperings a genuine " doleful sound " from " the tombs. no very great loss to Mormonism. the Mormons." the Mormons were something else." and his crime. however. in defense of his policy." It is curious that. he is quoted as saying. was accused of Mormonism." and the majority of them owned legitimate descent from revolutionary soldiers.

" His accuser explained that. . inevitably. a Mormon.326 THE REAL MORMONISM was fessed to the crime of murdering a young iarly atrocious circumstances. under peculsimilarly credited with being a " Mormon elder." hence. ** while it is not common. woman. This fact to the clerical mind is proof positive that he was a " polygamist. more or less closely associated with several young women. it is not unusual to find the more educated of the Mormon elders preaching in the pulpits of evangelical churches which baptize by immersion." The sole excuse for this absurd lie was that this person was reputed to have been in the course of his career.

why do they Reforming insist on making it a perpetual political issue? paranoids incapable of comprehending the wise methods of dealing with the liquor traffic. has a very definite political significance. without seriously considering the futile slander that the real object of the Mormon authorities is to precipitate some sort of causeless. and well-being. however. if attended with the results moral and social. Mormonism is essentially a social and colonizing system. turpitude appears to be involved in either of these candid mind will understand after reading all of the present volume. such participation in politics as may justly be credited to them is explainable on two grounds: 1. Thus. on the whole. (a) whether this political significance is hostile to law. fostered by those who profess to decry any conjunction of church and state. already found in the Mormon portions of Utah. either as a Church with an official head. it is inevitable that their sense of common interest to a degree has political expression.CHAPTER THE ALLEGED POLITICAL XXIII ACTIVITIES OF THE MORMON AUTHORITIES It seems fairly probable that Mormonism. as already explained. conditions. order. or as a collection of individuals each having a vote. if our chronic agitators wish to expel Mormonism from politics. which is distinctly beneficial in many ways. a decided improvement over present conditions. it is scarcely remarkable that the leaders of their Church should occasionally appear as their leaders in — — politics. The alleged fact that Mormons usually vote in a and it seems probable that they have so voted on several body occasions involves neither of these alternatives. Again. would be. 2. It is proper to inquire. Considering the constant political agitation against these people. and (b) whether it is distinctly unAmerican. and suicidal revolt against the government. On the other hand. useless. the much dreaded domination of the Mormon Church in any section of our country. involving normally a very real order of solidarity among its people. No amazing As any 327 . so effective in European countries.

of overturning the government. when they got strong enough. then we can deal rationally and effectively with all other classes including Mormons. They express themselves to be fearful that if division should be encouraged in politics. Snyder for governor. and rogueries of all sorts. thus unspeakably corrupting the government of several of our large cities. it would soon extend to their History religion. had effected the unanimous pass- tionable to age in the Legislature of the Nauvoo charter. and it was believed by vast numbers of the people. became seriously alarmed. — first attained proportions in Illinois. p. They were charged with numerous . two parties had their candidates in Joe Smith published a proclamation to his followers in the Nauvoo papers. "A vast number of reports were circulated all over the country to the prejudice of the Mormons. " In a very short time after the field. 1841. . But this proclamation left no doubt as to what they woul4 do in the coming contest. to act as a unit in matters of government and religion. without their approbation and votes. the rivalry of these contending parties being then obscured in the keen competition for the the Mormon vote. driving out the old population. himself an active participant in much of the history of the period. had cast their vote as a unit. thereby making the fact apparent that no one could aspire to the honors or offices of the country within the sphere of their influence. as The Children of Israel did in the Land of Canaan. It was plain that the Whigs could expect their support no longer. and that the Whig party in the Legislature had swallowed the odious charter without prospect of reward. that they entertained the treasonable design. If Mormonism has in any sense infiltrated an undesirable influence into local or national politics. The Whigs had considerable hope of the Mormon support until the appearance of this proclamation. thefts and robberies. and sought . Governor Ford also relates how that the rivalry of the two Whigs and Democrats. at the period of Nauvoo was under their domination. 329. and exhorting them to vote for Mr. This episode is fully set forth by Governor Thomas Ford. Says Governor Ford The political opposition to Mormonism when the city "The great cause of popular fury was that the Mormons at several preceding elections. its activities have been efficiently augmented in similar fashion by this same preposterous busybody element.: — 328 THE REAL MORMONISM have forced the rum shop into politics. ." of Illinois. violence and crime over the whole of the political history of our country. which has trailed a contagion of corruption. declaring Judge Douglass to be a master spirit. These people should be silenced first. It appears to be one of the principles by which they insist on being* governed as a community. so strongly objecmany of the people of Illinois. and rend their church with schism and into sects. parties. " The Whigs seeing that they were out-generalled by the Democrats in securing the Mormon vote. The Mormons had voted for the Whig candidate for Congress in August. and taking possession of the country.

and displays the same contemptuous ignorance of the Mormon organization and its workings that has become a mere commonplace among us. the Whig newspapers had entirely ceased their accustomed abuse of the Mormons. determined upon driving the Mormons out of the State. Governor Ford. and was Ibid.ocx) votes in Nauvoo. as a good example at hand. Thus. corruptions. Governor Duncan. in fact. discusses " The Political Menace of the Mormon Church " which. beand re-told and that newest and most undecause it is about Mormons. was no very strong Mormons. for asserting that the familiar accusation of political chicanery urged against the Mormons furnishes a close analogy to the fable of the sooty utensils which " called one another black. serving very well to show which lines of political behavior are properly to be He classed as " American '* and regular. although it must be remembered. issued a manifesto. They now renewed their crusade against them. p. 1910. how- — — . who would consent to receive Mormon support. the Whigs generally. honest man. a certain Barry. seems straightforward and unprejudiced. considered almost entirely with reference to party. and everything connected with the Mormons became political. very much the part their history. took the stump on this subject in good earnest. the story is still told it must be true. should be elected. fact that Hoge received 3. also." periodically serves it up in the popular magazines. pp. 319. "The result of the election struck the Whigs with perfect amazement. — On a subsequent occasion. His statement of conditions. the Democratic canOn this theory he accounts for the didate. gives us good reasons. The Whig orators groaned with complaints and denunciations of the Democrats. friend of the of Herod in ever. the so-called " muck-raker. in PearsovCs Magazine for September. and consequently adopted a poHcy of conciliation. the assumption seems to be." Ibid." Nevertheless. Whilst they fancied themselves secure of getting the Mormon vote for Mr. Walker. otherwise. and enormities of Nauvoo. and of the awful wickedness of a party which would consent to receive the support of such miscreants. sirable type of sensational writer. every paper was loaded with accounts of the wickedness. and the Democratic officers of the State were violently charged and assaulted with using the influence of and a part of the Democrats. brother of the Prophet Joseph. declaring it to be the will of God that Hoge. However. and expected to be elected governor almost on this question alone. Ford relates that Hyrum Smith. This irresponsible fomenter of disorder and false opinion tells the same old lies with only slight variations in the way of embellishment. the Whig party believed that its candidate would receive Mormon support. and which. who was really a brave. 268-269." their offices to govern for the Mormons. "From this time forth. The Whig newspapers teemed with accounts of the wonders and enormities of Nauvoo. He plays.— THE ALLEGED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES 329 to repair their disaster by raising a kind of crusade against that people.

do not appear to support the accuracy of any of their alleged statements. Mr. the stories of many men set to- — mind also that it is the sort of rumor which emanates from men who do not play with truth. interspersed with other matters evidently quite as ancient. yet when you read these statements so fraught with meaning to him who loves a republican government. and a vote for his retention of his seat in the Senate. writes to a correspondent as follows: gether. as required. as a senator of the United States. admits. Mormons of high standing and leading Gentiles of the Mormon section men in whose integrity I believe. believe that he has investigated the subject thoroughly. (i) a cessation of the movement and agitation within the Republican party for an amendment to the Federal Constitution giving Congress the power to legislate concerning polygamy and polygamous living. Josiah Strong about 1898. Barry. aimed not so much at polygamy as at the Mormon Church itself." Says he " Concerning political deals I present information given me by men high in the counsels of the Republican party. in exchange for protection. This dreadful " poHtical menace " consists. we need not consider these statements worthy to establish any contention whatsoever.: : 330 THE REAL MORMONISM presented as the very latest word on the subject consists principally of a tract issued by a certain Rev. any more than in a court of law. and (3) a disposition of federal patronage in Utah and the surrounding states in obedience to the wish of the Mormon hierarchy expressed to the federal administration through Apostle Reed Smoot" This alleged agreement involves merely (a) the quashing of a hypocritical agitation. consequently. (b) the reaffirmation of the right of a sovereign state to select and maintain its own representative in the national senate. Such hearsay allegations are not competent evidence in general affairs. the sickening details are as follows " The Church agreed to deliver to Roosevelt the electoral votes of Utah. wherein does the Church seek protection ? According to this unearther of wickedness. however. but bear in . commenting on this alleged and rumored tripartite agreement. in the alleged concordat between the Mormon Church and the leaders of the Republican Party. And. who evidently wishes the reader to several states. Wyoming and Idaho. apostle and representative of the Mormon hierarchy. in exchange for three things. to reflect that these *'men who do not play with truth." all modestly concealing their identities. bear in mind that it is simply that which is called rumor. and (c) the distribution of federal patronage to suit the desires of the dominant element in the population of Mr. however. the source of most of his " authority. Roosevelt." It is sufficient. however. according to which the former agrees to deliver the votes of the Mormon states. (2) a defense of Reed Smoot. whose reputation would refute a charge of idle gossip.

— — mons Because. which is founded on man's — religious credulity. Neither the Church nor any one on behalf of the Church ever agreed to deliver me the votes of the States mentioned. without pausing to inquire into the motives and characters of the leaders of either of the two organizations. is less a unit. I never heard of this magazine article and do not know who wrote it. scandals which they perfectly well know to be false. " Tammany Hall. is a very happy one. but so ludicrous that it is difficult to discuss it seriously. nor did the Mormon Hierarchy. was. as in the head of the Mormon Church. since. an organization founded on men's selfish interests. but one so infamous. Moreover." Such an argument as this. Of course it is always possible to find creatures The important thing to vile enough to make accusations of this kind. remember is that the men who give currency to the charge. No such bargain was ever in any way. as he asserts." The comparison between the Mormon Church and Tammany Hall. " When such politico-ecclesiastical power is grasped by one man. through Senator Smoot or any one else. although intended to be derogatory. it is evident that both owe the allegiance of the rank and file of their followers to the same fact. The appointments were made in Wyoming and Idaho precisely on the same system as they were made in New Jersey and Massachusetts. according to our "muck-raking" friend. but it could by no possibility be anything but a falsehood. It is not merely an atrocious falsehood. but equally. the same policy precisely was followed in Utah. of courses no such bargain was made by President Taft or by any one who could speak for any portion of the Republican national organization. whether editors of magazines or the presidents of colleges. that it is utterly impossible that the men making the charge should be ignorant of the fact that they are lying. the systematic provision for their temporal . it is confidently assumed. and less uniformly successful in politics than the Mormon Church. suggested to or considered by me. nor to try to do so . should inspire any man " who loves a republican government " to assist in " smashing " Mormonism. which not merely an outrageous lie." all of them must vote precisely as directed. April 15. the Morassert the belief that their President has as his " chief duty to communicate the wishes of Deity to the children of men. nor was any allusion to the matter ever made to me. he becomes the most gigantic boss in America. ever express a single wish in connection with that patronage.THE ALLEGED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES is 331 " It is a little difficult to know how to deal with a story like this. But whoever did knew perfectly well that he was lying The accusation is not merely false. ever so much as consulted about the patronage in the States surrounding Utah. as far as I know. directly or indirectly. and no more attention was paid to any candidate's religious qualifications in one set of states than in another." Collier's. show themselves in their turn unfit for association with decent men when they secure the repetition and encouragement of such scandals. 191 1. Neither Senator Smoot nor any other citizen of Utah. In fact. so absolutely without the smallest particle of foundation. " Not only was no such bargain made by me.

we have a very practical humanity. whatever may be the ultimate motive. provisions. controlled by " priests " or other leaders recognized in the chosen religion of a large percentage of voters in a given section." *' bosses. between 15 per cent. the fact that dependent people give their allegiance and their votes to such organizations is in no sense remarkable. as is too often the case. (Very villainous proceedings. In both cases. The families are drafted. When they want one of these states they will get it. things Arizona was admitted to the to the three already in. animals. he may receive any needed benefits from the treasury of the Church. When you which you can use absolutely as a unit. and just enough Mormon families are planted there to hold the balance of power. As fast as they see a chance in other states the Mormons will proceed to annex them. precisely nothing. indeed. What then is this dreadful *' political menace of the Mormon Church ? " Here is the climax The Mormons now have as large a proportion of the population of : Arizona as they have of Idaho. fifteen electoral votes almost a balance of power in this Republic. They have small percentages of the vote in Nevada. Consequently. controlled by " organizations. and the Church will doubtless see to it that the state is colonized sufficiently to swing New Mexico as they wish. Colorado. through his bishop. ten senatorial votes. Oregon and Washington. is materially worse than one maintained. The poor voter of New York City sees in the ward leader his friend and ready benefactor every Mormon knows that. This makes five states. Montana. now that statehood is acquired.) " Communities are then selected where the two great political parties are of nearly equal strength.: 332 THE REAL MORMONISM needs and the ready sympathy of their officers in their troubles. So. And this is true for two reasons: (a) Political activities in America at the present day are. Thus the Mormon leaders can mass their voters here and there with almost the same ease. implements. Why . about 30 constitute a balance of power." with the deliberate intention of arguing to the " dangerous " and " un-American " activities of the Mormon authorities. so many from a ward. in any way you wish. and quite the same certainty of discipline. of any vote. etc. Because of the obedience of its members the power of the Mormon Church is entirely disproportionate to its numbers. But what do they amount to? If our republican principles and our republican government signify anything." These statements are marshalled quite in the same fashion as "a general moves his troops. Then each ward or district equips its own quota with wagons. when Union. "machines." such an organization. "An order is issued by the authorities that a certain district shall furnish so many hundred colonizers for a given state or territory. with characteristic uniformity. This is enough to have 30 per cent. of the vote will be Mormon. " In New Mexico. another Mormon State was added per cent. are bound to move your way. as that with which a general moves — his troops." and parties. and 20 per cent.

as their opponents did. and build up homes. see. and no more of a menace to the country at large. had crossed the border. with a series of original statutes denouncing the penalty of death for nearly fifty offenses against slavery. But these were not generally slave-holders. and moved into Kansas like an invading army. " blackleg " politicians. it is difficult to see how that the one debases the free exercise of voting privileges in the rank and file of citizens any more than the other. The spring election of 1855. gather crops. "The fertile soil of Kansas had been offered as a prize to be contended for by Free and Slave States. are primarily merely of political significance and all such colonizing is illegal. though their first rapid and violent movements were successful. than were made by both the proslavery and anti-slavery parties in their efforts to populate and gain control of the territory of Kansas? Representatives of both these elements would be anxious to justify this procedure in this case. the Border Ruffians of Missouri endeavoring to drive out the Free State settlers by murder and arson and the Free bleeding Kansas ' went through the Settlers retaliating. already referred to. In July. but young men anxious for excitement. Therefore. equip and protect intending settlers. " who loves a republican government. that excellent person. for a Territorial Legislature. gamblers. or for general self-interest. pre-empted lands. The first election of a delegate took place November 29th.THE ALLEGED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES 333 for the protection of law-breaking schemers of several varieties. "AH tlirough the spring and summer of 1855 Kansas was the scene of almost continuous conflict. 1855. What more frantic and determined efforts could the Mormons make to colonize and control any state whatsoever. These. and was carried byorganized bands of Missourians." and feels obligated to oppose all things hostile thereto. and adopted a State Constitution. and returned at once to Missouri. They did not go to Kansas. Furthermore. and both had accepted the contest. will find himself extremely busy long before he reaches any of the doings of the Mormons. The cry of North. their subsequent increase of resources and ' . who moved over the border on election day. the Legislature. Emigration societies were formed in the Free States to aid. and other corrupt characters. 1854. sow. met at Pawnee. To save trouble it adopted the laws of the State of Missouri entire. The slave-holders of Western Missouri. it is very difficult to Certainly one organization is quite as tolerable as the other. took a more northern route through Iowa and Nebraska. arm. and warned Free States imigrants not to pass through Missouri. was carried in the same fashion. to plow. voted. prevented from passing through Missouri. The Southern States also sent parties of intending settlers. (b) Even if the extensive colonizing activities of the Mormon Church. Such a person needs only to read a little in our country's history to know how very American this procedure is. which certainly involve great benefits for the people concerned. all Pro-Slavery. which shut off Kansas from the Free States. liquor sellers.

216-218 It must be clear. of Massachusetts. assuming the Barry-Strong charges as in any sense true. " History of American Politics. It is quite probable. from Elbridge Gerry. The territory soon became practically divided into a Pro. and the division is apt to be made by the preponderating party with an unfairness that is at once shameful and ridiculous." district. that. . into which as large a number as posThe trick is called gerrysible of the negro voters have been thrown." Whether this thing is right or wrong. Furthermore. it is altogether too old and too general a habit to constitute a valid condemnation of any party of our voting population now practicing it. however. . we are expected to feel a similar displeasure over the alleged advantages gained by a political clique other than the one to which we may happen to be attached. When it comes to considering the accusations against the Mormons. mandering. All others should be carefully controlled. The aim. These electoral districts are marked out by the legislature. For the purpose of the election a state is divided into districts corresponding to the number of representatives the state is entitled to send to Congress. are no more and no less than fresh examples quite along the line of the timehonored procedure known as ** gerrymandering. sometimes by adding to a district where parties are equally divided some place in which the majority of friendly voters is sufficient to turn the scale." can readily imagine at this time the rage felt and expressed by adherents of either party at hearing of the advances made by their opponents in Kansas."— Civil Government in the United States.Slavery and Free State A. This is done sometimes by throwing the greatest possible number of hostile voters into a district which is anyhow certain to be hostile. Johnston. since they cannot possibly be " loyal " to the Government. The free exercise of citizenship is to be accorded only to those with whom we may agree politically. There is a district in Mississippi (the so called Shoe String District) 250 miles long by 30 broad. of course. and fortunately it was unsuccessful. therefore. the alleged activities of the Mormons. according to the ridiculous article quoted above. It is thus explained by John Fiske: — We " In the composition of the House of Representatives the state legislature plays a very important part. that most of the colonizing activi- . therefore. the Mormon organization would be doing no more and no less than other organizations and parties have been constantly doing in the history of the United States. who was vicepresident of the United States from 1813 to 1817. some years later into Massachusetts. pp. than the state itself. if measured along its windings. and another in Pennsylvania resembling a dumb-bell. " In Missouri a district has been contrived longer. It seems to have been first devised in 1788 by the enemies of the Federal Constitution to the It was introduced first Congress.334 THE REAL MORMONISM numbers was not equal to that of the Free State settlers. is so to lay out the districts as to secure in the greatest possible number of them a majority for the party which conducts the operation.

however. or to the institutions of a republican government. and asked our people to petition for laws to remove these troublesome obstructions to upbuilding thriving congregations. themselves alone to thank. we assert the inherent right of self-preservation for the Church. Prof. And this. is predicated upon the express understanding that politics in the states where our people reside. shall be conducted as in other parts of the Union. according to the terms of this Address. It reads as follows: Church A . Strong. " The equality of all churches before the law. we favor: "The absolute separation of church and state. This policy is perfectly just and perfectly AmeriIf it is objectionable to any of our citizens. they have can. or with the "We free exercise of religion. In the " Address to the World." issued by the Mormon fit Church authorities in 1907. " The reaffirmation of this doctrine and policy. "No state interference with the functions of the church. and upon all who love justice. or religious rights of its members as such. and her right and duty to call upon all her children. and others. "The absolute freedom of the individual from the domination of ecclesiastical authority in political affairs. and desire the perpetuation of religious liberty to come to her aid. political. or menace the civil. Barry. should such an issue undesire to live in peace and confidence with our happily arise. by any political party or set of men whatsoever. fellow citizens of all political parties and of all religions. is preposterous. "No domination of the state by the Church. that there shall be no interference by the State with the Church. The writings of sectarian missionaries among the Mormons have generally complained feelingly that the " cause of Christ is hampered by Mormon misdoings. the Mormon is so constantly and so insidiously threatened with adverse legislation and judicial persecution. promulgated through the agency of Episcopal Bishop Tuttle and probably a potent influence in precipitating the oppression of the Mormons in the next few years. This matter has been fully discussed in Chapter X. That it is a menace to the country itself. against a policy of that kind. are carried on from motives quite other than political. circulated late in 1881. to feature in the manner as quoted above. the following declarations occur: declare that from principle and policy. nor with the free exercise of religion. to stand with her until the danger shall have passed." THE ALLEGED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES ties 335 see of the Church which Mr. "No church interference with the functions of the state." — We Since. it considers itself justified in fortifying itself against such unjust and hypocritical procedures. openly* submitting the justice of our cause to the enlightened judgment of our fellow men. conspicuous example of this is found in the manifesto of the Salt Lake Ministerial Association. Should political parties make war upon the Church.

only two persons have been convicted under it. Salt Lake Seminary. and has gained a strong foothold in Wyoming. G. St. D. So that a