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Report on

Internal Combustion Engines
Thermodynamics and Mechanism Presented to:

Dr. Salah El-Haggar
Presented by:

Moataz Mohammad Attallah
May 1999 ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to introduce the fundamentals of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The report traces the mechanism of operation of ICE and its different kinds based on the operation mechanism, specially the two stroke and four stroke engines. It also involves the thermodynamics relations that govern the processes of these engines, highlighting two main important cycles, which are: Otto Cycle and Diesel cycles. Thus, it uses both cycles to introduce the second categorization of ICE based on the thermodynamic relations; introducing Gasoline engines and Diesel engines. Whenever possible, the report refers to current research and future developments in this field.

was an event that increased the distance human beings can endeavor into space. CONTENTS AND FIGURES: Abstract Introduction Objective General Aspects about the engine Mechanism Stroke Categorization 1 . Diesel cycles. Otto cycle. . Two-stroke engine 2 . Diesel engines. or even introducing its concept. Engines are basic mechanical engineering devices. Four-stroke engine Cycle Categorization 1 . Research. Gasoline engines. mechanism. Otto Cycle 2 . Replacing the horse carriage by the automobile or the horse-less carriage.K Celsius Pascal m3 SI Dimensions L2T-2K-1 (°K) K ML-1T-2 L-3 INTRODUCTION: "I believe that inventing the automobile was the most remarkable event I have experienced in my whole life" Sir Winston Churchill Perhaps the invention of the engine.Key Words: Internal combustion engines. Diesel Cycle Future Developments and Current Research Conclusion References NOMENCLATURE: Quantity Entropy Temperature Pressure Volume Common Symbol s T P V Unit KJ/kg. two stroke engines. as it was initially called. and they have variety of applications in moving and non-moving machines. four stroke engines. was the most important scientific event in the human history.

into a mechanical energy that is used to derive a certain vehicle. For example. The applications of the engines vary according to its efficiency. MENG 491students are working on designing and manufacturing a rotary engine this semester. In Diesel cycle engine engines. There is a third design for engines that is called the Rotary Engine. As clear from its name. compressed natural gas engines appears as one of the most promising engines. From the new types. Based on the type of the fuel and the method of conversion of chemical energy to mechanical energy. which are: Diesel engine and Gasoline engines. one can distinguish two main types of engines. hence a mechanism exists. certain applications require the use of two stroke engines rather than four stroke engines. based on different categorization. a certain fuel was selected to suit the process. there are other types of engines other than the above mentioned types. while the second is based on a cycle called Otto cycle. an engine is a machine. diesel oil (known as solar) is the fuel. and thus we can have more than one mechanism of operation. Still. and the thermodynamic relations behind its theoretical cycles. First.An engine is defined as the machine that converts the chemical energy liberated through combustion of a certain fuel.Familiarization with the mechanism of operation of each. This mechanism can vary. . 2 . Due to the difference in the thermodynamic cycle that is used to burn the used fuel. and accordingly leads to distinguishable efficiency for each kind. and the required working conditions. gasoline (known as benzene) is the fuel. the only difference exists in the socalled stroke.Introducing different types of internal combustion engines. which were all invented a century or more ago. The definition highlights two important facts about the engines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this technical report is: 1 . This leads to different design considerations. The two most famous mechanism of actions are the two-stroke and four-stroke engines. The first engine is based on a thermodynamic cycle called Diesel cycle. On the other side. because of being an engine based on an environmentally friendly fuel. some vehicles has diesel operated engines—including passengers’ cars as well. The second point in the definition is the conversion of chemical energy that results from combustion of a certain fuel. In Otto cycle engines.

STROKE CATEGORIZATION The stroke is defined as the length of the path that the piston goes through inside the cylinder. It should also be noted that air is allowed to enter and mix with the fuel using the camshaft mechanism. the linear motion that comes out from the piston due to the combustion is converted into rotational motion. Rotational motion is the required one to derive the wheels. Due to combustion.GENERAL ASPECTS ABOUT ENGINES MECHANISM: Encarta 97 Figure 1 An Early Internal Combustion Engine The above image is an early design for internal combustion four-stroke fourcylinder engine. the main difference between the engines are either the number of strokes or the cycle that is used to ignite the fuel. in which fuel-air mixture exists. and the lower end is referred to as the Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Following is the explanation of the two-stroke and four-stroke engines. it transforms the produced power to the gearbox using the crankshaft. Accordingly. TWO-STROKE ENGINES: . Using the crankshaft mechanism. Then. The upper end of the cylinder is referred to as the Top Dead Center (TDC). The main idea for any engine is the existence of a combustion chamber. this mixture is allowed to burn. energy is liberated and the piston is forced to move. either using a spark or by increasing its temperature and pressure of the mixture. As previously mentioned.

Therefore. From its name. 2 . It is worth mentioning that the design carefully considers the point that fuel-air mixture should not mix with the exhaust. fuel mixture starts to flow to the combustion chamber and the second process of fuel compression starts. a spark is ignited from the spark plug. hence combustion. It should be noted that the piston has three functions in its operation: 1 .The piston acts as the combustion chamber with the cylinder. Air/fuel/oil mixtures come from the carburetor. and some motorcycles engines. the engine starts its first stroke in which it delivers power using the crankshaft and exhaust gases are liberated out of the cylinder from the exhaust valve. When the piston moves downward more and the cylinder has no more gases. the twostrokes engine refers to a type of an engine in which the process of combustion of a fuel and the liberation of mechanical energy takes place in only two strokes of the piston. Combustion produces large energy that pushes the piston downward and exhaust gases are formed out of the combustion. the processes of fuel injection and exhausting should be synchronized to avoid that concern. and it also compresses the air/fuel mixture and receives back the liberated energy and transfers it to the crankshaft. another valve is opened which is the fuel/air valve. Thus. jet skis. where it was mixed.Two stroke engines are normally found in low power vehicles. to rest in an adjacent fuel chamber. Starting from the point at which compressed fuel/air/oil mixture exists inside the piston. and vice versa for the second stroke.The piston motion creates a vacuum in order to such the fuel/air mixture . the first goes from the top dead center to the bottom dead center. such as: garden equipment. Figure 2 First stroke of the 2-stroke engine As the piston proceeds downward.

· Less weight and easier to · They produce lots of pollution. · Sometimes part of the fuel leaks to · High power to weight ratio the exhaust with the exhaust gases. and pushes it from the crankcase (adjacent chamber) to the combustion chamber. covering and uncovering the intake and exhaust ports drilled into the side of the cylinder wall. and the it is not used continuously for long times. the 2-stroke engines have construction. . hence simplifying its mechanism and Accordingly. In conclusion. · For one complete revolution of the crankshaft. based on the above advantages and disadvantages. manufacture. shorter life.from the carburetor.The sides of the piston are acting like the valves. the engine executes one · They do not consume fuel efficiently. 3 . the 2-stroke engines are supposed to operate in vehicles where the weight of the engine is required to be small. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE 2-STROKE ENGINE: ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES · The lack of lubrication system that It has no valves or camshaft mechanism. protects the engine parts from wear. cycle—the 4-stroke executes 1 cycle per 2 crankshafts revolutions.

the motion of the two valves happen through the camshaft system. Power is then transferred to the wheel through other mechanisms. the piston is pushed downward. Figure 4 The four strokes can be identified as follows: . These two valves open and close alternatively to allow either air/fuel mixture to enter or exhaust gases to come out. which is a direct application for the thermodynamic cycle "Otto Cycle". which is widely used in transportation even today. a German engineer.FOUR STROKE ENGINES: In 1867. transmitting power to the crankshaft. As it was previously mentioned. The major difference between both engines is the valves that are located on the top of the cylinder. developed the four stroke "Otto" cycle. The spark plug is the one that ignites the compressed fuel-air mixture at a time when both valves are closed. Nikolaus August Otto. Otto developed the four stroke internal combustion engine when he was 34 years old. Accordingly. The cylinder of the four strokes engine differs from the two strokes engine. Actually most of today’s gasoline cars use four stroke engines.

Figure 5b Power Stroke: As the piston reaches the top dead center. The piston starts to move upward to compress the fuel.Figure 5a Compression stroke: In this one. allowing the fuel to burn. until it reaches the top dead center. It should be noted that in order for the combustion energy to be consumed efficiently in moving the piston.Suction (Intake) stroke: During this stroke. the piston starts its motion from the top downward of the cylinder. the fuel temperature and pressure increases.Figure 5c . both valves should be closed. By compressing the fuel. The combustion yields a high power that is transmitted through the crankshaft mechanism. allowing air/vaporized fuel mixture to enter to the combustion chamber. the spark plug ignites a spark. Synchronously. the intake valve is opened (based on the camshaft mechanism). both valves should be closed.

There are two main cycles based on which we can categorize internal combustion engines. OTTO CYCLE: Otto cycle is the typical cycle for most of the cars internal combustion engines. ignition and exhaust. the crankshaft has to finish two revolutions. At that moment. the pistons starts it back upward motion to get rid of the exhaust gases that result from combustion. Figure 6 PV diagram for Otto cycle On the PV-diagram. 1-2: Intake: suction stroke 2-3: Isentropic Compression stroke 3-4: Heat addition stroke . compression. that work using gasoline as a fuel. Accordingly. CYCLE CATEGORIZATION: This is one of the important points to discuss. It consists of the same four major steps: Intake. which are: Otto cycle and Diesel cycle. which is the thermodynamics of the combustion process. most of the energy liberated is transferred.Figure 5d It should be clear from the above argument that for one complete cycle to be done. Otto cycle is exactly the same one that was described for the four-stroke engine.Exhaust Stroke: After reaching to the maximum displacement of the piston. the exhaust valve is opened to allow it to go outside the cylinder.

the fuel here is ignited under the effect of increase in pressure and temperature. By dividing V2/V1.5 to 1. only air is admitted in the intake stroke. the only difference between is the Otto engine and diesel engine is that the latter does not require a spark plug to ignite the fuel.4-5: Exhaust stroke (Isentropic expansion) 5-2: Heat rejection The distance between points 1-2 is the stroke of the engine.1 to 2: Isentropic compression B . compression ratios are as high as 22. The air is then adiabatically compressed. The efficiency is taken to be: DIESEL CYCLE: In the Diesel Cycle.3 to 4: Isentropic expansion D . A . Each drop burns over a small time. giving an approximation of a isobaric explosion. In Diesel engines.4 to 1: Reversible constant volume cooling In other words. named after Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913). The explosion pushes the cylinder outwards. we get: where r is called the compression ratio of the engine. . The power stroke.2 to 3: Reversible constant pressure heating C . where for Otto engines it normally does not reach even one fifth that number. and exhaust stroke which follow are identical to those in the Otto Cycle. valve exhaust. and fuel is injected into to the hot air in the form of many small drops (not a vapor).

its cooling requirements were low. production of the Wankel engine was discontinued as a result of its poor fuel economy and its high pollutant emissions. The fuel-air mixture is drawn in through an intake port and trapped between one face of the turning rotor and the wall of the oval chamber.The piston is forced away from the cylinder head by the gas. expanding after the ignition of the fuel.The four cycles of the diesel engine are: 1 . The cycle takes place alternately at each face of the rotor. 3 . in which the piston and cylinder were replaced by a threecornered rotor turning in a roughly oval chamber. driving the exhaust gases from the cylinder. 4 . giving three power strokes for each turn of the rotor. CURRENT RESEARCH Rotary Engine In the 1950s the German engineer Felix Wankel developed an internalcombustion engine . However. Excerpted from Encarta 97® © CONCLUSION: . A line of Wankel-engine cars was produced in Japan in the early 1970s. 2 . which is ignited by a spark plug. The exhaust gases are then expelled through an exhaust port through the action of the turning rotor.The piston moves towards the cylinder head.The exhaust valve is opened and the piston moves towards the cylinder head. it appeared to be an important option for automobiles. compressing the air. In addition.The piston is moved away from the cylinder head by the crankshaft. and its low center of gravity made it safer to drive. and several United States automobile manufacturers researched the idea as well. its mechanical simplicity provided low manufacturing costs. The turning of the rotor compresses the mixture. At the end of the stroke vaporized fuel is injected into the cylinder and is ignited by the high temperature of the air. Because of the Wankel engine's compact size and consequent lesser weight as compared with the piston engine. drawing only air into the cylinder.

html http://www.taftan.html http://www. Thus.howstuffworks. Each type of engines has some advantages over the other one.merlin.howstuffworks.com/index/conciseindex/08/0085e000.net. or due to the mechanism of working.edu/~autoclub/frange.au/~e4nsrdja/teaching/e4213/Related/Cycles/Diesel.virginia. REFERENCES: http://www.htm http://www.htm http://www. They are categorized either according to the operating cycle.HTM Microsoft ® Encarta © 97: Internal Combustion Engine Directory Home .astro.Internal combustion engines are among the most important engineering applications.au/~bhampton/holdfast/howengines.com/thermodynamics/DIESEL. The theory of application either depends on Diesel or Otto cycles.com/engine.html http://www.com/two-stroke.edu.edu/~eww6n/physics/OttoCycle. the selection of the appropriate engine requires determining the conditions of application.siu.htm http://encarta.msn.htm http://www.uq.

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