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on some measure of their performance. A real-valued interval, Sum, is determined as either the sum of the individuals¶ expected selection probabilities or the sum of the raw fitness values over all the individuals in the current population. Individuals are then mapped one-toone into contiguous intervals in the range [0, Sum]. The size of each individual interval corresponds to the fitness value of the associated individual. For example, in Fig. the circumference of the roulette wheel is the sum of all 5 individual¶s fitness values. Individual 3 is the most fit individual and occupies the largest interval, whereas individuals 2 and 4 are the least fit and have correspondingly smaller intervals within the roulette wheel. To select an individual, a random number is generated in the interval [0, Sum] and the individual whose segment spans the random number is selected. This process is repeated until the desired number of individuals have been selected. The basic roulette wheel selection method is stochastic sampling with replacement (SSR). Here, the segment size and selection probability remain the same throughout the selection phase and individuals are selected according to the procedure outlined above. SSR gives zero bias but a potentially unlimited spread. Any individual with a segment size > 0 could entirely fill the next population. Stochastic sampling with partial replacement (SSPR) extends upon SSR by resizing an individual¶s segment if it is selected. Each time an individual is selected, the size of its segment is reduced by 1.0. If the segment size becomes negative, then it is set to 0.0. This provides an upper bound on the spread of . However, the lower bound is zero and the bias is higher than that of SSR. Remainder sampling methods involve two distinct phases. In the integral phase, individuals are selected deterministically according to the integer part of their expected trials. The remaining individuals are then selected probabilistically from the fractional part of the individuals expected values. Remainder stochastic sampling with replacement (RSSR) uses roulette wheel selection to sample the individual not assigned deterministically. During the roulette wheel selection phase, individual¶s fractional parts remain unchanged and, thus, compete for selection between ³spins´. RSSR provides zero bias and the spread is lower bounded. The upper bound is limited only by the number of fractionally assigned samples and the size of the integral part of an individual. For example, any individual with a fractional part > 0 could win all the samples during the fractional phase. Remainder stochastic sampling without replacement (RSSWR) sets the fractional part of an individual¶s expected values to zero if it is sampled during the fractional phase. This gives RSSWR minimum spread, although this selection method is biased in favour of smaller fractions. GENETIC ALGORITHM A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural evolution. This heuristic is routinely used to generate useful solutions to optimization and search problems. Genetic algorithms belong to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA), which generate solutions to optimization problems using techniques inspired by natural evolution, such as inheritance, mutation, selection, and crossover.

solutions are represented in binary as strings of 0s and 1s. in the knapsack problem one wants to maximize the total value of objects that can be put in a knapsack of some fixed capacity. The evolution usually starts from a population of randomly generated individuals and happens in generations. If the algorithm has terminated due to a maximum number of generations. covering the entire range of possible solutions (the search space). Traditionally. a fitness function to evaluate the solution domain. In some problems. Occasionally. or a satisfactory fitness level has been reached for the population. where each bit represents a different object. and the value of the bit (0 or 1) represents whether or not the object is in the knapsack. A representation of a solution might be an array of bits. Traditionally. For instance. The population size depends on the nature of the problem. but other encodings are also possible. engineering. A typical genetic algorithm requires: 1. Once we have the genetic representation and the fitness function defined. which facilitates simple crossover operations. computational science. The fitness of the solution is the sum of values of all objects in the knapsack if the representation is valid. GA proceeds to initialize a population of solutions randomly. as the size of objects may exceed the capacity of the knapsack. The fitness function is always problem dependent. in these cases. physics and other fields. phylogenetics. economics. but crossover implementation is more complex in this case. 2. chemistry. The fitness function is defined over the genetic representation and measures the quality of the represented solution. which encode candidate solutions (called individuals. a genetic representation of the solution domain. Arrays of other types and structures can be used in essentially the same way. but typically contains several hundreds or thousands of possible solutions. a population of strings (called chromosomes or the genotype of the genome). Genetic algorithms find application in bioinformatics. the solutions may be "seeded" in areas where optimal solutions are likely to be found. Variable length representations may also be used. Commonly. evolves toward better solutions. and modified (recombined and possibly randomly mutated) to form a new population. interactive genetic algorithms are used. Tree-like representations are explored in genetic programming and graph-form representations are explored in evolutionary programming. The main property that makes these genetic representations convenient is that their parts are easily aligned due to their fixed size. the population is generated randomly. creatures. manufacturing. The new population is then used in the next iteration of the algorithm. . a satisfactory solution may or may not have been reached. the algorithm terminates when either a maximum number of generations has been produced. multiple individuals are stochastically selected from the current population (based on their fitness). the fitness of every individual in the population is evaluated. or phenotypes) to an optimization problem.Methodology In a genetic algorithm. In each generation. A standard representation of the solution is as an array of bits. mathematics. Initialization Initially many individual solutions are randomly generated to form an initial population. it is hard or even impossible to define the fitness expression. Not every such representation is valid. then improve it through repetitive application of mutation. or 0 otherwise. inversion and selection operators. crossover.

and the process continues until a new population of solutions of appropriate size is generated. sufficient fitness achieved. Individual solutions are selected through a fitness-based process. since only the best organisms from the first generation are selected for breeding. Common terminating conditions are: y y y y y y A solution is found that satisfies minimum criteria Fixed number of generations reached Allocated budget (computation time/money) reached The highest ranking solution's fitness is reaching or has reached a plateau such that successive iterations no longer produce better results Manual inspection Combinations of the above Simple generational genetic algorithm procedure: 1. These processes ultimately result in the next generation population of chromosomes that is different from the initial generation. along with a small proportion of less fit solutions. colonization-extinction. a new solution is created which typically shares many of the characteristics of its "parents". Termination This generational process is repeated until a termination condition has been reached. Although reproduction methods that are based on the use of two parents are more "biology inspired". Select the best-fit individuals for reproduction . as this process may be very time-consuming. Evaluate the fitness of each individual in that population 3. Certain selection methods rate the fitness of each solution and preferentially select the best solutions. For each new solution to be produced. New parents are selected for each new child. for reasons already mentioned above. it is possible to use other operators such as regrouping. or migration in genetic algorithms. Repeat on this generation until termination (time limit. Although Crossover and Mutation are known as the main genetic operators. Generally the average fitness will have increased by this procedure for the population. some research suggests more than two "parents" are better to be used to reproduce a good quality chromosome. where fitter solutions (as measured by a fitness function) are typically more likely to be selected. By producing a "child" solution using the above methods of crossover and mutation. Other methods rate only a random sample of the population. and/or mutation. a proportion of the existing population is selected to breed a new generation. Choose the initial population of individuals 2.): 1. Reproduction The next step is to generate a second generation population of solutions from those selected through genetic operators: crossover (also called recombination). etc. a pair of "parent" solutions is selected for breeding from the pool selected previously.Selection During each successive generation.

and concentrating the search in the regions which lead to fitter structures. Selection allows strings with higher fitness to appear with higher probability in the next generation. selection criteria. and hence better solutions of the problem. Genetic Algorithm requires two elements for a given problem: y y encoding of candidate structures (solutions) method of evaluating the relative performance of candidate structure. The critical factors are to determine robust parameter settings for population size. crossover and mutation. 2. noise-tolerant. The fitness function evaluates the quality of solutions coded by strings. For details of Genetic Algorithm. Genetic Algorithm is a robust search method requiring little information to search effectively in a large or poorly-understood search space. Mutation flips single bits in a string. Crossover combines two parents by exchanging parts of their strings. GA tends to take advantage of the fittest solutions by giving them greater weight. Basically. It employs a population of strings initialized at random. Moreover. This search algorithm balances the need for: 1. exploration Selection and mutation create a parallel. it is useful in the very tricky area of nonlinear problems. for identifying the better solutions Genetic Algorithm codes parameters of the search space as binary strings of fixed length. please refer to my partner's first article in GA Project. . even implemented in supercomputers. genetic operator probabilities and evaluation (fitness) normalization techniques. In particular a genetic search progress through a population of points in contrast to the single point of focus of most search algorithms. by exploiting new regions in the search space. encoding. which prevents the GA from premature convergence. Applications Traditional methods of search and optimization are too slow in finding a solution in a very complex search space. Breed new individuals through crossover and mutation operations to give birth to offspring 3. hill climbing algorithm.2. Evaluate the individual fitness of new individuals 4. selections and so on) allows the uses of distributed processing machines. This leads to new solutions inheriting desirable qualities from both parents. Finding good parameter settings that work for a particular problem is not a trivial task. exploitation Selection and crossover tend to converge on a good but sub-optimal solution. preventing a premature convergence. Its intrinsic parallelism (in evaluation functions. Replace least-fit population with new individuals Introduction Genetic Algorithm (GA) is an artificial intelligence procedure. It is based on the theory of natural selection and evolution. which evolve to the next generation by genetic operators such as selection. starting from a randomly chosen crossover point.

the genetic algorithm will converge too quickly to a local optimal point and may not find the best solution. the members on average are fitter as solutions to the problem. a population of high performance designs are resulted. Computer-Aided Design Genetic Algorithm uses the feedback from the evaluation process to select the fitter designs. . Too low mutation tends to miss some near-optimal points. Thus in successive generations. The fitness function links the Genetic Algorithm to the problem to be solved. Eventually. by using the binary strings.If the population is too small. The members with lower fitness are replaced by the offspring. On the other hand. Coding the solutions is based on the principle of meaningful building blocks and the principle of minimal alphabets. The assigned fitness is used to calculate the selection probabilities for choosing parents. too many members in a population result in a long waiting times for significant improvement. The fitter member will have a greater chance of reproducing. Two point crossover is quicker to get the same results and retain the solutions much longer than one point crossover. Too high mutation introduces too much diversity and takes longer time to get the optimal solution. for determining which member will be replaced by which child. generating new designs through the recombination of parts of the selected designs.

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