EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION

A REPORT ON CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT ON

“Employee Absenteeism in organization”
SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TWO-YEAR “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” DEGREE PROGRAMME OF RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (2010-2012)

GYAYAK COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT BANSWARA (RAJ.)
(AFFILIATED TO RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA) “APPROVED BY AICTE”

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN
(ASST. PROFESSOR)
GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN

SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT
(MBA PART-1, SEM-2)
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SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1,SEM 2)

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION

“DECLARATION”
This is to declare that I have carried out this project report work on contemporary issues entitled….

“Employee Absenteeism in organization”
SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF TWO-YEAR “MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION” DEGREE PROGRAMME OF RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY (2010-2012)

The work is original, has not been copied from anywhere else and has not been Submitted to any other University/Institute for an award of any degree/diploma or Fellowship or other similar titles or prizes.

Place: Banswara Date: 15 May 2011

Hemangini Purohit (MBA Part 1, Sem 2)

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN

2

SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1,SEM 2)

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“Acknowledgement is an art, one can write glib stanzas without meaning a word, on the other hand one can make a simple expression of gratitude”
The project report work was made possible by the co-operation & help of several persons hence I finds it difficult to adequately express our appreciation. I bow to the glory of almighty for shoIring our blessings & rendering the strength to him for successful completion of this report first of all I owe a heavy debt of gratitude chairman Mr. Virendra Shah & director

Shri Joraver Singh ji of “Gyayak college of management” to his encouragement &
unceasing inspiration through out the project work. And I am very thankful for the esteem guide/ academic advice of Internal guide Miss Manali jain for their gifted guidance, encouragement & unceasing inspiration through out the project work. Beside a path finder for her, his qualities like dedication, co-operation & way of working was constantly inspiring us to keep the flame of research study burning till the generation passes. I extend their earnest feeling for the keen interest & attention he graciously lavished upon this work. I shell ever remain grateful & owe our regards to them for their masterly academic guidance. It was a great pleasure for the student to undergo her project work. I express our profound great fullness to Ms. Diptee Gour, Mr. Sonu Vasita & other members of the institute/college for their guidance & support through out the project report work & providing the material relevant to the study. Last but not the least I am thankful to all those people, who have helped in the completion this study knowingly or unknowingly. I express my sincere thanks to all friends for there valuable co-operation. Without which the present project report work & presentation would not have been possible. HEMANGINI PUROHIT

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN

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SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1,SEM 2)

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION

PREFACE
This report is the outcome of the internal project on contemporary issues during the session 2010-2012 and has been produced for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Masters of Business Administration from Gyayak College of Management (affiliated to RTU, Kota)
The subject of project report entitled Employee Absenteeism in organization. Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature.Human resource is an important part of any business and managing them is an important task. Following are the issue which we discuss In this project work

– – –

To discuss the issue of Employee Absenteeism “work exhaustion or burnout”. To explore the impact of burnout on employee absenteeism and turnover. To identify possible practical solutions to these problems.

It is often easier for the organizations to make arrangement to cover staffs, which are going to be off for long periods. However, employees taking odd days off here and there are more problematic, can have an immediate impact. If remain unchecked, this type of absence can send out the wrong signals to colleagues who, in some jobs, are likely to have to cover for those absent. If employers fail to take action, a ‘buggins turn’ mentality may emerge. Frequent absence may have serious repercussions where staff are employed in customer-facing roles or employed on production lines. The impact of absence may be most directly felt and the need to arrange cover at short notice may be paramount.

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN

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SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1,SEM 2)

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter : 1 Introduction 1.1 1. Innocent Absenteeism o Counseling Innocent Absenteeism 2. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 5 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Culpable Absenteeism o Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism 3.SEM 2) .2 1.3 Causes of Absenteeism Analysis of Causes Effect of Absenteeism on Industrial Progress Chapter : 3 Absenteeism – Types & Their Control 3.1 2.2 Guideline & Measures for Control Of Absenteeism Chapter : 4 Chapter : 5 Conclusion Recommendation & Suggestion Bibliography ……….3 Concept of Absenteeism Measurement of Absenteeism Peculiar Features of Absenteeism 6 7 10 12 13 14 17 20 21 23 23 24 26 27 29 35 40 42 Chapter : 2 Causes and Effect of Absenteeism 2.2 2.1 Type of Absenteeism 1.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER :1 INTRODUCTION GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 6 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.SEM 2) .

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Sadly. wilful or caused by circumstances beyond one’s control. In other words. these employees end up burning the candle at both ends.1 CONCEPT OF ABSENTEEISM What exactly is “Employee Absenteeism”? • • • • Employee Absenteeism can be defined as stress that leads to work exhaustion.SEM 2) . Thus absence may be authorised or unauthorised. it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work. it is obvious that people such as malingerers and those unwilling to play their part in the workplace can also have a decidedly negative impact. Maybe even worse than absenteeism. it is the most gifted and committed employees that tend to burn out first. The according to Webster’s dictionary “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an absentee is one who habitually stays away from work.Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absence as percentage of total number of man shifts scheduled to work. It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he is normally schedule to work. Because of their high standards and tendency towards perfectionism. Any employee may stay away from work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 7 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. The result may be complete burnout.” According to Labour Bureau : .

to cure excessive absenteeism. “I’m not coming in today because my supervisor abuses me. In other words. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 8 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. it makes me sick to walk into them. If they find their supervisor or job unpleasant .” Or. Indeed. Sometimes team members call in sick when they really do not want to go to work.” There are a few essential questions to consider at the outset if you want to make a measurable improvement to your absenteeism figures. For any business owner or manager.SEM 2) .” Or. Why is your present absenteeism policy ineffective? Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring? In many cases. as prevention is better than cure. where such a problem occurs. it is always important to review recruitment procedures to identify how such individuals came to be employed in the first place. it is essential to find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among team members. undertrained supervisors could be a contributing factor.really unpleasant .they look for legitimate excuses to stay home and find them with things such as upset stomachs or splitting headaches.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Such team members need individual attention from frontline supervisors and management. if we deal with the real reasons team members stay home it can become unnecessary for them to stay away. They would not call you up and say. “I’m not coming in today because the bathrooms are so filthy. “I’m not coming in today because my chair is uncomfortable. Any effective absentee control program has to locate the causes of discontent and modify those causes or eliminate them entirely.

or even to clock on at all.SEM 2) .. loss of incentive programs Downsizing and similar workplace interventions. One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your supervisors about excessive absenteeism. poor benefits and high workloads will be the major causes. How much formal training have your supervisors received on absenteeism containment and reduction? If your answer is none or very little. they are less likely to be motivated.g.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION The causes of EA/burnout are many: – – – – Extended hours and crammed schedules Increased job insecurity Changes in company policy: e. Many human resources specialists have found that repetitive. Excessive desire for personal achievement It is commonly expected that low pay. However. including what causes it and how to reduce it. maybe you have found the solution. As with every other element within your organization. sub-standard working conditions and consistent negative and unfair treatment received by first-line supervisors. in numerous employee surveys absenteeism generally has been identified as a symptom of low job satisfaction. If your team members perceive that your company is indifferent to their needs. increased performance demands. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 9 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. boring jobs coupled with uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant workplaces are likely to lead workers to make up excuses for not coming to work. you cannot ask a person to do a job he or she has never been trained to do.

Once a manager finds the real reasons for absenteeism there is another important step. Without improvement in these areas.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Of course. Absenteeism can be find out of absence rate method. you can expect your high rate of absenteeism to continue. However.SEM 2) .000 10 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.2 MEASUREMENT OF ABSENTEEISM For calculating the rate of absenteeism we require the number of people scheduled to work and number of people actually present. If the way of responding has not been reviewed. they may not be able to provide reasons. So often absenteeism problems can be sheeted back to the supervisor level and to unsatisfactory working conditions. Through open communication. just the act of questioning may get the ball rolling and signal to your supervisors that their involvement is important. For Example: a) b) c) Average number of employees in work force : 100 Number of available workdays during period : 20 Total number of available workdays (a x b) GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN : 2. you need to change the team member’s way of reacting and responding to discontent. if your supervisors have made no efforts to get to know the team members in their respective departments. Other problems will no doubt arise in the future. 1. then the same cycle is likely to start all over again.

2 0 jan feb mar apr may jun july aug sept oct nov dec 2009 2010 GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 11 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION d) e) Total number of lost days due to absences during the period : 93 Absenteeism percent (d [divided by] c) x 100 : 4.65% Since absenteeism is a major barometer of employee morale. APPROX ABSENTEEISM RATE IN AN ORGANATION 1.6 0. absenteeism above 5 percent has to be considered as very serious (across most industries 3 percent is considered standard).8 1.SEM 2) .2 1 0.4 1.4 0.6 1.8 0.

This is so because workers in the night shift experience great discomfort and uneasiness in the course of their work than they do during day time. while the older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work. It is the highest during March-AprilMay. it increases considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus. has also been found to be higher than that on normal days. when land has to be prepared for monsoon. The level of absenteeism is comparatively high immediately after payday.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION 1. When worker either feel like having a good time or in some other cases return home to their villages family and after a holiday. c) The percentage of absenteeism is higher in the night shift than in the day shift.SEM 2) . GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 12 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. “The younger employees are not regular and punctual”. sowing and also in harvest season (Sept-Oct) when the rate goes as high as 40%.3 PECULIAR FEATURES OF ABSENTEEISM On the basis of studies undertaken certain observations may be made: a) The rate of absenteeism is lowest on payday. Presumably because of the employment of a large no. d) Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. b) Absenteeism is generally high workers below 25 years of age and those above 40. of new comers among the younger age groups.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER : 2 CAUSES AND EFFECT OF ABSENTEEISM GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 13 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.SEM 2) .

Absenteeism is costly to a company’s bottom-line. he is bewildered by heavy traffic. As a result he is under constant strain.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER: 2 CAUSES AND EFFECT OF ABSENTEEISM 2. Authoritarian management styles promote the highest rates of employee burnout and absenteeism. Employees also miss work because of stress. In large number of cases incidence of absenteeism due to religious ceremonies is more than due to any other reason. The general cause of absenteeism may be summarized as below:1) MALADJUSTMENT WITH FACTORY In factory the worker finds caught within factory walls. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 14 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. by strangers speaking different and subjected to strict discipline and is ordered by complete strangers to do things which he cannot understand. which cause him serious distress and impairs his efficiency. • • The primary factor affecting an employee’s stress level is his/her perception of the relationship with his/her supervisor or manager.1 CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM Some facts about Absenteeism Most employees miss work because of personal illness or illness involving a member of the family. 2) SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES Social and religious ceremonies divert workers from workers to social activities. All these factors tend to persuade him to maintain his contacts with village.SEM 2) .

bad lighting. which compels to remain absent for next day. which often cumulates to more than 11 – 12 times GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 15 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. vibration. 6) ABSENCE OF ADEQUATE WELFARE ACTIVITIES High rate absenteeism is also due to lack of adequate welfare facilities Welfare activities include clean drinking water. 4) INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE Low wages compel a worker to seek some part time job to earn some side income. 7) ALCOHOLISM Some of the habitual drunkards spend whole of their salary during first week of each month for drinking purpose. dust fumes and overcrowding all these affect the workers health causing him to remain absent from work a long time. canteen. Therefore 2 or 3 weeks after getting their salary absent themselves from their work. This often result inconstant fatigue.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION 3) HOUSING CONDITIONS Workers also experience housing difficulties. 8) INDEBTNESS All those workers who undergo financial hardships usually borrow money lenders at interest rate which are very high. rest rooms.SEM 2) . washing and bathing facilities. This leads to loss the interest in work. Around 95% of housing occupied by industrial workers in India is unsatisfactory for healthful habitations. 5) UNHEALTHY WORKING CONDITION Irritating and intolerable working conditions exist in a factory. moisture. first aid appliances etc. Heat. noise. room shelter.

and curse at employees Work conditions: – – – The relational climate of a job can affect employees’ willingness to show up to work. which in turn leads to long period of 11) MANEERIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR Authoritarian managers : The characteristics of an authoritarian manager: – – – – – – – Poor listening skills and communication skills Tendency to set unreachable goals Personal inflexibility Tendency to blame others for problems Insist that things must always be done their way Tendency to micro-manage and be task-driven Sometimes yell.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION their actual salaries. This also results in absenteeism. Negative relationships between employees and their supervisors can result in absenteeism. scream. 10) INADEQUATE LEAVE FACILITIES Negligence on part of the employee to provide leave facility compel the worker to fall back on ESI leave. Instead of going without pay the worker avail themselves of ESI facility low efficiency.SEM 2) GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN . 9) IMPROPER & UNREALISTIC PERSONNEL POLICIES Due to favoritism and nepotism which are in the industry the workers generally become frustrated. low productivity. They are entitled to 50 days leave on half on pay. 16 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. To avoid the moneylenders they usually absent themselves from work because they are unable to return the money in stipulated time. Employees miss work as a form of “acting out”. unfavorable relationship between employee and supervisor.

Incentives can boost motivation and reduce burnout. It increases in harvesting season.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION – – But sometimes employees miss work because of unresolved conflict between each other. few think of rewarding those that show up faithfully. 1) FAMILY ORIENTED & RESPONSIBILITES It was observed that about 40% case absenteeism is family oriented and more responsibilities of workers.g.2 ANALYSIS OF CAUSES In general survey at an origination we found that approx ratio of case of absenteeism.SEM 2) . Examples of incentives that work: Being able to cash it unused sick days Bonuses for perfect attendance Certificates of achievement No attendance policy: Many companies do not have an explicit policy requiring employees to honor their commitment to the job. An official policy allows managers to identify and refer to the EAP employees that may have other problems e. etc. 2) HOUSING FACILITY GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 17 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. alcoholism. – – An attendance policy allows a manager to intervene in cases where an employee is frequently absent.. Lack of incentives: – – – • • • While many companies punish employees for missing work. domestic problems. Interventions to reduce interpersonal work stress can help deter employee absenteeism and burnout. 2.

Most of the workers are not satisfied with transport facilities. 4) SICKNESS AND ACCIDENT In 20% case the workers remain absent due to ill health and disease and in 15% cases workers remain absent due to accident.SEM 2) . because they work in standing position which causes to remain absence for relaxation.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION In about 30% cases. 7) WELFARE FACILITES In 13% cases. Sign of Employee who causes with “Absenteeism” GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 18 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. the workers remain absent because there is no housing facilities and the workers stay alone and great distance from factory. the workers are not satisfied with welfare facilities. 5) TRANSPORTATION Most of the workers have to travel long distance to reach the work place. 8) WORKING CONDITIONS In 21% cases. 3) SOCIAL CEREMONIES In 20 % cases it was found that social and religious functions divert worker from work. the workers feel that there is not good working condition. 6) MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Near about 34% people are dissatisfied with management system because they feel that their work is not being recognized and promotions are biased.

SEM 2) . Absenteeism. From “enthusiastic” to “burnt-out” • • • • • • • Stages of Career Burnout: Enthusiasm Stagnation Frustration Apathy Intervention/No Intervention Burnout Physical signs of Burnout • • • • • • • • Fatigue and exhaustion Inability to shake off a cold Feeling run down Headaches GI disturbances Weight fluctuation Sleeplessness Shortness of breath GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 19 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. & Turnover • • • All three factors affect each other and are affected by each other. Burnout has been identified as one of the principal causes of both absenteeism and Let’s therefore look at some of the psychological aspects of burnout. excessive turnover.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Burnout.

Higher absenteeism is an evil both for workers and the employers and ultimately it adversely affects the production of industries. Coming to work late and leaving early. 2. It disturbs the efficiency and discipline of industries consequently. those workers are employed who present themselves at factory gates. an additional labour force is also maintain by the industries. In order to meet the emergency and strikes.3 EFFECTS OF ABSENTEEISM ON INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS It is quite evident from the above that absenteeism is a common feature of industrial labour in India. disenchantment. Loss of temper. It hinders industrial growth and its effect in two fold. On certain occasions. colleagues. disoriented. the employer has to suffer a greater loss due to absentees. During strikes they are adjusted in place of absent workers. industrial production is reduced. Feeling guilty (because of underperformance). Boredom. 1) LOSS TO EMPLOYERS On other hand. Feeling confused. and out of place. management.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Psychological signs of Burnout • • • • • • • Working harder and feeling as if you are accomplishing less and less. Their adjustment brings serious complications because such workers do not generally prove themselves up to work. Resentment – of clients. Experiencing a sense of futility and pointlessness. and a lack of enthusiasm.SEM 2) . displacement of anger to others. 2) LOSS TO WORKER GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 20 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.

.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Firstly due to the habit of being absenting frequently worker’s income is reduced to a large extent. The high costs of Turnover • • • – – – – The financial costs of hiring and training new employees vary from job to job and company to company – but there is always a cost. It is because there is a general principle of “no work – no pay”. Some turnover is actually desirable – new employees being fresh ideas and new energy. (The costs of turnover to be discussed in next slide.SEM 2) .e. some workplaces respond to this by demanding even more from the few remaining employees. i. Whatever the financial cost. and include: Customer service disruption Emotional costs including loss of morale Burnout/absenteeism among remaining employees Loss of experience and lack of continuity of service GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 21 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Excessive turnover can be very costly to a company. a vicious cycle. excessive turnover often results in a waste of valuable resources. Thus the time lost in terms of absenteeism is a loss of income to workers Some facts about Turnover • • • • • Zero percent turnover is neither realistic nor possible. It is important to know how to attract and keep the right talent.) Turnover is often the result of burnout. Other costs are less tangible.

TYPES & THEIR CONTROL GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 22 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER : 3 ABSENTEEISM .SEM 2) .

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER : 3 ABSENTEEISM . • Allow employees to have input into the development of an incentive program.1 TYPE OF ABSENTEEISM There are two types of absenteeism. Provide incentives for attendance: Use an incentive program that is suited to your particular company – one size doesn’t fit • • • • • • • all.TYPES & THEIR CONTROL Combating Absenteeism • • • Change management style: Identify authoritarian managers Provide appropriate management training Change working conditions: Adopt policies and values that promote employee respect and professionalism Develop and promote an internal conflict resolution procedure Take employee complaints seriously – sometimes listening is enough. 1. Develop an attendance policy: • 3. INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM 2. CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 23 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Work to create a “just” working climate. each of which requires a different type of approach.SEM 2) .

imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. Discharge Initial Counseling Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already identified an employee as a problem. like sickness and injury. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Written counseling(s) 3. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control. you will have met with him or her as part of your attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or her attendance. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. There is a point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the termination of the employee may be justified. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification 4. as will be discussed.SEM 2) . GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 24 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION 1. COUNSELING INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. no matter what the cause. Absenteeism. The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick. Initial counseling(s) 2. The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: 1.

Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfil the requirements of his/her job. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves. (Indicate your willingness to assist.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION If the absences are intermittent. Reduction(S) of Hours and or Job Reclassification In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. but could for example benefit from modified work. termination may be necessary. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future.) GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 25 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.B.) You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. counsel the employee to bid on jobs of such type if they become available. It is inadvisable to "build" a job around an employee's incapacitates particularly in a unionized environment. The onus should be on the employee to apply for an existing position within his/her capabilities. keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary. Written Counseling If the absences persist.SEM 2) . This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. (N. meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If absence is prolonged. as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.

SEM 2) .EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered.) c) Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? d) Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of hours? e) Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? f) Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way? As is evident. a) Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? b) Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place. The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive. time off. counseling. For instance. 2. 2. an employee who is on sick leave GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 26 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a regular basis in the future. 1. support. These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test.

have identified the employee as a problem. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counseling memorandum] 1. disciplinary procedures may be appropriate. with no improvement despite your positive efforts. In a labour relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied. made your concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counseling as appropriate.SEM 2) . Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Suspension(s) 4. have met with him/her as part of your attendance program. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way. innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally. absenteeism is legitimate.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION even though he/she is not sick. Initial Warning(s) 2. For the large majority of employees. and it can be proven that the employee was not sick. the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance. The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline problems. is guilty of culpable absenteeism. CORRECTIVE ACTION FOR CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM As already indicated. Written Warning(s) 3. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counseling and treatment. culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Dismissel 27 GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.

Give further verbal warnings as required.e. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counseling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. stronger written warning. advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Such factors are. commend the employee. suspension) will depend on a number of factors. the severity of the problem. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can. the employee should be interviewed and GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 28 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Advice the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result.SEM 2) . Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i. Written Warning Interview the employee again. Offer any counseling or guidance as is appropriate. the employee's general work performance and length of service. Where there is no improvement a written warning should be issued. Review the employee's income protection records at regular intervals. the next step in progressive discipline may be a second.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Initial Warning “Verbal Warning” Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. If no satisfactory explanation is given. the credibility of the employee's explanations. following the next interview period and immediately following an absence. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern If the amount and/or pattern continues. Where a marked improvement has been shown. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file.

Q. Consider the following four questions. whereas those that do work are "no fault" policies.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION advised that he/she is to be suspended. To cure excessive absenteeism. Why is present absenteeism policy ineffective? Absenteeism policies vary in effectiveness. Q. Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been met. the employee's general work performance and length of service. The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem. To embark upon a successful absenteeism reduction program. Most ineffective policies I have reviewed have a common denominator: They allow "excused" absences. workable and proven solutions to apply against those causes. upon displaying no satisfactory improvement. one has to know the exact causes and then examine the available. would be dismissed on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence record. 3. The employee. Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring? GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 29 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. which should help you further focus your ideas and put a plan into action.SEM 2) . Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition. the credibility of the employee's explanation.2 GUIDELINES & MEASURES FOR CONTROL OF ABSNTEEISM Absenteeism is a disease that appears whenever a company fails to inoculate itself through the use of sound management practices. you need to make sure you have some basic information and facts about absenteeism in your company.

How much formal training have your supervisors received on absenteeism containment and reduction? If you find that your supervisors hesitate to provide meaningful answers to your questions. Q. any company experiencing absenteeism of greater than 3 percent should consider supervisors as a potential contributor to the problem. Given that this may be the case. however. you will need to investigate other possible causes. These confidential worker surveys commonly ask for employee opinion regarding higher-than-normal absenteeism. then you're on the right track toward a solution. you first should check the percentage of employee absenteeism by supervisor to see if it is concentrated around one or two supervisors. including what causes it and how to reduce it. If. your research reveals that the rate of absenteeism is almost equally distributed throughout your factory. Therefore. boring jobs coupled with uncaring supervisors and/or physically unpleasant workplaces led them to make up excuses for not coming to work. such as claiming to be sick. One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your supervisors about their employees' excessive absenteeism. If it is. "How much formal training have I given my supervisors in the areas of absenteeism reduction and GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 30 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.SEM 2) .EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Numerous studies have concluded that under trained supervisors is one of the main causes of absenteeism. employees revealed that repetitive. They often engage in formal mini-studies to solicit anonymous employee opinions on topics of mutual interest. Ask yourself. you've begun to uncover the obvious--undertrained supervisors. Q. What are the real causes for absences? People-oriented companies are very sensitive to employee opinions. In other words.

lavatories.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION human resources skills?" If your answer is none or very little. lighting and ventilation. it is essential that the workers should be provided with proper and healthy working conditions. Application blanks should invariably be used for a preliminary selection and tools for interviews. you cannot ask a person to do a job he or she has never been trained to do. rest rooms.SEM 2) . it should be provided and all these help in keeping the employee cheerful and increase productivity and the efficiency of operations throughout the plant. The management should look for aptitude and ability in the prospective employees and should not easily yield or pressure of personal likes and dislikes. Following are the measures to control absenteeism:1) ADOPTION OF A WELL DEFINED RECRUITMENT PROCEDURE The selection of employees on the basis of command. The facilities of drinking water. 2) PROVISION OF HEALTHFUL AND HYGENIC WORKING CONDITION In India. their reliance. your solution can't be far behind. Where any one of these facilities is not available. 3) PROVISION OF REASONABLE WAGES AND ALLOWANCE AND JOB SECURITY TO WOTRKERS GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 31 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. provided that he has acquired job knowledge in the function of selection. Employers should also take into account the fact that selection should be for employee’s development. where the climate is warm and most of the work involves manual labour. They should as far as possible rely on employment exchange. The fact of the matter is. linguistic and family consideration should be avoided. The personal officer should play more effective role as coordinator of information. need to be improved. canteens.

free medical and transport facilities. they can have 56 days leaves in years on half pay.I. taking into account the capacity of the industry to pay. which should be placed near the entrance inside the canteen and in areas which are frequently visited by the workers so that they are aware of the policies of the company and any sort changes being made. An effective way of dealing with absenteeism is to liberalise leave rules. leave for under this scheme. therefore pay reasonable wages and allowances. 4) MOTIVATORS WELFARE AND SOCIAL MEASURES The management should consider the needs of workers and offer them adequate and cheap housing facilities. Gratuity and Pension. SBI facilities.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION The wages of an employee determine his as well as his family standard of living. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 32 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. free of subsidized food. free education facilities for their children and other monetary benefits. 6) IMPROVED GRIEVANCES COMMUNICATION AND PROMPT REDRESSAL OF Since a majority of the workers are illiterate or not highly educated bulletins and written notices journals and booklets are not easily understood by them.S. As for social security is concern. 5) LIBERAL GRANT OF LEAVE The management’s strict attitude in granting leave and holidays even when the need for them is genuine. the provision of Provident Fund. This single factor is important for him than other. The management should.SEM 2) . Meetings and concealing are called for written communication becomes meaningful only when workers can readied understood them. tempts workers to go on E. too many notices should be avoided only the essential ones should be put on the boards. all those need to be improved.

Lead a calm. etc and such material factorizes unguarded machinery and explosives. A responsible. Aware of his rights and obligations. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 33 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. One of the consequences of unhealthy relations between supervisors and subordinates is absenteeism. Cordial relations between the supervisors and these workers are therefore essential for without them. In addition consistent and timely safely instruction. as citizens for happy integrated life in the community. II. written instructions (manual) in the regional language of the area should be given to the work force. III. overconfidence.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION 7) SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION Safety at work can be maintained and accidents can be prevented if the management tries to eliminate such personal factors as negligence. vanity.SEM 2) . carelessness. The educational programs according to their national commission on Labour should be to make a worker:I. clean and health life. as operatives for their efficiency and advancement.based on a firm foundation. 8) CORDIAL RELATIONS BETWEEN SUPERVISORS AND WORKERS The supervisor should be recognise that industrial work is a groups task and cannot be properly done unless discipline is enforced and maintained. A responsible and alter citizen. Safe methods of operation should be taught. IV. discipline cannot be increased. defective equipment and hand tools. 9) DEVELOPMENT OF WORKERS BY TRAINING The system of worker’s education should be so designed as to take into account their educational needs as individuals for their personal evaluation. committed and disciplines operative. as members of a trade union for the protection of their interests.

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER: 4 CONCLUSION GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 34 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.SEM 2) .

ii. production.SEM 2) .EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER: 4 CONCLUSION In the conclusion part we can say that employee absenteeism must be reduce properly and timely through various practices or analysis in organization. efficiency and functioning of the organization. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 35 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Finding out the reason of being absent through feed back and fulfilling the various types of needs must be done. To identify the causes of absenteeism. Human Resource Department of the organization must have ……… i. In fact high rates of absenteeism affect an organization state of health and also supervisory and managerial effectiveness. iii. To identify the rate of absenteeism of “worker”. The research reveals that one of the major problems is absenteeism in our industries & organizations. Absenteeism hinders planning. To suggest any measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism From the following steps organization can measure & Analysis the Employee Absenteeism .

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 36 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. The sources of data for the purpose of study were both primary and secondary.. Percentage method is used for the analysis of data and bar graphs are used to present that data. There are some limitations for measure & analysis which are as follows:- a) As it was not possible to visit each department the true picture of working condition could not be judged. Primary data was collected through questionnaire which was mainly close-ended questionnaire and discussion with workers whereas secondary data was collected from records maintained by personal department and time office. the total sample 50 workers. d) Some of the respondents give no answer to the questions which may affect the analysis. c) The personal biases of the respondents might have entered into their response. b) The workers were busy with their work therefore they could not give enough time for the interview. e) Respondents were reluctant to disclose complete and correct information Because of a small period of time only small sample had to be considered which doesn’t actually reflect and accurate and intact picture QUESTIONNAIRE From the following questionnaire we can measure & Analysis the Employee Absenteeism In an organization Personal Information Name ……………………………………………………………………….EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION The population for the study comprised of absentees for current year.SEM 2) .

. Sex……………………….SEM 2) (a) Excellent GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN . 1) For how many years you are working with The industries or organization ? (b) 1-2 yr (d) < 5 yr (b) Once (d) < Twice (a) 0-1 yr (c) 2-5 yr (a) Nil (c)Twice 3) 2) How often you remain absent in a month? According to you what is the main reason for employees absent? (a) Health problem / domestic reasons (c)Work dissatisfaction 4) (b) Stress (d) Working environment Your views regarding the present Absenteeism Policy of The industries or organization ? (b) Good (d) Don’t know (a) Excellent (c) Fair 5) Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities? (a) Well clear (c) Fairly clear (b) Good (d) Don’t know 6) Are you satisfied with your work? (a) Well satisfied (c) Fair 7) (b) Good (d) Not satisfied Your views regarding the working environment of The industries or organization & work place? (b) Good 37 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.…… Job status…………………………………………………………………….EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Age………………………….

EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION (c) Fair 8) (d) Poor How are your relations with your superiors / co-workers? (a) Excellent (c) Fair (b) Good (d) Poor 9) Your superior’s behaviour towards your problems? (a) Excellent (c) Fair 10) organization ? (a) Excellent (c) Fair (b) Good (d) Poor (b) Good (d) Poor Your views regarding the facilities provided to you by The industries or Any suggestions / Comments ________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ -------------------------------------------- GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 38 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.SEM 2) .

SEM 2) .EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHEPTER : 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 39 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1.

If you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism and you find out that it is due to personal problems refer them to EAP.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION CHEPTER : 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Absenteeism is a serious problem for management because it involves heavy additional expenses. 3) Sickness Reporting – Tell employees that they must phone in as early as possible to advise why they are unable to make it to work and when they expect to return. Incentives like two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance can improve a lot. 4) Return to Work Interview. 2) Employee Assistance Program.SEM 2) .When an employee returns to work then ensure that they have a ‘return to work interview’. GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 40 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. The management should take the following measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism:1) Provide Incentives.An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation and avoid unnecessary absenteeism.

the provision of Provident Fund. Estimate the cost to your company of absenteeism – and you will realize that early intervention is cheaper. Gratuity and Pension. Suggestion: Some final thoughts… • • • • Stress management training is a crucial aspect of reducing employee burnout. free medical and transport facilities. -------------------------------------------- GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 41 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. all those need to be improved. As for social security is concern.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION 5) MOTIVATORS WELFARE AND SOCIAL MEASURES-The management should consider the needs of workers and offer them adequate and cheap housing facilities.SEM 2) . Don’t lose another valuable employee to burnout. Lunch-time de-stressing programs can help. In the end to conclude this report I would like to specify that the project allotted to me on ABSENTEEISM was of immense help to me in understanding the working environment of an organization. free of subsidized food. It is important to be able to identify employees who are at risk – and encourage them to seek help from the company’s EAP provider. free education facilities for their children and other monetary benefits. thereby providing a firsthand practical experience. SBI facilities.

GUIDED BY: MISS MANALI JAIN 42 SUBMITTED BY: HEMANGINI PUROHIT (MBA PART 1. Human Resource Management • Basu K.com-current -articals.com-HRM related articles www.questia..hr-topic.hrm guide.hrm guide.. Human Resource Management • Aswathappa K..B. • • Mamoria C. .SEM 2) . Personnel Management.research study on hrm New Dimensions of Personnel Management.S. • Web Resource www. Aswathappa K.com www.net-HRM www.EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM IN ORGANIZATION Bibliography ……….

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