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TechnologySource

HART®

Fieldbus

Profibus

Intrinsic Safety

Configuration Tools

Mass Flow Rate

Semiconductors

Training Determination for

Custom Design

Multivariable Transmitter

(Application Notes)

V 1.0

technology center at:

www.smarresearch.com

©Smar

Research Corporation 1 MFR-0902

Mass Flow Rate - Table of Contents

Mass Flow Rate - Table of Contents

III. Parameters 5

AGA3 Orifice Plates 10

ISO Orifice Plates 11

ASME Orifice Plates 12

Nozzle, ISA 1932, ISO 12

Nozzle, Long Radius Wall Taps, ISO 12

Nozzle, Long Radius Wall Taps, ASME 12

Venturi Nozzle, ISO 13

Venturi, Rough Cast Inlet, ISO 13

Venturi, Rough Cast Inlet, ASME 13

Venturi, Machined Inlet, ISO 13

Venturi, Machined Inlet, ASME 13

Venturi, Welded Inlet, ISO 13

Small Bore Orifice Plate, Flange Taps, ASME 14

Custom Gas Calculations 21

Appendix G: References 32

Mass Flow Rate - Symbols and Definitions

I. Symbols and Definitions

Symbol Definition

Cd Coefficient of discharge

Cp Specific heat at constant pressure

d Throat diameter at flowing temperature

davg Throat diameter at average temperature

dr Throat diameter at reference temperature

D Pipe diameter at flowing temperature

Davg Pipe diameter at average temperature

Dc Derivative of the correlation value of C d

Dr Pipe diameter at reference temperature

Ev Velocity of approach factor

Fc Correlation value of C d

Gi Ideal gas relative density

k Isentropic exponent

L1 Upstream tap position

L2 Downstream tap position

Mrair Molecular weight of air

Mw Molecular weight

Pc Critical pressure

Pf Flowing pressure

Qm Mass flow rate

R Universal gas constant

Re Reynolds number

Tavg Average temperature/Median value of specified temperature range

Tc Critical temperature

Tf Flowing temperature

Tr Reference temperature

v Specific volume

x Ratio of differential pressure to flowing pressure

Y Fluid expansion factor

Zf Compressibility at flowing conditions

α1 Linear coefficient of thermal expansion of primary element

α2 Linear coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe

β Ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter

∆P Differential pressure

µf Absolute viscosity of flowing fluid

ρf Density of fluid at flowing temperature

Mass Flow Rate - Necessary Specifications

II. Necessary Specifications

a. Gas (from AIChE/DIPPR database)

b. Liquid (from AIChE/DIPPR database)

c. Steam

d. Natural Gas (3 options)

1. Gross Characterization Method

- Mole fraction of all components

2. Detail Characterization Method #1

- Real gas relative density

- Volumetric gross heating value

- Mole fraction of carbon dioxide

3. Detail Characterization Method #2

- Real gas relative density

- Mole fraction of carbon dioxide

- Mole fraction of nitrogen

e. Custom Fluid

- See Appendix D

a. Orifice, Flange Taps (ISO, ASME, AGA3)

b. Orifice, Corner Taps (ISO, ASME)

c. Orifice, D & D/2 Taps (ISO, ASME)

d. Small Bore Orifice, Flange Taps, ASME

e. Nozzle, Long Radius Wall Taps (ISO, ASME)

f. Nozzle, ISA 1932, ISO

g. Venturi Nozzle, ISO

h. Venturi, Rough Cast Inlet (ISO, ASME)

i. Venturi, Machined Inlet (ISO,ASME)

j. Venturi, Welded Inlet, ISO

Specify Pipe/Throat:

- Diameters at reference temperature

- Materials

- Temperature (Tmin , Tmax)

- Pressure (P min , Pmax)

Mass Flow Rate - Parameters/Equation

III. Parameters

Detail Method Tf = -200 - 400 F (-128.9 - 204.4 C)

Gross Methods Tf = 32 - 130 F (0- 54.4 C)

Pf = 3.447 - 25000.4 kPa

Pf = 0.034 – 250 bar

Ideal gas relative density Gi = 0.554 - 0.87

Vol gross heating value: HV = 477 - 1150 Btu/ft3 (18.7 - 45.1 MJ/m3)

Mole fraction CO2 xCO2 = 0 - 30 %

Mole fraction N2 xN2 = 0 - 50 %

Pipe diameter (D)

Throat diameter (d)

Diameter ratio (β)

Reynolds number (Re)

π 2

Qm Ev Cd d Y 2ρ f ∆ P

4

Cd = coefficient of discharge

d = throat diameter at flowing temperature

Ev = velocity of approach factor

Qm = mass flow rate

Y = fluid expansion factor

∆P = differential pressure

ρ f = density of fluid at flowing temperature

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Diameter/Expansion Factor

V. Determination of Diameters/Diameter Ratio/Velocity Approach

d dr 1 α 1 Tf Tr D Dr 1 α 2 Tf Tr

dr = throat diameter at reference temperature

D = pipe diameter at flowing temperature

Dr = pipe diameter at reference temperature

Tf = flowing temperature

Tr = reference temperature

α 1 = linear coefficient of thermal expansion of primary element

α 2 = linear coefficient of thermal expansion of pipe

d avg

β

Davg

Davg = pipe diameter at average temperature

Tavg = average temperature/median value of specified temperature range

1

Ev

4

1 β

For Orifice Plates:

4

0.41 0.35 β ∆P

Y 1

k Pf

k = isentropic exponent

Pf = flowing pressure

∆P = differential pressure

Y = fluid expansion factor

1

2

2 k 1

k.( 1

k 4 k

x) 1 β 1 (1 x)

Y

k 1 2 x

4 k

1 β (1 x)

x = ∆P/ P f

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Isentropic Exponent

VII. Determination of Isentropic Exponent

For Gas:

Cp

k

Cp R

2 2

C E

Tavg Tavg

Cp A B D

C E

sinh cosh

Tavg Tavg

Cp = specific heat at constant pressure

R = universal gas constant

A, B, C, D, and E are constants provided by AIChE/DIPPR database

For Liquid:

Y = 1 therefore determination of k is not necessary

For Steam:

k is estimated using the following linear approximation:

k 1.33544 6.24543 . 10 5

Tavg

k is estimated according to AGA Report 3 Part 4:

k = 1.3

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Fluid Density

VIII. Determination of Fluid Density

For Gas:

Pf M w

ρf

Zf R Tf

Mw = molecular weight

Zf = compressibility at flowing conditions

v a

Zf

v b R . Tf

1.5

(v b)

2.5

2

Tc Tc

a .42748 R b .08664 R

Pc Pc

3

R . Tf 2 a 2

b . R . Tf a .b

v v b v =0

Pf Pf . Tf Pf Pf . Tf

.5 .5

Pc = critical pressure

Tc = critical temperature

v = specific volume

For Liquid:

A

ρf

D

T

f

1 1

C

B

For Steam:

ρf is calculated from Tables S-1 through S-5 from the ASME International Steam

Tables. Density is equal to the inverse of specific volume (v).

Pf Mrair Gi

ρf

Zf R Tf

Mrair = molecular weight of air

Zf is calculated using the natural gas compressibility equations from AGA Report 8.

These equations are contained in Appendix D.

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Viscosity

IX. Determination of Viscosity

For Gas:

B

A Tf

µf

C D

1

Tf Tf

2

A, B, C, and D are constants provided by AIChE/DIPPR database.

For Liquid:

B E

A Cln T D T

T f f

f

µf e

For Steam:

µ f is estimated using the following linear approximation:

6

µ 7.51661 0.02249 Tf 10

f

µ f is estimated according to AGA Report 3 Part 4:

µ f = 0.0000069 lbm/ft*sec or 0.010268 cP

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Coefficient of Discharge

X. Determination of Coefficient of Discharge

***For these primary elements, C d is a function of Reynolds number, and Reynolds num-

ber is a function of the unknown mass flow. Therefore, C d can not be directly calculated

and it is necessary to guess values for C d and Reynolds number and use an iterative

process to find the exact values. A detailed description of this iterative process is con-

tained in Appendix D.

Flange taps Corner or D&D/2 taps

0.05m < D < 1m 0.05m < D < 1m

d > 0.0125m d > 0.0125m

0.1 < β < 0.75 0.1 < β < 0.75 D

Re > 4000(β<0.5) Re > 4000(β<0.5)

Re > 170,000Dβ 2(β>0.5) Re > 16,000β 2(β>0.5) d

Assume an initial value of 4000 for the Reynolds number to get the following equations:

4 1.3

8.5 L 6L β L2 L2

.0712 . e .1145 . e

2 8 1 1 1.1

Cd0 .5961 .0291 β .229 β .0433 .0232 .014853 β

1 β

4 1 β 1 β

D

.003 ( 1 β ) 2.8

.0254

0.7

Cd1 .0244 β

4

Cd2 .145 β

4.8

Cd3 .1177 β

4.8 1.3

8.5 L 6L β .0113 L2 L2

.057 . e .0916 . e 7.232 . 10

1 1 3 1.9

Cd4 .0346 β

1 β

4 1 β 1 β

L1 = L2 = 0

D and D/2 Pressure Taps:

L1 = 1 and L2 = 0.47

Flange Pressure Taps:

L1 = L2 = .0254/Davg

Calculate for X:

4000 Dµ

X

Cd0 . Ev Yd . 2 ρ f . ∆ P

2

Mass Flow Rate - Determination Coefficient of Discharge

Use Cd0-4 and X to solve the following equations:

Fc Cd0 Cd1 X Cd2 Cd3 X X Cd4 X

Dc 0.7 Cd1 X 0.35 Cd2 1.15 Cd3 X X 0.8 Cd4 X

Cd0 Fc

δCd

Dc

1

Cd0

Recalculate X with new value of C d(1) in place of C d. Use this value of X to recal-

culate F c , D c, and δCd. Continue repeating this process until δCd < 5x10-6 .

0.05m < D < 1m 0.05m < D < 1m

d > 0.0125m d > 0.0125m

0.2 < β < 0.75 0.2 < β < 0.75

D

Re > 5,000(β<0.45) Re > 1,260,000β 2D(β<0.45)

Re > 10,000(β>0.45) Re > 1,260,000β 2D(β>0.45) d

6 .75 4

2.1 8 2.5 10 β 3

Cd 0.5959 0.0312 β 0.184 β 0.0029 β 0.09 L1 0.0337 L2 β

Re 1 β

4

6 .75 4

2.1 8 2.5 10 β 3

Cd 0.5959 0.0312 β 0.184 β 0.0029 β 0.039 L1 0.0337 L2 β

Re 1 β

4

L1 = L2 = 0

D and D/2 Pressure Taps:

L1 = 1 and L2 = 0.47

Flange Pressure Taps:

L1 = L2 = .0254/Davg

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Coefficient of Discharge

ASME Orifice Plates***:

Flange taps Corner or D&D/2 taps

0.0508m < D < 1m 0.05m < D < 1m

d > 0.0125m d > 0.0125m D

0.2 < β < 0.7 0.2 < β < 0.7

d

If L1 < 0.4333 then:

6 .75 4

2.1 8 2.5 10 β 3

Cd 0.5959 0.0312 β 0.184 β 0.0029 β 0.09 L1 0.0337 L2 β

Re 1 β

4

6 .75 4

2.1 8 2.5 10 β 3

Cd 0.5959 0.0312 β 0.184 β 0.0029 β 0.039 L1 0.0337 L2 β

Re 1 β

4

L1 = L2 = 0

D and D/2 Pressure Taps:

L1 = 1 and L2 = 0.47

Flange Pressure Taps:

L1 = L2 = .0254/Davg

0.05m < D < 0.5m

0.3 < β < 0.8 D

7x104 < Re < 107(β < 0.44)

2x104 < Re < 107(β > 0.44) d

6 1.15

4.1 2 4.15 10

Cd 0.9900 0.2262 β 0.00175 β 0.0033 β

Re

0.05m < D < 0.63m

0.2 < β < 0.8 D

104 < Re < 107

d

6 0.5

10

0.00653 . β

.5 .

Cd 0.9965

Re

0.1m < D < 0.75m

0.2 < β < 0.8

D

104 < Re < 6x106

d

6 0.5

.5 10

Cd 0.9975 0.00653 . β .

Re

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Coefficient of Discharge

Venturi Nozzle, ISO:

0.065m < D < 0.5m d

d > 0.05m

0.316 < β < 0.775

D

1.5x105 < Re < 2x106

4.5

Cd 0.9858 0.196 β

0.1m < D < 0.8m d

0.3 < β < 0.75

2x105 < Re < 2x106

Cd = 0.984 D

0.1m < D < 1.2m d

0.3 < β < 0.75

2x105 < Re < 6x106

Cd = 0.984 D

0.05m < D < 0.25m

0.4 < β < 0.75 d

2x105 < Re < 1x106

Cd = 0.995

D

0.05m < D < 0.25m

0.3 < β < 0.75 d

2x105 < Re < 2x106

Cd = 0.995

D

0.2m < D < 1.2m d

0.4 < β < 0.7

2x105 < Re < 2x106

Cd = 0.985 D

Mass Flow Rate - Determination of Coefficient of Discharge

Small Bore Orifice Plate, Flange Taps, ASME***:

0.025 < D < 0.04m

d > 0.006m

D

0.15 < β < 0.7

Re > 1000 d

4

4 12 4 4 . 1 β

Cd 0.598 0.468 β 10 β 1 β 0.87 8.1 β

Re

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix A

Appendix A

Gas Database

Fluid Mw Pc Tc Cp Viscosity

A B C D E A B C D

Acetic Acid

Acetone

Acetonitrile

Acetylene

Acrylonitrile

Liquid Database

A B C D A B C D E

Acetic Acid

Acetone

Acetonitrile

Acetylene

Acrylonitrile

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix B

Appendix B

temperature and pressure. Its value can be found by plotting temperature and pres-

sure on Figure 7 of the ASME Steam Tables and estimating the corresponding isen-

tropic exponent. The complexity of the graph makes it impossible to create a direct

formula for the calculation of isentropic exponent. Therefore, assumptions must be

made in order to simplify the process. Various software was then analyzed to deter-

mine what assumptions could be made.

It can be assumed that the isentropic exponent does not vary with changing

pressure, therefore it is only a function of temperature. To determine an equation for

isentropic exponent as a function of temperature, various values of temperature were

inputted into the software. The corresponding values of isentropic exponent were then

graphed and a trend line was formulated. The equation of this trend line would provide

values of isentropic exponent for all possible values of temperature.

The following table is the values of isentropic exponent provided by the software

at various temperatures:

79.5855 1.32873 450 1.30801 825 1.28301 1200 1.26007

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix B

The following graph plots isentropic exponent of steam versus temperature. A linear

trend line has been added to provide an equation for the value of k at any T. A linear

function was chosen based on its simplicity and its accuracy to Figure 7 of the ASME

Steam Tables.

1.34

1.33

1.32

1.31

Isentropic Exponent (k)

1.3

1.29

1.28

1.27

1.26

k = -6.24543E-05T + 1.33544

1.25

1.24

1.23

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Temperature (F)

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix C

Appendix C

Formulation of Steam Viscosity Approximation

According to the ASME Steam Tables, steam viscosity is a function of both tem-

perature and pressure. Its value can be found by applying temperature and pressure

to Table 8 of the ASME Steam Tables. Various software was also analyzed to deter-

mine what assumptions could be made.

After studying Table 8, it can be assumed that viscosity does not vary with

changing pressure. To determine an equation for viscosity as strictly a function of tem-

perature, various values of temperature were inputted into the software, while main-

taining a constant pressure. The corresponding values for viscosity were then graphed

and a trend line was formulated. The equation of this trend line would provide values

for viscosity for all possible values of temperature.

The following table is the values of steam viscosity provided by the software at

various temperatures and constant pressure:

ft-s) ft-s)13.7 ft-s)

125 7.2 550 13.3 975 19.9

150 7.5 575 13.7 1000 20.2

175 7.8 600 14.1 1025 20.6

200 8.1 625 14.4 1050 21

225 8.5 650 14.8 1075 21.4

250 8.8 675 15.2 1100 21.7

275 9.2 700 15.6 1125 22.1

300 9.5 725 16 1150 22.5

325 9.9 750 16.4 1175 22.9

350 10.2 775 16.8 1200 23.2

375 10.6 800 17.2 1250 24

400 11 825 17.6 1300 24.7

425 11.4 850 17.9 1350 25.4

450 11.7 875 18.3 1400 26.1

475 12.1 900 18.7 1450 26.8

500 12.5 925 19.1 1500 27.5

525 12.9 950 19.5

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix C

The following graph plots steam viscosity versus temperature. A linear trend line has

been added to provide an equation for the value of m at any T. A linear function was

chosen based on its simplicity and its accuracy to Table 8 of the ASME Steam Tables.

Steam Viscosity

30

25

20

Viscosity (10^-6 lb/ft-s)

-6

Viscosity = (0.01511T + 5.05093)*10

15

10

0

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

Temperature (F)

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix D

Appendix D

Custom Liquid Calculations

If a liquid is used that is not listed in the database, then the following information

must be provided in order to complete the necessary calculations:

Viscosity (µ1) at Temperature (T1)

Density (ρb) at 20 °C (68 °F)

1.5

Tf T1 0.9 Tc

µf µ1

T1 Tf 0.9 Tc

The following method for solving liquid viscosity is derived from Figure 2.19 of the

Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook:

Solve for Y:

Y log µ 1 1

Solve for T:

15 6 12 5 11 4 7 3 4 2 2

4.4 x10 T 3.84 x10 T 3.37 x10 T 9.23 x10 T 3.66 x10 T 6.46 x10 T 6 Y 0

Calculate T1:

T1 = T + Tf - T1

Solve for Y1 :

1 15 1 6 12 1 5 11 1 4 7 1 3 4 1 2 2 1

Y 4.4 x10 T 3.84 x10 T 3.37 x10 T 9.23 x10 T 3.66 x10 T 6.46 x10 T 6

1 1

µf log Y 1

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix D

Appendix D

Custom Gas Calculations

If a gas is used that is not listed in the database, then the following information

must be provided in order to complete the necessary calculations:

Isentropic Exponent (k)

Molecular Weight (Mw )

Viscosity (µ1) at Temperature (T1)

Compressibility (Z)

Use the provided isentropic exponent along with the equations from Section VI

to solve for the expansion factor. Use provided molecular weight and compressibility

along with the gas equation from Section VIII to solve for the gas density. Use the fol-

lowing equation to solve for the gas viscosity:

1.5

Tf T1 0.9 Tc

µf µ1

T1 Tf 0.9 Tc

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

Appendix E

Natural Gas Compressibility Equations

There are three methods that can be used to solve for the compressibility factor

of natural gas. The detail characterization method requires that the mole fraction of all

elements of the natural gas be known. The gross characterization method has two op-

tions. One option requires that the real gas relative density, volumetric gross heating

value, and the mole fraction of carbon dioxide must be known; while the other option

requires that the real gas relative density, mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and mole

fraction of nitrogen must be known. Once a method is chosen use the corresponding

equations to solve for the compressibility of natural gas:

18 58

D.B u u k b k

D . C'n T

n n n n n

Z 1 C'n T bn cn kn D D exp cn D

3

K n = 13 n = 13

Z = compressibility factor

B = second virial coefficient

C`n = coefficients which are functions of composition

D = reduced density

K = mixture size parameter

T = absolute temperature

bn, cn, kn, un = constants given in Table 4 (AGA Report 8)

2

N 5 N 1 N 5

5 2 5 2

K = xi Ki 2 xi xj Kij 1 Ki Kj

i= 1 i= 1 j= i 1

Ki = size parameter of ith component (Table 5)

Kij = binary interaction parameter for size (Table 6)

N = number of components in the gas mixture

18 N N 3

u u

n. n 2

B an T xi xj Eij Ki Kj B'nij

n=1 i= 1 j= 1

an = constant given in Table 4

Eij = second virial coefficient binary energy parameter

B`nij = binary characterization coefficient

1

2

Eij E'ij Ei Ej

Ei = characteristic energy parameter for ith component (Table 5)

E`ij = second virial coefficient energy binary interaction parameter (Table 6)

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

f

n

1 1

g q s w

n n 2 2 n n

B'nij Gij 1 gn Qi Qj 1 qn Fi Fj 1 fn Si Sj 1 sn Wi Wj 1 wn

Qi = quadrupole parameter for ith component (Table 5)

Fi = high temperature parameter for ith component (Table 5)

Si = dipole parameter for ith component (Table 5)

Wi = association parameter for ith component (Table 5)

gn, qn, fn, sn, wn = constants given in Table 4

G'ij Gi Gj

Gij

2

Gi = orientation parameter for ith component (Table 5)

G`ij = binary interaction parameter for orientation (Table 6)

q

g n f u

n 2 n n

C'n an G 1 gn Q 1 qn F 1 fn U

G = orientation parameter

Q = quadrupole parameter

F = mixture high temperature parameter

U = mixture energy parameter

N N 1 N

G xi Gi xi xj G'ij 1 Gi Gj

i= 1 i= 1 j= i 1

N

Q xi Qi

i= 1

N

2

F xi Fi

i= 1

2

N 5 N 1 N 5

2 5 2

U xi Ei 2 xi xj Uij 1 Ei Ej

i= 1 i= 1 j= i 1

Uij = binary interaction parameter for conformal energy (Table 6)

3

D K d

d = molar density (moles per unit volume)

Solve for d using following equation:

18 58 k

n

u u k c D

n n n b n

P dRT 1 Bd D C'n T C'n T bn cn kn D D e

n = 13 n = 13

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

Gross Characterization Method

2

Z 1 Bmix d Cmix d

Z = compressibility factor

Bmix = second virial coefficient for the mixture

Cmix = third virial coefficient for the mixture

d = molar density (moles per unit volume)

N N

Bmix Bij xi xj

i= 1 j= 1

Bij = individual component interaction second virial coefficient

N = number of components in gas mixture

xi , xj , xk = mole fractions of gas components

N N N

Cmix Cijk xi xj xk

i= 1 j= 1 k= 1

Cijk = individual component interaction third virial coefficient

2

Bij b0 b1 T b2 T

b0, b1, b2 = constants given in Table 7

T = temperature

2

Cijk c0 ci T c2 T

c 0, c1, c2 = constants given in Table 7

2

BCH CH

B0 B1 HCH B2 HCH

2

CCH CH CH

C0 C1 HCH C2 HCH

2

Bi b i0 b i1 T b i2 T

2

Ci ci0 ci1 T ci2 T

i = 0, 1, 2

bi0 , bi1 , bi2 , ci0 , c i1 , ci2 = constants given in Table 8

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

5 2

BN2 N2

BCH CH

BN2 CH

0.72 1.875 x10 ( 320 T)

2

1

2

BCO2 CH

0.865 BCO2 CO2

BCH CH

1

3

2

CN2 CH CH

( 0.92 0.0013 ( T 270 ) ) CCH CH CH

CN2 N2 N2

1

3

2

CN2 N2 CH

( 0.92 0.0013 ( T 270 ) ) CN2 N2 N2

CCH CH CH

1

3

2

CCO2 CH CH

0.92 CCH CH CH

CCO2 CO2 CO2

1

3

2

CCO2 CO2 CH

0.92 CCO2 CO2 CO2

CCH CH CH

1

3

CCO2 N2 CH

1.10 CC02 CO2 CO2

CN2 N2 N2

CCH CH CH

After Bmix and Cmix are calculated, use following equation to solve for d:

2

P dRT 1 Bmix d Cmix d

P = absolute pressure

R = gas constant

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

Method #1 (for determination of H CH)

Necessary input:

HV = volumetric gross heating value at reference conditions Th , Td, Pd

Gr = relative density (specific gravity) of mixture

xCO2 = mole fraction of carbon dioxide

HV. Z . R. Td 1

0 4

0

1.027 x10 Th 298.15

HN

Pd

HN0 = molar ideal gross heating value at 298.15K and 0.101325 MPa

Pd = reference pressure for molar density

R = gas constant, 8.31451 J/mol-K

Td = reference temperature for molar density

Th = reference temperature for heating value

Z0 = compressibility factor at reference conditions (set Z0=1 for initial iteration)

Gr Z R. Tgr ρ

0 0

air

Mr

Pgr

Mr = molar mass (molecular weight) of the mixture

Gr = relative density at reference conditions Tgr, Pgr

Pgr = reference pressure for relative density

Tgr = reference temperature for relative density

(ρ0)air = mass density of air at reference conditions Tgr, Pgr

0 M r ( air )

ρ Tgr , Pgr

air

R. Tgr

Bair Tgr

Pgr

Mr(air) = molar mass of air, 28.96256 g/mol

4 7 2

Bair Tgr .012527 5.91 x10 Tgr 6.62 x10 Tgr

0

Mr G2 HN M rN2 xCO2 M rN2 xCO2 M rCO2

xCH

G1 M rN2

xCH = mole fraction of equivalent hydrocarbon

G1 = -2.709328

G2 = 0.021062199

MrN2 = molar mass of nitrogen

MrCO2 = molar mass of carbon dioxide

xN2 = mole fraction of nitrogen

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

0

HN

HCH

xCH

0

Bmix Pgr

Z 1

new

R. Tgr

Bmix = second virial coefficient of mixture (calculated from previous equations)

Repeat process, continuously replacing Z0 with (Z0) new, until (Z0/Z0new-1) is less than

the convergence criteria (5x10-11 in double precision or 5x10 -7 in single precision)

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

Method #2 (for determination of H CH)

Necessary input:

Gr = relative density (specific gravity) of mixture

xCO2 = mole fraction of carbon dioxide

xN2 = mole fraction of nitrogen

Gr Z R. Tgr ρ

0 0

air

Mr

Pgr

Gr = relative density at reference conditions Tgr, Pgr

Pgr = reference pressure for relative density

R = gas constant, 8.31451 J/mol-K

Tgr = reference temperature for relative density

Z0 = compressibility factor at reference conditions (set Z0=1 for initial iteration)

(ρ0)air = mass density of air at reference conditions Tgr, Pgr

0 M r ( air )

ρ Tgr , Pgr

air

R. Tgr

Bair Tgr

Pgr

4 7 2

Bair Tgr .012527 5.91 x10 Tgr 6.62 x10 Tgr

M rCH

xCH

MrN2 = molar mass of nitrogen

MrCO2 = molar mass of carbon dioxide

Mr = molar mass of mixture

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

M rCH G1

HCH

G2

G1 = -2.709328

G2 = 0.021062199

0

Bmix Pgr

Z 1

new

R. Tgr

Bmix = second virial coefficient of mixture (calculated from previous equations)

Repeat process, continuously replacing Z0 with (Z0) new, until (Z0/Z0new-1) is less than

the convergence criteria (5x10-11 in double precision or 5x10 -7 in single precision)

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix E

Compressibility Symbols and Definitions

Symbol Definition

B Second virial coefficient

Bij Individual component interaction second virial coefficient

Bmix Second virial coefficient for the mixture

B`nij Binary characterization coefficient

Cijk Individual component interaction third virial coefficient

Cmix Third virial coefficient for the mixture

C`n Coefficient as a function of composition

d Molar density (moles per unit volume)

D Reduced density

Ei Characteristic energy parameter for ith component (Table 5)

Eij Second virial coefficient binary energy parameter

E`ij Second virial coefficient binary interaction parameter (Table 6)

F Mixture high temperature parameter

Fi High temperature parameter for ith component (Table 5)

G Orientation parameter

Gi Orientation parameter for ith component (Table 5)

Gij Binary orientation parameter

G`ij Binary interaction parameter for orientation (Table 6)

Gr Relative density (specific value) of mixture

HCH Molar gross heating value of the equivalent hydrocarbon

HN0 Molar ideal gross heating value at 298.15K and 0.101325 MPa

HV Volumetric gross heating value at reference conditions Th, Td, Pd

K Mixture size parameter

Ki Size parameter of ith component (Table 5)

Kij Binary interaction parameter for size (Table 6)

Mr Molar mass (molecular weight) of the mixture

Mr(air) Molar mass of air, 28.96256 g/mol

Mri Molar mass of ith component

N Number of components in the gas mixture

P Absolute pressure

Pd Reference pressure for molar density

Pgr Reference pressure for relative density

Q Quadrupole parameter

Qi Quadrupole parameter for ith component (Table 5)

R Gas constant, 8.31451 J/mol-K

r0air Mass density of air at reference conditions Tgr, Pgr

Si Dipole parameter for ith component (Table 5)

T Absolute temperature

Td Reference temperature for molar density

Tgr Reference temperature for relative density

Th Reference temperature for heating value

U Mixture energy parameter

Uij Binary interaction parameter for conformal energy (Table 6)

Wi Association parameter for ith component (Table 5)

xi Mole fraction of ith component

Z Compressibility factor

Z0 Compressibility factor at reference conditions

Z0new Compressibility factor for next iteration

an, bn, c n, fn, gn, k n, qn, sn, un, wn Constants given in Table 4

b0, b1, b2, c0, c1, c 2 Constants given in Table 7

bi0, bi1, bi2, c i0, c i1, ci2 Constants given in Table 8

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix F

Appendix F

Iterative Process Used to Solve for Coefficient of Discharge

2) Multiply this value for C d by the invariant A 1 to obtain new value of Re:

Ev Yd . 2 ρ f . ∆ P

2

A1

µf D

Re

A1

Cd

1 . 10

4

A1

For example:

A1 = 100,000

β = 0.5

6 0.5

.5 10

Cd 0.9965 0.00653 . β .

Re

1) at Re = ∞:

Cd = 0.9965

Re(1) = 99,650 Re(2) = 98,190

Cd(1) = .9819 Cd(2) = .9818

Repeat from step 2 Therefore, C d = .9818

Mass Flow Rate - Appendix G

Appendix G

References

AGA 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbons, Part 1:

General Equations and Uncertainty Guidelines, 3rd ed., American Gas

Association, AGA Catalog No. XQ9210, Arlington, VA., 1990.

AGA 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbons, Part 2:

Specification and Installation Requirements, 4th ed., American Gas Association,

AGA Catalog No. XQ0002, Arlington, VA., 2000.

AGA 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbons, Part 3:

Natural Gas Applications, 3rd ed., American Gas Association,

AGA Catalog No. XQ9210, Arlington, VA., 1992.

AGA 3, Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related Hydrocarbons, Part :

Background, Development, Implementation Procedure, and Subroutine

Documentation for Empirical Flange-Tapped Discharge Coefficient Equation,

3rd ed., American Gas Association, AGA Catalog No. XQ9211, Arlington, VA.,

1992.

Gases, Transmission Measurement Committee Report No. 8, AGA Catalog No.

XQ 9212, Arlington, VA., 1992.

ASME: ASME International Steam Tables for Industrial Use, American Society of

Mechanical Engineers, New York, 2000.

Precision Orifice Meters, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York,

2001.

Nozzle, and Venturi, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York,

1989.

GPA Standard 2145-00, Table of Physical Constants for Hydrocarbons and Other

Compounds of Interest to the Natural Gas Industry, Gas Producers Association,

Tulsa, OK., 2000.

Devices, International Standards Organization, Geneva, 1991.

Miller, R. W.: Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New

York, 1996.

Smar Research reserves the right to make changes to design and functionality of any product without notice. Smar Research

does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product. Smar Research , Technology Source, and the

SRC logo are registered trademarks of Smar Research Corporation. The HART, Fieldbus, and Profibus Foundation logos are

trademarks of their respective owners.

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Holbrook, NY USA 11741

Tel: 631.737.3111 Fax: 631.737.3892

techinfo@SmarResearch.com

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