Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Recent advances in technology make it feasible to incorporate significant processing power in almost every device that we encounter in our daily life. For a number of years, visionary papers have presented a picturesque computerized physical world with which we can potentially interact faster and in a simpler fashion. People, however, are not yet taking advantage of this ubiquitous computing world. Despite all the computing power lying around, most of our daily interactions with the surrounding environment are still primitive and far from the ubiquitous computing vision. Our pockets and bags are still jammed with a bunch of keys for the doors we have to open/close daily (they did not change much since the Middle Ages), the car key or remote, access cards, credit cards, and money to pay for goods. Any of these forgotten at home can turn the day into a nightmare. If we travel, we also need maps and travel guides, coins to pay the parking in the city, and tickets to take the train or subway. In addition, we are always carrying our mobile phone, which for some mysterious reason is the least likely to be left at home. When we finally arrive home or at the hotel, we are ³greeted´ by several remote controls eager to test our intelligence. All these items are absolutely necessary for us to properly interact with our environment. The problem is that there are too many of them, they are sometimes heavy, and we will likely accumulate more and more of them as our life go on, requiring much larger pockets. For this problem, the community does not lack innovative solutions that address some of its aspects (e.g., wireless micro servers, electronic payment methods, and digital door keys). What is missing is a simple, universal solution, which end-users are likely to accept easily. Ideally, we would like to have a single device that acts as both personal server and personal assistant for remote interaction with embedded systems located in proximity of the user. This device should be programmable and support dynamic software extensions for interaction with newly encountered embedded systems (i.e., dynamically loading new interfaces).To simplify its acceptance by society, it should be a device that is already carried by people wherever they go. We believe that Smart Phones are the devices that have the greatest chance of successfully becoming universal remote controls for people to interact with various devices from their surrounding environment; they will also replace all the different items we currently carry in our pockets. Smart Phone is an emerging mobile phone technology that supports Java program execution and provides both short range wireless connectivity (Bluetooth) and cellular network
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity through which the Internet can be accessed.
1.1 What is a Smartphone?
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds features that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer such as the ability to send and receive email and edit Office documents. Smart Phones combine significant computing power with memory, short-range wireless interfaces (e.g., Bluetooth), Internet connectivity (over GPRS), and various input-output components (e.g., high- resolution color touch screens, digital cameras, and MP3 players). The ³smart´ tag is well-earned: in addition to their pure telephony functions, they have an operating system that can run an advanced web browser, as well as locally installed applications.
1.2 Why Buy a Smartphone?
As a busy person, you know the importance of staying a step ahead of your clients and your family. You probably know the feeling of being tied to your desk or home so as not to miss that important email or phone call and to maintain convenient access to essential data²proposals, schedules, contact information, business news or the stock market
In 1992 IBM produced arguably the first ever smartphone. As a blue sky campaign they created Simon, a concept product exhibited at the Las Vegas trade show Comdex. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by BellSouth.IBM was the first to venture into the business of offering consumers a highly advanced mobile phone. The Simon was the first real attempt by the tech industry to create a ³Swiss Army Knife´ type of phone that incorporated voice and data services into one package, as the device acted as a mobile phone, a PDA and even a fax machine. What¶s more, the device even had a touch screen that could be used to dial phone numbers, making it a true pre-pre-pre-precursor to the iPhone that would come 14 years later. Well, one Simon owner describes it as ³brick-like, huge and heavy.´ And its original retail price was $899. Considered low-end by today¶s standard, this first smartphone featured an amazing array of features ± email, address book, clock, calendar, note pad, and even the ability to send and receive faxes.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia¶s smartphone starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and expensive Personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett Packard combined with Nokia¶s bestselling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the two devices fixed via a hinge. The Nokia 9210 was the first color screen Communicator model which was the first true smartphone with an open operating system the 9500 Communicator was also Nokia¶s first camera phone Communicator and Nokia¶s first Wi-Fi phone. The 9300 Communicator was the third dimensional shift into a smaller form factor, and the latest E90 Communicator includes GPS. The Nokia Communicator model is remarkable for also having been the most expensive phone model sold by a major brand for almost the full lifespan of the model series, easily 20% and sometimes 40% more expensive than the next most expensive smartphone by any major manufacturer.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
In 1997 Ericsson released the concept phone GS88. It was the first device labeled as µsmartphone¶. The GS88 was followed up by the touch screen smartphone R380 in 2000, the first device to use the new Symbian OS, and by the P800 in 2002, the first camera smartphone.
In the late 1990s, Canadian company Research in Motion was mostly known for its two-way pagers that were adopted by tens of millions of users worldwide. But starting in 2002, RIM
RIM would not release a proper headset-free smartphone until the BlackBerry 6210 came out in early 2004. a phone with the ability to get e-mail and surf the Web. although its release marked the start of the wane of Palm¶s influence.
The Treo 600 was the first smartphone released by Palm after it acquired device manufacturer Handspring. The Treo was popular in its own right. The major downside of the 5810 was that you needed to plug in a headset in order to talk on the phone.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone entered the mobile phone market with its BlackBerry 5810 device. This particular smartphone featured both GSM and CDMA models and had 32MB of RAM and 144MHz of processing power.
. which itself had been started by Palm¶s original founders and which had used Palm¶s operating system as the basis for its Treo devices.
Android¶s rise is fairly remarkable for an operating system that only just launched in the fall of 2007. smartphones at the end of 2009. But now Google¶s open-source mobile operating system has become a major player in the smartphone industry. more than double its market share from the previous quarter. The open-source operating system¶s success is even more impressive when you consider that when it debuted it was already facing a crowded field of OS heavyweights such as the iPhone. Windows Mobile and Symbian.S. BlackBerry.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
In 2007 Apple released the iPhone with its intuitive touch screen this was the device that revolutionized mobile web browsing.
. It was used on more than 7% of all U.
Sprint has long been eager to show off the capabilities of its WiMAX network. which is currently the fastest wireless network commercially available in the United States. sold more than 1 million units over its first 74 days on the market. which was also the first Android-based smartphone to run on the Verizon network.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Although Android had been on the market for more than a year before the Droid¶s release. The device. the Droid was the first major hit for the Android platform that had enduring brand recognition.
The Android-based device is so big that it even features a kickstand that helps users keep it upright while they¶re looking at the screen. In addition to its connectivity.
In January 2010.3-inch 800 x 400 pixel display screen and a weight of 6 ounces. the phone is also notable for its striking physical size.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone release of the EVO 4G in summers 2010. with a 4. Sprint finally has a flagship device that will let users take advantage of its high-speed network.1. has been designed by HTC and works with TMobile¶s network in the United States. which runs Android 2. The Nexus One. Google introduced the Nexus One as the first device to be sold by the search company itself. Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android OS. rather than a manufacturing or carrier partner.
Universal remote control. 3. 3. a Smart Phone can be used to execute applications from as simple as remotely adjusting various controls of home appliances or opening smart locks to complex applications such as automatically booking a cab or ordering paying in a restaurant use an ad hoc network of mobile phones to connect to the cashier¶s computer. To support proximity-aware interactions. Figure illustrates such interactions using Bluetooth. Due to its low-power. both the Smart Phone and the embedded systems with which the user interacts must have short-range wireless communication capabilities.3.1 Universal Remote Control Interaction Model:
The Smart Phone can act as a universal remote control for interaction with embedded systems located in its proximity. Bluetooth is the primary candidate for the short-range wireless technology that will enable proximity-aware communication.2. We have identified four interaction models: 3. Smart Phone Interaction Models
A Smart Phone can be used to interact with the surrounding environment in different ways.
3. low. Gateway connectivity and 3. With these models.1. peer-to-peer.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
. Dual connectivity.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Since embedded systems with different functionalities can be scattered everywhere. They have the unique feature of incorporating both short range wireless connectivity (e. In the following.g. solution is to define a protocol that allows a Smart Phone to learn the interfaces from the embedded systems themselves. Each embedded system should be able to provide its identity information (unique to a device or to a class of devices) and a description of its basic functionality in a human-understandable format. Bluetooth) and Internet
. we describe a second model of interaction that solves this problem. An alternative. but the information about the devices currently located in user¶s proximity is displayed only upon user¶s request..2 Dual Connectivity Model:
Central to our universal interaction architecture is the dual connectivity model which is based on the hybrid communication capabilities incorporated in the Smart Phones. This model works well as long as the user has the interfaces for interacting with the embedded systems preinstalled on the phone. This protocol can work either automatically or on-demand. The problem with this idea is that many embedded systems may not be powerful enough to run complex software that implements such protocols. more flexible.
3. a discovery protocol will allow Smart Phones to learn the identity and the description of the embedded systems located in their proximity.
As a typical application. Figure
.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity (e.g. This code will display a panel that emulates the panel of the microwave on the phone¶s screen (i. The Smart Phone can establish a connection with the lock. For instance.formation) is piggybacked on the request submitted to the server. This embedded system is very simple and is not capable of storing or transferring its interface to a Smart Phone. and connect to an Internet server over GPRS to download the code that will be used for opening the lock (a digital door key can also be downloaded at the same time). obtain the ID of the lock.. this ability can be used to authenticate the client. the vendor¶s embedded system can also be connected to the Internet.. The phone can also perform authentication over the Internet to ensure that the code is trusted. over GPRS) to download the code of the interface that will allow it to become a remote control for the microwave oven. it is able to identify itself to Smart Phones. Potentially.. The Smart Phone can authenticate the vendor using its Internet connection. the phones can connect to a server across the Internet (i. With this model. A client does not need to know about a vendor¶s embedded system in advance. The identity of the Smart Phone user (stored on the Smart Phone in the form of personal in. The dual connectivity model can also be used to implement electronic payment applications. The dual connectivity model enables users carrying Smart Phones to open these locks in a secure manner. The server hosting the interface and the keys for the Smart Lock maintains a list of people that are allowed to open the lock. it effectively transforms the phone into an intuitive microwave remote control). GPRS) in the same personal mobile device. let us assume that a person has just bought an ³intelligent´ microwave oven equipped with a Bluetooth interface. it responds with the code for the interface and the digital key. the users can interact with the close-by environment using the short-range wireless connectivity and with the rest of the world using the Internet connectivity.. make a deposit each time the amount on the phone exceeds a certain limit). Another typical application is opening/closing Smart Locks. Figure illustrates the Dual Connectivity interaction model. If the server finds that this user is allowed to open the lock. We envision that the entry in certain buildings will soon be protected by Smart Locks (e. However. All further communication between this embedded system and the Smart Phone happens by executing the downloaded code. Another option provided by the Smart Phone is to send some of the unused money back into the bank account (i. Using this information.g. locks that are Bluetooth-enabled and can be opened using digital door keys).e.e. The same connection can be used by the client to withdraw electronic currency from her bank and store it on the phone.e.
11 is that it consumes too much energy. These protocols allow for a significant increase in the communication distance and bandwidth compared to Bluetooth. With the current state of the art.3 The Gateway Connectivity Interaction Model:
Pervasive applications assume wireless communication through the IEEE 802.11 benefits and create mobile ad hoc networks. however. More powerful systems. the communication range is 250m or more.
3. can take advantage of the 802. several hours or even days).. a user would like to access data and services provided by these networks from its Smart Phone. Using these protocols.11 family of protocols. we do not expect to have 802. and consequently. In such a situation. The bandwidth is also larger. while Bluetooth reaches only 10m.g. 11-54Mbps compared to less than 1Mbps for Bluetooth.11 network interfaces embedded in Smart Phones or other resource constrained embedded systems that need to run on batteries for a significant period of time (e. The disadvantage of 802.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone presents a similar application that involves accessing an ATM using a Smart Phone. it drains out the mobile devices¶ batteries in a very short period of time.
a client can start an application on her Smart Phone that seamlessly achieves the same goal. theaters.11 and vice-versa.g.11 hotspots. similar to mobile ad hoc networks.
3. Figure depicts yet another example of this model. Let us assume a scenario where people want to book nearby cabs using their Smart Phones. Figure illustrates this communication model and also presents an application that can be built on top of it. this model allows people to share music and pictures with others even if they are not in the proximity of each other.11 and vice-versa. A group of friends having dinner
.11 wireless networking and GPS devices. For instance. To join the mobile adhoc network created by the cabs. each cab is equipped with 802. a Smart Phone needs to connect to a gateway station that performs a translation of protocols from Bluetooth to 802. Hence.4 Peer-to-Peer Model:
The Smart Phones can also communicate among themselves (or with other Bluetooth-enabled devices) in a multihop. a gateway device has to perform a change of protocol from Bluetooth to 802. the client is just one-click away from booking a cab. Instead of calling a taxi company or ³gesturing´ to book a cab. Many places in a city (e. and the entire booking process is completely decentralized.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
To succeed. stores. In this scenario. restaurants) can provide such gateway stations together with 802. peer-to-peer fashion..
play your music. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to your particular way of doing things. You can get a separate. configure and run applications of their choosing. pocket-sized device designed to help you accomplish it.
4. A smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your handheld computing and communication needs in a single. give directions. any daily task. keep your calendar and address book. an ad hoc network of Smart Phones is created. One phone initiates this process. and finally the payment message arrives at the cashier. But how many pockets do you have? Handheld devices become as clunky as a room-sized supercomputer when you have to carry four of them around with you every day. and it's likely there's a specialized. Most standard cell-phone software offers only limited choices for
.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone in a restaurant can use their Smart Phones to execute a program that shares the check.1 Introduction to How Smartphone Works:
Think of a daily task. smartphones allow individual users to install. tiny and powerful machine to make phone calls. How Smartphone Works
4. check your e-mail. entertain you. take pictures. small package. and do countless other things. Unlike many traditional cell phones.
running multiple apps at once. On a standard phone. you could install any compatible calendar application you like. whether or not you like the built-in calendar application. such as browsing desktop-class webpages. 1. Since these mobile devices are able to accomplish so many tasks. Their specification sheets almost read like what you¶d find for a computer. grabbing email and even doing simple photo and video editing.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone re-configuration. a smartphone is usually either a phone with added PDA capabilities or a PDA with added phone capabilities. Since cell phones and PDAs are the most common handheld devices today. watching Flash videos. Processor:
.2 The Layers of a Smartphone:
The Hardware: Smartphones these days are powerful beasts. you are stuck with it except for a few minor tweaks. forcing you to adapt to the way its set up. calendar and to-do list Communication with laptop or desktop computers Data synchronization with applications like Microsoft Outlook and Apple's iCal calendar
y y y y
E-mail Instant messaging Applications such as word processing programs or video games Play audio and video files in some standard formats
4. If that phone were a smartphone. the hardware specifications of a smartphone have gradually become a more important factor. Here's a list of some of the things smartphones can do:
y y y y
Send and receive mobile phone calls ± some smartphones are also Wi-Fi capable Personal Information Management (PIM) including notes. and these devices are now capable of tasks that one would have done on a computer in the past.
printers. 4. 3.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Processor speed is of somewhat less importance than the rest of the specifications. Many smartphones use power-efficient ARM processors. External Connectors:
. the everyday performance and speed of operation of a particular device are more dependent on software optimizations and the efficiency of the OS rather than purely based on processor speeds. system slowdowns and freezes. RAM size varies from 64MB to 128MB. simply because these megahertz numbers are not capable of accurately reflecting the actual performance of a smartphone. More often than not. They have a certain amount of on-board memory in the tens of megabytes. especially for devices capable of multitasking out of the box (sorry iPhone) as having more RAM means being able to run more apps at one time without suffering from apps closing unexpectedly. and other embedded devices like Smart Watches and MP3 players. and many have slots for removable memory formats like SD and MMC cards as well. which are also found in routers. Hardware 3D graphics acceleration: Having 3D graphics acceleration onboard results in better-looking games (those that take advantage of the added hardware) and smoother high-resolution video playback in addition to a overall-speedier user interface.
Chips used in smartphones 2. Internal memory: This is an important figure to look at when selecting a new smartphone.
there are three types of wireless technologies in smartphones. Wireless technologies: Fundamentally. 7. 8. A light sensor automatically adjusts your screen¶s backlight and keypad lighting based on ambient lighting conditions. A magnetometer is otherwise known as a digital compass. Most smartphones have a combination of 3. Internal sensors: Fundamentally. these apps make use of the digital compass in your device and your camera in order to point out certain points of interest relative to their actual location. At this point. Battery: Battery has capability ranging from 850mAh to 1500mAh. detecting whether you¶re trying to capture a photo in portrait or landscape mode. Lastly. as well as for special features such as silencing calls and alarms when the device is turned over. at present. One of the largest debates of all time with regards to smartphone imaging is whether Xenon or LED flash units should be used in smartphones. 5. there are four internal sensors you should look out for: An accelerometer handles auto-rotation of your device¶s display. micro USB charging is also starting to be implemented in newer devices. Camera & LED/XENON FLASH: The same rules that govern megapixel counts on standalone digital cameras do apply to smartphones too. your screen would dim in dark conditions so as not to dazzle you and increase in brightness in sunlight to boost outdoor visibility. a proximity sensor turns off the display during phone calls on touch screen handsets so as to prevent accidental touches when the device is taped to the side of your face. more megapixels aren¶t always better. The Software:
. Bluetooth and location services (GPS). Xenon flash is always better than LED flash. as well as in ³augmented reality´ apps such as Layer on the Android platform. 6.5mm standard headphone jack and micro USB port for audio and data respectively. this is used in GPS navigation apps where the map is aligned to the direction you¶re facing.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Standard external connectors refer to the use of non-proprietary connections for audio output and data transfers in a device. cellular.
management systems for processes and drivers for hardware Middleware .software libraries that enable smartphone applications (such as security. The smartphone operating systems are:
A Nokia N92 with Symbian OS
.application programming interfaces. Some OS platforms cover the entire range of the software stack.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack. An operating system manages the hardware and software resources of smartphones. Others may only include the lower levels (typically the kernel and middleware layers) and rely on additional software platforms to provide a user interface framework.)
application execution environment (AEE) . which
allow developers to create their own programs
user interface framework . messaging.3 Smartphone Operating Systems:
The most important software in any smartphone is its operating system (OS).the basic applications users access regularly such as menu screens.
web browsing. etc. The stack consists of the following layers:
calendars and message inboxes
4. or AEE.the graphics and layouts seen on the screen application suite .
frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. According to ARC chart. with associated libraries. Linux: Linux is unique among the other operating systems in that its development is driven by a community of developers rather than by a central company. Some smartphone companies find the risk too great to invest in Linux. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. The upper layers are supplied by application platforms like S60. by nature. and is therefore a Unix-like operating system. Since Linux is an organic OS. the Media layer. however. with which it shares the Darwin foundation. Symbian OS is the operating system for more than 100 different models of phones. and the iPad. originally developed by Symbian Ltd. iPhone OS has four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer. though the most popular phone models still use the Symbian OS. Used for ARM-based processor. an organization that is attempting to create a standardized Linux platform.
. although an unreleased x86 port existed. the Linux OS supports more processors than any other operating system on the market. platforms based on Linux code can be very different from one another. Six telecommunications companies are responding to this by forming the LiMo foundation. It is derived from Mac OS X. UIQ. the iPod Touch. with developers constantly changing and updating it even at the kernel level. Written in C. The operating system consists of the kernel and middleware components of the software stack. the Core Services layer. There are some drawbacks to the system.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Symbian: Symbian OS is an operating system (OS) designed for mobile devices and smartphones. It is the default operating system of the iPhone. The operating system uses less than 500 megabytes of the device's storage. user interface. and MOAP. iPhone OS: It is a mobile operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. and the Cocoa Touch layer.
the latest version of the software platform. Much of the strength of this OS lies in the compatibility with the Microsoft Office suite of programs. The OS is based off of Window CE. 2007. Microsoft unveiled Windows Mobile 6.NET.
The T-Mobile SDA Windows Mobile Smartphone
. On February 12.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
The Linux Smartphone Windows Mobile: The Windows Mobile OS encompasses the entire software stack from the kernel to the application interface.
It was initially developed by Android Inc. this is a packet-switched.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone ANDROID: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. Programmed in C and runs on ARM processors. and most recently. etc. a firm later purchased by Google. created by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handhelds. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. trackball.).4 Network Protocols:
Smartphones use cell-phone network technology to send and receive data (such as phone calls. middleware and key applications. particularly the track wheel. this operating system combines a Linux-based foundation with applications written for the old Palm OS. that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel. BlackBerry OS: It is the proprietary software platform. though the Treo line of smartphones used it as well. Developers General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a wireless. network engineers created protocols that are more advanced than generation two¶s digital technology but not so innovative that they are a truly new generation. which constitute the second generation. Developers classify this technology into generations.5G protocol used in most smartphones. Garnet: formerly known as Palm OS. Runs on both Intel Xscale and ARM processors. Between generation two and three. "always on" connection that remains active as long as the phone is within range
. web browsing. The first generation includes analog cell phone technology.
4. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language. The Palm OS was mainly used in PDAs. and lately by the Open Handset Alliance. Phones using the Garnet OS should become available in late 2007. the track pad and touch screen. file transfers. Unlike a circuit-switched voice connection. The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds. Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols. packet-based communication service and until recently was the standard 2. Written in C++..
many still rely on 2.S. Europe and Asia have much stronger 3G integration in their respective cell phone networks. Many smartphones in the United States are now using EDGE protocol. Some 3G protocols are:
y y y
Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
.S. Some smartphones in the United States still use this protocol.
Treo 700w: Palm's First Windows Mobile Smartphone Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps). While some U. act as a wireless modem for a computer and transmit and receive e-mails. It allows smartphones to do things like run applications remotely over a network. One protocol that is faster than GPRS used in the U. market is Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE). interface with the Internet.5G technology. GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114 kilobytes per second. EDGE can transmit data at more than three times the rate of GPRS (384 Kbps).Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone of the service. participate in instant messenger sessions. carriers support 3G protocols. faster protocols are available. though newer.
but others allow simultaneous connection with multiple devices. Data Synchronization: A phone that keeps track of your personal information. A user can watch a video clip.5 Flexible Interfaces:
The core services on smartphones all tie in to the idea of a multi-purpose device that can effectively multitask. Systems supported by smartphones include: Bluetooth: A short-range.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO)
4. field a phone call. all without closing each application. wireless radio service that allows phones to wirelessly link up with each other and with other nearby devices that support it. and then return to the video clip after the call. needs to be able to communicate with all of the other devices you use to keep track of those things. Some varieties of Bluetooth only allow communication with one device at a time. then you generally have to look for a cell phone that speaks the languages of all of the devices and applications you use. addresses. and phone numbers. to-do lists. There are hundreds of possible platforms and applications you might use for this in the course of a day. Or you can go out and buy new applications that speak the language of your cell phone. like appointments.
. Or he or she can flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without interrupting the voice call. If you want to keep all of this data in synchronization with what's on your phone. All of the data stored on the phone can be synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways. This includes things like printers. scanners. input devices. computers and headsets.
For example. which is continuing the work begun by the SyncML Initiative. Since there are millions of Java developers worldwide. The OMA formed a Data Synchronization Working Group. mail protocols and TCP/IP networks. MIDlets are applications that use a subset of Java and are specifically programmed to run on wireless devices. SyncML is an open-standards project designed to eliminate the trouble of worrying about whether your PIM devices sync up with your phone and vice-versa. This includes synchronization over the Web. applications and utilities. Because of the way the OS architecture of most phones is built. through any network. smartphone users can install thousands of third-party applications on their phones. while allowing businesses to compete through innovation and differentiation´. and the Java development tools are freely accessible. The project is designed so that any kind of data can be synchronized with any application on any piece of hardware.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Smartphone E-mail Application The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a collaborative organization with the mission to ³facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by specifying market driven mobile service enablers that ensure service interoperability across devices. provided that they are all programmed to OMA standards. geographies. these applications can access and use all of the data on the user's phone. service providers. operators. Bluetooth. Java: A smartphone that is compatible with the Java programming language allows the user to load and run Java applications and MIDlets. Java MIDlets include add-ons. if you
. games. and networks.
we briefly describe the components of the software architecture:
Bluetooth Engine is responsible for communicating with the Bluetooth-enabled embedded systems.
5.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone don't like the photo caller ID that comes bundled with Symbian Series 60 OS.g..The protocol of communication is HTTP on top of
. downloading an interface).1 Smart Phone Software Architecture:
Figure shows the Smart Phone software architecture.
5. you can just find one that you like better. Internet Access Module carries out the communication between the Smart Phone and various Internet servers. This protocol allows Smart Phones to interact with the surrounding environment and the Internet. System Architecture
System architecture for universal interaction consists of a common Smart Phone software architecture and an interaction protocol. It is composed of sub-components for device discovery and sending/receiving data. It provides a well-defined API that supports operations specific to our architecture (e. The Bluetooth Engine is a layer above the Bluetooth stack and provides a convenient Java API for accessing the Bluetooth stack. In the following.
For instance. The downloaded interface is stored in the Interface Cache for later reuse.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone GPRS. the interface can be downloaded directly from it. Interface Cache stores the code of the downloaded interfaces.. Smart Locks. An interface can be shared by an entire class of embedded systems (e. These programs interact with the Bluetooth Engine to communicate with the embedded systems or with other Smart Phones They may also interact with the Internet Access Module to communicate with Internet servers. Personal Data Storage acts as a cache for ³active data´. Every interface has an ID (which can be the ID of the embedded system or the class of embedded systems it is associated with). or Microwaves). Execution Engine is invoked by the Proximity Engine and is responsible for dispatching interface programs for execution over the Java virtual machine.. Proximity Engine is responsible for discovering the embedded systems located within the Bluetooth communication range. This handler may define the time period for which the interface should be cached.e. the Proximity Engine informs the Execution Engine to dispatch the downloaded interface for execution. Examples of such data include digital door keys and electronic cash.g. The user can set the access handler¶s parameters before the first execution of the interface. the Proximity Engine invokes the Internet Access Module to connect to a web server and download the interface. how and when the interface can be reused. Otherwise. This cache avoids downloading an interface every time it is needed. and an interface for this system is not available locally (i. All further communication between the Smart Phone and the embedded system happens as a result of executing this interface. each interface has an associated access handler that is executed before any subsequent execution of the interface. It stores data that needs to be used during the interactions with various embedded systems. Each data item stored in this cache has three associated handlers: access
. Once this is done. the interface programs may need to contact a server for security related actions or to download necessary data in case of a miss in the Personal Data Storage. the Proximity Engine is responsible from downloading such an interface. or the permissions to access local resources. This ID helps in recognizing the cached interface each time it needs to be looked up in the cache. Each time the user wants to interact with one of these systems. Additionally. a miss in the Interface Cache). If the embedded system has enough computing power and memory.
For instance. An inter face downloaded from an embedded system is untrusted and is not allowed to access local resources (i. they are assumed to be verified before being distributed by the server.e.e. the web server assigns a unique ID and a URL to the device. potentially. If the data is not available locally (i. it checks the Personal Data Storage. At registration. The permission to download an interface is subject to access control enforced based on the SmartPhone ID and. This URL may be common for an entire class of embedded systems. and then. In case of a miss in the Interface Cache. this is a sandbox model of execution. miss handler. the access handler may check if this data can be shared among different interfaces.. hit). Each time an interface needs some data. the interface needs to be downloaded on the phone either from the web server or from the embedded system itself.
5. a request is sent to the embedded system to provide its ID and URL. Upon receiving the ID and URL of the embedded system. the Smart Phone executes the access control handler. Once the access is granted. it has to send the interface ID and the URL provided by the embedded system. and eviction handler. Each time a SmartPhone requests an interface from the web server.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone handler. miss). If the data is available locally (i. The eviction handler defines the actions to be taken when data is evicted from the cache. where the interface can only execute safe instructions on the phone). the miss handler instructs the Internet Access Module to download the data from the corresponding Internet server. All the information necessary to interact with the device along with a user interface is stored at that URL. The interfaces downloaded from the web server are trusted. the access handler is executed. The user invokes the Proximity Engine each time she needs to interact with a device located in the proximity..e.
. It also sends it¶s ID (stored in the Personal Data Storage). loads and executes the interface. electronic cash can be sent back to the bank at eviction time.2 Smart Phone Interaction Protocol:
Below figure shows the interaction protocol that takes place when a Smart Phone needs to interact with an embedded system. the user can choose the one she wants to interact with. the web server responds with the interface code. Once the embedded systems in the proximity have been identified.. and the program goes ahead. We consider that any embedded system is registered with a trusted web server (this web server can be physically distributed on multiple computers). other credentials presented by the user. For instance. Consequently.
line-of-business applications like CRM. They include many multi-media features that seem to be capturing the interests of individuals. Examples of applications and services that may be deployed are messaging applications like email and instant messaging. enterprises have discovered them to be useful for employees who are distant / dispersed from the office. Blackberry. Enterprises need to be able to deploy applications to smartphones. and personal productivity applications like document editing and expense tracking. Smartphone application development
Smartphones like iPhone. are a wonderful combination of computers and cell-phones. Therefore.
. With the popularity of these devices. etc. Android. developing smartphone applications for the enterprises has become necessary. These applications make the smartphone more useful by making it into a business tool and by connecting it to the enterprise. security applications like antivirus.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
Smart Phone Interaction Protocol
enterprises need a way to deploy custom applications.but not required -. or they may be pushed using a mobile device management (MDM) product.do not yet live in a completely Web-based.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Apple. This forces dataflows through the usual channels that are managed. So what would an enterprise application store look like?
. the ideal solution is to have any device connect directly to the enterprise network. BlackBerry's App World. and the Windows Mobile Marketplace. How are enterprise smartphone applications being deployed today?
It depends on the Mobile OS and the type of application. but all target the consumer market and none satisfies the needs of the enterprise. Tethering is also complicated for the end user and not automated -. BlackBerry distributes enterprise applications through the BES server. perhaps better called services. Users can deploy applications themselves on Windows Mobile devices. What are the unique challenges facing the enterprise when it comes to tethering? Tethering forces the user to connect the smartphone to a PC/MAC/laptop. over-the-air world. The irony is that the most connected devices we own -.apps. filtered and audited. and sometimes they require the device to be tethered. but this applies mostly to applications that are mandatory for the smartphone. require specialized configuration using enterprise back-end systems. In general. but only for the consumer market.many companies have policies in place to protect against data leakage and malware. protected. with Google's Android Market. The Apple App Store makes it easy for vendors to reach consumers and for smartphone users to find and deploy applications. And tethering introduces its own set of problems. Some applications. Consumer application clouds do exist. has raised the bar on smartphone application distribution. but they are not suitable for the enterprise. by not allowing USB keys to be attached to a laptop. Each of these application clouds has somewhat different business models. negotiate license pricing with their independent software vendors (ISVs). and it doesn't give the administrator the ability to present the user with a set of permitted -. These connections introduce security issues -. The other smartphone vendors have responded in kind.it's difficult to push applications and updates to a smartphone when these only happen via tethering. with its App Store. for example. For example. The enterprise needs its own application store. and control application policies.our smartphones -.
Once determines the scope of
.these applications could live in the enterprise app store or be pointed to from the app store.
6. Enterprise IT should be able to manage applications and services. Managing of the application store by IT is important for many reasons. What will the application do? In many cases. 2.g. then it should have every feature that the physical game does. The enterprise application store should be able to handle a wide set of applications and services:
Applications that are mandatory for all devices (e. If you are creating a dictionary application.. and associated configurations and policies. If the application is a smartphone adaptation of a board game. The enterprise app store is controlled by the IT administrator and managed by IT. including protecting the IP in custom applications. and license management.g. VoIP). is to determine the application's scope. 4. this has a very simple answer. 3. The first step in any Smartphone application development. The app store may live in the enterprise or as a cloud service. The enterprise app store must be accessible over the air with no tethering required. Users should authenticate using enterprise credentials. email. from a single app store. it should have every word in the English language along with a definition. Line-of-business applications those are specific to the employee and his role or job (e. or any other computer system. antivirus. A single enterprise app store should support multiple mobile OSs. The enterprise does not want one application store for BlackBerry and another for iPhone and so on.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone An enterprise application store gives IT administrators and users the ability to manage the applications on their devices.1 Steps to develop enterprise applications:
Recommended or permitted third-party applications -. but it must be private and under the control of the enterprise. It has four fundamental properties: 1. CRM. SFA)..
This is.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone an application. along with other debugging applications. These testing tools. Smartphones will also start to complement. a long term software test. What do you see for the future of smartphone applications in the enterprise?
Smartphones make business more efficient by bringing enterprise data and systems where they are needed. Once the basic functionality is in development. software engineers begin to test how each app works. for example. give developers an edge in finding any and all software related problems as they arise. we can begin to formulate that application's business strategy and ultimately its development schedule.
. more or less. 3. and they enable better decisions based on the resources available in real time. The second phase in development is figuring which software tools are available to us to bring together the kind of functionality that the application requires. and perhaps replace. The final phase of smartphone application development is beta testing. so information can be made more useful and kept more current. Most smartphones have their own proprietary software development kit (SDK). These combinations of code packages ultimately become your smartphone app. other devices in the enterprise. It can take a little time to spot them. Most of the bugs in an application aren't always found right away. allows developers to test their iPhone applications on an iPhone simulator before they ever load the app onto a real iPhone. Different kinds of Smartphone app development take different amounts of time to complete depending on the scope of the project. Give the application to a few of employees and have they used it on their smartphone for a few weeks to see if there are any more issues. Many of these kits have certain pre-built general kinds of functions that can be reused and co-opted into the code again and again. 2. Increasingly. The iPhone SDK. we will see these applications implemented as rich clients that leverage data from the data center in order to optimize the user experience but leave enterprises with good control over their information. so make sure they are all gone well before the new app is released.
Some smartphone can support multiple e-mail accounts. Smartphones are basically hand-held computers and. Email capability is a must-have feature for all smartphones. such as the BlackBerry OS. These browsers load and navigate websites the way a typical computer browser would. the Palm OS. Software:
A smartphone will offer more than just an address book. All cell phones can send and receive text messages. which usually offers pared down features for faster downloading times. or Windows Mobile. Operating System:
A smartphone will be based on an operating system that allows it to run productivity applications. It may allow you to create and edit Microsoft Office documents or manage your finances. a full keypad is a convenient feature. as well as a huge time-saver.
3. allowing users to stay on top of their
. but what sets a smartphone apart is its ability to send and receive e-mail. Web Access:
A smartphone offer some sort of access to the Internet. so the keys are laid out in the same manner they would be on your computer keyboard.
Smartphones have helped to bridge the gap between personal digital assistants (PDAs) and regular mobile phones and therefore must provide features targeted to the business professional.
2. Because smartphone users are often heavy email and Web users.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
There are a few features that you'll find on every smartphone:
1. although smartphones are sometimes directed to a company's mobile home page. like any computer. they feature Web browsers. QWERTY Keyboard:
A smartphone includes a QWERTY keyboard.
who often use their phones to transmit confidential information. sometimes called apps.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone messages while on the go. Smartphones may be vulnerable to security breaches such as an Evil Twin attack. among others. like Yahoo! Messenger. music services. GPS and many other accessories. Smartphones and PDAs are already popular among many corporate executives. In an evil twin attack. Touch Screen:
It has a touch screen for entering data. a hacker sets a server¶s service identifier to that of a
. Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. Smartphones feature an applications store where users can browse. Superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/ WLAN connectivity.
7. Wireless Connectivity:
Many smartphones consume Touch Screen Technology and also Wireless Wide-Area Networks. Third-party synchronization software is also available. Most modern smartphones have Bluetooth wireless connectivity. Others include access to the popular instant messaging services. It is used to connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. With many PDAs.
6. The iPhone and iPod touch uses Multi-touch technology. Security
Perhaps the most challenging consideration for the future is security. weather trackers and news aggregators. This feature allows keeping up-to-date contact information stored on software like Microsoft Outlook or ACT! To update the database on the smartphone. most smartphones come with the facility to synchronize to a PC. Applications:
Perhaps one of the well-publicized features of a smartphone is its ability to use third-party applications. Synchronization Facility:
An important function of smartphone is synchronizing data with a PC. productivity tools. These applications include games.
8. e-readers. download and review both free and priced apps.
8. It can be used to connect keyboards.
harms and scope of phone viruses in order to help sell their software. Most security considerations either focus on particular operating systems or have more to do with user behavior than network security. real-world implementation yet. some critics argue that anti-virus software manufacturers greatly exaggerate the risks. It's an idea that probably hasn't found its perfect. locking the phone completely or deleting all applications stored on the phone. size or input method yet. a candy bar or something no one has conceived of yet. Possibly the most exciting thing about smartphone technology is that the field is still wide open. the sky is the limit on what smartphones can do. broad security measures. a tablet PC. The next "killer app" smartphone could look like a flip phone. Every crop of phones brings new designs and new interface ideas. When a user connects with the hacker¶s server. software and network protocols inhibit practical. information can be intercepted and security is compromised.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone legitimate hotspot or network while simultaneously blocking traffic to the real server. One downside to the openness and configurability of smartphones is that it also makes them susceptible to viruses. With data transmission rates reaching blistering speeds and the incorporation of WiFi technology. No one developer or manufacturer has come up with the perfect shape. On the other side. The viruses can do things like turning off anti-virus software. Hackers have written viruses that attack SymbianOS phones.
The incredible diversity in smartphone hardware.
In addition to viewing videos and streaming songs from the Internet. Many smartphones also leverage your GPS location to develop context aware applications. pictures and videos. Smartphones allow users to download songs. stock information and email. Smartphones give you the capability to do a real-time check of the news. Smartphones are tightly coupled with existing scheduling software that lets you view.
4. Internet Access:
Smartphones effectively provide Internet access at a high level of fidelity to users on the go. a smartphone can give you specific directions to your destination.
1. Smartphone Uses
There are a variety of smartphones on the market that can be used for both practical and recreational purposes. In addition. many smartphones have integrated Internet browsers that you can use to surf the Internet or watch videos online. In addition. Smartphones typically come with cameras that you can use to take pictures or videos of where you are and instantly share them with friends and family. Often the GPS functionality is tightly integrated with other features of a phone that let you quickly find your location on a map.
In a business setting. Specialty Technology:
Smartphones often provide enhanced technology such as a global positioning system (GPS). smartphones are often used to aid scheduling and personal organization.
3.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
9. smartphones also can act as a content management system for users. change and respond to appointments and conflicts as they arise in your schedule. such as a restaurant recommendation near where the smartphone user is currently located.
and also you can send important information and documents in seconds in any place.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
3. hiking in the hills or at home
. waiting at the airport.
2. they have many advantages:-
1. Whether you are in line at the post office. read and reply to your emails from the palm of your hand. They are quick to communicate:
They are quick because you can communicate in seconds with everybody. Keep in Touch:
With a smartphone you can receive. Advantages
Smartphones are one of the most popular forms of communication all over the world. Multifunctional:
They are Multifunctional because they are phones and ambulant personal computers.
calendar. the smartphone is also a multi-purpose personal digital assistant (PDA).
6. Android. smartphones come equipped with an address book. Some smartphones allow you to view. and even mobile presentation software.
. Symbian and Apple's iOS. As well as keeping you connected to all your favorite social networks. including Blackberry. cannot be over-emphasized. you'll know you haven't missed an email from that important client. choose a smartphone that includes a range of basic business tools. edit and send attachments. voice recorder. calculator. Using the powerful built-in processor and memory. Wherever you happen to be. In Business:
If you need to stay productive when out of the office. note pad. If these are not pre-installed on your smartphone. if it's online. all of the main platforms. Stay Connected:
The advantages of having mobile access to the Internet. and many other features to keep your personal and professional life running smoothly.
4. so you can get reports to your boss before he arrives in the office Monday morning. either via Wi-Fi or a cellular network. a smartphone will enable you to use Internet search engines on the move.
5. spreadsheet and database programs. enabling you to chat in real time. Instant messaging (IM) is also available on many models. Windows Mobile. enable you to purchase and download such programs from third-party vendors. shop at online stores. it'll be in your pocket. Get Organized:
In addition to all of its communication features. Many come with simple word-processing capabilities. and of course you can still make a call or send a text message. Most models also boast a camera. and some offer global positioning systems (GPS) with satellite navigation (sat nav).Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone watching sports on TV. and bring all the latest news and sports into your hand. enabling you to capture and share photos and video.
They are less personal because you can¶t see the persons face and their reactions or expressions when you are communicating with them. Internet access is provided at an additional cost. Expensive:
They aren¶t cheap because the equipment required is expensive.
5. Still. Website Access:
. Accessing websites and email from small screens involves extensive scrolling to view all the information. which are meant to mimic traditional computer keyboards. Awkward Keyboard Size:
Alphanumeric keys are smaller and closer together on a smartphone than they are on a full-size keyboard. Some smart phones have QWERTY keyboards.
3. the smartphones also have some disadvantages:
Smartphones are complicated because sometimes they require programs that are difficult to learn and there maybe a need to download new programs in order to have a better performance. raising the cost of owning a smartphone depending on the terms of the contract. it is not possible to type on the keyboard as fast as you can type on a full-size keyboard considering one hand is generally used to hold the smartphone. and may be difficult for those with poor eyesight.
6. despite being very helpful and full of advantages. Disadvantages
On the other hand. Most cell phone providers require users to sign long-term contracts. Small Screen Size:
Smartphone screens generally measure just a few inches wide and in length. which can be problematic for those with larger hands.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
. and can even detect multiple points of contact simultaneously. which makes it difficult for some people to designate a clear delineation between work life and home life. and as a result are entering the consumer market. for example. or if they can. or consumers who drive the design.The iPhone uses an advanced touch screen. production and alteration of a product). developers can tweak designs and move towards mass production. Images may not appear and scrolling the entire web page can become tedious due to the small screen size. For the past few years smartphones have been aimed at prosumers.
12. light-weight factor and portability of smartphones allow them to be carried at all times. Frequent checking of email and internet applications takes time and attention away from interpersonal relationships. they may not show all the content.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) uses software to optimize websites for the smaller screen of a smartphone. ARC chart. Smartphone developers find prosumers very useful when designing applications and hardware. forecasts that 38 percent of all mobile phones will use touch screens or touch panels by 2012. The Future of Smartphones
Smartphones are getting thinner and cheaper. the research firm. Analysts predict that one billion smartphone handsets will be sold by 2012. or ³professional consumers´ (prosumers can also refer to ³production consumers´. Not all websites are WAP-enabled so some cannot be accessed. Prosumers are generally early adopters of products. Work-Life Balance:
The small size. As prosumers pick and choose the phones that offer the applications they want. While input methods will vary. They have disposable income and great enthusiasm for particular products or technologies.
In the very few years Smartphones have existed. Adding onto that. internal processors and the further developments for compact-easy to carry technologies help Smartphones to stand out.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
13. along with continuous software updates promises the prolongation of Smartphone dominance in the mobile markets. the general Smartphone has overtaken the mobile industry with its advanced computing abilities.
. which allow it to connect to the world from just about anywhere. its ability to run complete operating systems. Now. PC-like capabilities. Now it has become ³conventional´ with its convenient functions. Connectivity. in the busy lifestyles societies hold. we begin to predict that future Smartphones will become the PC replacements.
org 2.about. www.smartphones.com 3.com 4. www.ehow.wikipedia.com
. www. www.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
14. Bibliography and References