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Recent advances in technology make it feasible to incorporate significant processing power in almost every device that we encounter in our daily life. For a number of years, visionary papers have presented a picturesque computerized physical world with which we can potentially interact faster and in a simpler fashion. People, however, are not yet taking advantage of this ubiquitous computing world. Despite all the computing power lying around, most of our daily interactions with the surrounding environment are still primitive and far from the ubiquitous computing vision. Our pockets and bags are still jammed with a bunch of keys for the doors we have to open/close daily (they did not change much since the Middle Ages), the car key or remote, access cards, credit cards, and money to pay for goods. Any of these forgotten at home can turn the day into a nightmare. If we travel, we also need maps and travel guides, coins to pay the parking in the city, and tickets to take the train or subway. In addition, we are always carrying our mobile phone, which for some mysterious reason is the least likely to be left at home. When we finally arrive home or at the hotel, we are ³greeted´ by several remote controls eager to test our intelligence. All these items are absolutely necessary for us to properly interact with our environment. The problem is that there are too many of them, they are sometimes heavy, and we will likely accumulate more and more of them as our life go on, requiring much larger pockets. For this problem, the community does not lack innovative solutions that address some of its aspects (e.g., wireless micro servers, electronic payment methods, and digital door keys). What is missing is a simple, universal solution, which end-users are likely to accept easily. Ideally, we would like to have a single device that acts as both personal server and personal assistant for remote interaction with embedded systems located in proximity of the user. This device should be programmable and support dynamic software extensions for interaction with newly encountered embedded systems (i.e., dynamically loading new interfaces).To simplify its acceptance by society, it should be a device that is already carried by people wherever they go. We believe that Smart Phones are the devices that have the greatest chance of successfully becoming universal remote controls for people to interact with various devices from their surrounding environment; they will also replace all the different items we currently carry in our pockets. Smart Phone is an emerging mobile phone technology that supports Java program execution and provides both short range wireless connectivity (Bluetooth) and cellular network
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity through which the Internet can be accessed.
1.1 What is a Smartphone?
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds features that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer such as the ability to send and receive email and edit Office documents. Smart Phones combine significant computing power with memory, short-range wireless interfaces (e.g., Bluetooth), Internet connectivity (over GPRS), and various input-output components (e.g., high- resolution color touch screens, digital cameras, and MP3 players). The ³smart´ tag is well-earned: in addition to their pure telephony functions, they have an operating system that can run an advanced web browser, as well as locally installed applications.
1.2 Why Buy a Smartphone?
As a busy person, you know the importance of staying a step ahead of your clients and your family. You probably know the feeling of being tied to your desk or home so as not to miss that important email or phone call and to maintain convenient access to essential data²proposals, schedules, contact information, business news or the stock market
In 1992 IBM produced arguably the first ever smartphone. As a blue sky campaign they created Simon, a concept product exhibited at the Las Vegas trade show Comdex. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by BellSouth.IBM was the first to venture into the business of offering consumers a highly advanced mobile phone. The Simon was the first real attempt by the tech industry to create a ³Swiss Army Knife´ type of phone that incorporated voice and data services into one package, as the device acted as a mobile phone, a PDA and even a fax machine. What¶s more, the device even had a touch screen that could be used to dial phone numbers, making it a true pre-pre-pre-precursor to the iPhone that would come 14 years later. Well, one Simon owner describes it as ³brick-like, huge and heavy.´ And its original retail price was $899. Considered low-end by today¶s standard, this first smartphone featured an amazing array of features ± email, address book, clock, calendar, note pad, and even the ability to send and receive faxes.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia¶s smartphone starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and expensive Personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett Packard combined with Nokia¶s bestselling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the two devices fixed via a hinge. The Nokia 9210 was the first color screen Communicator model which was the first true smartphone with an open operating system the 9500 Communicator was also Nokia¶s first camera phone Communicator and Nokia¶s first Wi-Fi phone. The 9300 Communicator was the third dimensional shift into a smaller form factor, and the latest E90 Communicator includes GPS. The Nokia Communicator model is remarkable for also having been the most expensive phone model sold by a major brand for almost the full lifespan of the model series, easily 20% and sometimes 40% more expensive than the next most expensive smartphone by any major manufacturer.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
In 1997 Ericsson released the concept phone GS88. It was the first device labeled as µsmartphone¶. The GS88 was followed up by the touch screen smartphone R380 in 2000, the first device to use the new Symbian OS, and by the P800 in 2002, the first camera smartphone.
In the late 1990s, Canadian company Research in Motion was mostly known for its two-way pagers that were adopted by tens of millions of users worldwide. But starting in 2002, RIM
a phone with the ability to get e-mail and surf the Web. 5 . which itself had been started by Palm¶s original founders and which had used Palm¶s operating system as the basis for its Treo devices.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone entered the mobile phone market with its BlackBerry 5810 device. The major downside of the 5810 was that you needed to plug in a headset in order to talk on the phone. The Treo 600 was the first smartphone released by Palm after it acquired device manufacturer Handspring. This particular smartphone featured both GSM and CDMA models and had 32MB of RAM and 144MHz of processing power. The Treo was popular in its own right. although its release marked the start of the wane of Palm¶s influence. RIM would not release a proper headset-free smartphone until the BlackBerry 6210 came out in early 2004.
Android¶s rise is fairly remarkable for an operating system that only just launched in the fall of 2007. BlackBerry. 6 .S. The open-source operating system¶s success is even more impressive when you consider that when it debuted it was already facing a crowded field of OS heavyweights such as the iPhone. more than double its market share from the previous quarter. It was used on more than 7% of all U. Windows Mobile and Symbian. smartphones at the end of 2009.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone In 2007 Apple released the iPhone with its intuitive touch screen this was the device that revolutionized mobile web browsing. But now Google¶s open-source mobile operating system has become a major player in the smartphone industry.
The device. sold more than 1 million units over its first 74 days on the market. the Droid was the first major hit for the Android platform that had enduring brand recognition. Sprint has long been eager to show off the capabilities of its WiMAX network. which was also the first Android-based smartphone to run on the Verizon network. With the 7 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Although Android had been on the market for more than a year before the Droid¶s release. which is currently the fastest wireless network commercially available in the United States.
3-inch 800 x 400 pixel display screen and a weight of 6 ounces. with a 4. Google introduced the Nexus One as the first device to be sold by the search company itself. the phone is also notable for its striking physical size. In January 2010. which runs Android 2.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone release of the EVO 4G in summers 2010. The Android-based device is so big that it even features a kickstand that helps users keep it upright while they¶re looking at the screen. The Nexus One. has been designed by HTC and works with TMobile¶s network in the United States. Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android OS.1. Sprint finally has a flagship device that will let users take advantage of its high-speed network. In addition to its connectivity. rather than a manufacturing or carrier partner. 8 .
both the Smart Phone and the embedded systems with which the user interacts must have short-range wireless communication capabilities.cost features. a Smart Phone can be used to execute applications from as simple as remotely adjusting various controls of home appliances or opening smart locks to complex applications such as automatically booking a cab or ordering paying in a restaurant use an ad hoc network of mobile phones to connect to the cashier¶s computer. With these models. 9 . 3. peer-to-peer. Gateway connectivity and 3.1 Universal Remote Control Interaction Model: The Smart Phone can act as a universal remote control for interaction with embedded systems located in its proximity. Figure illustrates such interactions using Bluetooth. Dual connectivity.1. We have identified four interaction models: 3. low.4. To support proximity-aware interactions. Universal remote control. Due to its low-power.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 3.3. 3. Smart Phone Interaction Models A Smart Phone can be used to interact with the surrounding environment in different ways. Bluetooth is the primary candidate for the short-range wireless technology that will enable proximity-aware communication.2. 3.
An alternative. but the information about the devices currently located in user¶s proximity is displayed only upon user¶s request. This protocol can work either automatically or on-demand. we describe a second model of interaction that solves this problem.2 Dual Connectivity Model: Central to our universal interaction architecture is the dual connectivity model which is based on the hybrid communication capabilities incorporated in the Smart Phones. Bluetooth) and Internet 10 . solution is to define a protocol that allows a Smart Phone to learn the interfaces from the embedded systems themselves. They have the unique feature of incorporating both short range wireless connectivity (e. This model works well as long as the user has the interfaces for interacting with the embedded systems preinstalled on the phone. 3.. In the following.g. Each embedded system should be able to provide its identity information (unique to a device or to a class of devices) and a description of its basic functionality in a human-understandable format. more flexible. a discovery protocol will allow Smart Phones to learn the identity and the description of the embedded systems located in their proximity.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Since embedded systems with different functionalities can be scattered everywhere. The problem with this idea is that many embedded systems may not be powerful enough to run complex software that implements such protocols.
obtain the ID of the lock. The phone can also perform authentication over the Internet to ensure that the code is trusted.e. and connect to an Internet server over GPRS to download the code that will be used for opening the lock (a digital door key can also be downloaded at the same time). make a deposit each time the amount on the phone exceeds a certain limit). All further communication between this embedded system and the Smart Phone happens by executing the downloaded code. the vendor¶s embedded system can also be connected to the Internet. Another typical application is opening/closing Smart Locks. We envision that the entry in certain buildings will soon be protected by Smart Locks (e. Using this information. The same connection can be used by the client to withdraw electronic currency from her bank and store it on the phone. A client does not need to know about a vendor¶s embedded system in advance. the phones can connect to a server across the Internet (i. GPRS) in the same personal mobile device. The server hosting the interface and the keys for the Smart Lock maintains a list of people that are allowed to open the lock.. This code will display a panel that emulates the panel of the microwave on the phone¶s screen (i. As a typical application. With this model. The Smart Phone can establish a connection with the lock..e. The dual connectivity model can also be used to implement electronic payment applications. this ability can be used to authenticate the client.. The Smart Phone can authenticate the vendor using its Internet connection. the users can interact with the close-by environment using the short-range wireless connectivity and with the rest of the world using the Internet connectivity. locks that are Bluetooth-enabled and can be opened using digital door keys).Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity (e. over GPRS) to download the code of the interface that will allow it to become a remote control for the microwave oven. The dual connectivity model enables users carrying Smart Phones to open these locks in a secure manner.g.. Another option provided by the Smart Phone is to send some of the unused money back into the bank account (i. If the server finds that this user is allowed to open the lock. it effectively transforms the phone into an intuitive microwave remote control). This embedded system is very simple and is not capable of storing or transferring its interface to a Smart Phone. it responds with the code for the interface and the digital key. Potentially. Figure illustrates the Dual Connectivity interaction model. For instance.e.formation) is piggybacked on the request submitted to the server. The identity of the Smart Phone user (stored on the Smart Phone in the form of personal in. it is able to identify itself to Smart Phones. Figure 11 . However. let us assume that a person has just bought an ³intelligent´ microwave oven equipped with a Bluetooth interface.g.
The bandwidth is also larger.11 is that it consumes too much energy. several hours or even days). Using these protocols. can take advantage of the 802.11 family of protocols. More powerful systems. and consequently. With the current state of the art. a user would like to access data and services provided by these networks from its Smart Phone.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone presents a similar application that involves accessing an ATM using a Smart Phone.g. the communication range is 250m or more. while Bluetooth reaches only 10m. 3. The disadvantage of 802. it drains out the mobile devices¶ batteries in a very short period of time. These protocols allow for a significant increase in the communication distance and bandwidth compared to Bluetooth.11 benefits and create mobile ad hoc networks. we do not expect to have 802. however.3 The Gateway Connectivity Interaction Model: Pervasive applications assume wireless communication through the IEEE 802.. 12 . In such a situation.11 network interfaces embedded in Smart Phones or other resource constrained embedded systems that need to run on batteries for a significant period of time (e. 11-54Mbps compared to less than 1Mbps for Bluetooth.
and the entire booking process is completely decentralized.. Hence. theaters. similar to mobile ad hoc networks. Instead of calling a taxi company or ³gesturing´ to book a cab. stores. Figure depicts yet another example of this model. Let us assume a scenario where people want to book nearby cabs using their Smart Phones. Many places in a city (e. In this scenario. To join the mobile adhoc network created by the cabs. A group of friends having dinner 13 . Figure illustrates this communication model and also presents an application that can be built on top of it. peer-to-peer fashion. a Smart Phone needs to connect to a gateway station that performs a translation of protocols from Bluetooth to 802. a gateway device has to perform a change of protocol from Bluetooth to 802.4 Peer-to-Peer Model: The Smart Phones can also communicate among themselves (or with other Bluetooth-enabled devices) in a multihop. 3.11 hotspots. this model allows people to share music and pictures with others even if they are not in the proximity of each other.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone To succeed.11 and vice-versa. the client is just one-click away from booking a cab.11 and vice-versa. For instance. restaurants) can provide such gateway stations together with 802. each cab is equipped with 802. a client can start an application on her Smart Phone that seamlessly achieves the same goal.g.11 wireless networking and GPS devices.
How Smartphone Works 4. keep your calendar and address book. entertain you. take pictures. You can get a separate. One phone initiates this process. Unlike many traditional cell phones. an ad hoc network of Smart Phones is created. tiny and powerful machine to make phone calls. But how many pockets do you have? Handheld devices become as clunky as a room-sized supercomputer when you have to carry four of them around with you every day. 4. any daily task. and it's likely there's a specialized.1 Introduction to How Smartphone Works: Think of a daily task. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to your particular way of doing things. pocket-sized device designed to help you accomplish it. and finally the payment message arrives at the cashier. smartphones allow individual users to install. play your music. and do countless other things. check your e-mail.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone in a restaurant can use their Smart Phones to execute a program that shares the check. configure and run applications of their choosing. give directions. small package. A smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your handheld computing and communication needs in a single. Most standard cell-phone software offers only limited choices for 14 .
watching Flash videos. grabbing email and even doing simple photo and video editing. a smartphone is usually either a phone with added PDA capabilities or a PDA with added phone capabilities. you could install any compatible calendar application you like. Since these mobile devices are able to accomplish so many tasks. On a standard phone. Their specification sheets almost read like what you¶d find for a computer. Since cell phones and PDAs are the most common handheld devices today.2 The Layers of a Smartphone: The Hardware: Smartphones these days are powerful beasts. Processor: 15 . forcing you to adapt to the way its set up. you are stuck with it except for a few minor tweaks. running multiple apps at once. whether or not you like the built-in calendar application. If that phone were a smartphone. such as browsing desktop-class webpages. calendar and to-do list Communication with laptop or desktop computers Data synchronization with applications like Microsoft Outlook and Apple's iCal calendar programs y y y y E-mail Instant messaging Applications such as word processing programs or video games Play audio and video files in some standard formats 4. and these devices are now capable of tasks that one would have done on a computer in the past. 1. the hardware specifications of a smartphone have gradually become a more important factor. Here's a list of some of the things smartphones can do: y y y y Send and receive mobile phone calls ± some smartphones are also Wi-Fi capable Personal Information Management (PIM) including notes.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone re-configuration.
Internal memory: This is an important figure to look at when selecting a new smartphone. Hardware 3D graphics acceleration: Having 3D graphics acceleration onboard results in better-looking games (those that take advantage of the added hardware) and smoother high-resolution video playback in addition to a overall-speedier user interface. which are also found in routers. the everyday performance and speed of operation of a particular device are more dependent on software optimizations and the efficiency of the OS rather than purely based on processor speeds. system slowdowns and freezes. RAM size varies from 64MB to 128MB. External Connectors: 16 . More often than not. They have a certain amount of on-board memory in the tens of megabytes. especially for devices capable of multitasking out of the box (sorry iPhone) as having more RAM means being able to run more apps at one time without suffering from apps closing unexpectedly. Many smartphones use power-efficient ARM processors. 3. Chips used in smartphones 2. and many have slots for removable memory formats like SD and MMC cards as well. 4. and other embedded devices like Smart Watches and MP3 players. simply because these megahertz numbers are not capable of accurately reflecting the actual performance of a smartphone. printers.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Processor speed is of somewhat less importance than the rest of the specifications.
The Software: 17 . this is used in GPS navigation apps where the map is aligned to the direction you¶re facing. cellular. detecting whether you¶re trying to capture a photo in portrait or landscape mode. Camera & LED/XENON FLASH: The same rules that govern megapixel counts on standalone digital cameras do apply to smartphones too. 8. Most smartphones have a combination of 3.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Standard external connectors refer to the use of non-proprietary connections for audio output and data transfers in a device. Battery: Battery has capability ranging from 850mAh to 1500mAh. at present. 7. A magnetometer is otherwise known as a digital compass. there are three types of wireless technologies in smartphones. 5. a proximity sensor turns off the display during phone calls on touch screen handsets so as to prevent accidental touches when the device is taped to the side of your face. Xenon flash is always better than LED flash. these apps make use of the digital compass in your device and your camera in order to point out certain points of interest relative to their actual location. Bluetooth and location services (GPS). At this point. Wireless technologies: Fundamentally. as well as in ³augmented reality´ apps such as Layer on the Android platform. micro USB charging is also starting to be implemented in newer devices. there are four internal sensors you should look out for: An accelerometer handles auto-rotation of your device¶s display. A light sensor automatically adjusts your screen¶s backlight and keypad lighting based on ambient lighting conditions. Internal sensors: Fundamentally.5mm standard headphone jack and micro USB port for audio and data respectively. Lastly. more megapixels aren¶t always better. as well as for special features such as silencing calls and alarms when the device is turned over. your screen would dim in dark conditions so as not to dazzle you and increase in brightness in sunlight to boost outdoor visibility. One of the largest debates of all time with regards to smartphone imaging is whether Xenon or LED flash units should be used in smartphones. 6.
management systems for processes and drivers for hardware Middleware .the graphics and layouts seen on the screen application suite .software libraries that enable smartphone applications (such as security. The stack consists of the following layers: y y kernel . which allow developers to create their own programs y y user interface framework . calendars and message inboxes 4.application programming interfaces.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack. Some OS platforms cover the entire range of the software stack. An operating system manages the hardware and software resources of smartphones. The smartphone operating systems are: A Nokia N92 with Symbian OS 18 . etc. Others may only include the lower levels (typically the kernel and middleware layers) and rely on additional software platforms to provide a user interface framework.the basic applications users access regularly such as menu screens.) y application execution environment (AEE) .3 Smartphone Operating Systems: The most important software in any smartphone is its operating system (OS). or AEE. web browsing. messaging.
the iPod Touch. Six telecommunications companies are responding to this by forming the LiMo foundation. with associated libraries. though the most popular phone models still use the Symbian OS. Linux: Linux is unique among the other operating systems in that its development is driven by a community of developers rather than by a central company. According to ARC chart. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. and the Cocoa Touch layer. iPhone OS has four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer. with developers constantly changing and updating it even at the kernel level. UIQ. originally developed by Symbian Ltd. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. the Linux OS supports more processors than any other operating system on the market. It is derived from Mac OS X. Since Linux is an organic OS. user interface. iPhone OS: It is a mobile operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. There are some drawbacks to the system. however. an organization that is attempting to create a standardized Linux platform. Used for ARM-based processor. Written in C. the Core Services layer. Some smartphone companies find the risk too great to invest in Linux. and is therefore a Unix-like operating system. 19 . by nature. The upper layers are supplied by application platforms like S60. and MOAP. It is the default operating system of the iPhone. The operating system consists of the kernel and middleware components of the software stack. with which it shares the Darwin foundation. The operating system uses less than 500 megabytes of the device's storage. although an unreleased x86 port existed. platforms based on Linux code can be very different from one another. and the iPad.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Symbian: Symbian OS is an operating system (OS) designed for mobile devices and smartphones. the Media layer. Symbian OS is the operating system for more than 100 different models of phones.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone The Linux Smartphone Windows Mobile: The Windows Mobile OS encompasses the entire software stack from the kernel to the application interface. 2007. Microsoft unveiled Windows Mobile 6. the latest version of the software platform. On February 12.NET. The T-Mobile SDA Windows Mobile Smartphone 20 . Much of the strength of this OS lies in the compatibility with the Microsoft Office suite of programs. The OS is based off of Window CE.
BlackBerry OS: It is the proprietary software platform. The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds. The Palm OS was mainly used in PDAs. particularly the track wheel. The first generation includes analog cell phone technology. Programmed in C and runs on ARM processors. 4.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone ANDROID: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel. Between generation two and three..5G protocol used in most smartphones. etc.). Developers classify this technology into generations. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language. Phones using the Garnet OS should become available in late 2007. Unlike a circuit-switched voice connection. "always on" connection that remains active as long as the phone is within range 21 . Garnet: formerly known as Palm OS. Runs on both Intel Xscale and ARM processors. this operating system combines a Linux-based foundation with applications written for the old Palm OS. this is a packet-switched. trackball. and most recently. and lately by the Open Handset Alliance. a firm later purchased by Google. network engineers created protocols that are more advanced than generation two¶s digital technology but not so innovative that they are a truly new generation. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. file transfers. middleware and key applications. created by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handhelds. though the Treo line of smartphones used it as well. It was initially developed by Android Inc.4 Network Protocols: Smartphones use cell-phone network technology to send and receive data (such as phone calls. Developers General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a wireless. Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols. packet-based communication service and until recently was the standard 2. Written in C++. which constitute the second generation. the track pad and touch screen. web browsing.
Treo 700w: Palm's First Windows Mobile Smartphone Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps). faster protocols are available. though newer. participate in instant messenger sessions. Some smartphones in the United States still use this protocol.5G technology. market is Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE). EDGE can transmit data at more than three times the rate of GPRS (384 Kbps). While some U. Europe and Asia have much stronger 3G integration in their respective cell phone networks. One protocol that is faster than GPRS used in the U. It allows smartphones to do things like run applications remotely over a network. interface with the Internet. Some 3G protocols are: y y y Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 22 . Many smartphones in the United States are now using EDGE protocol. carriers support 3G protocols.S.S. GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114 kilobytes per second. act as a wireless modem for a computer and transmit and receive e-mails.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone of the service. many still rely on 2.
addresses. A user can watch a video clip. Some varieties of Bluetooth only allow communication with one device at a time. Data Synchronization: A phone that keeps track of your personal information. and phone numbers. If you want to keep all of this data in synchronization with what's on your phone. field a phone call. and then return to the video clip after the call. There are hundreds of possible platforms and applications you might use for this in the course of a day. all without closing each application. needs to be able to communicate with all of the other devices you use to keep track of those things. All of the data stored on the phone can be synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways. then you generally have to look for a cell phone that speaks the languages of all of the devices and applications you use. scanners. but others allow simultaneous connection with multiple devices. This includes things like printers. to-do lists.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone y Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO) 4.5 Flexible Interfaces: The core services on smartphones all tie in to the idea of a multi-purpose device that can effectively multitask. Systems supported by smartphones include: Bluetooth: A short-range. like appointments. 23 . Or you can go out and buy new applications that speak the language of your cell phone. wireless radio service that allows phones to wirelessly link up with each other and with other nearby devices that support it. input devices. computers and headsets. Or he or she can flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without interrupting the voice call.
which is continuing the work begun by the SyncML Initiative. if you 24 . geographies. Java MIDlets include add-ons. SyncML is an open-standards project designed to eliminate the trouble of worrying about whether your PIM devices sync up with your phone and vice-versa. applications and utilities.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smartphone E-mail Application The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a collaborative organization with the mission to ³facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by specifying market driven mobile service enablers that ensure service interoperability across devices. service providers. and networks. The project is designed so that any kind of data can be synchronized with any application on any piece of hardware. For example. MIDlets are applications that use a subset of Java and are specifically programmed to run on wireless devices. The OMA formed a Data Synchronization Working Group. smartphone users can install thousands of third-party applications on their phones. mail protocols and TCP/IP networks. Java: A smartphone that is compatible with the Java programming language allows the user to load and run Java applications and MIDlets. Since there are millions of Java developers worldwide. through any network. This includes synchronization over the Web. while allowing businesses to compete through innovation and differentiation´. Bluetooth. Because of the way the OS architecture of most phones is built. and the Java development tools are freely accessible. operators. provided that they are all programmed to OMA standards. games. these applications can access and use all of the data on the user's phone.
you can just find one that you like better.g.. In the following. Internet Access Module carries out the communication between the Smart Phone and various Internet servers.The protocol of communication is HTTP on top of 25 . 5. It is composed of sub-components for device discovery and sending/receiving data. It provides a well-defined API that supports operations specific to our architecture (e.1 Smart Phone Software Architecture: Figure shows the Smart Phone software architecture.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone don't like the photo caller ID that comes bundled with Symbian Series 60 OS. This protocol allows Smart Phones to interact with the surrounding environment and the Internet. we briefly describe the components of the software architecture: Bluetooth Engine is responsible for communicating with the Bluetooth-enabled embedded systems. System Architecture System architecture for universal interaction consists of a common Smart Phone software architecture and an interaction protocol. 5. The Bluetooth Engine is a layer above the Bluetooth stack and provides a convenient Java API for accessing the Bluetooth stack. downloading an interface).
e. Each data item stored in this cache has three associated handlers: access 26 . Every interface has an ID (which can be the ID of the embedded system or the class of embedded systems it is associated with). Examples of such data include digital door keys and electronic cash. the Proximity Engine invokes the Internet Access Module to connect to a web server and download the interface.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone GPRS.. The downloaded interface is stored in the Interface Cache for later reuse. Each time the user wants to interact with one of these systems. If the embedded system has enough computing power and memory. or the permissions to access local resources. Interface Cache stores the code of the downloaded interfaces. This cache avoids downloading an interface every time it is needed. and an interface for this system is not available locally (i. each interface has an associated access handler that is executed before any subsequent execution of the interface.. These programs interact with the Bluetooth Engine to communicate with the embedded systems or with other Smart Phones They may also interact with the Internet Access Module to communicate with Internet servers. The user can set the access handler¶s parameters before the first execution of the interface. This ID helps in recognizing the cached interface each time it needs to be looked up in the cache. Additionally. how and when the interface can be reused. a miss in the Interface Cache). All further communication between the Smart Phone and the embedded system happens as a result of executing this interface. Proximity Engine is responsible for discovering the embedded systems located within the Bluetooth communication range. Once this is done. the interface programs may need to contact a server for security related actions or to download necessary data in case of a miss in the Personal Data Storage. Execution Engine is invoked by the Proximity Engine and is responsible for dispatching interface programs for execution over the Java virtual machine. the interface can be downloaded directly from it. or Microwaves). For instance. Otherwise. This handler may define the time period for which the interface should be cached. the Proximity Engine is responsible from downloading such an interface.g. An interface can be shared by an entire class of embedded systems (e. Personal Data Storage acts as a cache for ³active data´. It stores data that needs to be used during the interactions with various embedded systems. Smart Locks. the Proximity Engine informs the Execution Engine to dispatch the downloaded interface for execution.
other credentials presented by the user. potentially. the access handler is executed. Once the access is granted. The interfaces downloaded from the web server are trusted. and then. miss handler. miss). The eviction handler defines the actions to be taken when data is evicted from the cache. We consider that any embedded system is registered with a trusted web server (this web server can be physically distributed on multiple computers). the interface needs to be downloaded on the phone either from the web server or from the embedded system itself. it has to send the interface ID and the URL provided by the embedded system. If the data is not available locally (i. An inter face downloaded from an embedded system is untrusted and is not allowed to access local resources (i.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone handler. the web server assigns a unique ID and a URL to the device. hit).. a request is sent to the embedded system to provide its ID and URL. the Smart Phone executes the access control handler.e. the miss handler instructs the Internet Access Module to download the data from the corresponding Internet server. For instance. Upon receiving the ID and URL of the embedded system. Consequently.. where the interface can only execute safe instructions on the phone).2 Smart Phone Interaction Protocol: Below figure shows the interaction protocol that takes place when a Smart Phone needs to interact with an embedded system. If the data is available locally (i. 27 . Each time an interface needs some data. At registration. the web server responds with the interface code. this is a sandbox model of execution. The permission to download an interface is subject to access control enforced based on the SmartPhone ID and. For instance. the user can choose the one she wants to interact with. It also sends it¶s ID (stored in the Personal Data Storage). The user invokes the Proximity Engine each time she needs to interact with a device located in the proximity. and the program goes ahead. 5.e. it checks the Personal Data Storage. loads and executes the interface. All the information necessary to interact with the device along with a user interface is stored at that URL. This URL may be common for an entire class of embedded systems. Once the embedded systems in the proximity have been identified. the access handler may check if this data can be shared among different interfaces. electronic cash can be sent back to the bank at eviction time. Each time a SmartPhone requests an interface from the web server.e. they are assumed to be verified before being distributed by the server.. and eviction handler. In case of a miss in the Interface Cache.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smart Phone Interaction Protocol 6. developing smartphone applications for the enterprises has become necessary. Therefore. Examples of applications and services that may be deployed are messaging applications like email and instant messaging. etc. security applications like antivirus. These applications make the smartphone more useful by making it into a business tool and by connecting it to the enterprise. enterprises have discovered them to be useful for employees who are distant / dispersed from the office. 28 . line-of-business applications like CRM. They include many multi-media features that seem to be capturing the interests of individuals. are a wonderful combination of computers and cell-phones. Android. Blackberry. Enterprises need to be able to deploy applications to smartphones. Smartphone application development Smartphones like iPhone. and personal productivity applications like document editing and expense tracking. With the popularity of these devices.
Tethering is also complicated for the end user and not automated -. but all target the consumer market and none satisfies the needs of the enterprise. the ideal solution is to have any device connect directly to the enterprise network. and control application policies. Users can deploy applications themselves on Windows Mobile devices. Some applications. What are the unique challenges facing the enterprise when it comes to tethering? Tethering forces the user to connect the smartphone to a PC/MAC/laptop. has raised the bar on smartphone application distribution. and sometimes they require the device to be tethered.it's difficult to push applications and updates to a smartphone when these only happen via tethering.our smartphones -.many companies have policies in place to protect against data leakage and malware. And tethering introduces its own set of problems. negotiate license pricing with their independent software vendors (ISVs). by not allowing USB keys to be attached to a laptop. but they are not suitable for the enterprise. and the Windows Mobile Marketplace. perhaps better called services. In general. BlackBerry's App World. The irony is that the most connected devices we own -.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Apple. for example. protected.but not required -. but this applies mostly to applications that are mandatory for the smartphone. These connections introduce security issues -. The other smartphone vendors have responded in kind. Consumer application clouds do exist. How are enterprise smartphone applications being deployed today? It depends on the Mobile OS and the type of application. require specialized configuration using enterprise back-end systems. BlackBerry distributes enterprise applications through the BES server. For example.apps.do not yet live in a completely Web-based. This forces dataflows through the usual channels that are managed. but only for the consumer market. So what would an enterprise application store look like? 29 . filtered and audited. Each of these application clouds has somewhat different business models. and it doesn't give the administrator the ability to present the user with a set of permitted -. with its App Store. over-the-air world. The enterprise needs its own application store. enterprises need a way to deploy custom applications. or they may be pushed using a mobile device management (MDM) product. The Apple App Store makes it easy for vendors to reach consumers and for smartphone users to find and deploy applications. with Google's Android Market.
The first step in any Smartphone application development. Managing of the application store by IT is important for many reasons. Once determines the scope of 30 .1 Steps to develop enterprise applications: 1. The app store may live in the enterprise or as a cloud service. The enterprise app store is controlled by the IT administrator and managed by IT. The enterprise application store should be able to handle a wide set of applications and services: y y Applications that are mandatory for all devices (e. it should have every word in the English language along with a definition. and associated configurations and policies. SFA). this has a very simple answer. or any other computer system.. email. If you are creating a dictionary application. 4. What will the application do? In many cases. VoIP). 6. The enterprise app store must be accessible over the air with no tethering required.g. If the application is a smartphone adaptation of a board game.g.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone An enterprise application store gives IT administrators and users the ability to manage the applications on their devices.. but it must be private and under the control of the enterprise. CRM. from a single app store.these applications could live in the enterprise app store or be pointed to from the app store. is to determine the application's scope. It has four fundamental properties: 1. A single enterprise app store should support multiple mobile OSs. and license management. Enterprise IT should be able to manage applications and services. then it should have every feature that the physical game does. 2. 3. Users should authenticate using enterprise credentials. Line-of-business applications those are specific to the employee and his role or job (e. including protecting the IP in custom applications. The enterprise does not want one application store for BlackBerry and another for iPhone and so on. y Recommended or permitted third-party applications -. antivirus.
It can take a little time to spot them. software engineers begin to test how each app works. along with other debugging applications. 2. Most smartphones have their own proprietary software development kit (SDK). Many of these kits have certain pre-built general kinds of functions that can be reused and co-opted into the code again and again. What do you see for the future of smartphone applications in the enterprise? Smartphones make business more efficient by bringing enterprise data and systems where they are needed. for example. Give the application to a few of employees and have they used it on their smartphone for a few weeks to see if there are any more issues. Increasingly. The second phase in development is figuring which software tools are available to us to bring together the kind of functionality that the application requires. 3. and perhaps replace. we can begin to formulate that application's business strategy and ultimately its development schedule. The final phase of smartphone application development is beta testing. other devices in the enterprise. so information can be made more useful and kept more current. and they enable better decisions based on the resources available in real time. Once the basic functionality is in development. 31 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone an application. Most of the bugs in an application aren't always found right away. These testing tools. more or less. we will see these applications implemented as rich clients that leverage data from the data center in order to optimize the user experience but leave enterprises with good control over their information. a long term software test. The iPhone SDK. Different kinds of Smartphone app development take different amounts of time to complete depending on the scope of the project. give developers an edge in finding any and all software related problems as they arise. allows developers to test their iPhone applications on an iPhone simulator before they ever load the app onto a real iPhone. Smartphones will also start to complement. These combinations of code packages ultimately become your smartphone app. so make sure they are all gone well before the new app is released. This is.
3. Email capability is a must-have feature for all smartphones.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 7. It may allow you to create and edit Microsoft Office documents or manage your finances. but what sets a smartphone apart is its ability to send and receive e-mail. as well as a huge time-saver. the Palm OS. allowing users to stay on top of their 32 . or Windows Mobile. 4. Software: A smartphone will offer more than just an address book. although smartphones are sometimes directed to a company's mobile home page. These browsers load and navigate websites the way a typical computer browser would. Because smartphone users are often heavy email and Web users. Some smartphone can support multiple e-mail accounts. so the keys are laid out in the same manner they would be on your computer keyboard. 2. All cell phones can send and receive text messages. which usually offers pared down features for faster downloading times. such as the BlackBerry OS. Messaging: Smartphones have helped to bridge the gap between personal digital assistants (PDAs) and regular mobile phones and therefore must provide features targeted to the business professional. QWERTY Keyboard: A smartphone includes a QWERTY keyboard. Smartphones are basically hand-held computers and. Web Access: A smartphone offer some sort of access to the Internet. like any computer. Operating System: A smartphone will be based on an operating system that allows it to run productivity applications. they feature Web browsers. a full keypad is a convenient feature. 5. Features There are a few features that you'll find on every smartphone: 1.
Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. a hacker sets a server¶s service identifier to that of a 33 . e-readers. 8. among others. Smartphones and PDAs are already popular among many corporate executives. 7. It can be used to connect keyboards. download and review both free and priced apps. Superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/ WLAN connectivity. These applications include games.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone messages while on the go. It is used to connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. Others include access to the popular instant messaging services. This feature allows keeping up-to-date contact information stored on software like Microsoft Outlook or ACT! To update the database on the smartphone. GPS and many other accessories. headsets. Wireless Connectivity: Many smartphones consume Touch Screen Technology and also Wireless Wide-Area Networks. Touch Screen: It has a touch screen for entering data. In an evil twin attack. Applications: Perhaps one of the well-publicized features of a smartphone is its ability to use third-party applications. Synchronization Facility: An important function of smartphone is synchronizing data with a PC. like Yahoo! Messenger. most smartphones come with the facility to synchronize to a PC. sometimes called apps. With many PDAs. 8. Smartphones feature an applications store where users can browse. productivity tools. 6. The iPhone and iPod touch uses Multi-touch technology. music services. who often use their phones to transmit confidential information. 9. Third-party synchronization software is also available. Smartphones may be vulnerable to security breaches such as an Evil Twin attack. Security Perhaps the most challenging consideration for the future is security. Most modern smartphones have Bluetooth wireless connectivity. weather trackers and news aggregators.
Most security considerations either focus on particular operating systems or have more to do with user behavior than network security. real-world implementation yet. information can be intercepted and security is compromised. On the other side. a candy bar or something no one has conceived of yet. software and network protocols inhibit practical. broad security measures.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone legitimate hotspot or network while simultaneously blocking traffic to the real server. No one developer or manufacturer has come up with the perfect shape. harms and scope of phone viruses in order to help sell their software. Every crop of phones brings new designs and new interface ideas. When a user connects with the hacker¶s server. Possibly the most exciting thing about smartphone technology is that the field is still wide open. locking the phone completely or deleting all applications stored on the phone. 34 . With data transmission rates reaching blistering speeds and the incorporation of WiFi technology. some critics argue that anti-virus software manufacturers greatly exaggerate the risks. The incredible diversity in smartphone hardware. the sky is the limit on what smartphones can do. The next "killer app" smartphone could look like a flip phone. size or input method yet. It's an idea that probably hasn't found its perfect. The viruses can do things like turning off anti-virus software. a tablet PC. One downside to the openness and configurability of smartphones is that it also makes them susceptible to viruses. Hackers have written viruses that attack SymbianOS phones.
pictures and videos. Scheduling: In a business setting. stock information and email. Specialty Technology: Smartphones often provide enhanced technology such as a global positioning system (GPS). many smartphones have integrated Internet browsers that you can use to surf the Internet or watch videos online. Smartphones give you the capability to do a real-time check of the news.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 9. In addition. a smartphone can give you specific directions to your destination. Many smartphones also leverage your GPS location to develop context aware applications. smartphones are often used to aid scheduling and personal organization. 4. Smartphones typically come with cameras that you can use to take pictures or videos of where you are and instantly share them with friends and family. Smartphone Uses There are a variety of smartphones on the market that can be used for both practical and recreational purposes. 2. Internet Access: Smartphones effectively provide Internet access at a high level of fidelity to users on the go. 1. smartphones also can act as a content management system for users. 3. Smartphones are tightly coupled with existing scheduling software that lets you view. In addition. Smartphones allow users to download songs. such as a restaurant recommendation near where the smartphone user is currently located. 35 . Often the GPS functionality is tightly integrated with other features of a phone that let you quickly find your location on a map. change and respond to appointments and conflicts as they arise in your schedule. Multimedia: In addition to viewing videos and streaming songs from the Internet.
Keep in Touch: With a smartphone you can receive. 2. Multifunctional: They are Multifunctional because they are phones and ambulant personal computers. They are quick to communicate: They are quick because you can communicate in seconds with everybody. they have many advantages:- 1. read and reply to your emails from the palm of your hand.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 10. Whether you are in line at the post office. hiking in the hills or at home 36 . waiting at the airport. 3. Advantages Smartphones are one of the most popular forms of communication all over the world. and also you can send important information and documents in seconds in any place.
either via Wi-Fi or a cellular network. Get Organized: In addition to all of its communication features. spreadsheet and database programs. smartphones come equipped with an address book. Many come with simple word-processing capabilities. you'll know you haven't missed an email from that important client. 5. and bring all the latest news and sports into your hand. it'll be in your pocket. 37 . Most models also boast a camera. Wherever you happen to be.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone watching sports on TV. 6. Using the powerful built-in processor and memory. enabling you to capture and share photos and video. calendar. and even mobile presentation software. enable you to purchase and download such programs from third-party vendors. Instant messaging (IM) is also available on many models. As well as keeping you connected to all your favorite social networks. Symbian and Apple's iOS. choose a smartphone that includes a range of basic business tools. voice recorder. 4. If these are not pre-installed on your smartphone. so you can get reports to your boss before he arrives in the office Monday morning. note pad. calculator. Windows Mobile. including Blackberry. and some offer global positioning systems (GPS) with satellite navigation (sat nav). enabling you to chat in real time. if it's online. shop at online stores. Stay Connected: The advantages of having mobile access to the Internet. all of the main platforms. Some smartphones allow you to view. In Business: If you need to stay productive when out of the office. Android. the smartphone is also a multi-purpose personal digital assistant (PDA). a smartphone will enable you to use Internet search engines on the move. and many other features to keep your personal and professional life running smoothly. cannot be over-emphasized. edit and send attachments. and of course you can still make a call or send a text message.
Internet access is provided at an additional cost. Disadvantages On the other hand. Accessing websites and email from small screens involves extensive scrolling to view all the information.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 11. 2. 3. raising the cost of owning a smartphone depending on the terms of the contract. Expensive: They aren¶t cheap because the equipment required is expensive. despite being very helpful and full of advantages. Still. Awkward Keyboard Size: Alphanumeric keys are smaller and closer together on a smartphone than they are on a full-size keyboard. Some smart phones have QWERTY keyboards. and may be difficult for those with poor eyesight. it is not possible to type on the keyboard as fast as you can type on a full-size keyboard considering one hand is generally used to hold the smartphone. Small Screen Size: Smartphone screens generally measure just a few inches wide and in length. Most cell phone providers require users to sign long-term contracts. 4. which are meant to mimic traditional computer keyboards. Website Access: 38 . Less personal: They are less personal because you can¶t see the persons face and their reactions or expressions when you are communicating with them. Complicated: Smartphones are complicated because sometimes they require programs that are difficult to learn and there maybe a need to download new programs in order to have a better performance. the smartphones also have some disadvantages: 1. 6. which can be problematic for those with larger hands. 5.
They have disposable income and great enthusiasm for particular products or technologies.The iPhone uses an advanced touch screen. forecasts that 38 percent of all mobile phones will use touch screens or touch panels by 2012. or ³professional consumers´ (prosumers can also refer to ³production consumers´. which makes it difficult for some people to designate a clear delineation between work life and home life. they may not show all the content. The Future of Smartphones Smartphones are getting thinner and cheaper. and can even detect multiple points of contact simultaneously. While input methods will vary. Images may not appear and scrolling the entire web page can become tedious due to the small screen size. and as a result are entering the consumer market. developers can tweak designs and move towards mass production. Smartphone developers find prosumers very useful when designing applications and hardware. or if they can. Analysts predict that one billion smartphone handsets will be sold by 2012. 7. light-weight factor and portability of smartphones allow them to be carried at all times. or consumers who drive the design. Frequent checking of email and internet applications takes time and attention away from interpersonal relationships. production and alteration of a product). Work-Life Balance: The small size. 12. Prosumers are generally early adopters of products. As prosumers pick and choose the phones that offer the applications they want. ARC chart. Not all websites are WAP-enabled so some cannot be accessed. for example. 39 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) uses software to optimize websites for the smaller screen of a smartphone. For the past few years smartphones have been aimed at prosumers. the research firm.
Adding onto that. Now it has become ³conventional´ with its convenient functions. Now. PC-like capabilities. 40 . the general Smartphone has overtaken the mobile industry with its advanced computing abilities. along with continuous software updates promises the prolongation of Smartphone dominance in the mobile markets. Conclusion In the very few years Smartphones have existed. which allow it to connect to the world from just about anywhere. we begin to predict that future Smartphones will become the PC replacements. Connectivity.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 13. its ability to run complete operating systems. in the busy lifestyles societies hold. internal processors and the further developments for compact-easy to carry technologies help Smartphones to stand out.
ehow. www. Bibliography and References 1. www. www.com 3.com 41 .smartphones.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 14.org 2.com 4.wikipedia. www.about.howstuffworks.
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