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Recent advances in technology make it feasible to incorporate significant processing power in almost every device that we encounter in our daily life. For a number of years, visionary papers have presented a picturesque computerized physical world with which we can potentially interact faster and in a simpler fashion. People, however, are not yet taking advantage of this ubiquitous computing world. Despite all the computing power lying around, most of our daily interactions with the surrounding environment are still primitive and far from the ubiquitous computing vision. Our pockets and bags are still jammed with a bunch of keys for the doors we have to open/close daily (they did not change much since the Middle Ages), the car key or remote, access cards, credit cards, and money to pay for goods. Any of these forgotten at home can turn the day into a nightmare. If we travel, we also need maps and travel guides, coins to pay the parking in the city, and tickets to take the train or subway. In addition, we are always carrying our mobile phone, which for some mysterious reason is the least likely to be left at home. When we finally arrive home or at the hotel, we are ³greeted´ by several remote controls eager to test our intelligence. All these items are absolutely necessary for us to properly interact with our environment. The problem is that there are too many of them, they are sometimes heavy, and we will likely accumulate more and more of them as our life go on, requiring much larger pockets. For this problem, the community does not lack innovative solutions that address some of its aspects (e.g., wireless micro servers, electronic payment methods, and digital door keys). What is missing is a simple, universal solution, which end-users are likely to accept easily. Ideally, we would like to have a single device that acts as both personal server and personal assistant for remote interaction with embedded systems located in proximity of the user. This device should be programmable and support dynamic software extensions for interaction with newly encountered embedded systems (i.e., dynamically loading new interfaces).To simplify its acceptance by society, it should be a device that is already carried by people wherever they go. We believe that Smart Phones are the devices that have the greatest chance of successfully becoming universal remote controls for people to interact with various devices from their surrounding environment; they will also replace all the different items we currently carry in our pockets. Smart Phone is an emerging mobile phone technology that supports Java program execution and provides both short range wireless connectivity (Bluetooth) and cellular network
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity through which the Internet can be accessed.
1.1 What is a Smartphone?
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds features that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer such as the ability to send and receive email and edit Office documents. Smart Phones combine significant computing power with memory, short-range wireless interfaces (e.g., Bluetooth), Internet connectivity (over GPRS), and various input-output components (e.g., high- resolution color touch screens, digital cameras, and MP3 players). The ³smart´ tag is well-earned: in addition to their pure telephony functions, they have an operating system that can run an advanced web browser, as well as locally installed applications.
1.2 Why Buy a Smartphone?
As a busy person, you know the importance of staying a step ahead of your clients and your family. You probably know the feeling of being tied to your desk or home so as not to miss that important email or phone call and to maintain convenient access to essential data²proposals, schedules, contact information, business news or the stock market
In 1992 IBM produced arguably the first ever smartphone. As a blue sky campaign they created Simon, a concept product exhibited at the Las Vegas trade show Comdex. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by BellSouth.IBM was the first to venture into the business of offering consumers a highly advanced mobile phone. The Simon was the first real attempt by the tech industry to create a ³Swiss Army Knife´ type of phone that incorporated voice and data services into one package, as the device acted as a mobile phone, a PDA and even a fax machine. What¶s more, the device even had a touch screen that could be used to dial phone numbers, making it a true pre-pre-pre-precursor to the iPhone that would come 14 years later. Well, one Simon owner describes it as ³brick-like, huge and heavy.´ And its original retail price was $899. Considered low-end by today¶s standard, this first smartphone featured an amazing array of features ± email, address book, clock, calendar, note pad, and even the ability to send and receive faxes.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia¶s smartphone starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and expensive Personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett Packard combined with Nokia¶s bestselling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the two devices fixed via a hinge. The Nokia 9210 was the first color screen Communicator model which was the first true smartphone with an open operating system the 9500 Communicator was also Nokia¶s first camera phone Communicator and Nokia¶s first Wi-Fi phone. The 9300 Communicator was the third dimensional shift into a smaller form factor, and the latest E90 Communicator includes GPS. The Nokia Communicator model is remarkable for also having been the most expensive phone model sold by a major brand for almost the full lifespan of the model series, easily 20% and sometimes 40% more expensive than the next most expensive smartphone by any major manufacturer.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
In 1997 Ericsson released the concept phone GS88. It was the first device labeled as µsmartphone¶. The GS88 was followed up by the touch screen smartphone R380 in 2000, the first device to use the new Symbian OS, and by the P800 in 2002, the first camera smartphone.
In the late 1990s, Canadian company Research in Motion was mostly known for its two-way pagers that were adopted by tens of millions of users worldwide. But starting in 2002, RIM
The Treo 600 was the first smartphone released by Palm after it acquired device manufacturer Handspring. The Treo was popular in its own right. RIM would not release a proper headset-free smartphone until the BlackBerry 6210 came out in early 2004. The major downside of the 5810 was that you needed to plug in a headset in order to talk on the phone.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone entered the mobile phone market with its BlackBerry 5810 device. a phone with the ability to get e-mail and surf the Web. which itself had been started by Palm¶s original founders and which had used Palm¶s operating system as the basis for its Treo devices. 5 . although its release marked the start of the wane of Palm¶s influence. This particular smartphone featured both GSM and CDMA models and had 32MB of RAM and 144MHz of processing power.
6 . Windows Mobile and Symbian. Android¶s rise is fairly remarkable for an operating system that only just launched in the fall of 2007. It was used on more than 7% of all U. BlackBerry. smartphones at the end of 2009. The open-source operating system¶s success is even more impressive when you consider that when it debuted it was already facing a crowded field of OS heavyweights such as the iPhone.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone In 2007 Apple released the iPhone with its intuitive touch screen this was the device that revolutionized mobile web browsing. But now Google¶s open-source mobile operating system has become a major player in the smartphone industry.S. more than double its market share from the previous quarter.
Sprint has long been eager to show off the capabilities of its WiMAX network. the Droid was the first major hit for the Android platform that had enduring brand recognition. With the 7 . The device.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Although Android had been on the market for more than a year before the Droid¶s release. which was also the first Android-based smartphone to run on the Verizon network. which is currently the fastest wireless network commercially available in the United States. sold more than 1 million units over its first 74 days on the market.
The Android-based device is so big that it even features a kickstand that helps users keep it upright while they¶re looking at the screen. Google introduced the Nexus One as the first device to be sold by the search company itself. The Nexus One. 8 . rather than a manufacturing or carrier partner. In addition to its connectivity. the phone is also notable for its striking physical size. has been designed by HTC and works with TMobile¶s network in the United States. In January 2010. with a 4.3-inch 800 x 400 pixel display screen and a weight of 6 ounces. Sprint finally has a flagship device that will let users take advantage of its high-speed network.1.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone release of the EVO 4G in summers 2010. which runs Android 2. Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android OS.
4. Universal remote control. 9 . To support proximity-aware interactions. Bluetooth is the primary candidate for the short-range wireless technology that will enable proximity-aware communication.1. Dual connectivity. 3. Due to its low-power. 3. We have identified four interaction models: 3. Smart Phone Interaction Models A Smart Phone can be used to interact with the surrounding environment in different ways.1 Universal Remote Control Interaction Model: The Smart Phone can act as a universal remote control for interaction with embedded systems located in its proximity. Figure illustrates such interactions using Bluetooth.2. With these models.3. Gateway connectivity and 3. 3.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 3.cost features. peer-to-peer. both the Smart Phone and the embedded systems with which the user interacts must have short-range wireless communication capabilities. low. a Smart Phone can be used to execute applications from as simple as remotely adjusting various controls of home appliances or opening smart locks to complex applications such as automatically booking a cab or ordering paying in a restaurant use an ad hoc network of mobile phones to connect to the cashier¶s computer.
They have the unique feature of incorporating both short range wireless connectivity (e. The problem with this idea is that many embedded systems may not be powerful enough to run complex software that implements such protocols. a discovery protocol will allow Smart Phones to learn the identity and the description of the embedded systems located in their proximity. Bluetooth) and Internet 10 . more flexible.g. but the information about the devices currently located in user¶s proximity is displayed only upon user¶s request. An alternative. solution is to define a protocol that allows a Smart Phone to learn the interfaces from the embedded systems themselves. In the following. This model works well as long as the user has the interfaces for interacting with the embedded systems preinstalled on the phone. Each embedded system should be able to provide its identity information (unique to a device or to a class of devices) and a description of its basic functionality in a human-understandable format..2 Dual Connectivity Model: Central to our universal interaction architecture is the dual connectivity model which is based on the hybrid communication capabilities incorporated in the Smart Phones. This protocol can work either automatically or on-demand. we describe a second model of interaction that solves this problem. 3.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Since embedded systems with different functionalities can be scattered everywhere.
Potentially. The phone can also perform authentication over the Internet to ensure that the code is trusted. obtain the ID of the lock. If the server finds that this user is allowed to open the lock. it is able to identify itself to Smart Phones. Figure illustrates the Dual Connectivity interaction model.. this ability can be used to authenticate the client. We envision that the entry in certain buildings will soon be protected by Smart Locks (e.e. locks that are Bluetooth-enabled and can be opened using digital door keys). The dual connectivity model can also be used to implement electronic payment applications.g.formation) is piggybacked on the request submitted to the server.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity (e. it responds with the code for the interface and the digital key. However.e. For instance. and connect to an Internet server over GPRS to download the code that will be used for opening the lock (a digital door key can also be downloaded at the same time)... the users can interact with the close-by environment using the short-range wireless connectivity and with the rest of the world using the Internet connectivity. The server hosting the interface and the keys for the Smart Lock maintains a list of people that are allowed to open the lock. The Smart Phone can authenticate the vendor using its Internet connection. Another option provided by the Smart Phone is to send some of the unused money back into the bank account (i.g. the vendor¶s embedded system can also be connected to the Internet. With this model. the phones can connect to a server across the Internet (i. The dual connectivity model enables users carrying Smart Phones to open these locks in a secure manner. The same connection can be used by the client to withdraw electronic currency from her bank and store it on the phone. over GPRS) to download the code of the interface that will allow it to become a remote control for the microwave oven. make a deposit each time the amount on the phone exceeds a certain limit). A client does not need to know about a vendor¶s embedded system in advance.e. Using this information. The identity of the Smart Phone user (stored on the Smart Phone in the form of personal in.. Figure 11 . As a typical application. The Smart Phone can establish a connection with the lock. All further communication between this embedded system and the Smart Phone happens by executing the downloaded code. let us assume that a person has just bought an ³intelligent´ microwave oven equipped with a Bluetooth interface. Another typical application is opening/closing Smart Locks. This code will display a panel that emulates the panel of the microwave on the phone¶s screen (i. it effectively transforms the phone into an intuitive microwave remote control). GPRS) in the same personal mobile device. This embedded system is very simple and is not capable of storing or transferring its interface to a Smart Phone.
while Bluetooth reaches only 10m.11 is that it consumes too much energy.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone presents a similar application that involves accessing an ATM using a Smart Phone. 11-54Mbps compared to less than 1Mbps for Bluetooth. we do not expect to have 802. With the current state of the art.11 benefits and create mobile ad hoc networks.11 family of protocols. 3. Using these protocols. and consequently. it drains out the mobile devices¶ batteries in a very short period of time. several hours or even days).3 The Gateway Connectivity Interaction Model: Pervasive applications assume wireless communication through the IEEE 802. a user would like to access data and services provided by these networks from its Smart Phone.g. can take advantage of the 802. More powerful systems. the communication range is 250m or more. In such a situation. These protocols allow for a significant increase in the communication distance and bandwidth compared to Bluetooth.. however. 12 . The disadvantage of 802. The bandwidth is also larger.11 network interfaces embedded in Smart Phones or other resource constrained embedded systems that need to run on batteries for a significant period of time (e.
Let us assume a scenario where people want to book nearby cabs using their Smart Phones.4 Peer-to-Peer Model: The Smart Phones can also communicate among themselves (or with other Bluetooth-enabled devices) in a multihop. the client is just one-click away from booking a cab. restaurants) can provide such gateway stations together with 802. Figure depicts yet another example of this model.11 wireless networking and GPS devices. and the entire booking process is completely decentralized. 3. A group of friends having dinner 13 .11 and vice-versa. Many places in a city (e.11 hotspots. For instance. To join the mobile adhoc network created by the cabs. this model allows people to share music and pictures with others even if they are not in the proximity of each other.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone To succeed. stores. Hence. each cab is equipped with 802.. peer-to-peer fashion. a Smart Phone needs to connect to a gateway station that performs a translation of protocols from Bluetooth to 802. Figure illustrates this communication model and also presents an application that can be built on top of it. similar to mobile ad hoc networks. a client can start an application on her Smart Phone that seamlessly achieves the same goal. a gateway device has to perform a change of protocol from Bluetooth to 802. In this scenario.g.11 and vice-versa. theaters. Instead of calling a taxi company or ³gesturing´ to book a cab.
4. pocket-sized device designed to help you accomplish it. Most standard cell-phone software offers only limited choices for 14 . and do countless other things. play your music. tiny and powerful machine to make phone calls. keep your calendar and address book. One phone initiates this process.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone in a restaurant can use their Smart Phones to execute a program that shares the check. and finally the payment message arrives at the cashier. small package. take pictures. and it's likely there's a specialized. give directions. smartphones allow individual users to install. A smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your handheld computing and communication needs in a single. an ad hoc network of Smart Phones is created. check your e-mail. Unlike many traditional cell phones. But how many pockets do you have? Handheld devices become as clunky as a room-sized supercomputer when you have to carry four of them around with you every day.1 Introduction to How Smartphone Works: Think of a daily task. configure and run applications of their choosing. You can get a separate. entertain you. How Smartphone Works 4. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to your particular way of doing things. any daily task.
you could install any compatible calendar application you like. such as browsing desktop-class webpages. Here's a list of some of the things smartphones can do: y y y y Send and receive mobile phone calls ± some smartphones are also Wi-Fi capable Personal Information Management (PIM) including notes. the hardware specifications of a smartphone have gradually become a more important factor. On a standard phone. Their specification sheets almost read like what you¶d find for a computer. Since these mobile devices are able to accomplish so many tasks.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone re-configuration. forcing you to adapt to the way its set up. whether or not you like the built-in calendar application.2 The Layers of a Smartphone: The Hardware: Smartphones these days are powerful beasts. grabbing email and even doing simple photo and video editing. and these devices are now capable of tasks that one would have done on a computer in the past. If that phone were a smartphone. a smartphone is usually either a phone with added PDA capabilities or a PDA with added phone capabilities. 1. watching Flash videos. you are stuck with it except for a few minor tweaks. Since cell phones and PDAs are the most common handheld devices today. running multiple apps at once. calendar and to-do list Communication with laptop or desktop computers Data synchronization with applications like Microsoft Outlook and Apple's iCal calendar programs y y y y E-mail Instant messaging Applications such as word processing programs or video games Play audio and video files in some standard formats 4. Processor: 15 .
and other embedded devices like Smart Watches and MP3 players. Internal memory: This is an important figure to look at when selecting a new smartphone. Chips used in smartphones 2. Hardware 3D graphics acceleration: Having 3D graphics acceleration onboard results in better-looking games (those that take advantage of the added hardware) and smoother high-resolution video playback in addition to a overall-speedier user interface. which are also found in routers. More often than not. They have a certain amount of on-board memory in the tens of megabytes. simply because these megahertz numbers are not capable of accurately reflecting the actual performance of a smartphone. Many smartphones use power-efficient ARM processors. the everyday performance and speed of operation of a particular device are more dependent on software optimizations and the efficiency of the OS rather than purely based on processor speeds. printers. and many have slots for removable memory formats like SD and MMC cards as well. 3. External Connectors: 16 . system slowdowns and freezes. RAM size varies from 64MB to 128MB. especially for devices capable of multitasking out of the box (sorry iPhone) as having more RAM means being able to run more apps at one time without suffering from apps closing unexpectedly. 4.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Processor speed is of somewhat less importance than the rest of the specifications.
Battery: Battery has capability ranging from 850mAh to 1500mAh. micro USB charging is also starting to be implemented in newer devices. there are three types of wireless technologies in smartphones. a proximity sensor turns off the display during phone calls on touch screen handsets so as to prevent accidental touches when the device is taped to the side of your face. A light sensor automatically adjusts your screen¶s backlight and keypad lighting based on ambient lighting conditions. One of the largest debates of all time with regards to smartphone imaging is whether Xenon or LED flash units should be used in smartphones. there are four internal sensors you should look out for: An accelerometer handles auto-rotation of your device¶s display. Lastly. Most smartphones have a combination of 3. Xenon flash is always better than LED flash. your screen would dim in dark conditions so as not to dazzle you and increase in brightness in sunlight to boost outdoor visibility. The Software: 17 . Camera & LED/XENON FLASH: The same rules that govern megapixel counts on standalone digital cameras do apply to smartphones too. detecting whether you¶re trying to capture a photo in portrait or landscape mode. as well as for special features such as silencing calls and alarms when the device is turned over. at present. Bluetooth and location services (GPS). this is used in GPS navigation apps where the map is aligned to the direction you¶re facing. 8. Internal sensors: Fundamentally. A magnetometer is otherwise known as a digital compass. At this point. Wireless technologies: Fundamentally.5mm standard headphone jack and micro USB port for audio and data respectively. 6. more megapixels aren¶t always better.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Standard external connectors refer to the use of non-proprietary connections for audio output and data transfers in a device. cellular. these apps make use of the digital compass in your device and your camera in order to point out certain points of interest relative to their actual location. 7. 5. as well as in ³augmented reality´ apps such as Layer on the Android platform.
) y application execution environment (AEE) . or AEE. etc. which allow developers to create their own programs y y user interface framework . An operating system manages the hardware and software resources of smartphones. The stack consists of the following layers: y y kernel . web browsing.3 Smartphone Operating Systems: The most important software in any smartphone is its operating system (OS).Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack.the graphics and layouts seen on the screen application suite . Some OS platforms cover the entire range of the software stack.management systems for processes and drivers for hardware Middleware .the basic applications users access regularly such as menu screens.software libraries that enable smartphone applications (such as security. calendars and message inboxes 4.application programming interfaces. Others may only include the lower levels (typically the kernel and middleware layers) and rely on additional software platforms to provide a user interface framework. messaging. The smartphone operating systems are: A Nokia N92 with Symbian OS 18 .
platforms based on Linux code can be very different from one another. The upper layers are supplied by application platforms like S60. Used for ARM-based processor. It is the default operating system of the iPhone. and is therefore a Unix-like operating system. with associated libraries. The operating system consists of the kernel and middleware components of the software stack. It is derived from Mac OS X. There are some drawbacks to the system.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Symbian: Symbian OS is an operating system (OS) designed for mobile devices and smartphones. and the iPad. and MOAP. with developers constantly changing and updating it even at the kernel level. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. Symbian OS is the operating system for more than 100 different models of phones. originally developed by Symbian Ltd. though the most popular phone models still use the Symbian OS. UIQ. According to ARC chart. iPhone OS has four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer. The operating system uses less than 500 megabytes of the device's storage. the Linux OS supports more processors than any other operating system on the market. an organization that is attempting to create a standardized Linux platform. Some smartphone companies find the risk too great to invest in Linux. Linux: Linux is unique among the other operating systems in that its development is driven by a community of developers rather than by a central company. by nature. and the Cocoa Touch layer. user interface. Written in C. the iPod Touch. the Core Services layer. Since Linux is an organic OS. 19 . Six telecommunications companies are responding to this by forming the LiMo foundation. the Media layer. although an unreleased x86 port existed. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. iPhone OS: It is a mobile operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. however. with which it shares the Darwin foundation.
2007. The OS is based off of Window CE. the latest version of the software platform. Microsoft unveiled Windows Mobile 6. The T-Mobile SDA Windows Mobile Smartphone 20 . Much of the strength of this OS lies in the compatibility with the Microsoft Office suite of programs. On February 12.NET.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone The Linux Smartphone Windows Mobile: The Windows Mobile OS encompasses the entire software stack from the kernel to the application interface.
The first generation includes analog cell phone technology. middleware and key applications. this operating system combines a Linux-based foundation with applications written for the old Palm OS. Programmed in C and runs on ARM processors. 4. The Palm OS was mainly used in PDAs.4 Network Protocols: Smartphones use cell-phone network technology to send and receive data (such as phone calls.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone ANDROID: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel. "always on" connection that remains active as long as the phone is within range 21 . The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds. trackball. Unlike a circuit-switched voice connection. It was initially developed by Android Inc.). It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language. a firm later purchased by Google.5G protocol used in most smartphones. network engineers created protocols that are more advanced than generation two¶s digital technology but not so innovative that they are a truly new generation. Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols. file transfers. Developers General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a wireless. particularly the track wheel. the track pad and touch screen. packet-based communication service and until recently was the standard 2. Runs on both Intel Xscale and ARM processors. and most recently. this is a packet-switched. which constitute the second generation. Between generation two and three. Written in C++. Phones using the Garnet OS should become available in late 2007.. etc. created by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handhelds. web browsing. Developers classify this technology into generations. though the Treo line of smartphones used it as well. BlackBerry OS: It is the proprietary software platform. Garnet: formerly known as Palm OS. and lately by the Open Handset Alliance. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries.
Europe and Asia have much stronger 3G integration in their respective cell phone networks. participate in instant messenger sessions.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone of the service. Some smartphones in the United States still use this protocol. GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114 kilobytes per second. Some 3G protocols are: y y y Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 22 . though newer.S. act as a wireless modem for a computer and transmit and receive e-mails. One protocol that is faster than GPRS used in the U. Many smartphones in the United States are now using EDGE protocol. It allows smartphones to do things like run applications remotely over a network. many still rely on 2. interface with the Internet. EDGE can transmit data at more than three times the rate of GPRS (384 Kbps). While some U. carriers support 3G protocols. market is Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE). faster protocols are available.S. Treo 700w: Palm's First Windows Mobile Smartphone Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps).5G technology.
23 . to-do lists. field a phone call. then you generally have to look for a cell phone that speaks the languages of all of the devices and applications you use. This includes things like printers.5 Flexible Interfaces: The core services on smartphones all tie in to the idea of a multi-purpose device that can effectively multitask. All of the data stored on the phone can be synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways. Or he or she can flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without interrupting the voice call. needs to be able to communicate with all of the other devices you use to keep track of those things. but others allow simultaneous connection with multiple devices. computers and headsets. Some varieties of Bluetooth only allow communication with one device at a time. If you want to keep all of this data in synchronization with what's on your phone. addresses. scanners. and phone numbers. There are hundreds of possible platforms and applications you might use for this in the course of a day. A user can watch a video clip. input devices. like appointments. Or you can go out and buy new applications that speak the language of your cell phone. and then return to the video clip after the call. Systems supported by smartphones include: Bluetooth: A short-range. all without closing each application. Data Synchronization: A phone that keeps track of your personal information. wireless radio service that allows phones to wirelessly link up with each other and with other nearby devices that support it.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone y Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO) 4.
mail protocols and TCP/IP networks. these applications can access and use all of the data on the user's phone.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smartphone E-mail Application The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a collaborative organization with the mission to ³facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by specifying market driven mobile service enablers that ensure service interoperability across devices. which is continuing the work begun by the SyncML Initiative. and networks. Since there are millions of Java developers worldwide. Java: A smartphone that is compatible with the Java programming language allows the user to load and run Java applications and MIDlets. Bluetooth. games. provided that they are all programmed to OMA standards. Java MIDlets include add-ons. through any network. operators. if you 24 . geographies. This includes synchronization over the Web. SyncML is an open-standards project designed to eliminate the trouble of worrying about whether your PIM devices sync up with your phone and vice-versa. and the Java development tools are freely accessible. MIDlets are applications that use a subset of Java and are specifically programmed to run on wireless devices. smartphone users can install thousands of third-party applications on their phones. service providers. Because of the way the OS architecture of most phones is built. The OMA formed a Data Synchronization Working Group. For example. applications and utilities. while allowing businesses to compete through innovation and differentiation´. The project is designed so that any kind of data can be synchronized with any application on any piece of hardware.
5.1 Smart Phone Software Architecture: Figure shows the Smart Phone software architecture. This protocol allows Smart Phones to interact with the surrounding environment and the Internet. It is composed of sub-components for device discovery and sending/receiving data. you can just find one that you like better. we briefly describe the components of the software architecture: Bluetooth Engine is responsible for communicating with the Bluetooth-enabled embedded systems. System Architecture System architecture for universal interaction consists of a common Smart Phone software architecture and an interaction protocol.. The Bluetooth Engine is a layer above the Bluetooth stack and provides a convenient Java API for accessing the Bluetooth stack. downloading an interface). Internet Access Module carries out the communication between the Smart Phone and various Internet servers. It provides a well-defined API that supports operations specific to our architecture (e.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone don't like the photo caller ID that comes bundled with Symbian Series 60 OS. In the following.g.The protocol of communication is HTTP on top of 25 . 5.
the interface can be downloaded directly from it. the Proximity Engine informs the Execution Engine to dispatch the downloaded interface for execution. each interface has an associated access handler that is executed before any subsequent execution of the interface. The downloaded interface is stored in the Interface Cache for later reuse. Interface Cache stores the code of the downloaded interfaces. Once this is done. An interface can be shared by an entire class of embedded systems (e. This handler may define the time period for which the interface should be cached. Examples of such data include digital door keys and electronic cash. Additionally. Each time the user wants to interact with one of these systems. This cache avoids downloading an interface every time it is needed. It stores data that needs to be used during the interactions with various embedded systems. If the embedded system has enough computing power and memory. and an interface for this system is not available locally (i. This ID helps in recognizing the cached interface each time it needs to be looked up in the cache. Smart Locks. how and when the interface can be reused. the Proximity Engine invokes the Internet Access Module to connect to a web server and download the interface.e. Every interface has an ID (which can be the ID of the embedded system or the class of embedded systems it is associated with). a miss in the Interface Cache). or Microwaves). Proximity Engine is responsible for discovering the embedded systems located within the Bluetooth communication range.g. Otherwise.. the interface programs may need to contact a server for security related actions or to download necessary data in case of a miss in the Personal Data Storage.. These programs interact with the Bluetooth Engine to communicate with the embedded systems or with other Smart Phones They may also interact with the Internet Access Module to communicate with Internet servers. Each data item stored in this cache has three associated handlers: access 26 . All further communication between the Smart Phone and the embedded system happens as a result of executing this interface. Personal Data Storage acts as a cache for ³active data´. the Proximity Engine is responsible from downloading such an interface. Execution Engine is invoked by the Proximity Engine and is responsible for dispatching interface programs for execution over the Java virtual machine. For instance. The user can set the access handler¶s parameters before the first execution of the interface. or the permissions to access local resources.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone GPRS.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone handler. the interface needs to be downloaded on the phone either from the web server or from the embedded system itself.e. the Smart Phone executes the access control handler. loads and executes the interface. If the data is available locally (i.e. For instance. Each time a SmartPhone requests an interface from the web server. The eviction handler defines the actions to be taken when data is evicted from the cache. electronic cash can be sent back to the bank at eviction time.2 Smart Phone Interaction Protocol: Below figure shows the interaction protocol that takes place when a Smart Phone needs to interact with an embedded system. where the interface can only execute safe instructions on the phone).. If the data is not available locally (i. they are assumed to be verified before being distributed by the server. For instance. hit). Consequently. the user can choose the one she wants to interact with. It also sends it¶s ID (stored in the Personal Data Storage). We consider that any embedded system is registered with a trusted web server (this web server can be physically distributed on multiple computers). In case of a miss in the Interface Cache. the access handler is executed. it has to send the interface ID and the URL provided by the embedded system. this is a sandbox model of execution. 27 . and the program goes ahead. potentially. miss handler. Upon receiving the ID and URL of the embedded system. The permission to download an interface is subject to access control enforced based on the SmartPhone ID and. The user invokes the Proximity Engine each time she needs to interact with a device located in the proximity. the access handler may check if this data can be shared among different interfaces. At registration. the web server assigns a unique ID and a URL to the device. An inter face downloaded from an embedded system is untrusted and is not allowed to access local resources (i. 5.. the miss handler instructs the Internet Access Module to download the data from the corresponding Internet server. All the information necessary to interact with the device along with a user interface is stored at that URL. the web server responds with the interface code. Once the embedded systems in the proximity have been identified. a request is sent to the embedded system to provide its ID and URL. Each time an interface needs some data. Once the access is granted.e. The interfaces downloaded from the web server are trusted. miss). other credentials presented by the user. This URL may be common for an entire class of embedded systems. it checks the Personal Data Storage. and eviction handler.. and then.
Blackberry. Android. etc. enterprises have discovered them to be useful for employees who are distant / dispersed from the office. Enterprises need to be able to deploy applications to smartphones. With the popularity of these devices. Therefore. Examples of applications and services that may be deployed are messaging applications like email and instant messaging.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smart Phone Interaction Protocol 6. security applications like antivirus. line-of-business applications like CRM. and personal productivity applications like document editing and expense tracking. Smartphone application development Smartphones like iPhone. They include many multi-media features that seem to be capturing the interests of individuals. developing smartphone applications for the enterprises has become necessary. These applications make the smartphone more useful by making it into a business tool and by connecting it to the enterprise. 28 . are a wonderful combination of computers and cell-phones.
perhaps better called services. and the Windows Mobile Marketplace. with Google's Android Market. with its App Store. Users can deploy applications themselves on Windows Mobile devices. For example. require specialized configuration using enterprise back-end systems. In general. The irony is that the most connected devices we own -. by not allowing USB keys to be attached to a laptop. but they are not suitable for the enterprise. protected. but all target the consumer market and none satisfies the needs of the enterprise. and sometimes they require the device to be tethered. for example. These connections introduce security issues -.do not yet live in a completely Web-based.our smartphones -. and control application policies. The Apple App Store makes it easy for vendors to reach consumers and for smartphone users to find and deploy applications. So what would an enterprise application store look like? 29 . but only for the consumer market. has raised the bar on smartphone application distribution. How are enterprise smartphone applications being deployed today? It depends on the Mobile OS and the type of application. Each of these application clouds has somewhat different business models. The other smartphone vendors have responded in kind. And tethering introduces its own set of problems. The enterprise needs its own application store.many companies have policies in place to protect against data leakage and malware. and it doesn't give the administrator the ability to present the user with a set of permitted -.but not required -. over-the-air world.it's difficult to push applications and updates to a smartphone when these only happen via tethering. Tethering is also complicated for the end user and not automated -. BlackBerry's App World. enterprises need a way to deploy custom applications. negotiate license pricing with their independent software vendors (ISVs).apps. Some applications. What are the unique challenges facing the enterprise when it comes to tethering? Tethering forces the user to connect the smartphone to a PC/MAC/laptop.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Apple. BlackBerry distributes enterprise applications through the BES server. the ideal solution is to have any device connect directly to the enterprise network. but this applies mostly to applications that are mandatory for the smartphone. filtered and audited. This forces dataflows through the usual channels that are managed. Consumer application clouds do exist. or they may be pushed using a mobile device management (MDM) product.
from a single app store.1 Steps to develop enterprise applications: 1. VoIP). SFA).. The enterprise app store must be accessible over the air with no tethering required. It has four fundamental properties: 1. this has a very simple answer. Once determines the scope of 30 . and associated configurations and policies. 2.g. 4. The enterprise app store is controlled by the IT administrator and managed by IT. Enterprise IT should be able to manage applications and services.g. Users should authenticate using enterprise credentials. and license management. If the application is a smartphone adaptation of a board game. The enterprise does not want one application store for BlackBerry and another for iPhone and so on. What will the application do? In many cases. then it should have every feature that the physical game does. CRM. The enterprise application store should be able to handle a wide set of applications and services: y y Applications that are mandatory for all devices (e. 6. If you are creating a dictionary application.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone An enterprise application store gives IT administrators and users the ability to manage the applications on their devices. is to determine the application's scope.. including protecting the IP in custom applications. antivirus. The app store may live in the enterprise or as a cloud service.these applications could live in the enterprise app store or be pointed to from the app store. it should have every word in the English language along with a definition. y Recommended or permitted third-party applications -. A single enterprise app store should support multiple mobile OSs. or any other computer system. Line-of-business applications those are specific to the employee and his role or job (e. but it must be private and under the control of the enterprise. The first step in any Smartphone application development. 3. Managing of the application store by IT is important for many reasons. email.
for example. give developers an edge in finding any and all software related problems as they arise. and they enable better decisions based on the resources available in real time. Give the application to a few of employees and have they used it on their smartphone for a few weeks to see if there are any more issues. The iPhone SDK. Most of the bugs in an application aren't always found right away.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone an application. allows developers to test their iPhone applications on an iPhone simulator before they ever load the app onto a real iPhone. Many of these kits have certain pre-built general kinds of functions that can be reused and co-opted into the code again and again. more or less. These combinations of code packages ultimately become your smartphone app. so information can be made more useful and kept more current. along with other debugging applications. These testing tools. other devices in the enterprise. The final phase of smartphone application development is beta testing. Increasingly. Different kinds of Smartphone app development take different amounts of time to complete depending on the scope of the project. What do you see for the future of smartphone applications in the enterprise? Smartphones make business more efficient by bringing enterprise data and systems where they are needed. Most smartphones have their own proprietary software development kit (SDK). It can take a little time to spot them. The second phase in development is figuring which software tools are available to us to bring together the kind of functionality that the application requires. Once the basic functionality is in development. This is. so make sure they are all gone well before the new app is released. we can begin to formulate that application's business strategy and ultimately its development schedule. Smartphones will also start to complement. we will see these applications implemented as rich clients that leverage data from the data center in order to optimize the user experience but leave enterprises with good control over their information. 31 . a long term software test. software engineers begin to test how each app works. 3. and perhaps replace. 2.
It may allow you to create and edit Microsoft Office documents or manage your finances. 5. 3. Some smartphone can support multiple e-mail accounts. Because smartphone users are often heavy email and Web users. 4. Features There are a few features that you'll find on every smartphone: 1. like any computer. the Palm OS. but what sets a smartphone apart is its ability to send and receive e-mail. 2. All cell phones can send and receive text messages. such as the BlackBerry OS. as well as a huge time-saver. Messaging: Smartphones have helped to bridge the gap between personal digital assistants (PDAs) and regular mobile phones and therefore must provide features targeted to the business professional. allowing users to stay on top of their 32 . Web Access: A smartphone offer some sort of access to the Internet. These browsers load and navigate websites the way a typical computer browser would. Software: A smartphone will offer more than just an address book. Smartphones are basically hand-held computers and. or Windows Mobile. QWERTY Keyboard: A smartphone includes a QWERTY keyboard.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 7. a full keypad is a convenient feature. they feature Web browsers. Email capability is a must-have feature for all smartphones. Operating System: A smartphone will be based on an operating system that allows it to run productivity applications. so the keys are laid out in the same manner they would be on your computer keyboard. which usually offers pared down features for faster downloading times. although smartphones are sometimes directed to a company's mobile home page.
Others include access to the popular instant messaging services. Smartphones may be vulnerable to security breaches such as an Evil Twin attack. Smartphones feature an applications store where users can browse. 8. among others. who often use their phones to transmit confidential information. e-readers. It can be used to connect keyboards. a hacker sets a server¶s service identifier to that of a 33 . 8. Most modern smartphones have Bluetooth wireless connectivity. Wireless Connectivity: Many smartphones consume Touch Screen Technology and also Wireless Wide-Area Networks. In an evil twin attack. It is used to connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. Applications: Perhaps one of the well-publicized features of a smartphone is its ability to use third-party applications. Superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/ WLAN connectivity. These applications include games. Touch Screen: It has a touch screen for entering data. Synchronization Facility: An important function of smartphone is synchronizing data with a PC. With many PDAs. music services. weather trackers and news aggregators. This feature allows keeping up-to-date contact information stored on software like Microsoft Outlook or ACT! To update the database on the smartphone. sometimes called apps. The iPhone and iPod touch uses Multi-touch technology. GPS and many other accessories.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone messages while on the go. 7. like Yahoo! Messenger. 9. Third-party synchronization software is also available. headsets. Security Perhaps the most challenging consideration for the future is security. 6. most smartphones come with the facility to synchronize to a PC. download and review both free and priced apps. productivity tools. Smartphones and PDAs are already popular among many corporate executives. Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input.
Most security considerations either focus on particular operating systems or have more to do with user behavior than network security. It's an idea that probably hasn't found its perfect. Hackers have written viruses that attack SymbianOS phones. The viruses can do things like turning off anti-virus software.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone legitimate hotspot or network while simultaneously blocking traffic to the real server. No one developer or manufacturer has come up with the perfect shape. some critics argue that anti-virus software manufacturers greatly exaggerate the risks. a tablet PC. size or input method yet. harms and scope of phone viruses in order to help sell their software. With data transmission rates reaching blistering speeds and the incorporation of WiFi technology. When a user connects with the hacker¶s server. information can be intercepted and security is compromised. software and network protocols inhibit practical. 34 . One downside to the openness and configurability of smartphones is that it also makes them susceptible to viruses. Every crop of phones brings new designs and new interface ideas. Possibly the most exciting thing about smartphone technology is that the field is still wide open. the sky is the limit on what smartphones can do. real-world implementation yet. locking the phone completely or deleting all applications stored on the phone. The next "killer app" smartphone could look like a flip phone. broad security measures. The incredible diversity in smartphone hardware. a candy bar or something no one has conceived of yet. On the other side.
many smartphones have integrated Internet browsers that you can use to surf the Internet or watch videos online. In addition. smartphones are often used to aid scheduling and personal organization. Often the GPS functionality is tightly integrated with other features of a phone that let you quickly find your location on a map. 2. Smartphones typically come with cameras that you can use to take pictures or videos of where you are and instantly share them with friends and family. Specialty Technology: Smartphones often provide enhanced technology such as a global positioning system (GPS). Scheduling: In a business setting. Smartphones give you the capability to do a real-time check of the news. 3. pictures and videos. Many smartphones also leverage your GPS location to develop context aware applications. such as a restaurant recommendation near where the smartphone user is currently located. stock information and email. 35 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 9. change and respond to appointments and conflicts as they arise in your schedule. Smartphones allow users to download songs. 4. smartphones also can act as a content management system for users. a smartphone can give you specific directions to your destination. In addition. Smartphone Uses There are a variety of smartphones on the market that can be used for both practical and recreational purposes. Smartphones are tightly coupled with existing scheduling software that lets you view. Internet Access: Smartphones effectively provide Internet access at a high level of fidelity to users on the go. Multimedia: In addition to viewing videos and streaming songs from the Internet. 1.
They are quick to communicate: They are quick because you can communicate in seconds with everybody. read and reply to your emails from the palm of your hand. hiking in the hills or at home 36 . and also you can send important information and documents in seconds in any place. Whether you are in line at the post office.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 10. 3. Advantages Smartphones are one of the most popular forms of communication all over the world. they have many advantages:- 1. Keep in Touch: With a smartphone you can receive. waiting at the airport. Multifunctional: They are Multifunctional because they are phones and ambulant personal computers. 2.
Instant messaging (IM) is also available on many models. either via Wi-Fi or a cellular network. enable you to purchase and download such programs from third-party vendors. enabling you to chat in real time. If these are not pre-installed on your smartphone. including Blackberry. a smartphone will enable you to use Internet search engines on the move. you'll know you haven't missed an email from that important client. calculator. Some smartphones allow you to view. Most models also boast a camera. voice recorder. Android. Stay Connected: The advantages of having mobile access to the Internet. Using the powerful built-in processor and memory. cannot be over-emphasized. 4. and of course you can still make a call or send a text message. As well as keeping you connected to all your favorite social networks. shop at online stores. Many come with simple word-processing capabilities. 6. and even mobile presentation software. and many other features to keep your personal and professional life running smoothly. Windows Mobile. all of the main platforms. In Business: If you need to stay productive when out of the office. the smartphone is also a multi-purpose personal digital assistant (PDA). calendar. edit and send attachments. Get Organized: In addition to all of its communication features. note pad. and some offer global positioning systems (GPS) with satellite navigation (sat nav). so you can get reports to your boss before he arrives in the office Monday morning. smartphones come equipped with an address book. enabling you to capture and share photos and video. Symbian and Apple's iOS.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone watching sports on TV. it'll be in your pocket. spreadsheet and database programs. 5. choose a smartphone that includes a range of basic business tools. Wherever you happen to be. 37 . and bring all the latest news and sports into your hand. if it's online.
Still. 6. Most cell phone providers require users to sign long-term contracts. Website Access: 38 . Accessing websites and email from small screens involves extensive scrolling to view all the information. it is not possible to type on the keyboard as fast as you can type on a full-size keyboard considering one hand is generally used to hold the smartphone. Complicated: Smartphones are complicated because sometimes they require programs that are difficult to learn and there maybe a need to download new programs in order to have a better performance. Disadvantages On the other hand. raising the cost of owning a smartphone depending on the terms of the contract. the smartphones also have some disadvantages: 1. Less personal: They are less personal because you can¶t see the persons face and their reactions or expressions when you are communicating with them. and may be difficult for those with poor eyesight. Awkward Keyboard Size: Alphanumeric keys are smaller and closer together on a smartphone than they are on a full-size keyboard. Internet access is provided at an additional cost. 5. 2. Expensive: They aren¶t cheap because the equipment required is expensive. Some smart phones have QWERTY keyboards. despite being very helpful and full of advantages. 4.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 11. which can be problematic for those with larger hands. 3. which are meant to mimic traditional computer keyboards. Small Screen Size: Smartphone screens generally measure just a few inches wide and in length.
7. and can even detect multiple points of contact simultaneously.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) uses software to optimize websites for the smaller screen of a smartphone. They have disposable income and great enthusiasm for particular products or technologies.The iPhone uses an advanced touch screen. or ³professional consumers´ (prosumers can also refer to ³production consumers´. While input methods will vary. Frequent checking of email and internet applications takes time and attention away from interpersonal relationships. or if they can. For the past few years smartphones have been aimed at prosumers. production and alteration of a product). they may not show all the content. As prosumers pick and choose the phones that offer the applications they want. and as a result are entering the consumer market. ARC chart. Prosumers are generally early adopters of products. 39 . developers can tweak designs and move towards mass production. The Future of Smartphones Smartphones are getting thinner and cheaper. forecasts that 38 percent of all mobile phones will use touch screens or touch panels by 2012. Smartphone developers find prosumers very useful when designing applications and hardware. which makes it difficult for some people to designate a clear delineation between work life and home life. 12. or consumers who drive the design. for example. light-weight factor and portability of smartphones allow them to be carried at all times. Not all websites are WAP-enabled so some cannot be accessed. Images may not appear and scrolling the entire web page can become tedious due to the small screen size. Analysts predict that one billion smartphone handsets will be sold by 2012. Work-Life Balance: The small size. the research firm.
along with continuous software updates promises the prolongation of Smartphone dominance in the mobile markets. we begin to predict that future Smartphones will become the PC replacements. Now it has become ³conventional´ with its convenient functions.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 13. Connectivity. in the busy lifestyles societies hold. the general Smartphone has overtaken the mobile industry with its advanced computing abilities. its ability to run complete operating systems. internal processors and the further developments for compact-easy to carry technologies help Smartphones to stand out. PC-like capabilities. which allow it to connect to the world from just about anywhere. 40 . Conclusion In the very few years Smartphones have existed. Now. Adding onto that.
www.about. www.smartphones. Bibliography and References 1.com 41 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 14.howstuffworks. www.wikipedia.org 2. www.com 4.ehow.com 3.
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