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Recent advances in technology make it feasible to incorporate significant processing power in almost every device that we encounter in our daily life. For a number of years, visionary papers have presented a picturesque computerized physical world with which we can potentially interact faster and in a simpler fashion. People, however, are not yet taking advantage of this ubiquitous computing world. Despite all the computing power lying around, most of our daily interactions with the surrounding environment are still primitive and far from the ubiquitous computing vision. Our pockets and bags are still jammed with a bunch of keys for the doors we have to open/close daily (they did not change much since the Middle Ages), the car key or remote, access cards, credit cards, and money to pay for goods. Any of these forgotten at home can turn the day into a nightmare. If we travel, we also need maps and travel guides, coins to pay the parking in the city, and tickets to take the train or subway. In addition, we are always carrying our mobile phone, which for some mysterious reason is the least likely to be left at home. When we finally arrive home or at the hotel, we are ³greeted´ by several remote controls eager to test our intelligence. All these items are absolutely necessary for us to properly interact with our environment. The problem is that there are too many of them, they are sometimes heavy, and we will likely accumulate more and more of them as our life go on, requiring much larger pockets. For this problem, the community does not lack innovative solutions that address some of its aspects (e.g., wireless micro servers, electronic payment methods, and digital door keys). What is missing is a simple, universal solution, which end-users are likely to accept easily. Ideally, we would like to have a single device that acts as both personal server and personal assistant for remote interaction with embedded systems located in proximity of the user. This device should be programmable and support dynamic software extensions for interaction with newly encountered embedded systems (i.e., dynamically loading new interfaces).To simplify its acceptance by society, it should be a device that is already carried by people wherever they go. We believe that Smart Phones are the devices that have the greatest chance of successfully becoming universal remote controls for people to interact with various devices from their surrounding environment; they will also replace all the different items we currently carry in our pockets. Smart Phone is an emerging mobile phone technology that supports Java program execution and provides both short range wireless connectivity (Bluetooth) and cellular network
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity through which the Internet can be accessed.
1.1 What is a Smartphone?
A smartphone is a device that lets you make telephone calls, but also adds features that you might find on a personal digital assistant or a computer such as the ability to send and receive email and edit Office documents. Smart Phones combine significant computing power with memory, short-range wireless interfaces (e.g., Bluetooth), Internet connectivity (over GPRS), and various input-output components (e.g., high- resolution color touch screens, digital cameras, and MP3 players). The ³smart´ tag is well-earned: in addition to their pure telephony functions, they have an operating system that can run an advanced web browser, as well as locally installed applications.
1.2 Why Buy a Smartphone?
As a busy person, you know the importance of staying a step ahead of your clients and your family. You probably know the feeling of being tied to your desk or home so as not to miss that important email or phone call and to maintain convenient access to essential data²proposals, schedules, contact information, business news or the stock market
In 1992 IBM produced arguably the first ever smartphone. As a blue sky campaign they created Simon, a concept product exhibited at the Las Vegas trade show Comdex. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by BellSouth.IBM was the first to venture into the business of offering consumers a highly advanced mobile phone. The Simon was the first real attempt by the tech industry to create a ³Swiss Army Knife´ type of phone that incorporated voice and data services into one package, as the device acted as a mobile phone, a PDA and even a fax machine. What¶s more, the device even had a touch screen that could be used to dial phone numbers, making it a true pre-pre-pre-precursor to the iPhone that would come 14 years later. Well, one Simon owner describes it as ³brick-like, huge and heavy.´ And its original retail price was $899. Considered low-end by today¶s standard, this first smartphone featured an amazing array of features ± email, address book, clock, calendar, note pad, and even the ability to send and receive faxes.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
The Nokia Communicator line was the first of Nokia¶s smartphone starting with the Nokia 9000, released in 1996. This distinctive palmtop computer style smartphone was the result of a collaborative effort of an early successful and expensive Personal digital assistant (PDA) by Hewlett Packard combined with Nokia¶s bestselling phone around that time, and early prototype models had the two devices fixed via a hinge. The Nokia 9210 was the first color screen Communicator model which was the first true smartphone with an open operating system the 9500 Communicator was also Nokia¶s first camera phone Communicator and Nokia¶s first Wi-Fi phone. The 9300 Communicator was the third dimensional shift into a smaller form factor, and the latest E90 Communicator includes GPS. The Nokia Communicator model is remarkable for also having been the most expensive phone model sold by a major brand for almost the full lifespan of the model series, easily 20% and sometimes 40% more expensive than the next most expensive smartphone by any major manufacturer.
Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone
In 1997 Ericsson released the concept phone GS88. It was the first device labeled as µsmartphone¶. The GS88 was followed up by the touch screen smartphone R380 in 2000, the first device to use the new Symbian OS, and by the P800 in 2002, the first camera smartphone.
In the late 1990s, Canadian company Research in Motion was mostly known for its two-way pagers that were adopted by tens of millions of users worldwide. But starting in 2002, RIM
RIM would not release a proper headset-free smartphone until the BlackBerry 6210 came out in early 2004.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone entered the mobile phone market with its BlackBerry 5810 device. 5 . The Treo was popular in its own right. a phone with the ability to get e-mail and surf the Web. The major downside of the 5810 was that you needed to plug in a headset in order to talk on the phone. although its release marked the start of the wane of Palm¶s influence. The Treo 600 was the first smartphone released by Palm after it acquired device manufacturer Handspring. This particular smartphone featured both GSM and CDMA models and had 32MB of RAM and 144MHz of processing power. which itself had been started by Palm¶s original founders and which had used Palm¶s operating system as the basis for its Treo devices.
S. But now Google¶s open-source mobile operating system has become a major player in the smartphone industry. It was used on more than 7% of all U. Windows Mobile and Symbian.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone In 2007 Apple released the iPhone with its intuitive touch screen this was the device that revolutionized mobile web browsing. Android¶s rise is fairly remarkable for an operating system that only just launched in the fall of 2007. 6 . more than double its market share from the previous quarter. The open-source operating system¶s success is even more impressive when you consider that when it debuted it was already facing a crowded field of OS heavyweights such as the iPhone. BlackBerry. smartphones at the end of 2009.
which is currently the fastest wireless network commercially available in the United States. the Droid was the first major hit for the Android platform that had enduring brand recognition. Sprint has long been eager to show off the capabilities of its WiMAX network. sold more than 1 million units over its first 74 days on the market.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Although Android had been on the market for more than a year before the Droid¶s release. The device. With the 7 . which was also the first Android-based smartphone to run on the Verizon network.
which runs Android 2. Sprint finally has a flagship device that will let users take advantage of its high-speed network. The Android-based device is so big that it even features a kickstand that helps users keep it upright while they¶re looking at the screen.3-inch 800 x 400 pixel display screen and a weight of 6 ounces. the phone is also notable for its striking physical size. In addition to its connectivity. has been designed by HTC and works with TMobile¶s network in the United States. Google introduced the Nexus One as the first device to be sold by the search company itself. rather than a manufacturing or carrier partner.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone release of the EVO 4G in summers 2010. with a 4. Google launched the Nexus One smartphone using its Android OS.1. The Nexus One. 8 . In January 2010.
low.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 3. With these models. Bluetooth is the primary candidate for the short-range wireless technology that will enable proximity-aware communication. To support proximity-aware interactions. 3. Dual connectivity.1 Universal Remote Control Interaction Model: The Smart Phone can act as a universal remote control for interaction with embedded systems located in its proximity. 9 . Smart Phone Interaction Models A Smart Phone can be used to interact with the surrounding environment in different ways.4. both the Smart Phone and the embedded systems with which the user interacts must have short-range wireless communication capabilities.1.cost features. We have identified four interaction models: 3. Figure illustrates such interactions using Bluetooth.2. peer-to-peer. 3. Due to its low-power. a Smart Phone can be used to execute applications from as simple as remotely adjusting various controls of home appliances or opening smart locks to complex applications such as automatically booking a cab or ordering paying in a restaurant use an ad hoc network of mobile phones to connect to the cashier¶s computer.3. 3. Universal remote control. Gateway connectivity and 3.
more flexible. a discovery protocol will allow Smart Phones to learn the identity and the description of the embedded systems located in their proximity. The problem with this idea is that many embedded systems may not be powerful enough to run complex software that implements such protocols. They have the unique feature of incorporating both short range wireless connectivity (e. This protocol can work either automatically or on-demand. Each embedded system should be able to provide its identity information (unique to a device or to a class of devices) and a description of its basic functionality in a human-understandable format.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Since embedded systems with different functionalities can be scattered everywhere. Bluetooth) and Internet 10 . This model works well as long as the user has the interfaces for interacting with the embedded systems preinstalled on the phone. An alternative. 3. solution is to define a protocol that allows a Smart Phone to learn the interfaces from the embedded systems themselves.. In the following.2 Dual Connectivity Model: Central to our universal interaction architecture is the dual connectivity model which is based on the hybrid communication capabilities incorporated in the Smart Phones. we describe a second model of interaction that solves this problem.g. but the information about the devices currently located in user¶s proximity is displayed only upon user¶s request.
This code will display a panel that emulates the panel of the microwave on the phone¶s screen (i. this ability can be used to authenticate the client. All further communication between this embedded system and the Smart Phone happens by executing the downloaded code. it is able to identify itself to Smart Phones. The server hosting the interface and the keys for the Smart Lock maintains a list of people that are allowed to open the lock. Using this information. the users can interact with the close-by environment using the short-range wireless connectivity and with the rest of the world using the Internet connectivity.. it responds with the code for the interface and the digital key.formation) is piggybacked on the request submitted to the server. Figure 11 . The Smart Phone can authenticate the vendor using its Internet connection. The same connection can be used by the client to withdraw electronic currency from her bank and store it on the phone. it effectively transforms the phone into an intuitive microwave remote control). We envision that the entry in certain buildings will soon be protected by Smart Locks (e. over GPRS) to download the code of the interface that will allow it to become a remote control for the microwave oven. obtain the ID of the lock. The dual connectivity model can also be used to implement electronic payment applications. As a typical application..e. Potentially. the vendor¶s embedded system can also be connected to the Internet. and connect to an Internet server over GPRS to download the code that will be used for opening the lock (a digital door key can also be downloaded at the same time). For instance.g. With this model. A client does not need to know about a vendor¶s embedded system in advance.. However. the phones can connect to a server across the Internet (i.e. This embedded system is very simple and is not capable of storing or transferring its interface to a Smart Phone. The dual connectivity model enables users carrying Smart Phones to open these locks in a secure manner. Another option provided by the Smart Phone is to send some of the unused money back into the bank account (i. If the server finds that this user is allowed to open the lock. Another typical application is opening/closing Smart Locks. The phone can also perform authentication over the Internet to ensure that the code is trusted.. make a deposit each time the amount on the phone exceeds a certain limit). let us assume that a person has just bought an ³intelligent´ microwave oven equipped with a Bluetooth interface.e. The identity of the Smart Phone user (stored on the Smart Phone in the form of personal in. locks that are Bluetooth-enabled and can be opened using digital door keys).g.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone connectivity (e. GPRS) in the same personal mobile device. Figure illustrates the Dual Connectivity interaction model. The Smart Phone can establish a connection with the lock.
3. while Bluetooth reaches only 10m. 11-54Mbps compared to less than 1Mbps for Bluetooth. In such a situation. the communication range is 250m or more. we do not expect to have 802.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone presents a similar application that involves accessing an ATM using a Smart Phone.3 The Gateway Connectivity Interaction Model: Pervasive applications assume wireless communication through the IEEE 802. The disadvantage of 802.11 network interfaces embedded in Smart Phones or other resource constrained embedded systems that need to run on batteries for a significant period of time (e. The bandwidth is also larger. several hours or even days). Using these protocols.. it drains out the mobile devices¶ batteries in a very short period of time. With the current state of the art. and consequently. These protocols allow for a significant increase in the communication distance and bandwidth compared to Bluetooth. a user would like to access data and services provided by these networks from its Smart Phone. however. 12 .11 is that it consumes too much energy.g.11 benefits and create mobile ad hoc networks. can take advantage of the 802. More powerful systems.11 family of protocols.
Let us assume a scenario where people want to book nearby cabs using their Smart Phones. theaters. a Smart Phone needs to connect to a gateway station that performs a translation of protocols from Bluetooth to 802.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone To succeed.11 wireless networking and GPS devices.4 Peer-to-Peer Model: The Smart Phones can also communicate among themselves (or with other Bluetooth-enabled devices) in a multihop. Hence. To join the mobile adhoc network created by the cabs. a client can start an application on her Smart Phone that seamlessly achieves the same goal.g. A group of friends having dinner 13 . peer-to-peer fashion. similar to mobile ad hoc networks. and the entire booking process is completely decentralized.. restaurants) can provide such gateway stations together with 802. the client is just one-click away from booking a cab.11 and vice-versa. Instead of calling a taxi company or ³gesturing´ to book a cab.11 hotspots. Figure illustrates this communication model and also presents an application that can be built on top of it. a gateway device has to perform a change of protocol from Bluetooth to 802. 3. For instance. Figure depicts yet another example of this model. Many places in a city (e. each cab is equipped with 802. In this scenario.11 and vice-versa. this model allows people to share music and pictures with others even if they are not in the proximity of each other. stores.
A smartphone is one device that can take care of all of your handheld computing and communication needs in a single. and do countless other things. and finally the payment message arrives at the cashier. tiny and powerful machine to make phone calls. smartphones allow individual users to install. How Smartphone Works 4. One phone initiates this process. entertain you. Unlike many traditional cell phones. configure and run applications of their choosing. Most standard cell-phone software offers only limited choices for 14 . and it's likely there's a specialized. check your e-mail. But how many pockets do you have? Handheld devices become as clunky as a room-sized supercomputer when you have to carry four of them around with you every day. small package. any daily task.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone in a restaurant can use their Smart Phones to execute a program that shares the check. 4. keep your calendar and address book. play your music. pocket-sized device designed to help you accomplish it. give directions. A smartphone offers the ability to conform the device to your particular way of doing things. take pictures. You can get a separate. an ad hoc network of Smart Phones is created.1 Introduction to How Smartphone Works: Think of a daily task.
Processor: 15 . and these devices are now capable of tasks that one would have done on a computer in the past.2 The Layers of a Smartphone: The Hardware: Smartphones these days are powerful beasts. On a standard phone. running multiple apps at once. a smartphone is usually either a phone with added PDA capabilities or a PDA with added phone capabilities. Their specification sheets almost read like what you¶d find for a computer. grabbing email and even doing simple photo and video editing. forcing you to adapt to the way its set up. calendar and to-do list Communication with laptop or desktop computers Data synchronization with applications like Microsoft Outlook and Apple's iCal calendar programs y y y y E-mail Instant messaging Applications such as word processing programs or video games Play audio and video files in some standard formats 4. such as browsing desktop-class webpages.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone re-configuration. 1. If that phone were a smartphone. watching Flash videos. whether or not you like the built-in calendar application. Here's a list of some of the things smartphones can do: y y y y Send and receive mobile phone calls ± some smartphones are also Wi-Fi capable Personal Information Management (PIM) including notes. you are stuck with it except for a few minor tweaks. Since cell phones and PDAs are the most common handheld devices today. Since these mobile devices are able to accomplish so many tasks. the hardware specifications of a smartphone have gradually become a more important factor. you could install any compatible calendar application you like.
system slowdowns and freezes. More often than not. 3. printers. and other embedded devices like Smart Watches and MP3 players. They have a certain amount of on-board memory in the tens of megabytes. 4. External Connectors: 16 . Many smartphones use power-efficient ARM processors. Chips used in smartphones 2. especially for devices capable of multitasking out of the box (sorry iPhone) as having more RAM means being able to run more apps at one time without suffering from apps closing unexpectedly. which are also found in routers. simply because these megahertz numbers are not capable of accurately reflecting the actual performance of a smartphone. RAM size varies from 64MB to 128MB. the everyday performance and speed of operation of a particular device are more dependent on software optimizations and the efficiency of the OS rather than purely based on processor speeds. Hardware 3D graphics acceleration: Having 3D graphics acceleration onboard results in better-looking games (those that take advantage of the added hardware) and smoother high-resolution video playback in addition to a overall-speedier user interface.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Processor speed is of somewhat less importance than the rest of the specifications. Internal memory: This is an important figure to look at when selecting a new smartphone. and many have slots for removable memory formats like SD and MMC cards as well.
this is used in GPS navigation apps where the map is aligned to the direction you¶re facing. at present. as well as for special features such as silencing calls and alarms when the device is turned over. At this point. there are three types of wireless technologies in smartphones. there are four internal sensors you should look out for: An accelerometer handles auto-rotation of your device¶s display. A magnetometer is otherwise known as a digital compass. The Software: 17 . Battery: Battery has capability ranging from 850mAh to 1500mAh. 6. 5. your screen would dim in dark conditions so as not to dazzle you and increase in brightness in sunlight to boost outdoor visibility. Camera & LED/XENON FLASH: The same rules that govern megapixel counts on standalone digital cameras do apply to smartphones too. detecting whether you¶re trying to capture a photo in portrait or landscape mode.5mm standard headphone jack and micro USB port for audio and data respectively. these apps make use of the digital compass in your device and your camera in order to point out certain points of interest relative to their actual location. 7.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Standard external connectors refer to the use of non-proprietary connections for audio output and data transfers in a device. cellular. 8. Xenon flash is always better than LED flash. Internal sensors: Fundamentally. One of the largest debates of all time with regards to smartphone imaging is whether Xenon or LED flash units should be used in smartphones. as well as in ³augmented reality´ apps such as Layer on the Android platform. A light sensor automatically adjusts your screen¶s backlight and keypad lighting based on ambient lighting conditions. Most smartphones have a combination of 3. more megapixels aren¶t always better. micro USB charging is also starting to be implemented in newer devices. Bluetooth and location services (GPS). Lastly. Wireless technologies: Fundamentally. a proximity sensor turns off the display during phone calls on touch screen handsets so as to prevent accidental touches when the device is taped to the side of your face.
or AEE.the basic applications users access regularly such as menu screens. Others may only include the lower levels (typically the kernel and middleware layers) and rely on additional software platforms to provide a user interface framework.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Software for smartphones can be visualized as a software stack.3 Smartphone Operating Systems: The most important software in any smartphone is its operating system (OS). Some OS platforms cover the entire range of the software stack. The smartphone operating systems are: A Nokia N92 with Symbian OS 18 .software libraries that enable smartphone applications (such as security. An operating system manages the hardware and software resources of smartphones. etc.) y application execution environment (AEE) .management systems for processes and drivers for hardware Middleware . messaging.application programming interfaces. calendars and message inboxes 4. web browsing. which allow developers to create their own programs y y user interface framework .the graphics and layouts seen on the screen application suite . The stack consists of the following layers: y y kernel .
with developers constantly changing and updating it even at the kernel level. Some smartphone companies find the risk too great to invest in Linux. by nature. iPhone OS: It is a mobile operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. the Core Services layer. It is the default operating system of the iPhone. frameworks and reference implementations of common tools. originally developed by Symbian Ltd. Used for ARM-based processor. According to ARC chart. 19 . UIQ. It is derived from Mac OS X. the Linux OS supports more processors than any other operating system on the market. The operating system uses less than 500 megabytes of the device's storage. user interface. The upper layers are supplied by application platforms like S60. the iPod Touch. though the most popular phone models still use the Symbian OS. and MOAP. and the iPad. The operating system consists of the kernel and middleware components of the software stack. platforms based on Linux code can be very different from one another. It was a descendant of Psion's EPOC and runs exclusively on ARM processors. the Media layer. however. although an unreleased x86 port existed. Linux: Linux is unique among the other operating systems in that its development is driven by a community of developers rather than by a central company. iPhone OS has four abstraction layers: the Core OS layer. There are some drawbacks to the system. an organization that is attempting to create a standardized Linux platform. Symbian OS is the operating system for more than 100 different models of phones. with associated libraries. Six telecommunications companies are responding to this by forming the LiMo foundation. and the Cocoa Touch layer. Since Linux is an organic OS. and is therefore a Unix-like operating system. Written in C. with which it shares the Darwin foundation.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Symbian: Symbian OS is an operating system (OS) designed for mobile devices and smartphones.
NET. On February 12. the latest version of the software platform. 2007. The T-Mobile SDA Windows Mobile Smartphone 20 . Much of the strength of this OS lies in the compatibility with the Microsoft Office suite of programs. The OS is based off of Window CE.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone The Linux Smartphone Windows Mobile: The Windows Mobile OS encompasses the entire software stack from the kernel to the application interface. Microsoft unveiled Windows Mobile 6.
Phones using the Garnet OS should become available in late 2007. 4. The operating system provides multitasking and supports specialized input devices that have been adopted by RIM for use in its handhelds. Programmed in C and runs on ARM processors. though the Treo line of smartphones used it as well. Developers classify this technology into generations. and lately by the Open Handset Alliance.5G protocol used in most smartphones. created by Research In Motion for its BlackBerry line of smartphone handhelds. controlling the device via Google-developed Java libraries. Developers General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a wireless. It allows developers to write managed code in the Java language. packet-based communication service and until recently was the standard 2. trackball. which constitute the second generation. file transfers. Garnet: formerly known as Palm OS. middleware and key applications. particularly the track wheel. this operating system combines a Linux-based foundation with applications written for the old Palm OS.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone ANDROID: Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system. this is a packet-switched. Between generation two and three. etc. network engineers created protocols that are more advanced than generation two¶s digital technology but not so innovative that they are a truly new generation. Unlike a circuit-switched voice connection. Digital cell phones require more advanced protocols..4 Network Protocols: Smartphones use cell-phone network technology to send and receive data (such as phone calls.). It was initially developed by Android Inc. The Palm OS was mainly used in PDAs. a firm later purchased by Google. and most recently. Runs on both Intel Xscale and ARM processors. BlackBerry OS: It is the proprietary software platform. the track pad and touch screen. web browsing. "always on" connection that remains active as long as the phone is within range 21 . Written in C++. that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel. The first generation includes analog cell phone technology.
Treo 700w: Palm's First Windows Mobile Smartphone Protocols in 3G transmit data in terms of megabytes per second rather than kilobytes (some as fast as 10 Mbps). Some 3G protocols are: y y y Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service (UMTS) Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) 22 . act as a wireless modem for a computer and transmit and receive e-mails. It allows smartphones to do things like run applications remotely over a network. market is Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE). One protocol that is faster than GPRS used in the U. Some smartphones in the United States still use this protocol.S. faster protocols are available. many still rely on 2. GPRS can send and receive data at a rate of 114 kilobytes per second. interface with the Internet. carriers support 3G protocols.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone of the service. Europe and Asia have much stronger 3G integration in their respective cell phone networks. Many smartphones in the United States are now using EDGE protocol. participate in instant messenger sessions.S.5G technology. EDGE can transmit data at more than three times the rate of GPRS (384 Kbps). though newer. While some U.
scanners. like appointments. wireless radio service that allows phones to wirelessly link up with each other and with other nearby devices that support it. Or you can go out and buy new applications that speak the language of your cell phone. All of the data stored on the phone can be synchronized with outside applications or manipulated by third-party phone applications in any number of ways. Or he or she can flip through the digital calendar and to-do list applications without interrupting the voice call.5 Flexible Interfaces: The core services on smartphones all tie in to the idea of a multi-purpose device that can effectively multitask. addresses. then you generally have to look for a cell phone that speaks the languages of all of the devices and applications you use. and phone numbers. This includes things like printers. Systems supported by smartphones include: Bluetooth: A short-range. 23 . If you want to keep all of this data in synchronization with what's on your phone. field a phone call. and then return to the video clip after the call. to-do lists. all without closing each application. input devices. computers and headsets. Some varieties of Bluetooth only allow communication with one device at a time. needs to be able to communicate with all of the other devices you use to keep track of those things. but others allow simultaneous connection with multiple devices.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone y Evolution Data Maximized (EVDO) 4. A user can watch a video clip. There are hundreds of possible platforms and applications you might use for this in the course of a day. Data Synchronization: A phone that keeps track of your personal information.
Java MIDlets include add-ons. Bluetooth. This includes synchronization over the Web. mail protocols and TCP/IP networks. applications and utilities. geographies. Because of the way the OS architecture of most phones is built. MIDlets are applications that use a subset of Java and are specifically programmed to run on wireless devices. these applications can access and use all of the data on the user's phone. games. Java: A smartphone that is compatible with the Java programming language allows the user to load and run Java applications and MIDlets. if you 24 . while allowing businesses to compete through innovation and differentiation´. and networks. Since there are millions of Java developers worldwide. service providers. For example. through any network. The project is designed so that any kind of data can be synchronized with any application on any piece of hardware. provided that they are all programmed to OMA standards.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smartphone E-mail Application The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a collaborative organization with the mission to ³facilitate global user adoption of mobile data services by specifying market driven mobile service enablers that ensure service interoperability across devices. smartphone users can install thousands of third-party applications on their phones. and the Java development tools are freely accessible. operators. SyncML is an open-standards project designed to eliminate the trouble of worrying about whether your PIM devices sync up with your phone and vice-versa. which is continuing the work begun by the SyncML Initiative. The OMA formed a Data Synchronization Working Group.
downloading an interface). This protocol allows Smart Phones to interact with the surrounding environment and the Internet. It provides a well-defined API that supports operations specific to our architecture (e.. In the following.1 Smart Phone Software Architecture: Figure shows the Smart Phone software architecture.The protocol of communication is HTTP on top of 25 . It is composed of sub-components for device discovery and sending/receiving data. you can just find one that you like better.g. System Architecture System architecture for universal interaction consists of a common Smart Phone software architecture and an interaction protocol.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone don't like the photo caller ID that comes bundled with Symbian Series 60 OS. we briefly describe the components of the software architecture: Bluetooth Engine is responsible for communicating with the Bluetooth-enabled embedded systems. 5. Internet Access Module carries out the communication between the Smart Phone and various Internet servers. 5. The Bluetooth Engine is a layer above the Bluetooth stack and provides a convenient Java API for accessing the Bluetooth stack.
each interface has an associated access handler that is executed before any subsequent execution of the interface.e. This cache avoids downloading an interface every time it is needed. the Proximity Engine is responsible from downloading such an interface. Examples of such data include digital door keys and electronic cash. This handler may define the time period for which the interface should be cached.. Execution Engine is invoked by the Proximity Engine and is responsible for dispatching interface programs for execution over the Java virtual machine. a miss in the Interface Cache). If the embedded system has enough computing power and memory. the Proximity Engine invokes the Internet Access Module to connect to a web server and download the interface. It stores data that needs to be used during the interactions with various embedded systems. The user can set the access handler¶s parameters before the first execution of the interface. Additionally.g. These programs interact with the Bluetooth Engine to communicate with the embedded systems or with other Smart Phones They may also interact with the Internet Access Module to communicate with Internet servers. the Proximity Engine informs the Execution Engine to dispatch the downloaded interface for execution. All further communication between the Smart Phone and the embedded system happens as a result of executing this interface. Once this is done. the interface programs may need to contact a server for security related actions or to download necessary data in case of a miss in the Personal Data Storage. For instance. Interface Cache stores the code of the downloaded interfaces. Every interface has an ID (which can be the ID of the embedded system or the class of embedded systems it is associated with). and an interface for this system is not available locally (i. Each time the user wants to interact with one of these systems.. Smart Locks. Each data item stored in this cache has three associated handlers: access 26 . the interface can be downloaded directly from it. Proximity Engine is responsible for discovering the embedded systems located within the Bluetooth communication range. Otherwise.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone GPRS. The downloaded interface is stored in the Interface Cache for later reuse. Personal Data Storage acts as a cache for ³active data´. This ID helps in recognizing the cached interface each time it needs to be looked up in the cache. or the permissions to access local resources. An interface can be shared by an entire class of embedded systems (e. how and when the interface can be reused. or Microwaves).
e.e. We consider that any embedded system is registered with a trusted web server (this web server can be physically distributed on multiple computers). In case of a miss in the Interface Cache. a request is sent to the embedded system to provide its ID and URL. Each time an interface needs some data. loads and executes the interface. hit). It also sends it¶s ID (stored in the Personal Data Storage). the access handler may check if this data can be shared among different interfaces. The interfaces downloaded from the web server are trusted.2 Smart Phone Interaction Protocol: Below figure shows the interaction protocol that takes place when a Smart Phone needs to interact with an embedded system. Each time a SmartPhone requests an interface from the web server. the interface needs to be downloaded on the phone either from the web server or from the embedded system itself. If the data is available locally (i. The eviction handler defines the actions to be taken when data is evicted from the cache. miss). where the interface can only execute safe instructions on the phone). the miss handler instructs the Internet Access Module to download the data from the corresponding Internet server. the Smart Phone executes the access control handler. miss handler. and eviction handler.. other credentials presented by the user. The user invokes the Proximity Engine each time she needs to interact with a device located in the proximity. and the program goes ahead. and then. Upon receiving the ID and URL of the embedded system. the access handler is executed. 27 .e. The permission to download an interface is subject to access control enforced based on the SmartPhone ID and. potentially. At registration.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone handler. If the data is not available locally (i. the web server responds with the interface code. 5. it has to send the interface ID and the URL provided by the embedded system. this is a sandbox model of execution. For instance. Once the embedded systems in the proximity have been identified. All the information necessary to interact with the device along with a user interface is stored at that URL. they are assumed to be verified before being distributed by the server. it checks the Personal Data Storage. Once the access is granted. For instance.. the user can choose the one she wants to interact with. This URL may be common for an entire class of embedded systems. Consequently. An inter face downloaded from an embedded system is untrusted and is not allowed to access local resources (i. the web server assigns a unique ID and a URL to the device.. electronic cash can be sent back to the bank at eviction time.
security applications like antivirus. developing smartphone applications for the enterprises has become necessary. Blackberry. With the popularity of these devices. Enterprises need to be able to deploy applications to smartphones. Therefore. enterprises have discovered them to be useful for employees who are distant / dispersed from the office. Smartphone application development Smartphones like iPhone. Android. etc. Examples of applications and services that may be deployed are messaging applications like email and instant messaging. They include many multi-media features that seem to be capturing the interests of individuals. line-of-business applications like CRM. and personal productivity applications like document editing and expense tracking. These applications make the smartphone more useful by making it into a business tool and by connecting it to the enterprise.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Smart Phone Interaction Protocol 6. 28 . are a wonderful combination of computers and cell-phones.
BlackBerry's App World. So what would an enterprise application store look like? 29 . BlackBerry distributes enterprise applications through the BES server. The irony is that the most connected devices we own -. For example. require specialized configuration using enterprise back-end systems. The other smartphone vendors have responded in kind. perhaps better called services. How are enterprise smartphone applications being deployed today? It depends on the Mobile OS and the type of application. What are the unique challenges facing the enterprise when it comes to tethering? Tethering forces the user to connect the smartphone to a PC/MAC/laptop.do not yet live in a completely Web-based. These connections introduce security issues -. and the Windows Mobile Marketplace. but this applies mostly to applications that are mandatory for the smartphone.our smartphones -. and sometimes they require the device to be tethered. filtered and audited. Tethering is also complicated for the end user and not automated -. Each of these application clouds has somewhat different business models.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Apple. In general. has raised the bar on smartphone application distribution. protected. negotiate license pricing with their independent software vendors (ISVs). Consumer application clouds do exist. Some applications. for example. This forces dataflows through the usual channels that are managed.but not required -.apps. And tethering introduces its own set of problems. or they may be pushed using a mobile device management (MDM) product.it's difficult to push applications and updates to a smartphone when these only happen via tethering. enterprises need a way to deploy custom applications. Users can deploy applications themselves on Windows Mobile devices. but all target the consumer market and none satisfies the needs of the enterprise. by not allowing USB keys to be attached to a laptop. the ideal solution is to have any device connect directly to the enterprise network. with its App Store. and it doesn't give the administrator the ability to present the user with a set of permitted -. but they are not suitable for the enterprise. but only for the consumer market. and control application policies. The Apple App Store makes it easy for vendors to reach consumers and for smartphone users to find and deploy applications. The enterprise needs its own application store.many companies have policies in place to protect against data leakage and malware. with Google's Android Market. over-the-air world.
and associated configurations and policies. Line-of-business applications those are specific to the employee and his role or job (e. The enterprise app store is controlled by the IT administrator and managed by IT. is to determine the application's scope. The enterprise application store should be able to handle a wide set of applications and services: y y Applications that are mandatory for all devices (e.1 Steps to develop enterprise applications: 1. 4. The app store may live in the enterprise or as a cloud service.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone An enterprise application store gives IT administrators and users the ability to manage the applications on their devices. It has four fundamental properties: 1. antivirus.these applications could live in the enterprise app store or be pointed to from the app store. The first step in any Smartphone application development. but it must be private and under the control of the enterprise. If you are creating a dictionary application. Enterprise IT should be able to manage applications and services. The enterprise app store must be accessible over the air with no tethering required. What will the application do? In many cases.g. Managing of the application store by IT is important for many reasons. from a single app store. 3. y Recommended or permitted third-party applications -. then it should have every feature that the physical game does. this has a very simple answer. SFA). If the application is a smartphone adaptation of a board game. email. VoIP).. Once determines the scope of 30 .. including protecting the IP in custom applications. CRM.g. A single enterprise app store should support multiple mobile OSs. The enterprise does not want one application store for BlackBerry and another for iPhone and so on. 2. it should have every word in the English language along with a definition. Users should authenticate using enterprise credentials. and license management. or any other computer system. 6.
Increasingly. so make sure they are all gone well before the new app is released. It can take a little time to spot them. for example. Most of the bugs in an application aren't always found right away. What do you see for the future of smartphone applications in the enterprise? Smartphones make business more efficient by bringing enterprise data and systems where they are needed. Smartphones will also start to complement. Once the basic functionality is in development. and perhaps replace. 3. a long term software test. software engineers begin to test how each app works. other devices in the enterprise. These combinations of code packages ultimately become your smartphone app. These testing tools. Give the application to a few of employees and have they used it on their smartphone for a few weeks to see if there are any more issues. and they enable better decisions based on the resources available in real time. The final phase of smartphone application development is beta testing. we can begin to formulate that application's business strategy and ultimately its development schedule. The second phase in development is figuring which software tools are available to us to bring together the kind of functionality that the application requires. The iPhone SDK. 2. This is. so information can be made more useful and kept more current. Most smartphones have their own proprietary software development kit (SDK). more or less. we will see these applications implemented as rich clients that leverage data from the data center in order to optimize the user experience but leave enterprises with good control over their information. allows developers to test their iPhone applications on an iPhone simulator before they ever load the app onto a real iPhone. Many of these kits have certain pre-built general kinds of functions that can be reused and co-opted into the code again and again. along with other debugging applications. 31 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone an application. give developers an edge in finding any and all software related problems as they arise. Different kinds of Smartphone app development take different amounts of time to complete depending on the scope of the project.
4. Email capability is a must-have feature for all smartphones. such as the BlackBerry OS. Features There are a few features that you'll find on every smartphone: 1. Smartphones are basically hand-held computers and. allowing users to stay on top of their 32 . Software: A smartphone will offer more than just an address book. a full keypad is a convenient feature. or Windows Mobile. 3. like any computer. but what sets a smartphone apart is its ability to send and receive e-mail.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 7. the Palm OS. 5. 2. although smartphones are sometimes directed to a company's mobile home page. These browsers load and navigate websites the way a typical computer browser would. Web Access: A smartphone offer some sort of access to the Internet. so the keys are laid out in the same manner they would be on your computer keyboard. Operating System: A smartphone will be based on an operating system that allows it to run productivity applications. QWERTY Keyboard: A smartphone includes a QWERTY keyboard. Messaging: Smartphones have helped to bridge the gap between personal digital assistants (PDAs) and regular mobile phones and therefore must provide features targeted to the business professional. they feature Web browsers. Some smartphone can support multiple e-mail accounts. as well as a huge time-saver. It may allow you to create and edit Microsoft Office documents or manage your finances. All cell phones can send and receive text messages. which usually offers pared down features for faster downloading times. Because smartphone users are often heavy email and Web users.
most smartphones come with the facility to synchronize to a PC. These applications include games. who often use their phones to transmit confidential information. It can be used to connect keyboards. 8. 9. In an evil twin attack. Superior PDAs have Wi-Fi/ WLAN connectivity. Apple iPhone and iPod touch include new user interfaces using other means of input. headsets. 7. sometimes called apps. It is used to connecting to Wi-Fi hotspots or wireless networks. music services. 8. Third-party synchronization software is also available. weather trackers and news aggregators. productivity tools. like Yahoo! Messenger. The iPhone and iPod touch uses Multi-touch technology. Smartphones may be vulnerable to security breaches such as an Evil Twin attack. Applications: Perhaps one of the well-publicized features of a smartphone is its ability to use third-party applications. With many PDAs. Synchronization Facility: An important function of smartphone is synchronizing data with a PC. GPS and many other accessories. a hacker sets a server¶s service identifier to that of a 33 . e-readers. Smartphones and PDAs are already popular among many corporate executives. Security Perhaps the most challenging consideration for the future is security. download and review both free and priced apps. among others.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone messages while on the go. 6. Most modern smartphones have Bluetooth wireless connectivity. Touch Screen: It has a touch screen for entering data. Others include access to the popular instant messaging services. Smartphones feature an applications store where users can browse. This feature allows keeping up-to-date contact information stored on software like Microsoft Outlook or ACT! To update the database on the smartphone. Wireless Connectivity: Many smartphones consume Touch Screen Technology and also Wireless Wide-Area Networks.
broad security measures. With data transmission rates reaching blistering speeds and the incorporation of WiFi technology. When a user connects with the hacker¶s server. the sky is the limit on what smartphones can do. No one developer or manufacturer has come up with the perfect shape. The next "killer app" smartphone could look like a flip phone. locking the phone completely or deleting all applications stored on the phone. size or input method yet. The incredible diversity in smartphone hardware. Hackers have written viruses that attack SymbianOS phones. some critics argue that anti-virus software manufacturers greatly exaggerate the risks. It's an idea that probably hasn't found its perfect. a candy bar or something no one has conceived of yet. information can be intercepted and security is compromised. Possibly the most exciting thing about smartphone technology is that the field is still wide open.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone legitimate hotspot or network while simultaneously blocking traffic to the real server. The viruses can do things like turning off anti-virus software. One downside to the openness and configurability of smartphones is that it also makes them susceptible to viruses. a tablet PC. Most security considerations either focus on particular operating systems or have more to do with user behavior than network security. software and network protocols inhibit practical. Every crop of phones brings new designs and new interface ideas. On the other side. real-world implementation yet. harms and scope of phone viruses in order to help sell their software. 34 .
change and respond to appointments and conflicts as they arise in your schedule. Often the GPS functionality is tightly integrated with other features of a phone that let you quickly find your location on a map. In addition. Smartphones allow users to download songs. such as a restaurant recommendation near where the smartphone user is currently located. Multimedia: In addition to viewing videos and streaming songs from the Internet. many smartphones have integrated Internet browsers that you can use to surf the Internet or watch videos online. Internet Access: Smartphones effectively provide Internet access at a high level of fidelity to users on the go. smartphones are often used to aid scheduling and personal organization. Smartphones give you the capability to do a real-time check of the news. 1. pictures and videos. 2. 4.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 9. Specialty Technology: Smartphones often provide enhanced technology such as a global positioning system (GPS). Smartphones typically come with cameras that you can use to take pictures or videos of where you are and instantly share them with friends and family. In addition. 35 . 3. Scheduling: In a business setting. stock information and email. Many smartphones also leverage your GPS location to develop context aware applications. Smartphone Uses There are a variety of smartphones on the market that can be used for both practical and recreational purposes. smartphones also can act as a content management system for users. a smartphone can give you specific directions to your destination. Smartphones are tightly coupled with existing scheduling software that lets you view.
waiting at the airport. Advantages Smartphones are one of the most popular forms of communication all over the world. Keep in Touch: With a smartphone you can receive. and also you can send important information and documents in seconds in any place. read and reply to your emails from the palm of your hand. 3. hiking in the hills or at home 36 .Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 10. 2. Multifunctional: They are Multifunctional because they are phones and ambulant personal computers. They are quick to communicate: They are quick because you can communicate in seconds with everybody. Whether you are in line at the post office. they have many advantages:- 1.
6. As well as keeping you connected to all your favorite social networks. so you can get reports to your boss before he arrives in the office Monday morning. choose a smartphone that includes a range of basic business tools. and even mobile presentation software. cannot be over-emphasized. Instant messaging (IM) is also available on many models. Get Organized: In addition to all of its communication features. calendar. Android. and of course you can still make a call or send a text message. Stay Connected: The advantages of having mobile access to the Internet. and some offer global positioning systems (GPS) with satellite navigation (sat nav). smartphones come equipped with an address book. a smartphone will enable you to use Internet search engines on the move. In Business: If you need to stay productive when out of the office. all of the main platforms. and bring all the latest news and sports into your hand. calculator. Symbian and Apple's iOS.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone watching sports on TV. enable you to purchase and download such programs from third-party vendors. If these are not pre-installed on your smartphone. the smartphone is also a multi-purpose personal digital assistant (PDA). including Blackberry. note pad. Some smartphones allow you to view. spreadsheet and database programs. and many other features to keep your personal and professional life running smoothly. if it's online. 5. Many come with simple word-processing capabilities. either via Wi-Fi or a cellular network. you'll know you haven't missed an email from that important client. edit and send attachments. enabling you to chat in real time. voice recorder. Wherever you happen to be. shop at online stores. 4. it'll be in your pocket. enabling you to capture and share photos and video. Windows Mobile. Using the powerful built-in processor and memory. Most models also boast a camera. 37 .
Less personal: They are less personal because you can¶t see the persons face and their reactions or expressions when you are communicating with them. Still. Awkward Keyboard Size: Alphanumeric keys are smaller and closer together on a smartphone than they are on a full-size keyboard. it is not possible to type on the keyboard as fast as you can type on a full-size keyboard considering one hand is generally used to hold the smartphone. 3. the smartphones also have some disadvantages: 1. which can be problematic for those with larger hands. and may be difficult for those with poor eyesight. 2. Disadvantages On the other hand. Website Access: 38 . Expensive: They aren¶t cheap because the equipment required is expensive. Accessing websites and email from small screens involves extensive scrolling to view all the information.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 11. despite being very helpful and full of advantages. 6. 4. Complicated: Smartphones are complicated because sometimes they require programs that are difficult to learn and there maybe a need to download new programs in order to have a better performance. 5. Some smart phones have QWERTY keyboards. raising the cost of owning a smartphone depending on the terms of the contract. which are meant to mimic traditional computer keyboards. Small Screen Size: Smartphone screens generally measure just a few inches wide and in length. Most cell phone providers require users to sign long-term contracts. Internet access is provided at an additional cost.
production and alteration of a product). 12. the research firm. developers can tweak designs and move towards mass production. The Future of Smartphones Smartphones are getting thinner and cheaper. Work-Life Balance: The small size. Images may not appear and scrolling the entire web page can become tedious due to the small screen size. they may not show all the content. or consumers who drive the design. or ³professional consumers´ (prosumers can also refer to ³production consumers´. Prosumers are generally early adopters of products. which makes it difficult for some people to designate a clear delineation between work life and home life.The iPhone uses an advanced touch screen. for example. As prosumers pick and choose the phones that offer the applications they want. ARC chart. While input methods will vary. 39 . Analysts predict that one billion smartphone handsets will be sold by 2012. Smartphone developers find prosumers very useful when designing applications and hardware. and can even detect multiple points of contact simultaneously. Frequent checking of email and internet applications takes time and attention away from interpersonal relationships. forecasts that 38 percent of all mobile phones will use touch screens or touch panels by 2012. For the past few years smartphones have been aimed at prosumers. They have disposable income and great enthusiasm for particular products or technologies. and as a result are entering the consumer market.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) uses software to optimize websites for the smaller screen of a smartphone. light-weight factor and portability of smartphones allow them to be carried at all times. or if they can. 7. Not all websites are WAP-enabled so some cannot be accessed.
its ability to run complete operating systems. along with continuous software updates promises the prolongation of Smartphone dominance in the mobile markets. Adding onto that.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 13. Now it has become ³conventional´ with its convenient functions. which allow it to connect to the world from just about anywhere. PC-like capabilities. Now. in the busy lifestyles societies hold. internal processors and the further developments for compact-easy to carry technologies help Smartphones to stand out. Connectivity. 40 . we begin to predict that future Smartphones will become the PC replacements. Conclusion In the very few years Smartphones have existed. the general Smartphone has overtaken the mobile industry with its advanced computing abilities.
com 4.com 3.org 2.ehow. www.wikipedia. Bibliography and References 1.howstuffworks.smartphones.Smartphone & Developing Enterprise Applications for Smartphone 14. www. www. www.com 41 .about.
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