) The objectives of this course on ‘Professional Ethics and Human Values’ are: (a) to understand the moral values that ought to guide the Engineering profession, (b) resolve the mor al issues in the profession, and (c) justify the moral judgment concerning the profession. It is intended to develop a set of beliefs, attitudes, and habits that engineers should display concerning morality. The prime objective is to increase one’s ability to deal effectively with moral co mplexity in engineering practice. Alternatively, the objectives of the study on Professional Ethics may be listed as: (A) Improvement of the cognitive skills (skills of the intellect in thinking cle arly) 1. Moral awareness (proficiency in recognizing moral problems in engineering) 2. Cogent moral reasoning (comprehending, assessing different views) 3. Moral coherence (forming consistent viewpoints based on facts) 4. Moral imagination (searching beyond obvious the alternative responses to issu es and being receptive to creative solutions) 5. Moral communication, to express and support one’s views to others. (B) To act in morally desirable ways, towards moral commitment and responsible c onduct 6. Moral reasonableness i.e., willing and able to be morally responsible. 7. Respect for persons, which means showing concern for the well-being of others , besides oneself. 8. Tolerance of diversity i.e., respect for ethnic and religious differences, an d acceptance of reasonable differences in moral perspectives. 9. Moral hope i.e., believe in using rational dialogue for resolving moral confl icts. 10. Integrity, which means moral integrity, and integrating one’s professional lif e and personal convictions. 2 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values 1. Specific and descriptive. It is a critical reflection on morals. 2. More concerned with the results of a right action, when not done. 3. Thrust is on influence, education, training through codes, guidelines, and correction. 4. Less serious, hence second priority only. Less common. But relevant today, because of complex interactions in the modern society. 5. Example: Notions or beliefs about manners, tastes, customs, and towards laws. 1.1 MORALS Morals are the welfare principles enunciated by the wise people, based on their experience and wisdom. They were edited, changed or modified or evolved to suit the geography of the re gion, rulers (dynasty), and in accordance with development of knowledge in science and technology and wi th time. Morality is concerned with principles and practices of morals such as: (a) What ought or ought not to be done in a given situation? (b) What is right or wrong about the handli

ng of a situation? and (c) What is good or bad about the people, policies, and ideals involved? Morality is different from Ethics in the following ways: Morality Ethics 1. More general and prescriptive based on customs and traditions. 2. More concerned with the results of wrong action, when done. 3. Thrust is on judgment and punishment, in the name of God or by laws. 4. In case of conflict between the two, morality is given top priority, because the damage is more. It is more common and basic. 5. Example: Character flaw, corruption, extortion, and crime. As against morals and ethics, laws are norms, formally approved by state, power or national or international political bodies. Breaking the norms is called crime, and invite s pecific punishment. 1.2 VALUES 1.2.1 Definition Humans have the unique ability to define their identity, choose their values and establish their beliefs. All three of these directly influence a person’s behavior. People have gone to gre at lengths to demonstrate the validity of their beliefs, including war and sacrificing their own life! Con versely, people are not motivated to support or validate the beliefs of another, when those beliefs are contrary to their own. People will act congruent with their personal values or what they deem to be imp ortant. A value is defined as a principle that promotes well-being or prevents harm.” Anot her definition is: Values are our guidelines for our success—our paradigm about what is acceptabl e.” Personal values are defined as: “Emotional beliefs in principles regarded as particularly favorabl e or important for the individual.” Our values associate emotions to our experiences and guide our choice s, decisions and actions. Human Values 3 A person’s observations on its environment are filtered through his values to dete rmine whether or not he should expend energy to do something about his experiences. A person w ho values gold and sees a large bag of gold (a positive value) in his path as he walks, will be mot ivated to reach down and pick it up. A person who values his life and knows about venomous snakes will re treat from the sound of a rattlesnake (a negative value) from nearby, when he is walking in the deser t. Said in another way, “Values are the scales we use to weigh our choices for our actions, whether to mov e towards or away from something.” Not all values have the same weight or priority. Some are more important than ot hers and must be satisfied before others can be addressed. Dr. Abraham Maslow illustrated this with his hierarchy of human needs. Survival has a higher priority than security, which has a higher pr

iority than social acceptance. Self-esteem can only be addressed to the degree that social acceptan ce is fulfilled. Similarly, self-actualization can only be pursued to the degree that self-esteem has been s atisfied. A person’s beliefs, values and identity are usually acquired unconsciously based o n his personal experience or observations of others’ experiences as to what produces desirable or undesirable results in the environment. A baby’s learning to walk and talk is a clear example of ident ifying with human adults, valuing the act of being able to have the mobility and communication abi lity of an adult and the belief, based on unconscious observation, that humans can do walk and do talk wi th each other. Physiologists have identified the parts of the human brain that are involved in producing behavior in accordance with beliefs and values. All information collected by human senses is passed through a net-like group of cells, known as the Reticular Activating System (RAS), located near the top of the brain stem. The RAS compares the data received with accepted values, positive an d negative (threats), and beliefs stored in memory and determines whether or not immediate action is r equired. The results of the RAS’s comparison are communicated to the ‘amygdala’ near the mid-brain. The ‘amygdala’ produces neuro-chemicals that cause emotions consistent with the natu re of and proportional to the match between environment and values and beliefs. The neurochemicals initiate the chemical processes needed for the action to be taken. If the emotions produc ed are strong enough, the perceived information is blocked from reaching the logical, rational and con scious executive center of the brain, the pre-frontal lobes. In which case, the resulting behavior will be automatic, not necessarily logical or rational, and completely in accordance with the person’s strongest held beliefs, values and/or identity. By positive affirmations, one can modify or create new beliefs about a person’s id entity and/or what is important to him (values). Verbal repetition of statements intended to b ecome new beliefs, and values will result in these being stored for use by the RAS for comparison with the environment being experienced. This is the mechanism how the beliefs or values are modified. 1.2.2 Types of Values2 The five core human values are: (1) Right conduct, (2) Peace, (3) Truth, (4) Lov e, and (5) Nonviolence. 1. Values related to RIGHT CONDUCT are: (a) SELF-HELP SKILLS: Care of possessions, diet, hygiene, modesty, posture, self reliance, and tidy appearance (b) SOCIAL SKILLS: Good behavior, good manners, good relationships, helpfulness, No wastage, and good environment, and (c) ETHICAL SKILLS: Code of conduct, courage, dependability, duty, efficiency, 4 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values ingenuity, initiative, perseverance, punctuality, resourcefulness, respect for a ll, and responsibility

2. Values related to PEACE are: Attention, calmness, concentration, contentment, dignity, discipline, equality, equanimity, faithfulness, focus, gratitude, happiness, har mony, humility, inner silence, optimism, patience, reflection, satisfaction, self-acceptance, se lf-confidence, self-control, self-discipline, self-esteem, self-respect, sense control, toleran ce, and understanding 3. Values related to TRUTH are: Accuracy, curiosity, discernment, fairness, fear lessness, honesty, integrity (unity of thought, word, and deed), intuition, justice, optimism, puri ty, quest for knowledge, reason, self-analysis, sincerity, sprit of enquiry, synthesis, trust, truthfulness, and determination. 4. Values related to LOVE are: Acceptance, affection, care, compassion, consider ation, dedication, devotion, empathy, forbearance, forgiveness, friendship, generosity, gentleness, humanness, interdependence, kindness, patience, patriotism, reverence, sacrifice , selflessness, service, sharing, sympathy, thoughtfulness, tolerance and trust 5. Values related to NON-VIOLENCE are: (a) PSYCHOLOGICAL: Benevolence, compassion, concern for others, consideration, forbearance, forgiveness, manners, happiness, loyalty, morality, and universal l ove (b) SOCIAL: Appreciation of other cultures and religions, brotherhood, care of e nvironment, citizenship, equality, harmlessness, national awareness, perseverance, respect f or property, and social justice. PERSEVERANCE is defined as persistence, determination, resolution, tenacity, ded ication, commitment, constancy, steadfastness, stamina, endurance and indefatigability. T o persevere is described as to continue, carry on, stick at it (in formal), keep going, persist, plug awa y, (informal), remain, stand firm, stand fast, hold on and hang on. Perseverance builds character. ACCURACY means freedom from mistake or error; conformity to truth or to a standa rd or model and exactness. Accuracy is defined as correctness, exactness, authenticity , truth, veracity, closeness to truth (true value) and carefulness. The value of accuracy embraces a large ar ea and has many implications. Engineers are encouraged to demonstrate accuracy in their behavior through the medium of praise and other incentives. Accuracy includes telling the truth, not exagger ating, and taking care over one’s work. DISCERNMENT means discrimination, perception, penetration, and insight. Discernm ent means the power to see what is not obvious to the average mind. It stresses accuracy, especially in reading character or motives. Discrimination stresses the power to distinguish or select what is true or genuinely excellent. Perception implies quick and often sympathetic discernment, as of sha des of feelings. Penetration implies a searching mind that goes beyond what is obvious or superfi cial. Insight suggests

depth of discernment. Definitions of other terms are given in the appropriate pages of this book. 1.2.3 Evolution of Human Values The human values evolve because of the following factors: 1. The impact of norms of the society on the fulfillment of the individual’s needs or desires. Human Values 5 2. Developed or modified by one’s own awareness, choice, and judgment in fulfillin g the needs. 3. By the teachings and practice of Preceptors (Gurus) or Saviors or religious l eaders. 4. Fostered or modified by social leaders, rulers of kingdom, and by law (govern ment). 1.3 ETHICS Ethics is the word that refers to morals, values, and beliefs of the individuals , family or the society. The word has several meanings. Basically it is an activity and process of inquir y. Secondly, it is different from non-moral problems, when dealing with issues and controversies. T hirdly, ethics refers to a particular set of beliefs, attitudes, and habits of individuals or family o r groups concerned with morals. Fourth, it is used to mean ‘morally correct’. The study on ethics helps to know the people’s beliefs, values, and morals, learn the good and bad of them, and practice them to maximize their well-being and happiness. It involv es the inquiry on the existing situations, form judgments and resolve the issues. In addition, ethics tells us how to live, to respond to issues, through the duties, rights, responsibilities, and obligations . In religion, similar principles are included, but the reasoning on procedures is limited. The princip les and practices of religions have varied from to time to time (history), region (geography, climati c conditions), religion, society, language, caste and creed. But ethics has grown to a large extent beyon d the barriers listed above. In ethics, the focus is to study and apply the principles and practices, universally. 1.4 INTEGRITY Integrity is defined as the unity of thought, word and deed (honesty) and open m indedness. It includes the capacity to communicate the factual information so that others can make well -informed decisions. It yields the person’s ‘peace of mind’, and hence adds strength and consistency in cha racter, decisions, and actions. This paves way to one’s success. It is one of the self-direction virt ues. It enthuse people not only to execute a job well but to achieve excellence in performance. It helps th em to own the responsibility and earn self-respect and recognition by doing the job. Moral integrity is defined as a virtue, which reflects a consistency of one’s atti tudes, emotions, and conduct in relation to justified moral values. Further discussion on this is available in Chapter 2. 1.5 WORK ETHICS1 Industry and Society are the two systems which interact with each other and are interdependent. Society requires industry/business system which provides manufacturing, distribution and

consumption activities. It needs investment (capital input), labor (input), supply (raw materials), prod uction (industries, business organizations), marketing and distribution (transport), and consumption (public, customer). A lot of transactions (and interactions) between these sub-systems involving people are n eeded for the welfare of the society. It is here, the work ethics plays an essential role. Work ethics is defined as a set of attitudes concerned with the value of work, w hich forms the motivational orientation. The ‘work ethics’ is aimed at ensuring the economy (get jo b, create wealth, earn salary), productivity (wealth, profit), safety (in workplace), health and h ygiene (working conditions), privacy (raise family), security (permanence against contractual, pension, and r etirement benefits), cultural and social development (leisure, hobby, and happiness), welfare (social work), environment (anti-pollution activities), and offer opportunities for all, according to their abilities, but without discrimination. 6 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values Many complex social problems exist in the industrial/business scenario, because: 1. The people desire to be recognized as individuals and treated with dignity, a s living human beings. Work is intrinsically valuable so far as it is enjoyable or meaningful i n allowing personal expression and self-fulfillment. Meaningful work is worth doing for the sense of personal identity and the self-esteem it holds. 2. Economic independence: Work is the major instrumental good in life. It is the main source of providing the income needed to avoid economic dependence on others, for obtai ning desired materials and services, and for achieving status and recognition from ot hers. 3. Pay as well as the pace of work should be in commensurate with the expertise required, acquired, and utilized in the persons. Exploitation and bargained pay should be discouraged. 4. Privacy (personal freedom) of the employee, including women, is to be protect ed. At the same time, confidentiality of the employer is also to be protected. Mutual trust and loyalty both ways play major roles in this aspect. 5. Security during job and upon retirement: This concept is being accepted only in government jobs, public limited companies, and corporate organizations. The western thought has influenced the Indian private industries and multinationals in a paradigm shift from ‘lifelong employment’ to policies such as ‘merit only’, ‘hire and fire’, ‘pay and use’ etc. This situation has no doubt created tension in the Indian scene. 6. Recognition to non-work activities, such as leisure, paid holiday on the day of visit of a dignitary, social service, and other developmental activities. The workers in pr osperous countries are less willing to consider ‘work’ as their prime interest in life. They claim that such service activities give them peace of mind and happiness. However, such a t

rend is likely to decline the work ethics. 7. Hard work and productivity are very essential for the success of an industry. The quality of work life deserves to be improved. Hard labor, undignified jobs (human-drawn rik shaw, people carrying night soil), and hazardous jobs are to be made less straining, d ignified, and safer. Automation and CNC systems to a large extent have been successful in less ening the human burden. Still, many a hard work can not be replaced by ‘virtual work’, in the near future. 8. Employee alienation: Absence of or inadequate ‘recognition and reward system’ and ‘grievance redressal system’, lack of transparency in policy implementation, factions in trad e unions etc. lead to ethical problems, affecting the work ethics. Participative manageme nt, quality circles, job rotation, and flexible working hours are some of the measures to co unter this situation. 9. A different view of work ethics: Work is considered as a necessary evil. It i s a thing one must do in order to avoid worse evils, such as dependency and poverty. That is a major source of anxiety and unhappiness. 10. As per the Protestant Work Ethics, the financial success is a sign that is f avored by God. It means making maximal profit is a duty mandated by God. It is to be obtained rati onally, diligently, and without compromising with other values such as spending time wit h one’s family and not exploiting or harming others1 Human Values 7 To work (job), is not for monetary considerations only. Human beings believe tha t it is good to work. Work is good for the body and mind. It promotes self-respect, self-esteem, good for the family, and obligation to the society and allow the world to prosper. Work lays a moral and meaningful foundation for life. That is why, work ethics affirm s that, the work per se is worthy, admirable and valuable at personal and social levels. It improves the quality of life and make s life purposeful, successful, and happy. By work ethics, duties to the self, family, society, and nation are fulfilled. R ights of the individuals are respected and nourished. Values and virtues are cultivated and enjoyed by al l human beings. Further, the quality of life is improved and the environment protected. On the other hand , unemployment and under-employment lead to frustration, social tensions, and occasional militancy. For a developing economy and society, like ours, we need to promote work ethics, at all levels, t o flourish as developed nation. 1.6 SERVICE LEARNING Service learning refers to learning the service policies, procedures, norms, and conditions, other than

‘the technical trade practices’. The service learning includes the characteristics o f the work, basic requirements, security of the job, and awareness of the procedures, while taking decisions and actions. It helps the individuals to interact ethically with colleagues, to effectively c oordinate with other departments, to interact cordially with suppliers as well as the customers, and to maintain all these friendly interactions. Alternatively, the service learning may be defined as the non-paid activity, in which service is provided on voluntary basis to the public (have-nots in the community), non-prof itable institutions, and charitable organizations. It is the service during learning. This includes t raining or study on real life problems and their possible solutions, during the formal learning, i.e., co urses of study. In the industrial scenario, adoption, study, and development of public health or welfar e or safety system of a village or school is an example of service learning by the employees. The engine ering student analyzing and executing a socially-relevant project is another example of service learning . The service learning is a methodology falling under the category of experiential education3. It is one of the forms of experiential learning and community service opportunities. I t is distinguished in the following ways: 1. Connection to curriculum: Integrating the learning into a service project is a key to successful service learning. Academic ties should be clear and built upon existing discipli nary skills. 2. Learner’s voice: Beyond being actively engaged in the project, trainees have th e opportunity to select, design, implement, and evaluate their service activity. 3. Reflection: Structured opportunities are created to think, talk, and write ab out the service experience. The balance of reflection and action allows the trainee to be consta ntly aware of the impact of their work. 4. Partners in the community: Partnership with community agencies are used to id entify genuine needs, provide mentorship, and contribute input such as labor and expertise towa rds completing the project. 8 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values 1.7 VIRTUES Virtues are positive and preferred values. Virtues are desirable attitudes or ch aracter traits, motives and emotions that enable us to be successful and to act in ways that develop our hig hest potential. They energize and enable us to pursue the ideals that we have adopted. Honesty, coura ge, compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, transparency, self-control, and prude nce are all examples of virtues. Virtues are tendencies which include, solving problems through peaceful and cons tructive means and follow the path of the golden mean between the extremes of ‘excess and deficie ncy’. They are like

habits, once acquired, they become characteristics of a person. Moreover, a pers on who has developed virtues will naturally act in ways consistent with moral principles. The virtuou s person is the ethical person. 1.7.1 Civic Virtues Civic virtues are the moral duties and rights, as a citizen of the village or th e country or an integral part of the society and environment. An individual may exhibit civic virtues by votin g, volunteering, and organizing welfare groups and meetings. The duties are: 1. To pay taxes to the local government and state, in time. 2. To keep the surroundings clean and green. 3. Not to pollute the water, land, and air by following hygiene and proper garba ge disposal. For example, not to burn wood, tyres, plastic materials, spit in the open, even not to smoke in the open, and not to cause nuisance to the public, are some of the civic (dut ies) virtues. 4. To follow the road safety rules. On the other hand, the rights are: 1. To vote the local or state government. 2. To contest in the elections to the local or state government. 3. To seek a public welfare facility such as a school, hospital or a community h all or transport or communication facility, for the residents. 4. To establish a green and safe environment, pollution free, corruption free, a nd to follow ethical principles. People are said to have the right to breathe in fresh air, b y not allowing smoking in public. 5. People have inalienable right to accept or reject a project in their area. On e has the right to seek legal remedy, in this respect, through public interest petition. George Washington4 embodied the civic virtues as indispensable for a self-govern ing administration. These virtues are divided into four categories: 1. Civic Knowledge Citizens must understand what the Constitution says about how the government is working, and what the government is supposed to do and what not to do. We must understand the basi s of our responsibilities as citizens, besides duties and rights. We must be able to recognize when the go vernment or another citizen infringes upon our rights. It implies that the government requires the p articipation of the enlightened citizens, to serve and survive. Human Values 9 2. Self-Restraint For citizens to live in a free society with limited government each citizen must be able to control or restrain himself; otherwise, we would need a police state—that is, a dictatorial g overnment to maintain safety and order. He advocated for morality and declared that happiness is achie ved and sustained through virtues and morals. He advocated and demonstrated self-restraint several times in his private and public life, and naturally he was a great leader. 3. Self-Assertion

Self-assertion means that citizens must be proud of their rights, and have the c ourage to stand up in public and defend their rights. Sometimes, a government may usurp the very right s that it was created to protect. In such cases, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish tha t government (e.g., voting rights, rights call back). 4. Self-Reliance Citizens who cannot provide for themselves will need a large government to take care of them. Once citizens become dependent on government for their basic needs, the people are no longer in a position to demand that government act within the confines of the Constitution. Self-reli ant citizens are free citizens in the sense that they are not dependent on others for their basic need s. They do not need a large provider-government, which has the potential to become an oppressive gover nment, to meet those needs. Only a strong self-reliant citizenry will be able to enjoy fully th e blessings of liberty. These civic virtues, applicable to local, state, and central governments, nouris h freedom and civil liberty at the root of democracy. 1.8 RESPECT FOR OTHERS This is a basic requirement for nurturing friendship, team work, and for the syn ergy it promotes and sustains. The principles enunciated in this regard are: 1. Recognize and accept the existence of other persons as human beings, because they have a right to live, just as you have. 2. Respect others’ ideas (decisions), words, and labor (actions). One need not acc ept or approve or award them, but shall listen to them first. One can correct or warn, if they commit mistakes. Some people may wait and watch as fun, if one falls, claiming that the y know others’ mistakes before and know that they will fall! Appreciate colleagues and su bordinates on their positive actions. Criticize constructively and encourage them. They are bound to improve their performance, by learning properly and by putting more efforts. 3. Show ‘goodwill’ on others. Love others. Allow others to grow. Basically, the good will reflects on the originator and multiplies itself on everybody. This will facilit ate collinearity, focus, coherence, and strength to achieve the goals. 1.9 LIVING PEACEFULLY To live peacefully, one should start install peace within (self). Charity begins at home. Then one can spread peace to family, organisation where one works, and then to the world, inc luding the environment. Only who are at peace can spread peace. You can not gift an article which you do not possess. The 10 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values essence of oriental philosophy is that one should not fight for peace. It is oxy moron. War or peace can be won only by peace, and not by wars ! One should adopt the following means to live peacefully, in the world: Nurture 1. Order in one’s life (self-regulation, discipline, and duty).

2. Pure thoughts in one’s soul (loving others, blessing others, friendly, and not criticizing or hurting others by thought, word or deed). 3. Creativity in one’s head (useful and constructive). 4. Beauty in one’s heart (love, service, happiness, and peace). Get 5. Good health/body (physical strength for service). Act 6. Help the needy with head, heart, and hands (charity). Service to the poor is considered holier than the service to God. 7. Not hurting and torturing others either physically, verbally, or mentally. The following are the factors that promote living, with internal and external pe ace: 1. Conducive environment (safe, ventilated, illuminated and comfortable). 2. Secured job and motivated with ‘recognition and reward’. 3. Absence of threat or tension by pressure due to limitations of money or time. 4. Absence of unnecessary interference or disturbance, except as guidelines. 5. Healthy labor relations and family situations. 6. Service to the needy (physically and mentally-challenged) with love and sympa thy. 1.10 CARING Caring is feeling for others. It is a process which exhibits the interest in, an d support for, the welfare of others with fairness, impartiality and justice in all activities, among the empl oyees, in the context of professional ethics. It includes showing respect to the feelings of others, and also respecting and preserving the interests of all others concerned. Caring is reflected in activities such as friendship, membership in social clubs and professional societies, and through various transactions in the family, fraternity, community, country and in international councils. In the present day context, caring for the environment (including the fauna and flora) has become a necessity for our very survival. If we do not care for the environment, the en vironment will scare us. 1.11 SHARING Primarily, caring influences ‘sharing’. Sharing is a process that describes the tran sfer of knowledge (teaching, learning, and information), experience (training), commodities (mater ial possession) and facilities with others. The transfer should be genuine, legal, positive, volunta ry, and without any expectation in return. However, the proprietary information it should not be sha red with outsiders. Through this process of sharing, experience, expertise, wisdom and other benefit s reach more people faster. Sharing is voluntary and it can not be driven by force, but motivated su ccessfully through ethical principles. In short, sharing is ‘charity’ Human Values 11 For the humanity, ‘sharing’ is a culture. The ‘happiness and wealth’ are multiplied and the ‘crimes and sufferings’ are reduced, by sharing. It paves the way for peace and obviates m ilitancy. Philosophically, the sharing maximizes the happiness for all the human beings. In terms of psycho logy, the fear, divide, and distrust between the ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’ disappear. Sharing not only paves the w ay to prosperity,

early and easily, and sustains it. Economically speaking, benefits are maximized as there is no wastage or loss, and everybody gets one’s needs fulfilled and satisfied. Commercially spea king, the profit is maximized. Technologically, the productivity and utilization are maximized by sh aring. In the industrial arena, code-sharing in airlines for bookings on air travels an d the common Effluent Treatment Plant constructed for small-scale industries in the industria l estates, are some of the examples of sharing. The co-operative societies for producers as well as consume rs are typical examples of sharing of the goods, profit and other social benefits. Here is an anecdote that illustrates the benefits of sharing, for the young mind s! The shouting...the screaming…the fighting. That was the breaking point for me as I poured out my woes to my mother. “How can I get them to share as well as we did as kids?”, I pl eaded. Laughter was her reply. “Well, thanks a lot, mom,” I said. “I’m sorry,” she chuckled, “but ou didn’t always share.” She went on to explain about the “Box of Misbehaved Toys.” Every t ime we fought over a toy, she would quietly take that and put it into the box. Yes, I did remember that box. I also remember it wasn’t always fair since one pers on may have caused all the commotion. But my mother was consistent. No matter what the reaso n for the struggle was, the toy disappeared into the box for one week. No questions asked, and no c hance of parole. My siblings and I soon learned that sharing a toy was better than losing it. Often, one person would decide to just wait for a time when no one else was playing with the toy, rather than f ight and lose it. It was not a perfect system, but I tried it anyway That box was a shock to my kids and it was close to full, within a few days…..As t he weeks progressed, I noticed the box was emptier and the arguing was less. Today, I hea rd quiet music to my ears as my son said to his sister, “That’s OK, you can play with it.” This story illustrates the worthy joy of sharing as compared to the pain of losi ng. 1.12 HONESTY Honesty is a virtue, and it is exhibited in two aspects namely, (a) Truthfulness and (b) Trustworthiness. Truthfulness is to face the responsibilities upon telling truth. One should keep one’s word or promise. By admitting one’s mistake committed (one needs courage to do that!), it is easy to fix them. Reliable engineering judgment, maintenance of truth, defending the truth, and co mmunicating the truth, only when it does ‘good’ to others, are some of the reflections of truthfulne ss. But trustworthiness is maintaining integrity and taking responsibility for personal performance. Peo ple abide by law and live by mutual trust. They play the right way to win, according to the laws or r ules (legally and morally). They build trust through reliability and authenticity. They admit thei r own mistakes and

confront unethical actions in others and take tough and principled stand, even i f unpopular. Honesty is mirrored in many ways. The common reflections are: (a) Beliefs (intellectual honesty). (b) Communication (writing and speech). 12 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values (c) Decisions (ideas, discretion). (d) Actions (means, timing, place, and the goals). and (e) Intended and unintended results achieved. As against this, some of the actions of an engineer that leads to dishonesty are : 1. Lying: Honesty implies avoidance of lying. An engineer may communicate wrong or distorted test results intentionally or otherwise. It is giving wrong information to the r ight people. 2. Deliberate deception: An engineer may judge or decide on matters one is not f amiliar or with insufficient data or proof, to impress upon the customers or employers. Thi s is a self deceit. 3. Withholding the information: It means hiding the facts during communication t o one’s superior or subordinate, intentionally or otherwise. 4. Not seeking the truth: Some engineers accept the information or data, without applying their mind and seeking the truth. 5. Not maintaining confidentiality: It is giving right information to wrong peop le. The engineers should keep information of their customers/clients or of their employers confide ntial and should not discuss them with others. 6. Giving professional judgment under the influence of extraneous factors such a s personal benefits and prejudice. The laws, experience, social welfare, and even conscienc e are given a go-bye by such actions. Certainly this is a higher-order crime. 1.13 COURAGE Courage is the tendency to accept and face risks and difficult tasks in rational ways. Self-confidence is the basic requirement to nurture courage. Courage is classified into three types, based on the types of risks, namely (a) Physical courage, (b) Social courage, and (c) Intellectual courage. In physical courage, the thrust is on the adequacy of the physical strength, including the muscle power and armaments. People with high adrenalin, may be prepared to face challenges for the mere ‘thrill’ or driven by a decision to ‘excel’. Th e social courage involves the decisions and actions to change the order, based on the con viction for or against certain social behaviors. This requires leadership abilities, including empathy and sacrifice, to mobilize and motivate the followers, for the social cause. The int ellectual courage is inculcated in people through acquired knowledge, experience, games, tactics, education, and training. In professional ethics, courage is applicable to the employers, em ployees, public, and the press.

Look before you leap. One should perform Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threat (SWOT) analysis. Calculate (estimate) the risks, compare with one’s strengths, and anticipate the end results, while taking decisions and before getting into action. Learning from th e past helps. Past experience (one’s own or borrowed!) and wisdom gained from self-study or others will prepare one to plan and act Human Values 13 with self-confidence, succeed in achieving the desired ethical goals through eth ical means. Opportunities and threat existing and likely to exist in future are also to be studied and mea sures to be planned. This anticipatory management will help any one to face the future with courage. Facing the criticism, owning responsibility, and accepting the mistakes or error s when committed and exposed are the expressions of courage. In fact, this sets their mind to be vigilant against the past mistakes, and creative in finding the alternate means to achieve the desired obj ectives. Prof. Sathish Dhawan, Chief of ISRO, was reported to have exhibited his courage and owned resp onsibility, when the previous space mission failed, but credited Prof. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam (now ou r revered President), when the subsequent mission succeeded. The courageous people own and have shown the following characteristics, in their professions: (a) Perseverance (sustained hard work), (b) Experimentation (preparedness to face the challenges, that is, unexpected or unintended results), (c) Involvement (attitude, clear and firm resolve to act), and (d) Commitment (willing to get into action and to reach the desired goals by any alternative but ethical means). 1.14 VALUING TIME Time is rare resource. Once it is spent, it is lost for ever. It can not be eith er stored or recovered. Hence, time is the most perishable and most valuable resource too. This resource is con tinuously spent, whether any decision or action is taken or not. The history of great reformers and innovators have stressed the importance of ti me and valuing time. The proverbs, ‘Time and tide wait for nobody’ and ‘Procrastination is the thief of time’ amply illustrate this point. An anecdote to highlight the ‘value of time’ is as follows: To realize the value of one year, ask the student who has failed in the examinations;. To realize the value of one month, ask the mother who has delivered a premature baby; to realize the value of one week, ask the editor of weekly; to realize the value of one day, ask the daily-wage laborer; to realize now the value of one ho ur, ask the lovers longing to meet; to realize the value of one minute, ask a person who has missed the train; to realize the value of one second, ask the person who has survived an accident; to realize the value one milli second, ask the person who has won the bronze medal in Olympics; to realize the value of one micro second,

ask the NASA team of scientists; to realize the value of one nano-second, ask a Hardware engineer!; If you have still not realized the value of time, wait; are you an Engineer? 1.15 COOPERATION It is a team-spirit present with every individual engaged in engineering. Co-ope ration is activity between two persons or sectors that aims at integration of operations (synergy), while n ot sacrificing the autonomy of either party. Further, working together ensures, coherence, i.e., blending of different skills required, towards common goals. Willingness to understand others, think and act together and putting this into p ractice, is cooperation. Cooperation promotes collinearity, coherence (blend), co-ordination (activities linked in sequence or 14 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values priority) and the synergy (maximizing the output, by reinforcement). The whole i s more than the sum of the individuals. It helps in minimizing the input resources (including time) and maximizes the outputs, which include quantity, quality, effectiveness, and efficiency. According to professional ethics, cooperation should exist or be developed, and maintained, at several levels; between the employers and employees, between the superiors and s ubordinates, among the colleagues, between the producers and the suppliers (spare parts), and betwe en the organisation and its customers. The codes of ethics of various professional societies insist on appropriate coop eration to nourish the industry. The absence of cooperation leads to lack of communication, misinfo rmation, void in communication, and undue delay between supply, production, marketing, and consum ption. This is likely to demoralize and frustrate the employees, leading to collapse of the ind ustry over time and an economic loss to the society. The impediments to successful cooperation are: 1. Clash of ego of individuals. 2. Lack of leadership and motivation. 3. Conflicts of interests, based on region, religion, language, and caste. 4. Ignorance and lack of interest. By careful planning, motivation, leadership, fostering and rewarding team work, professionalism and humanism beyond the ‘divides’, training on appreciation to different cultures, mutual understanding ‘cooperation’ can be develo ped and also sustained. 1.16 COMMITMENT Commitment means alignment to goals and adherence to ethical principles during t he activities. First of all, one must believe in one’s action performed and the expected end results (c onfidence). It means one should have the conviction without an iota of doubt that one will succeed. H olding sustained interest and firmness, in whatever ethical means one follows, with the fervent a ttitude and hope that one will achieve the goals, is commitment. It is the driving force to realize su ccess. This is a basic requirement for any profession. For example, a design engineer s hall exhibit a

sense of commitment, to make his product or project designed a beneficial contri bution to the society. Only when the teacher (Guru) is committed to his job, the students will succeed in life and contribute ‘good’ to the society. The commitment of top management will naturally lead to commi tted employees, whatever may be their position or emoluments. This is bound to add wealth to one self, one’s employer, society, and the nation at large. 1.17 EMPATHY Empathy is social radar. Sensing what others feel about, without their open talk , is the essence of empathy. Empathy begins with showing concern, and then obtaining and understandi ng the feelings of others, from others’ point of view. It is also defined as the ability to put one’s s elf into the psychological frame or reference or point of view of another, to know what the other person fe els. It includes the imaginative projection into other’s feelings and understanding of other’s background such as parentage, physical and mental state, economic situation, and association. This is an essen tial ingredient for good human relations and transactions. Human Values 15 To practice ‘Empathy’, a leader must have or develop in him, the following character istics5 1. Understanding others: It means sensing others feelings and perspectives, and taking active interest in their welfare. 2. Service orientation: It is anticipation, recognition and meeting the needs of the clients or customers. 3. Developing others: This means identification of their needs and bolstering th eir abilities. In developing others, the one should inculcate in him the ‘listening skill’ first. Communication = 22% reading and writing + 23% speaking + 55% listening One should get the feed back, acknowledge the strength and accomplishments, and then coach the individual, by informing about what was wrong, and giving correct feed back and positive expectation of the subject’s abilities and the resulting performance. 4. Leveraging diversity (opportunities through diverse people): This leads to en hanced organizational learning, flexibility, and profitability. 5. Political awareness: It is the ability to read political and social currents in an organization. The benefits of empathy include: 1. Good customer relations (in sales and service, in partnering). 2. Harmonious labor relations (in manufacturing). 3. Good vendor-producer relationship (in partnering.) Through the above three, w e can maximize the output and profit, as well as minimizing the loss. While dealing wi th customer complaints, empathy is very effective in realising the unbiased views of others and in admitting one’s own limitations and failures. According to Peter Drucker, purpose of the bus iness is not to make a sale, but to make and keep a customer. Empathy assists one in deve loping courage leading to success!

1.18 SELF-CONFIDENCE Certainty in one’s own capabilities, values, and goals, is self-confidence. These people are usually positive thinking, flexible and willing to change. They respect others so much a s they respect themselves. Self-confidence is positive attitude, wherein the individual has some positive a nd realistic view of himself, with respect to the situations in which one gets involved. The peopl e with self-confidence exhibit courage to get into action and unshakable faith in their abilities, what ever may be their positions. They are not influenced by threats or challenges and are prepared to face them a nd the natural or unexpected consequences. The self-confidence in a person develops a sense of partnership, respect, and ac countability, and this helps the organization to obtain maximum ideas, efforts, and guidelines fro m its employees. The people with self-confidence have the following characteristics: 1. A self-assured standing, 2. Willing to listen to learn from others and adopt (flexibility), 3. Frank to speak the truth, and 4. respect others’ efforts and give due credit. 16 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values On the contrary, some leaders expose others when failure occurs, and own the cre dit when success comes. The factors that shape self-confidence in a person are: 1. Heredity (attitudes of parents) and family environment (elders), 2. Friendship (influence of friends/colleagues), 3. Influence of superiors/role models, and 4. Training in the organization ( e.g., training by Technical Evangelists at Inf osys Technologies). The following methodologies are effective in developing self-confidence in a per son: 1. Encouraging SWOT analysis. By evaluating their strength and weakness, they ca n anticipate and be prepared to face the results. 2. Training to evaluate risks and face them (self-acceptance). 3. Self-talk . It is conditioning the mind for preparing the self to act, withou t any doubt on his capabilities. This make one accepts himself while still striving for improvement . 4. Study and group discussion, on the history of leaders and innovators (e.g., S am Walton of Wal-Mart, USA). 1.19 CHALLENGES IN THE WORK PLACE The biggest workplace challenge is said to be the employee’s work ethics: showing up to work every day (interest in work and attendance), showing up to work on time (punctuality), taking pride in the quality of their work, commitment to the job, and getting along with others. Thi s situation demands inculcation of good character in the workplace by employees. 1.19.1 Character It is a characteristic property that defines the behavior of an individual. It i s the pattern of virtues (morally-desirable features). Character includes attributes that determine a per son’s moral and ethical actions and responses. It is also the ground on which morals and values blossom.

People are divided into several categories, according to common tendencies such as ruthless, aggressiveness, and ambition, constricting selfishness, stinginess, or cheerfuln ess, generosity and goodwill. Individuals vary not only in the type of their character but also in t he degree. Those whose lives are determined and directed by the prevailing habits, fashions, beliefs, a ttitudes, opinions and values of the society in which they live have at best a developed social as oppo sed to an individual character. The character is exhibited through conduct. Character is determined by the expec tations of society. Many act and live within its norms, refusing to fall below the required social m inimum, failing to rise above the maximum expected of a normal member of the group. On one extreme are t hose that do not even conform to the minimum standards, and fail to acquire the socially-required behaviors, attitudes and values. These individuals have an unformed social character. At the other ex treme are those whose beliefs, attitudes and values are determined internally by the strength of their own convictions. These are individuals with developed minds and formed characters of their own. Individuals do not live or act in a vacuum. They exist and act in a human social environment of other people that constantly act on them and react to their actions. They also l ive in a natural environment of physical objects and material forces such as the winds and rains. And those w ith occult and spiritual Human Values 17 traditions recognize that there is also a subtle environment of other planes of existence, both higher planes of spiritual influence and lower planes of negative forces in universal n ature seeking to act on the lives. All of the social, material and the occult planes constitute the fiel d of human activity. Each of them functions according to its own laws or principles. Each of them has its own characteristic modes of action and influence on human life. Character is the expression of the personality of a human being, and that it rev eals itself in one’s conduct. In this sense every human has a character. At the same time only human beings, not animals have character: it implies rationality. But in addition to this usage, the term is also employed in a narrower sense, as when we speak of a person “of character”. In this connotation, ch aracter implies certain unity of qualities with a recognizable degree of constancy in mode of ac tion. Psychology analyzes the elements of character to trace the laws of its growth, to distingui sh the chief agencies which contribute to the formation of different types of character, and to classi fy them. Many psychologists world over, during the last 40 years have given a large quantity of acute observ ations on the topic of character. Still these contributions do not constitute a science. 1.19.2 The Four Temperaments5 The original endowment or native element in character with which the individual starts life is practically

identical with what the Ancients recognized as temperament. From the times of Hi ppocrates, they distinguished four main types of temperaments: the Sanguine, the Choleric, the P hlegmatic, and the Melancholic. The modern speculation accepts the same classification, but under o ther names. These different types of temperaments are accounted for differences in physiological c onditions of the tissues of the body, by diverse rates of activities in the processes of nutrition and wa ste, in the changes of nerve-energy, or in circulation, and by differences of tonicity in the nerves. I rrespective of the physiological explanation, the four-fold classification seems to be fair. Moreov er, though scientists are still far from agreeing upon the precise elements in the organism on which tempe rament depends, the fact that different forms of temperaments have an organic basis such as hormones seems certain. Although our original temperament is given to us independently of our will by he redity, we play an important part in moulding our character, and we thus become responsible for cer tain ethical qualities in it. Character has been defined as “natural temperament completely fashioned by the wil l”. It is, in fact, a resultant of our acquired habits with our original disposition. The regu lar use of the intellect, the controlled activity of the imagination, the practice of judgment and reflect ion, all contribute to the formation and refinement of habits of mind. The frequent indulgence in particula r forms of emotion, such as anger, envy, sympathy, melancholy, fear, and the like, fosters tendencie s towards these sentiments which give a subconscious bent to a large part of man’s behavior. But finally, the exercise of the will plays the predominant role in moulding the type of character. The manner and deg ree in which currents of thought and waves of emotion are initiated, guided, and controlled by the wil l, or allowed to follow the course of spontaneous impulse, has more effect in determining the resultant type of character than the quality of the thoughts or emotions themselves. The life of the animal is entirely ruled by instinct from within, and by acciden tal circumstances from without. It is therefore incapable of acquiring a character. A human, throu gh reasoning and the growth of reflection, by the exercise of choice against the impulse, gradually d evelops self-control; and it is by the exercise of this power that moral character is formed and refor med. Character is in fact 18 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values the outcome of a series of volitions, and it is for this reason we are responsib le for our characters, as we are for the individual habits which go to constitute them. 1.19.3 Types of Character From the four fundamental temperaments, various classifications of character hav e been adopted by different psychologists. The intellectual, the emotional, and the volitional or energetic are the chief types with A. Bain. M. Pérez, based on the phenomenon of movement, distinguishes c

haracters as lively, slow, ardent, and well-balanced. M. Ribot, with more subjective division and excluding indefinite types as ‘characterless’, recognizes the forms as: (a) the sensitive (humble, contemplative and emotional, (b) the active (great and the mediocre), and (c) the apathetic (purely apathetic or dull), and (d) the intelligent. 1.19.4 Ethics and Character Whilst psychology investigates the growth of different types of character, ethic s considers the relative value of such types and the virtues which constitute them. The problem of the tr ue moral ideal is a question of the relative value of different types of character. The effect on th e person’s character of a particular form of conduct is a universally accepted as a test of its moral qual ity. Different systems of ethics emphasize different virtues in constituting the ideal moral character. Wi th the utilitarian, who places the ethical end in the maximum happiness for the whole community, benevol ence will form the primary element in the ideal character. For the stoic, fortitude and self-contro l are the chief excellences. In all conceptions of ideal character, firmness of will, fortitude, constancy in adhering to principle or in pursuit of a noble aim are held important. A man of character is frequentl y equivalent to being capable of adhering to a fixed purpose. Another essential is the virtue of justi ce, the recognition of the rights, duties, and claims of others. The richer the culture of the mind, the la rger the intellectual horizon, the broader the sympathies, the more will the character approximate to the ideal of human perfection. 1.19.5 Education and Character The aim of education is not only the cultivation of the intellect but also the f ormation of moral character. Increased intelligence or physical skill may as easily be employed to the detriment or benefit of the community, if not accompanied by improved will. It is the function of eth ics to determine the ideals of human character. The theory and science of education are to study the processes by which that end may be attained. 1.19.6 Building Character in the Workplace Managers have to influence and employ creative means of stressing the importance of good character in the workplace, in the following ways6,7: 1. Employee Hiring, Training, and Promotion Activities (a) Institute and adopt an organization policy statement to positive character i n the workplace. For example, commitment to civility pledges. This may be communicated through pr inting on the back of the business cards of the employees. Human Values 19 (b) Prominently and explicitly include character considerations in recruiting pr ocedures, during interviews and in the hiring deliberations. (c) Emphasize the importance of character and adherence to the ‘six pillars’ of char acter in

orientation, initial job training, and during in-service training. The six pilla rs of character are the ethical values, such as: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairn ess, caring and citizenship. Respect means showing high regard for self, others, authority, prop erty and country. It includes showing appreciation for cultural diversity by valuing all people as human beings. Responsibility is (i) being accountable for one’s actions, (ii) being dependable in carrying out obligations and duties, (iii) being reliable and consistent in word and action, and (iv) being committed to community development. Integrity or fairness means showi ng the inner strength and courage to be truthful, trustworthy, fair and honest in all t hings. It includes acting justly and honorably. Caring means being kind, considerate, cour teous, helpful, friendly and generous to others, and being compassionate by treating ot hers as you would like to be treated. Citizenship means accepting and adopting civic rig hts and duties as a citizen of the country. (d) Include evaluation of fundamental character values such as honesty, promise keeping, accountability, fairness, and caring, in appraisals/reviews. (e) Institute recognition and reward system for the employees who exemplify the positive character. for example, awards and medals. (f) Think of your employees, especially the younger ones, as people whose person al and work values will be influenced by what you expect of them and how you treat them. (g) Think of your employees as present or future mentors, coaches, and volunteer s. 2. Internal Communication Use internal communication channels to create a friendly environment that praise s positive role modeling at the workplace and in the community by encouraging voluntarism, and mentoring, e.g., through (a) Internal newsletters, (b) Workplace posters in canteens and recreation rooms, (c) Mailers, and (d) Electronic mails. 3. External Communication In relations with customers, vendors and others, consciously communicate affirmi ng messages about character and ethics, such as (a) Advertise and market honoring consensual values (the six pillars), (b) Assure that none of your products and services undermines character building , (c) Include positive messages about voluntarism and celebrate, and (d) ‘Character counts’ week in advertising, billings and other mailers. 20 A Textbook on Professional Ethics and Human Values 4. Financial and Human Resources (a) Support local and national ‘character’ projects and the activities of the member s by encouraging staff members to get involved. Offer incentives such as paying employees for the time they contribute at a local youth-service organization. (b) Sponsor ‘character’ movement through financial support.

5. Community Outreach (a) Use public outreach structures to encourage mentoring and other character-bu ilding programs. (b) Encourage educational and youth organizations to become active in character building. (c) Use corporate influence to encourage business groups (chambers of commerce, conference boards, and Rotary clubs) and other companies to support ‘character’ building. 1.20 SPIRITUALITY Spirituality is a way of living that emphasizes the constant awareness and recog nition of the spiritual dimension (mind and its development) of nature and people, with a dynamic balanc e between the material development and the spiritual development. This is said to be the great virtue of Indian philosophy and for Indians. Sometimes, spirituality includes the faith or belief in supernatural power/ God, regarding the worldly events. It functions as a fertilizer for the soil ‘char acter’ to blossom into values and morals. Spirituality includes creativity, communication, recognition of the individual a s human being (as opposed to a life-less machine), respect to others, acceptance (stop finding fau lts with colleagues and accept them the way they are), vision (looking beyond the obvious and not believ ing anyone blindly), and partnership (not being too authoritative, and always sharing responsibility with others, for better returns). Spirituality is motivation as it encourages the colleagues to perform better. Re member, lack of motivation leads to isolation. Spirituality is also energy: Be energetic and fle xible to adapt to challenging and changing situations. Spirituality is flexibility as well. One should not be too dominating. Make space for everyone and learn to recognize and accept people the way they are. Va riety is the order of the day. But one can influence their mind to think and act together. Spirituality is also fun. Working is okay, but you also need to have fun in office to keep yourself charged up. Toler ance and empathy are the reflections of spirituality. Blue and saffron colors are said to be associat ed with spirituality. Creativity in spirituality means conscious efforts to see things differently, to break out of habits and outdated beliefs to find new ways of thinking, doing and being. Suppression of creativity leads to violence. People are naturally creative. When they are forced to crush their cre ativity, its energy turns to destructive release and actions. Creativity includes the use of color, humor and freedom to enhance productivity. Creativity is fun. When people enjoy what they do, it is involveme nt. They work much harder. 1.20.1 Spirituality in the Workplace Building spirituality in the workplace: Spirituality is promoted in the workplac e by adhering to the following activities: 1. Verbally respect the individuals as humans and recognize their values in all decisions and

actions. Human Values 21 2. Get to know the people with whom you work and know what is important to them. Know their goals, desires, and dreams too. 3. State your personal ethics and your beliefs clearly. 4. Support causes outside the business. 5. Encourage leaders to use value-based discretion in making decisions. 6. Demonstrate your own self-knowledge and spirituality in all your actions. 7. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. 1.20.2 Sprituality for Corporate Excellence8 The spiritual traits to be developed for excellence in corporate activities are listed as follows: 1. Self-awareness — Realization of self-potential. A human has immense capability but it needs to be developed. 2. Alertness in observation and quickness in decision making, i.e., spontaneity which includes quick reflexes, no delay but also no hasty decisions. 3. Being visionary and value based — This includes an attitude towards future of t he organization and the society, with clear objectives. 4. Holism — Whole system or comprehensive views and interconnected with different aspects. Holistic thinking, which means the welfare of the self, family, organization and the society including all other living beings and environment. 5. Compassion — Sympathy, empathy and concern for others. These are essential for not only building the team but also for its effective functioning. 6. Respect for diversity — It means search for unity in diversity i.e., respect ot hers and their views. 7. Moral Autonomy — It means action based on rational and moral judgment. One need not follow the crowd or majority i.e., band-wagon effect. 8. Creative thinking and constant reasoning — Think if we can do something new and if we can improve further? 9. Ability to analyze and synthesize — Refrain from doing something only tradition al. 10. Positive views of adversity — Make adversities one’s source of power—a typical Kar ma yogi’s outlook! Every threat is converted into opportunity. 11. Humility — The attitude to accept criticism (it requires courage!) and willing to correct. It includes modesty and acknowledging the work of colleagues. 12. Sense of vocation — Treat the duty as a service to society, besides your organ ization.

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