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# 2.

## Warm-Up #1 Labeled A to E below are five separate functions, provided in both

expanded equivalent and factored form.

## 1 For each function below, without using your

graphing calculator, match with the
appropriate graph on the right, and determine
each of the indicated graph characteristics.

Expanded form: 2 # 6 12 16
A
Factored form: 2 1 2 4

## Degree: _____ -intercept: _______ Max / min?: _______

-intercepts: ____________________

Expanded form: ( 6 # 9 4 12
B
Factored form: 2 1 3

## Degree: _____ -intercept: _______ Max / min?: _______

-intercepts: ____________________

% ( #
Expanded form: 8 16
C
%
Factored form: 4 2 4

## Degree: _____ -intercept: _______ Max / min?: _______

-intercepts: ____________________

Expanded form: 8 # 6 7 6
D
Factored form: 3 1 1 2

## Degree: _____ -intercept: _______ Max / min?: _______

-intercepts: ____________________

Expanded form: 2 ( 6 # 8 5 6
E
Factored form: 3 1 1 2

## Degree: _____ -intercept: _______ Max / min?: _______

-intercepts: ____________________

## 2 Functions B, D, and E each have a degree 2 factor, such as such as

2 for function B.
Analyze and explain the effect on the graph, when a factor is squared.

2.4 Further Analysis of Polynomial Function Graphs

Warm-Up #2 Below are the graphs of the basic linear, quadratic, cubic, quartic, and quintic functions.
2 7
1

R: R: R: R: R:

1 State the domain for each function and indicate the range (“ R:”) for each above.
Predict the range of the functions @ and A.

2 Describe the effect on the graph at the -intercept of , ; when the degree is even.

## The graph of where ∈ e follows a pattern based on whether is ODD or EVEN.

If is even, the graph will have a min point The graph will At 4 , 6, etc… the
at 0, 0 and therefore the range is [0 , ∞ . “bounce” at the bounce becomes
-intercept more U-shaped

If is odd, the graph has no max or min point and therefore the range is ∞, ∞ . Point of inflection
And the graph crosses the -axis at the -intercept. If is 3 or greater, we get this shape: 

Enrichment: A point of inflection occurs where a curve changes from concave down to concave up (or vice-versa).
Note that this terminology, however interesting, is not in the curriculum! Concave
Concave up
down
For example, the curves of #
and are concave down on the interval < 0 and concave up on > 0.
There is a point of inflection at 0. Also, note how at 5 (and 7, 9, etc) the graph is flatter at the inflection pt.

Warm-Up #3 The functions below all have the form 2 3 , , when 2, 3, 4, and 5.
1 2 7
1 1 1 1

## 1 Describe the shape of the graph of 2 3 , around the zero 3, when:

(a) 2 or 4 (b) 3 or 5

## 2 Sketch the graphs of 2 3 f and 2 3 g in your calculator. (You’ll have to make

your min and max very large!) Predict the effect on the graph at a zero associated with:
An even degree factor _________________ An odd degree ( : 3) factor _________________

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Effect of Factors on the Graph of a Polynomial Function

As we’ve previously seen, each -intercept (zero) on the graph of a polynomial
function relates to a factor in the equation. S

For example, consider the function Q on the right, which has an equation: 0, 12

Q 3 1 2
3, 0 1, 0
The zeros of Q are: 1, , and 2, 0
Notice that:
- Q is degree 4, meaning its graph could theoretically have at most 4 -intercepts.
However as one of the factors is degree 2, the graph has only 3 -intercepts.
Q 3 1 2

## - The leading coefficient of Q is 1 (positive), meaning the graph ends positive

3, 0 1, 0 2, 0
If we changed it to say 2, giving / 2 3 1 2
…the graph would end negative in quadrant IV, but the -intercepts would 0, 24
remain the same. (they are invariant to this vertical stretch & reflection)
T
Notice that the -intercept (as with all -coordinates) is multiplied by 2.
^
- If we changed the degree of the last factor from 2 to 3, the degree of the
function would now be odd. (That is, 5 instead of 4)
< #
3 1 2
3, 0 1, 0
2, 0
Graph has a “point of inflection” at the
-intercept provided by this factor 0, 24

## Consider a factor of a polynomial function + ,

;
We say that the factor repeats times, and the zero + has a multiplicity of .
As we saw on the previous page, the shape of the graph around a zero relates to its multiplicity.

Zero of
multiplicity 3
Zero of Multiplicity 4, 6, etc
multiplicity 2 (Similar to multiplicity Multiplicity 3, 5, etc
of 2, though “flatter”) (Similar to multiplicity
Zero of multiplicity 1 of 3, though “flatter”)
For example,
Note that the zeros of a function correspond Q 2 1 2 # has zeros at 1 and 2.
to the roots of the related equation. Its graph has -intercepts 1, 0 and 2, 0 .
2 1 2 # 0 has roots of 1 and 2.

2.4 Further Analysis of Polynomial Function Graphs

## Class Example 2.41 Zeros and Multiplicity – Determining an Function Equations

Each of the graphs below are given by a polynomial function with a leading coefficient of either 1 or 1, and
integer zeros. Determine an equation, in factored form and of minimum degree, for each function.
(a) Q
(b)

1, 12

0, 24 /

## Class Example 2.42 Analyzing Polynomial Functions

For each of the following polynomial functions, determine (without a graphing calculator, if possible) the:
i - The start and end behavior of the graph ii - The coordinates of the and -intercepts
Then, use your calculator to determine the:
iii - Coordinates of any absolute maximum / minimum points (rounded to the nearest hundredth if necessary) ,
and the range of the function.
Sketch each graph 

(a) Q 2 2 1 3

(b) Q 2 # 2

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

## The graph of the polynomial function Q , shown on

Worked
Example the right, has a -intercept of 0, 36 .
Determine a factored form equation for Q , of
minimum degree.
S

Solution: Q has two zeros, each of which corresponds to a factor. Check on your graphing calculator:
Always include “ ”, representing the vertical stretch Match the window to the
graph above.
S 1

## Zero of , graph Zero of 1, multiplicity is 1.

“bounces”, so multiplicity is 2.
Use any point on the graph, here we’re given 0, 36 , to solve for “+”.
Substitute = for and 1@ for . That is, for Q .
Graph, -int.,
1@ + = 2 = 3 matches
36 12+
1 S 1 1

Class Example 2.43 Bringing it all Together –Polynomial Function Equations from Graphs

Each of the graphs below are given by a polynomial function with integer zeros. For each, i – state the minimum
degree of the function, and ii - determine a factored form equation of minimum degree.
(a) (b)
S T
0, 12

0, 16

Page |137
2.4 Practice Questions
1. For each of the following polynomial functions, determine (without a graphing calculator, if possible) the:
i - The start and end behavior of the graph ii - The coordinates of the and -intercepts
Then, use your calculator to determine the:
iii - Coordinates of any absolute maximum / minimum points (rounded to the nearest hundredth if necessary)
iv - Domain and range of the function Sketch each graph 

(a) 2 4 1 1

(b) #
4 2 1

## (c) 4 # 16 Factor first – use an algebraic

approach to determine the zeros

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## 2. For the polynomial function Q 3 2 1 3 4 , without graphing, determine:

i - Degree of the function
ii Start and end behavior of the graph
iii Coordinates of the and -intercepts
- - Shape of the graph around each -intercept (crosses, “bounces”, or crosses with point of inflection)
iv
Then, use your calculator to determine the:
v - Coordinates of any maximum / minimum points (rounded to the nearest hundredth if necessary)
vi - Domain and range of the function
Sketch the graph 

## Practice Question Answers from Previous Page

1. (a) i - Graph starts negative in quadrant III and ends negative in quadrant IV.
ii - -intercepts at 4, 0 , 1, 0 and 1,0 , and -intercept at 0, 8
iii - Maximum point at approximately 3.15, 32.61
iv - Domain is 3 ∈ ℝ6, Range is 3 | 0 32.61, ∈ ℝ6

(b) i - Graph starts negative in quadrant III and ends positive in quadrant I.
ii - -intercepts at 4, 0 , 1, 0 and 2,0 , and -intercept at 0, 8
iii - Odd degree function (5), so no maximum or minimum point
iv - Domain is 3 ∈ ℝ6, Range is 3 ∈ ℝ6

(c) i - Graph starts positive in quadrant II and ends negative in quadrant IV.
ii - -intercepts at 0, 0 and 4,0 , and -intercept at 0, 0
iii - Odd degree function (3), so no maximum or minimum point
iv - Domain is 3 ∈ ℝ6, Range is 3 ∈ ℝ6

2.4 Further Analysis of Polynomial Function Graphs

## 3. The polynomial functions below have integer and -intercept values.

Determine an equation of minimum degree for each, in factored form. (Do not expand out)
^
(a) (b) 1, 32
0, 45

(c) (d)

3, 20

0, 24
B

## Practice Question Answers from Previous Page

2. i - Degree 4 0.64, 62.84
ii - Graph starts negative in quadrant III and ends negative in quadrant IV. 1
,0 0, 36
2
iii - -intercepts at 3, 0 , 1/2, 0 and 4/3,0 , and -intercept at 0, 36
3, 0 4/3, 0
iv - Graph “bounces” at 3, crosses at 1/2 and 4/3
v - Maximum point at approximately 0.64, 62.84
vi - Domain is 3 ∈ ℝ6, Range is 3 | 0 62.84 ∈ ℝ6

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

4. The graph on the right is of a function with integral intercepts and with an
equation that can be written in the form
/ + ( C # b k /.
Determine the values of + and /. 1, 32

5. For each of the polynomial function graphs below, assume the minimum degree to determine:
i The degree of the function ii The sign of the leading coefficient (pos or neg)
iii The values of and , if each function has an equation form: 1
(a) (b)

## 6. A student wrote some observations about the graph of the polynomial

 Exam
Style function Q + 2 l C # , where + < 0, C > 0, and ∈ ℕ.

1 If is even, the graph extends down into quadrant 3 and down into quadrant 4.
2 Q has exactly two -intercepts.
3 If is odd, the -intercept is negative.
4 If is odd, the graph will have a maximum value.
5 If is even, the graph will be below the -axis immediately to the left and right of the -intercept 2, 0 .
6 If is even, the graph will have a range 3 0 n, ∈ ℝ6, where n is the max
value of the function.

NR The student was correct with observations numbered ____, ____, and ____.

## Practice Question Answers from previous page

3. (a) / 3 5 1 3 (b) < 2 3 2 (c) * 2 #
1 3
(d) 4 2 2 #

2.4 Further Analysis of Polynomial Function Graphs

7. The graph of a polynomial function shown below has integer value and intercepts.
 Exam
Style
An equation for the function of minimum degree has the form
1 o
Q b k
+

## The values of + and C are, respectively, ____, and ____.

8. The function Q above in question 7 has a range of ∞, 5.65]. A new function is defined by
< / 0.5 3. Determine the range and -intercepts of the graph of < :

Range: -intercepts:

9. For each polynomial function described below, determine the (i) minimum possible degree and
(ii) sign (pos. or neg.) of the leading coefficient.

Function #1, * , has the following Function #2, / , has a graph with the following
characteristics characteristics

##  A factor 4 has a multiplicity of 3  One positive -intercept at 5, 0 , which is from

 P 0 64 a factor of multiplicity of 2.
 Two negative -intercepts, from factors of
 A maximum value of 66
unknown multiplicity.
 P 0 225  The range / is 3 ∈ ℝ6

## Min degree: Min degree:

coefficient: coefficient:

## Practice Question Answers from previous page

4. + 2, / 144 5. (a) i 4 ii Negative iii 1, 3 (b) i 5 ii Positive iii 3, 2
6. 245

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

10. For each of the polynomial functions described below, provide the sketch of a possible graph.
(a) / is a third-degree polynomial function
with one real zero of multiplicity 2 and with (a)

(b)
(b) * is a fourth-degree polynomial function
with one real zero of multiplicity 3 and with

## (c) < is a fifth-degree polynomial function (c)

with one real zero of multiplicity 3 and with

## 11. The graph of a polynomial function / is shown on the right. T

 Exam An equation for / can be written in the form: 18
Style 0,
2 o 5
/ 1 q
5 1,0
NR The value of in the equation of / is ____.

## Practice Question Answers from the previous page

7. 32 8. Range: [ 2.65, ∞ -intercepts: 4, 0 , 2, 0 , and 6, 0 .
9. Function 1: i 4 ii negative Function 2: i 5 ii positive

2.4 Further Analysis of Polynomial Function Graphs

## A polynomial function * has the following characteristics:

 The graph has -intercepts at 2, 0 and 3, 0
 The graph passes through the point 4, 144
 The function has an equation * + ( C # b 432

A. 3
 Exam
Style
B. 4
C. 3
D. 4

## 13. The graph of polynomial function / , shown on the T

 Exam
Style right, has a factor of 2 .
The expanded form equation is:
2 1
T = 2 2 , ∈e
NR When the function is written T , +, ∈e
the value of + is ____.

10. (a) Your graph should start pos. in quad II and end neg. in quad IV, with two -ints, one that “bounces”
(b) Graph should start neg in quad III and end neg in IV, with two -ints, one that’s a point of inflection 
(c) Graph should start neg in quad III and end pos in I, with either two (if one bounces) or three
-ints, one that’s a point of inflection.
11. 3

12. B 13. 4