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# 2.

## Warm-Up #1 Each of the polynomial functions below is written

in both expanded and factored form.
Expanded Form Factored Form
/ 6 12 / 6 2
< 2 8 < 2 4
* # 7 6 * 3 1 2

## 1 State the zeros (values of for which the function equals

zero) beside the factored form of each function above.

## 2 State the relationship between the factored form of a

polynomial equation, and the zeros / -intercepts of its graph.

3 Convert the following 2nd degree polynomial functions to factored form, to determine the zeros / -intercepts
of the graphs: (a) < 6 (b) / 2 7 4

## 4 Suppose we wish to factor a 3rd degree function * # 6 11 6.

We are told an equivalent; partially factored form is: * 1 5 6
Determine the fully factored form of * ,
and state the zeros of the function.

The zero of a function is the value of for which the function equals zero.
This is represented graphically by the -intercepts. The zeros of /
are 1, and 2
So if a function / has zeros of 3, 1 and 4, then the
graph will have -intercepts at 3, 0 , 1, 0 and 4, 0 .
The zeros of a The -intercepts
function Correspond to on the graph
/
When a polynomial function is in factored form, the zeros of the function can be easily identified.
For example, our function here is / 2 3 1 4 . Math30-1power.com

Zeros are: 1 2

## Bringing it all together…..

A useful tool in determining characteristics of polynomial functions (in this case, zeros) – is factoring.
In prior courses we factored a lot of second degree (quadratic) polynomial functions, such as < 6
and / 2 7 4
So, what we now need is a method to factor 3rd (or higher) degree polynomials, so that we can algebraically
determine the zeros of a function such as * # 6 11 6.
And this method involves dividing polynomials, which is what we’ll look at in this section.

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

Dividing Polynomials

## A method we can use to fully factor a polynomial is to divide a known factor.

For example, if we wish to factor the number 35, we can divide one of its factors, 7. 35 M 7 = 5

## So the factors of 35 are 5 and 7

Similarly, if we wish to factor the polynomial 4 6 # 10
4 6 # 10 , we can divide one of its factors, 2 . = 2x 3 + 3x – 5
2
So the factors of 4x 5 + 6x 3 - 10x 2 are 2x 2 and 2x 3 + 3x – 5

## Warm-Up #2 Consider the following two long-division calculations:

23 (b)
x2 - 4 x - 1
(a) 15 348 2 #
2 9 18
30 x3 + 2 x2
48 - 4 x2 - 9 x
45 - 4 x2 - 8 x
3 - x + 18
-x -2
1 For each calculation above, identify the divisor,
dividend, quotient, and remainder
20

## 2 Study the steps for the calculation of (b), shown below.

1
Step 1 Divide the first term in the dividend, , by the first term in the
x2 divisor, . Indicate the result as the first term of the quotient.
2 # 2 9 18
Step 2 Multiply the result from step 1, , through the divisor, .
x3 + 2 x2 1
Step 3 Subtract the result from step 2, , from the first two terms in the
- 4 x2 dividend, 1
.
Continued...
x2 - 4 x Step 4 “Bring down” the next term in the dividend, D
2 # 2 9 18 Step 5 Repeat step 1 - divide the first term of the resulting line from step 4,
x 3 + 2x 2 2 , by the first term in the divisor. Indicate the result as the second
term of the quotient.
- 4 x2 - 9 x
- 4 x2 - 8 x Step 6 Repeat step 2 … multiply the result from the previous step, “ 4 ”,
through the divisor, .
-x Steps 7, 8, 9… Repeat step 3 … then bring down the last term (18), then
repeat steps 1, 2, and 3 again! (Full solution is above)

1 2 5 6
1 7 @ M

Remainder
Quotient
Divisor

## Solution (using an alternate

method) is on the next page

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Recall on the last page we saw that 348 M 15 equaled 1 , remainder 1.

Remainder
This result can be 1 R form or… 348 1 × 15 1
348 M 15 1 Divisor Q+
shown two ways: 15 D
Quotient Q ×D R form

## And we saw that # 2 9 18 M 2 came to 2 , remainder 20.

Polynomial Divisor Quotient Remainder
#
2 9 18 20 P R form
This can similarly be 4 1 = Q+
shown two ways: 2 2 D D
# 2 9 18 4 1 2 20 P = Q ×D R form

Synthetic Division
On the previous page we saw a method of long division for polynomials, which is somewhat cumbersome.
Luckily, there’s a shorter method that makes use of just the coefficients. Let’s look at how synthetic division can
be used for the problem we faced on the bottom of the previous page: 1
7 @ M
#
Coefficients of polynomial, 1 7 @
Step 1 List the coefficients /
constants only as here: 1 1 2 5 6

## Constant term of divisor

1 / opposite sign
Step 3 Then, multiply the “1” you just brought
down by the divisor, “-1”, put result here
Step 2 Bring the first coefficient, 1 1 2 5 6
“1”, down -1 Step 4 ADD the next coeff., “-2”, with the number
brought down in the previous step, -1
1 -3
Step 5 Repeat step 3, result from previous step,
mult “-3” by the divisor, “-1”
1 1 2 5 6 Step 6 Repeat step 4, add the -5 and 3
-1 3 2 Step 7 Repeat step 3, mult the -2 and -1
1 -3 -2 8 Step 8 Repeat step 4, add the 6 and 2
Our result
fromisthe
thebottom
bottomline:
line: 1 -3 -2 8 To read the quotient, start at 2, the constant term, and
move left, increasing the degree of by one for each term
Quotient Remainder
? R form
Result: 1 , remainder 8, which can be written: 1 Q+
D

## Use both long division and synthetic division to find 2 # 3 5 10 M 3

O
N and Q N × P O.
P

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

## Class Example 2.22 Dividing Polynomials

Use synthetic division to find 1 @ = M , expressing your answer in the form Q N×P O.

long division.
Hint: As there is no term, indicate
with a “0” in your first step / setup.

##  EXTENSION: Synthetic Division where the Divisor is in the Form

Suppose we wish to find the result of: 2 # 3 17 12 M 2 1 . (The divisor has a coefficient ≠ 1)
If we’re using long division – this is no sweat! There is no change to our procedure. So that’s always an option for
this type of problem. But if we wish to use Synthetic Division, we do need to be mindful in our approach.

Worked Use synthetic division to find the result for 2 # 3 17 12 M 2 1 . Express your
Example answer in the form Q N × P O.
1 1
Solution: First note that 2 1 2 So our first step is to divide by
2 2
1
2 3 17 12
2
-1 -1 9
2 2 - 18 21
1 Now, this isn’t the nicest form! So we tweak things a bit by
So we have: Q 2 2 18 21
2 first factoring out a “2” from the quotient.

1 1
2 9 21 And then multiplying that “2” through the other factor,
2 2

2 12
9 21
2

D P = Q ×D R form

Class Example 2.23 Synthetic Division – when the Divisor Zero is a Fraction

## Use synthetic division divide:

9 # 18 2 M 3 1 .
Q N × P O.

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Worked One of the factors of Q # 3 4 12 is 2. Find the remaining factors by

Example dividing Q M 2 . Then, state the zeros of the function.

## Solution: We want to find # 3 4 12 M 2 … use synthetic division.

2 1 3 4 12 2 1 3 4 12
2 - 2 - 12
1 -1 -6 0 Quotient is @,
with no remainder
So, Q 6 2 P = Q ×D R form (remainder is 0, which is
essential!)
Factor the quotient to get S 1
The ZEROS of the function are: , and 1

## (a) Find the remaining factors by dividing Q M 3 .

(Use synthetic division, express in the form Q N×P O,
1, =

## (b) Use your result from (a) to

state the zeros of Q .

## (c) Label the coordinates of the -intercepts

on the graph of Q above.

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

## The Remainder Theorem

Sometimes it is useful to know the remainder in polynomial division, without having to do the entire division.
Lucky for us – we can find just that using the remainder theorem.

## The remainder theorem states

The remainder theoremthat whenthat
states a polynomial, Q , is divided
when a polynomial, Q , isbydivided
a binomial
in the form the remainder
by a binomial in the form
+, is S +, the remainder is S .
.

Worked Use the remainder theorem to determine the remainder in each division:
Example (a) T 2 1
A @ (b) S 1 1 2 7 is
is divided by 2. divided by 2 1.
Sol.: (a) Remainder is T 1 1
(b) Zero of the divisor is , so find Q
(evaluate / at the zero of the divisor, 2) 2 2
#
1 1 1 1
/ ( #
7 6 Q 3 4 5 2
2 2 2 2
16 8 28 2 6 3 5 7 25
8
1
2
2
?
Remainder is - 8
The remainder is - 12

## Class Example 2.25 Finding Remainders using the Remainder Theorem

Use the remainder theorem to determine the remainder for each division:
(a) S 2 7 1 2 is (b) S 2 1 7 2 is divided
divided by . by 2 .

## Worked Example When Q # 2 + 8 is divided by 3, the remainder is 5.

Use the remainder theorem to determine the value of +.
Solution: The remainder is given as 5. However the remainder can also be found by evaluating Q 3 .
# … equals what we were given as the remainder
3 2 3 + 3 8 5

The remainder, Q 3 27 18 3+ 8 5 3+ 12 2

## When S 1 @ 2? is divided by , the remainder is 60. Use the remainder theorem

to determine the value of +.

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Worked A polynomial function / , shown on the right, is degree 3, T

Example has a leading coefficient of 1, and has integral zeros.
(a) Given the corresponding points on the graph, state
the remainder when / is divided by:
i 3 ii 1
, ?
(b) Determine the factored form equation for / .

## Solution: (a) We know that when / is divided by + , the remainder is / + .

So when / is divided by 3 , the remainder is / 3 . Which is the -coord on the graph at 3.
 i – The remainder when divided by 3 is = ii – The remainder when divided by 1 is ?

(b) Each zero ( -intercept) on the graph of / corresponds to a factor in the equation.
So as we are given the leading coefficient is 1, we know the factored form equation is:
T 1 As there are zeros at 3, 1, and 2

Class Example 2.27 Relating the Graph with Remainders and Factors

## A polynomial function Q , shown on the right, is degree 3,

has a leading coefficient of 1, and has integral zeros. Q

## (a) Given the corresponding points on the graph, state

the remainder when Q is divided by: 2,
i 2

ii 4

## (b) State the factored form equation for Q .

2.2 Practice Questions
Q O
1. Determine each quotient, N, using long division. Express in the form N .
+ P

(a) # 4 4 16 M 1 (b) 2 ( 3 1 M 2

(c) 2 #
9 2 24 M 3 (d) 12 #
5 M 4 3

(e) 25 5 M 5 1 (f) 8 # 27 M 2 3

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

2. Determine each quotient, N, using synthetic division. Express in the form S U×V W.

(a) # 2 9 18 M 1 (b) 8 #
2 15 M 2

(c) 3 ( 5 # 2 M 1 (d) 3 # 3 M 2

(e) 2 # 7 6 M 2 1 (f) 8 # 27 M 2 3

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

15 #
21 9
1. (a) 5 1 (b) 2 4 5 10 (c) 2 3 11
1 2 3
3 4
(d) 3 1 (e) 5 1 (f) 4 6 9 no remainder
4 3 5 1

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

## 3. A stainless steel holding tank is built in the shape of a rectangular prism.

The height of the tank is 7 feet, as shown, and the volume of the
tank is E 1 1 1 =.
The area of the base can be found by dividing the volume by the height.
(a) Determine an expression for (b) By factoring the expression developed in
the area of the base. (a), determine the factored-form of the 5
expression representing the volume.

Z
Y

## 4. A rectangular prism has a volume which can be expressed:

X D 1 1 7 . ℎ
Determine the possible measures for Y and ℎ, in terms of , if the length
is 3 1 as shown.
Z 3 1
Y

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

2. (a) # 2 9 18 = ? (b) Q 2 1
2 7= 7
Quotient Divisor Remainder Quotient Divisor R
(c) 3 ( # 1 (d) 3 # 3
5 2 1 1 7 1 @ 7

(e) 2 # 7 6 1 D (f) 8 # 27 2 @ D 1

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

5. Use the remainder theorem to find the remainder for each division below:
(a) #
3 4 M 2 (b) (
2 #
7 8 12 M 3

## (c) 2 ( # 13 21 9 M 2 (d) 8 # 125 M 2 5

(e) 2 #
2 1 M 2 1 (f) 9 #
3 6 1 M 3 1

6. When Q #
+ 8 is divided by 1, the remainder is 16. Use the remainder theorem to
determine the value of +.

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

3. (a) base 2 3 2 (b) K 7 4. K 1 3 1 [ 1 ,

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

## 7. When Q 16 # 1 is divided by 4 1, the remainder is 0. Use the remainder theorem to

determine the value of .

## 8. When Q # + 6 is divided by 1, the remainder is 2. When Q is divided by 3

the remainder is 66. Determine the values of + and . Need a hint? See the bottom of the next page.

9. When S 2
2 is divided by 2, the remainder is 34. When Q is divided by 1
the remainder is 2. Determine the values of + and .

## 5. (a) @ (b) @= (c) 7 (d) = (e) 1/ (f) 1

6. + 6

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## 10. One of the factors of a function S 1 7 2 is 4. S

(a) Use synthetic division to determine the
quotient when Q is divided by 4.

## (b) Factor the quadratic quotient obtained in

(a), to state the fully factored form of Q .

## (c) Each factor relates to an -intercept. Label

the coordinates of the three -intercepts on
the graph of Q on the right.

## 11. A polynomial function / , shown on the right, is degree 3,

has a leading coefficient of 1, and has integral zeros. T
(a) Given the corresponding points on the graph, state
=, 2
the remainder when / is divided by:
i ii 4
2, =
,= 1, =

7. 16

## 8. HINT: The solution involves setting up  1 # + 1 1 6 2  3 # + 3 3 6 66

and solving a system of two equations. + 3 9+ 3 33
Solve by substitution:  + 3  substitute “3 “ for “+” in equation : 9 1 3 33
Solve  for “+” 27 12 33
 + 3 7 7
Now substitute into  to find “+”
9. + 1,

2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem

 Exam
Style

#
 Exam
Style
A. 7 6
B. # 4 6
C. #
3 4 12
#
D. 4 4

## 14. When the function * #

4 3 18 is divided by 2 1, the remainder is:
147
 Exam
Style
A.
8

B. 16

125
C.
8

D. 12

10. (a) Quotient: @ (remainder 0) (b) S 2 1
(c) Label coords: 2, = , 1, = , and ,=
(b) S 2 1
11. (a) i The -coord at 0 is 2 ii The -coord at 4 is 0
 Remainder is 2  Remainder is =
Zero at 4 …and 2 …and 3