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# 2.

## The graph of Q # 2 11 12 is shown on Q

the right. The graph has integer -intercepts.

## The factored form of Q is

Q +% + +# ;
where +% , + , and +# are zeros of the function.

## 1 State the factored form of Q . Explain how the

graph can be used to determine the factored form.

2 Find 3 remainders; for when Q is divided by each of its three factors as stated above.

3 State the relationship between the factors of a polynomial expression, the zeros of the corresponding
polynomial function, and the remainder theorem.

Recall that the remainder theorem states that when a polynomial, Q , is divided by a binomial in the form
+, the remainder is S .

The remainder
The factor
theorem statesstates
theorem that when
that a polynomial,
+ is a factorQof a,polynomial
is divided by a binomial
function
in the form
Q , if+,Sthe remainder
=. (Thatisis,
S if dividing
. by a factor gives no remainder)

Worked Use the factor theorem to show that the polynomial function
Example Q #
5 3 9 has factors of 3 and 1 .

Solution: The factor theorem states that if + is a factor of Q , then Q + 0. (That is, there is no remainder)

##  Test 3 … is it a factor?  Test 1 … is it a factor? Note: Here’s the graph of

Q . The -intercepts are
( + 3) is a factor if Q( 3) = 0 ( 1) is a factor if Q(1) = 0
3, 0 and 1, 0 .
# #
Q 3 3 5 3 3 3 9 Q 1 1 5 1 3 1 9
27 45 9 9 1 5 3 9
= No remainder … 1 is a factor = No remainder … is a factor

Class Example 2.31 Using the Factor Theorem to test given Binomials

## A polynomial function is given as S 1 2

2 1
D ? . Use the factor theorem to show that:
(a) 1 is a factor of Q (b) 3 2 is a factor of Q (c) 1 is a NOT a factor

2.3 The Factor Theorem

## The binomial is a factor of S 1 1

?. Determine the value of .

## Let’s take stock of what we’ve seen so far: S

 When a polynomial is in factored form, it’s zeros (that is, the -intercepts
of its graph) are easily discernible.
- For example, the function Q #
3 4 12 is shown 
- Written in factored form, it’s: Q 2 2 3

##  One method we can use to factor a polynomial involves dividing it by a ,= 1, =

known factor, to obtain other factors.
- For example, suppose we know that the function Q # 7 6
has a zero at 3. That means one of the factors is 3 …
And the other factor(s) can be found by finding # 7 6 M 3

3 1 0 7 6
3 9 6 Remainder

## 1 3 2 0 The other factor is 3 2, which we can now factor.

 The remainder theorem allows us to find the remainder from the division of polynomials, without
actually dividing. The remainder of Q M + is Q + .

 The factor theorem states that + is a factor of Q if Q + 0. (That is, if dividing gives no
remainder, as we saw in the synthetic division above)
Consider what happens when a number is divided by one of its factors. The question now is – how
For example, the factors of 35 are 7 and 5.  35 M 7 is 5, with no remainder. do we find that first factor?
 35 M 5 is 7, with no remainder.

## The remainder theorem

The integral states
zero that when
theorem a polynomial,
identifies Q , is
the relationship divided the
between by afactors
binomial
of ainpolynomial
the form +,
the remainder is Sconstant
and the . term of the polynomial.
It states that if + is a factor of Q , then + is a factor of the constant term of Q .

## For example, consider the polynomial # 7 6.

The integral zero theorem asserts that But we know that 4 will not be a factor, as “4” is not a
3 could be a factor. factor of the constant term of the polynomial, “6”
Spoiler alert – it isn’t – but 3 is!
Think – if 4 4
was a factor…
… there’s no way these would multiply to 6

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Given the polynomial function S 1

7 2,
Worked
Example (a) Use an algebraic process to fully factor S . Verify graphically.
(b) State the zeros of S .
(a) Step 1 Potential zeros: ]4, ]2, ]1 By Integral Zero Theorem, any zero must be a factor of 4. (There are six
potential zeros, the positive and negative of the factors of 4)
Step 2 Test ( x – 1): Q 2 # 5 11 4  18 Not 0 …. so, ( x – 1) is not a factor!

Test ( x + 1 ): Q 2 # 5 11 4  = So ( x + 1 ) IS a factor!
Find the first factor through “guess and test”. Use factor theorem to test each potential zero.
Remember: If Q + 0 (that is, if division gives no remainder), then + is a factor.
3
Step 3 Divide (2x + 7x2– 5x – 4) –: ( x + 1) :
Divide Q by the found
factor from step 2
Result: 2x2– 7x – 4

## The remaining factors are given by the quotient

Step 4 P(x) = (x + 1)(2x2– 7x – 4) Express your division result in the form S U×V W.

Step 5 P(x) = (x+ 1)(2x + 1)(x – 4) Factor the quadratic quotient – and we’re done!
Each factor Q 1 2 1 4
(b) Zeros of P(x) are X = – 1, – 1/2, and 4 corresponds to a zero:
1 0 2 1 0 4 0

Class Example 2.33 Applying Factor and Integral Zero Theorems to Fully Factor

## For the polynomial function S 1

= ?,
(a) Use the steps outlined above
to fully factor Q .

## (c) The graph of Q is below. Use

the results above to label the
coordinates of the -intercepts.

## (d) State the roots of the equation

of 1 = ? =.

2.3 The Factor Theorem

Let’s see how we can use our calculator to see the zeros of S 1 = ?
from class example 3.32, and how those zeros can in fact reveal the factored form!
2 – Adjust window through trial-and-error 4 – Find each zero
separately Right
Goal is to find a compact
Left Bound
window that shows:
Bound
1 – Graph the Function - All x-intercepts
- Any max / min points
For “guess”, also
hit enter
Math30-1power.com
3 – Use the ZERO function
to find the x-intercepts Gives factor
Alternatively you can (x+1)
graph y = 0 and find the
Gives factor Zero at x=4,
intersection.
(x+2) gives factor (x-4)
As each zero corresponds to a factor, we
have: S 2

As you may have noticed, your graphing calculator is like an answer key for these sort of factoring questions!
(Given the graph of a polynomial function, each zero corresponds to a factor, so remember to check your work!)

## For the polynomial function T 1

1 =:
(a) Use the steps outlined on the
previous page to fully factor Q .

## (c) State the exact roots of the equation

1
1 = =.

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

## For the polynomial function B 1 2 1 1 :

(a) Use the steps previously outlined to
fully factor Q .
Hint: As its degree 4, steps 1
through 3 must be performed twice!

## For the polynomial function S 7

1 2
@ 1
= , one of the zeros is 1.
It can be algebraically determined that the largest zero can be written in the form + . Determine the values
of + and , respectively.

2.3 Practice Questions

1. State a possible factored form equation for each function described below, where each is a degree 3
polynomial function with all zeros listed.
(a) Q 2 0, Q 1 0, and Q 5 0

## (c) < 4 0, < 5/2 0, and < 0 0

2. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 1 is a factor of each of the following polynomial functions:
(a) # 9 15 25

(b) ( # 8 8

(c) 3 #
2 5 4

(d) 3 (
5 #
12 12 16

(e) # 3 3 1

3. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 3 is a factor of each of the following polynomial functions:

(a) Q # 6

(b) / # 19 30

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

4. For each of the polynomial expressions below, use an algebraic process described on the previous pages to
fully factor.
(a) # 3 4 12 (b) #
4 11 6

(c) # 27 10 (d) 3 # 2 7 2

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

1. (a) S 7 (b) B 1 (c) ^ 7 2
2. (a) 1 is a factor if # 9 15 25 M 1 gives no remainder.
Evaluate 1 # 9 1 15 1 25 …. which is 0. As such, we have shown that YES, 1 is a factor!
Use a similar process for the (b), (c), (d), and (e), substitute “1” to see if you get no remainder (that is, ZERO).
(b) No (c) Yes (d) No (e) Yes
3. (a) Evaluate Q 3 to get 3 #
3 6 3 , which is 18 (NOT “0”), so 3 is NOT a factor.
(b) Evaluate / 3 to get 3 #
19 3 30, which IS “0”, so 3 IS a factor.

2.3 The Factor Theorem

5. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 3 2 is a factor of each of the following polynomial
functions:
(a) / 3 # 7 4 (b) * 3 ( 4 # 9 18 8

6. Use an algebraic process described on the previous pages to solve each of the following equations. Verify
(a) 4 #
11 6 0 (b) ( #
9 10 0

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

4. (a) 2 2 3 (b) * 1 6 (c) 5 5 2
(d) 3 1 2 1

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

7. (i) Fully factor each function below, using an algebraic process. Then, (ii) state the zeros of each function, as
exact values (simplified radical form) where necessary. Finally, (iii) label the coordinates of the -intercepts
on the graph to the right.
(a) Q ( 7 6

(b) / 2 (
11 #
11 24 36

(c) * ( 8 # 9 28 30

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

5. (a) Yes – show that / 2⁄3 is equal to 0. 3 2⁄3 7 2⁄3 #
4  3 8⁄27 7 4⁄9 4 0 
(b) No – use a similar process to above to show that * 2⁄3 is NOT equal to 0.
6. (a) 3⁄4 , 1, and 2 (b) 2 and 1

2.3 The Factor Theorem

## 8. (a) Fully factor the function S 2 1 = ?, using an algebraic process.

Then, (b) state the roots of the equation Q 0.

## 9. NR For the polynomial function S 7 A 2 2= 1 , two of the zeros are 4 and 1.

The largest zero of Q , when expressed as a fully simplified radical, is: ` ,
 Exam
Style
The values of +, , and C, are, respectively, ________, ________, and _______.
first digit of ans. second digit third digit

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

7. (a) i Q 2 1 3 ii zeros are: , , =, and 1 iii x-ints match zeros, label coords on graph
(b) i / 2 3 2 3 ii zeros are: 1/ , , and 1
(c) i * 3 1 4 10 ii zeros are: 1, , 2 and 2
For iii, label x-intercepts left to right as: 2 , = , 1, = , , = , and 2 ,=

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

10. The volume of water than can fit in a rectangular aquarium is given as E 1 = 1 1=.
Use an algebraic method to determine expressions for the dimensions of the tank, in terms of , given that
the greatest dimension is the width and the lowest the length.

[ c

## 11. NR The volume of a rectangular prism can be expressed as E 1

7 @.
The dimensions of the prism can be expressed as shown
 Exam
Style
in the diagram. ℎ a
The values of +, , C, and b, are respectively,
_____ , _____, _____, and _____. Z `
Y

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

8. (a) Q 2 1 3 4 (b) 1, 2 9. 1

2.3 The Factor Theorem

## 12. One of the zeros of the polynomial function S 2 1 @ is 2. Use an

algebraic process to determine the factored form of Q .

## 13. The graph of a polynomial function S 2

1 1
2 has an -intercept
at 3/2, 0 as shown.
B
(a) Algebraically determine the value of .

1
,=

## (b) Use an algebraic process to determine

the factored form of Q .

## (c) Determine the remaining -intercepts

of Q , expressed as exact values.
Label each on the graph above.

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

10. width: 5 length 2 height 3 11. 1

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## 14. A function T 2 1 1 is transformed to < , where < / 0.25 1 .

Determine the zeros of < .

15. A function B 1 7 2 1 has one rational zero equal to 3/2. Use an algebraic process to
determine the simplified radical form of the remaining two irrational zeros.

## 16. Two of the roots of the equation ? 7 ? 2 ? 1 A = are 5/2 and 1.

Use an algebraic process to determine the remaining roots of the equation, where applicable in simplified

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

12. Q 3 2 1 2 3 2, 0
,0
2
13. (a) 34
(b) Q 2 3 2 6 2 3 7, 0
3 7, 0

(c) 3/2, 2, 3 7, 3 7

2.3 The Factor Theorem

 Exam
Style
A. 3
B. 2
C. 3 1
D. 3 1

## 18. NR When 6 # 19 11 6 is divided by + ; where +, ∈ e, the remainder is zero.

 Exam
Style
The values of + and are, respectively, ____ and ____.

## 19. NR The largest zero of the function / (

4 #
4 16 15 is + .
 Exam
Style
The values of + and are, respectively, ____ and ____.

1 5 5 1
14. 4, 1 and 16 15. 2 5 and 2 5 16. 0, , and
4 4