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Chapter 2.3 the Factor Theorem from the Math 30-1 EDGE Study Guide
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)

67 views14 pagesChapter 2.3 the Factor Theorem from the Math 30-1 EDGE Study Guide
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

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the right. The graph has integer -intercepts.

Q +% + +# ;

where +% , + , and +# are zeros of the function.

graph can be used to determine the factored form.

2 Find 3 remainders; for when Q is divided by each of its three factors as stated above.

3 State the relationship between the factors of a polynomial expression, the zeros of the corresponding

polynomial function, and the remainder theorem.

Recall that the remainder theorem states that when a polynomial, Q , is divided by a binomial in the form

+, the remainder is S .

The remainder

The factor

theorem statesstates

theorem that when

that a polynomial,

+ is a factorQof a,polynomial

is divided by a binomial

function

in the form

Q , if+,Sthe remainder

=. (Thatisis,

S if dividing

. by a factor gives no remainder)

Worked Use the factor theorem to show that the polynomial function

Example Q #

5 3 9 has factors of 3 and 1 .

Solution: The factor theorem states that if + is a factor of Q , then Q + 0. (That is, there is no remainder)

Q . The -intercepts are

( + 3) is a factor if Q( 3) = 0 ( 1) is a factor if Q(1) = 0

3, 0 and 1, 0 .

# #

Q 3 3 5 3 3 3 9 Q 1 1 5 1 3 1 9

27 45 9 9 1 5 3 9

= No remainder … 1 is a factor = No remainder … is a factor

Class Example 2.31 Using the Factor Theorem to test given Binomials

2 1

D ? . Use the factor theorem to show that:

(a) 1 is a factor of Q (b) 3 2 is a factor of Q (c) 1 is a NOT a factor

2.3 The Factor Theorem

?. Determine the value of .

When a polynomial is in factored form, it’s zeros (that is, the -intercepts

of its graph) are easily discernible.

- For example, the function Q #

3 4 12 is shown

- Written in factored form, it’s: Q 2 2 3

known factor, to obtain other factors.

- For example, suppose we know that the function Q # 7 6

has a zero at 3. That means one of the factors is 3 …

And the other factor(s) can be found by finding # 7 6 M 3

3 1 0 7 6

3 9 6 Remainder

The remainder theorem allows us to find the remainder from the division of polynomials, without

actually dividing. The remainder of Q M + is Q + .

The factor theorem states that + is a factor of Q if Q + 0. (That is, if dividing gives no

remainder, as we saw in the synthetic division above)

Consider what happens when a number is divided by one of its factors. The question now is – how

For example, the factors of 35 are 7 and 5. 35 M 7 is 5, with no remainder. do we find that first factor?

35 M 5 is 7, with no remainder.

The integral states

zero that when

theorem a polynomial,

identifies Q , is

the relationship divided the

between by afactors

binomial

of ainpolynomial

the form +,

the remainder is Sconstant

and the . term of the polynomial.

It states that if + is a factor of Q , then + is a factor of the constant term of Q .

The integral zero theorem asserts that But we know that 4 will not be a factor, as “4” is not a

3 could be a factor. factor of the constant term of the polynomial, “6”

Spoiler alert – it isn’t – but 3 is!

Think – if 4 4

was a factor…

… there’s no way these would multiply to 6

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

7 2,

Worked

Example (a) Use an algebraic process to fully factor S . Verify graphically.

(b) State the zeros of S .

(a) Step 1 Potential zeros: ]4, ]2, ]1 By Integral Zero Theorem, any zero must be a factor of 4. (There are six

potential zeros, the positive and negative of the factors of 4)

Step 2 Test ( x – 1): Q 2 # 5 11 4 18 Not 0 …. so, ( x – 1) is not a factor!

Test ( x + 1 ): Q 2 # 5 11 4 = So ( x + 1 ) IS a factor!

Find the first factor through “guess and test”. Use factor theorem to test each potential zero.

Remember: If Q + 0 (that is, if division gives no remainder), then + is a factor.

3

Step 3 Divide (2x + 7x2– 5x – 4) –: ( x + 1) :

Divide Q by the found

factor from step 2

Result: 2x2– 7x – 4

Step 4 P(x) = (x + 1)(2x2– 7x – 4) Express your division result in the form S U×V W.

Step 5 P(x) = (x+ 1)(2x + 1)(x – 4) Factor the quadratic quotient – and we’re done!

Each factor Q 1 2 1 4

(b) Zeros of P(x) are X = – 1, – 1/2, and 4 corresponds to a zero:

1 0 2 1 0 4 0

Class Example 2.33 Applying Factor and Integral Zero Theorems to Fully Factor

= ?,

(a) Use the steps outlined above

to fully factor Q .

the results above to label the

coordinates of the -intercepts.

of 1 = ? =.

2.3 The Factor Theorem

Let’s see how we can use our calculator to see the zeros of S 1 = ?

from class example 3.32, and how those zeros can in fact reveal the factored form!

2 – Adjust window through trial-and-error 4 – Find each zero

separately Right

Goal is to find a compact

Left Bound

window that shows:

Bound

1 – Graph the Function - All x-intercepts

- Any max / min points

For “guess”, also

hit enter

Math30-1power.com

3 – Use the ZERO function

to find the x-intercepts Gives factor

Alternatively you can (x+1)

graph y = 0 and find the

Gives factor Zero at x=4,

intersection.

(x+2) gives factor (x-4)

As each zero corresponds to a factor, we

have: S 2

As you may have noticed, your graphing calculator is like an answer key for these sort of factoring questions!

(Given the graph of a polynomial function, each zero corresponds to a factor, so remember to check your work!)

1 =:

(a) Use the steps outlined on the

previous page to fully factor Q .

Hint: quadradic formula will be required!

1

1 = =.

Unit 2 – Polynomial Functions

(a) Use the steps previously outlined to

fully factor Q .

Hint: As its degree 4, steps 1

through 3 must be performed twice!

1 2

@ 1

= , one of the zeros is 1.

It can be algebraically determined that the largest zero can be written in the form + . Determine the values

of + and , respectively.

2.3 Practice Questions

1. State a possible factored form equation for each function described below, where each is a degree 3

polynomial function with all zeros listed.

(a) Q 2 0, Q 1 0, and Q 5 0

2. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 1 is a factor of each of the following polynomial functions:

(a) # 9 15 25

(b) ( # 8 8

(c) 3 #

2 5 4

(d) 3 (

5 #

12 12 16

(e) # 3 3 1

3. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 3 is a factor of each of the following polynomial functions:

(a) Q # 6

(b) / # 19 30

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

4. For each of the polynomial expressions below, use an algebraic process described on the previous pages to

fully factor.

(a) # 3 4 12 (b) #

4 11 6

(c) # 27 10 (d) 3 # 2 7 2

1. (a) S 7 (b) B 1 (c) ^ 7 2

2. (a) 1 is a factor if # 9 15 25 M 1 gives no remainder.

Evaluate 1 # 9 1 15 1 25 …. which is 0. As such, we have shown that YES, 1 is a factor!

Use a similar process for the (b), (c), (d), and (e), substitute “1” to see if you get no remainder (that is, ZERO).

(b) No (c) Yes (d) No (e) Yes

3. (a) Evaluate Q 3 to get 3 #

3 6 3 , which is 18 (NOT “0”), so 3 is NOT a factor.

(b) Evaluate / 3 to get 3 #

19 3 30, which IS “0”, so 3 IS a factor.

2.3 The Factor Theorem

5. Use the factor theorem to determine whether 3 2 is a factor of each of the following polynomial

functions:

(a) / 3 # 7 4 (b) * 3 ( 4 # 9 18 8

6. Use an algebraic process described on the previous pages to solve each of the following equations. Verify

your roots graphically using technology.

(a) 4 #

11 6 0 (b) ( #

9 10 0

4. (a) 2 2 3 (b) * 1 6 (c) 5 5 2

(d) 3 1 2 1

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

7. (i) Fully factor each function below, using an algebraic process. Then, (ii) state the zeros of each function, as

exact values (simplified radical form) where necessary. Finally, (iii) label the coordinates of the -intercepts

on the graph to the right.

(a) Q ( 7 6

(b) / 2 (

11 #

11 24 36

(c) * ( 8 # 9 28 30

5. (a) Yes – show that / 2⁄3 is equal to 0. 3 2⁄3 7 2⁄3 #

4 3 8⁄27 7 4⁄9 4 0

(b) No – use a similar process to above to show that * 2⁄3 is NOT equal to 0.

6. (a) 3⁄4 , 1, and 2 (b) 2 and 1

2.3 The Factor Theorem

Then, (b) state the roots of the equation Q 0.

The largest zero of Q , when expressed as a fully simplified radical, is: ` ,

Exam

Style

The values of +, , and C, are, respectively, ________, ________, and _______.

first digit of ans. second digit third digit

7. (a) i Q 2 1 3 ii zeros are: , , =, and 1 iii x-ints match zeros, label coords on graph

(b) i / 2 3 2 3 ii zeros are: 1/ , , and 1

(c) i * 3 1 4 10 ii zeros are: 1, , 2 and 2

Quadratic doesn’t factor, so use quad formula to obtain exact roots.

For iii, label x-intercepts left to right as: 2 , = , 1, = , , = , and 2 ,=

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

10. The volume of water than can fit in a rectangular aquarium is given as E 1 = 1 1=.

Use an algebraic method to determine expressions for the dimensions of the tank, in terms of , given that

the greatest dimension is the width and the lowest the length.

[ c

7 @.

The dimensions of the prism can be expressed as shown

Exam

Style

in the diagram. ℎ a

The values of +, , C, and b, are respectively,

_____ , _____, _____, and _____. Z `

Y

8. (a) Q 2 1 3 4 (b) 1, 2 9. 1

2.3 The Factor Theorem

algebraic process to determine the factored form of Q .

1 1

2 has an -intercept

at 3/2, 0 as shown.

B

(a) Algebraically determine the value of .

1

,=

the factored form of Q .

of Q , expressed as exact values.

Label each on the graph above.

10. width: 5 length 2 height 3 11. 1

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

Determine the zeros of < .

15. A function B 1 7 2 1 has one rational zero equal to 3/2. Use an algebraic process to

determine the simplified radical form of the remaining two irrational zeros.

Use an algebraic process to determine the remaining roots of the equation, where applicable in simplified

radical form.

12. Q 3 2 1 2 3 2, 0

,0

2

13. (a) 34

(b) Q 2 3 2 6 2 3 7, 0

3 7, 0

(c) 3/2, 2, 3 7, 3 7

2.3 The Factor Theorem

Exam

Style

A. 3

B. 2

C. 3 1

D. 3 1

Exam

Style

The values of + and are, respectively, ____ and ____.

4 #

4 16 15 is + .

Exam

Style

The values of + and are, respectively, ____ and ____.

1 5 5 1

14. 4, 1 and 16 15. 2 5 and 2 5 16. 0, , and

4 4

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