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# POLYNOMIAL

FUNCTIONS
2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions p. 91
2.2 Dividing Polynomials and the Remainder Theorem p. 105
2.3 The Factor Theorem p. 119
2.4 Further Analysis Polynomial Function Graphs p. 133
Chapter Review Practice p. 145

## You’ve already studied Polynomial functions! Remember these?

In Math 10C you studied Linear Functions And in Math 20-1 you studied Quadratic Functions

run

rise rise
(slope)
run
,0 ,0 ,0

## We saw how equations

0, of linear functions can be … And equations of quadratic
written in the form functions can be written
ℎ,

Where is the slope of the Where is the vertical stretch, and the
line, and is the -intercept coordinates of the vertex are , .

Note that the linear functions can Note that the quadratic functions can
also be written in the form also be written in the form
Where is the -intercept Where , are -intercepts

These are degree 1 Polynomial Functions These are degree 2 Polynomial Functions

## Determine an equation for each of the following functions:

1 2

Hint:
The vertical stretch
2, 0 here, , is /
Math30-1power.com
0, 3 3, 0 1, 0

1, 2

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

## A polynomial function, such as a linear function, quadratic, or cubic, involves only

non-negative integer powers of .
Any polynomial function can be written in the form
, ,\$% ,\$ %
* +, +,\$% +,\$ … + +% +.
Where:  is a whole number, representing the degree of the function
 +, to +. are real numbers, representing the coefficients, with +,
designated the leading coefficient (coeff. of the highest degree term)
This general formula may look complicated, but a few polynomial function examples should show its simplicity:
 8 This is degree 0 (constant function)

##  / 2 4 3 This is degree 2 (quadratic), with a leading coefficient of 2

1
 # 7 1 This is degree 3 (quadratic), with a leading coefficient of 1
2
 * 3 (
2 #
5 8 This is degree 4 (quartic), with a leading coefficient of 3
 * 2 ( 3 6 This is degree 5 (quintic), with a leading coefficient of 2

These examples are all written in descending order of degree, where terms are arranged starting with the
highest degree term, starting with the leading coefficient. (The coefficient of the highest degree term)

Identify which of the following are polynomial functions. For each that is a polynomial function;
Worked state the degree and leading coefficient:
Example 3
(a) 6 8 (b) 3 ( 2 3 1 (c) 5 3) 1

## Solution: (a) The middle term can be written 3 \$%

, which is NOT POLYNOMIAL as exponent of is not a whole number
(b) All exponents are whole numbers, and all coefficients are real numbers. Hello, you POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION.
Degree is 5 (degree of entire poly function is that of highest degree term). Leading coefficient is . (the terms
are not in descending order of degree – the 2nd term should be re-arranged to the “front”!)
(c) The middle term can be written 3 %/#
, which is NOT POLYNOMIAL as the exponent is not a whole number

## Class Example 2.11 Identifying Polynomial Functions

Identify which of the following are polynomial functions. For each that is a polynomial function; state the
(a) 4 3 (b) 2 5 (c) 3 7 (d) 2 # 5 \$%

Polynomial functions can be of any whole number degree – but for this course we’ll only deal with
functions where 0 5.
And while the coefficients can be any real number – we’ll mainly stick with integer coefficients.

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

Warm-up
Exploration #2 ❶P ❶N

## Use the polynomial function graphs, 1 2

listed below and graphed on the right,
Make a conjecture for #1
1 For each function listed below, the number
represents the function ___________, and the
letter (“P” or “N”) the __________________.
❷P ❷N
❶P 3 4
❶N 3 4

❷P 6 5
❷N 6 5

#
❸P 2 5 6
#
❸N 2 5 6

( #
❸P ❸N
❹P 2 6 6 22 12
❹F 2 ( 6 # 6 22 12

( #
❺P 2 16 14 63 36
( #
❺N 2 16 14 63 36

coefficient.

## 3 What do the graphs of functions with a P next to

❹P ❹N
their number have in common? Describe the
effect on the graph.

## 4 What do the graphs of functions with an “N” next

to their number have in common? Describe the
effect on the graph.

❺P ❺N
5 What do the graphs of functions of even degree
have in common?

## 6 What do the graphs of functions of odd degree

have in common?

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

## Classifying Polynomial Functions by Degree

/ 3
A polynomial function can be of any whole number degree, including zero!
The graph on the right is of the constant function / 3, which is a polynomial
function of degree zero.

Let’s now acquaint ourselves with some examples of polynomial functions, degree 1 through 5.

## Leading coefficient is 2, which

is positive …
Degree 1 Linear Maximum Degree 2 Quadratic
point
/ 2 3 < 2 3
… So graph
ends positive
(upward Domain: 3 ∈ ℝ6 Domain: 3 ∈ ℝ6
direction) Range: 3 ∈ ℝ6 Range: 3 | 0 4, ∈ ℝ6
End Behavior: End Behavior:
# of intercepts: # of intercepts:

## Neg (-) leading coefficient (-1) …

Degree 3 Cubic Degree 4 Quartic
… So graph # (
3 3 * 9 4 12
ends negative
Domain: 3 ∈ ℝ6 Domain: 3 ∈ ℝ6
Range: 3 ∈ ℝ6 Range: 3 | : 16.9, ∈ ℝ6
End Behavior: End Behavior:
Minimum
# of intercepts: 1 point # of intercepts: 1

Degree 5 Quintic  The functions on the left are odd degree – and the graphs
start and end in the opposite direction. For example, the
ℎ 4 ( # 16 12 degree 3 and 5 functions start positive and end negative.
Odd functions have no max or min point, must have at
Domain: 3 ∈ ℝ6 least one -intercept, and have a range 3 ∈ ℝ6.
Range: 3 ∈ ℝ6
 The functions above / on the right are even degree. As such,
End Behavior: the graphs start and end in the same direction. For example,
starts positive in quad II, the degree 4 function starts positive and ends positive.
Even functions have either a maximum or minimum point,
# of intercepts: 7
and the range is restricted accordingly.

If the sign of the leading coefficient is positive (see the degree 1 and 4 examples above),
Ends
And if the leading coefficient is positive and the degree is even (as with the degree 4
example above), the graph will have a minimum point.
If the sign of the leading coefficient is negative (see the degree 2, 3 and 5 examples), the wasn’t so negative
graph “ends negative”, or downward, in quad IV.
And if the leading coefficient is negative and the function degree is even (as with the
degree 2 function), the graph will have a maximum point.

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions
There is a relationship between the degree of a polynomial function and the number of -intercepts
on the graph.
For a polynomial function of degree ; the maximum number of -intercepts is .

##  For even degree functions, there  For example, this degree 4

can be = to -intercepts. function has no -intercepts

## Now, a degree 4 function can

also have 1 -intercept … or 2 -intercepts … or 3 -intercepts To a maximum of 4

##  For example, consider a degree 5 function

 For odd degree functions, there
can be to -intercepts. Since it starts / ends in the opposite direction
(in this case starts positive in quad II, ands
Note (unlike the functions above), this function negative in quad IV)
must have a negative leading coefficient. (ends down) …there must be at least one -intercept

## And we should know how to spot a Polynomial Function Graph!

On the previous page we saw the relationship between the degree of a
polynomial function and certain characteristics of the graph. You might next ask – Polynomial
how can we immediately tell that a graph is of a polynomial function, and not some Function
other function we study in Math 30?
And once again – great question! Cheers to your inquisitive nature.
Let’s dive into that, with a couple of key distinguishing points:

## Graph can be drawn

 The first key point is that all polynomial functions have a domain 3 ∈ ℝ6.
That means graphs of polynomial functions:

 Have no start or end points, like, for example,  Have no vertical asymptotes or any other type of
radical function graphs. discontinuity, as with rational function graphs.

## Radical / 0.5 3 2 Rational 1

<
Function Function 2 3

## Graph starts at (Domain is Graph has vertical asymptotes

this point Restricted) (again, domain is restricted)

 The second point is polynomial function graphs have no horizontal asymptotes (like
exponential functions) and there is no periodic pattern (as with some trig graphs). Exponential
So graphs will always both start and end in ENDS upward Function
either an upward or downward position.

## For example, this polynomial STARTS pointing

downward >
function graph…. ℎ 1.5 3

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

## Worked For the polynomial function * (

3 #
7 15 18 ;
Example Without using your graphing calculator, state:
i - The start and end behavior of the graph ii - The number of possible -intercepts
iii - Whether or not the graph will have a minimum or maximum point
iv - The domain of the function and the -intercept
Use your graphing calculator to determine:
v - The -intercepts of the graph vi - The range of the function
Sol.: The degree of the function is 4; since it’s even, the graph will start and end in the same direction. And
i - since the leading coefficient is negative (that is, “-1”), the graph will end negative / heading downward.
So…. The graph starts negative in quadrant III, and ends negative in quadrant IV.
ii - Degree 4 (even), so there can be between 0 and 4 -intercepts.
iii - Even degree, graph starts / ends in the same direction. Negative leading coefficient, so which means the
graph ends negative. Therefore the graph will have a maximum point, which can be found graphically.
iv - All polynomial functions have domain 3 ∈ ℝ6. The -intercept is the same as the constant value, so =, ?
v - -intercepts are the same as the zeros of the function. vi - For the range, find the MAXIMUM,
The zero function is in CALC menu, found be entering which is also in the CALC menu.

Find the zeros one at a time... Note: sometimes the calc adds decimals. The range is: 3 0 7. , ∈ ℝ6
Here, the actual value is just 1.
Note that the maximum is provided as an
So, -intercepts are ,= , , = , and 1, = approximate value, to the nearest hundredth.

## Class Example 2.12 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

For each of the following polynomial functions, without using your graphing calculator, state:
i - The start and end behavior of the graph ii - The number of possible -intercepts
iii - Whether or not the graph will have a minimum or maximum point
iv - The domain of the function and the -intercept
Use your graphing calculator to determine:
v - The -intercepts of the graph vi - The range of the function
(a) 1 7 @ (b) 7 2 A 1 1 @

## i - Start / end i - Start / end

ii - # of -ints ii - # of -ints
iii - Max or min? iii - Max or min?
iv - Domain: iv - Domain:
-intercept: -intercept:

v - Coords v - Coords
of -ints: of -ints:

vi - Range: vi - Range:

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## For the function B 2 1 1 A 7 ?, without using your graphing calculator, state:

i - The start and end behavior of the graph
Lastly, sketch the graph on the grid below.
Label any intercepts and max / min points

## iii - Whether or not the graph will have a

minimum or maximum point

## Then, use your graphing calculator to determine:

v - The -intercepts of the graph

## Class Example 2.14 Identifying Polynomial Functions

For each of the polynomial functions listed below indicate the graph number that matches.
(Use reasoning – try without using your graphing calculator)

(a) (
2 #
7 8 12

(b) 11 # 6 28 24

(c) ( 9 # 13 8 12

(d) ( 4 # 16 12

   

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

## In Math 20, we saw how a certain type of polynomial function, the

quadratic (degree 2) function, has applications in parabolic motion
and finance. (To name just two!)
Remember finding the maximum height of a ball? 
First – match the window to what’s given. Graph @ ==
Then – from the CALC menu,
select #4, “MAXIMUM”

## Above – classic math 20 question, do you

remember how to find the max height?

## Next – For “left bound”, hit anywhere

Finaly – Hit for
to the left of the max. Do the same for “right
“Guess”. The max
bound”, anywhere to the right.
value is the -coord.
The MAX should be
between these arrows.

So, the maximum height of the ball is 156.24 feet, after 3.1 seconds.

## Class Example 2.15 Constructing and Analyzing a Polynomial Equation

A box is with no lid is made by cutting four squares (each with a side length “ ” from each corner of a 24 cm by
12 cm rectangular piece of cardboard.

## (a) Determine a function that models

the volume of the box.

(b) Use technology to graph the function, and sketch below. Label each axis,
provide a scale, and indicate any intercepts or max / min points.
Use your graphing calculator to obtain these… you’ll need to “trial-and-error” a
suitable viewing window, indicate in your sketch below.

## (c) State the domain of the function, with respect to

the “real-world” constraints of the problem.

## (d) State the value of “ ” that gives the maximum

volume. (Round to the nearest hundredth)

## (e) State the maximum volume of the box, (Round to

the nearest C #
)

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

## Class Example 2.16 Constructing and Analyzing a Polynomial Equation

A box with a lid can be created by removing two congruent squares from one end of a rectangular 8.5 inch by
11 inch piece of cardboard. The congruent rectangles removed from the other end as shown. (The shaded
rectangles represent the waste, or removed portions that will not be used in the box)
(a) In the diagram below there are two congruent rectangles; one that will form the base of the box, and
one that will be the top. Complete the diagram by providing the missing dimensions (indicated with
/ ) for the base and top.

?. 7 
inches 

7. 7 inches 7. 7 inches
inches

## (c) Use technology to graph the function, and

sketch on the grid provided.
Label each axis, provide a scale, and indicate
any intercepts or max / min points.
Use your graphing calculator to obtain these…
you’ll need to “trial-and-error” a suitable
viewing window, indicate on the grid.

## (d) State the domain of the function, with respect

to the “real-world” constraints of the problem.

## (e) State the value of “ ” that gives the maximum

volume. (Round to the nearest thousandth)

## (f) State the maximum volume of the box, (Round to

the nearest thousandth)

## (g) State the dimensions that yield the maximum

volume. (Round to the nearest thousandth)

2.1 Practice Questions

## 1. Indicate which of the following functions are polynomial functions:

(a) 3 3 # 2 11 6 (b) 3 #
5 ..
2 (c) 5

(d) 4 (
2 5 \$%
1 (e) 3 # 5 (f) 5> 2

2. Indicate which of the following graphs are likely those of polynomial functions:
(a) (b) (c) (d)

## (e) (f) (g) (h)

3. For each of the following polynomial functions, state each of the indicated characteristics. Try as many as you
can without graphing.
(a) / #
8 11 20 (b) 5 (

(c) 2 (
6 #
14 30 36 (d) 2 3 2 1

## i - Lead (a) i - (b) i - (c) i - (d) i -

Coefficient
ii - Degree ii - ii - ii - ii -

## iii - Start / end iii - iii - iii - iii -

behavior

iv - Possible # of iv - iv - iv - iv -
-intercepts

v - Whether v- v- v- v-
graph has a
max or min

vi - -intercept vi - vi - vi - vi -

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

4. For each of the following graphs, determine the indicated characteristics of the related function.

## i - Is the degree even

(a) i - (b) i - (c) i - (d) i -
or odd?
ii - Is the leading coefficient ii - ii - ii - ii -
pos (+) or neg (-)
iii - # of -intercepts iii - iii - iii - iii -

iv - Range iv - iv - iv - iv -
v - Constant term in
function equation v- v- v- v-

5. For each of the following functions, use technology to determine each of the indicated characteristics.
Note that using technology (graphing on your calc) is not required for each characteristic each time! For example, see if
you can spot the -intercepts of (c) without graphing. (And degree and -ints can always be found without graphing)
Also note: To get best results graphing on your calculator – you must practice setting your window! For most of these
you can use an -min of @ and an -max of @. However, for the min and max …. use trial and error!
(You’ll want to see any relative max / min points, so ensure your window is “large enough”)

(a) / #
8 11 20 (b) (
3 #
12 52 48

(c) 3 1 3 (d) 2 2 24

## i - The degree (a) i - (b) i - (c) i - (d) i -

ii - The coordinates of
any -intercepts ii - ii - ii - ii -

## iii - The coordinates iii - iii - iii - iii -

of -intercept
iv - The Range iv - iv - iv - iv -
Note: Where applicable, round
to the nearest hundredth.

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

1. Polynomial functions are: (a), (c), (e) 2. Polynomial functions are: (a), (c), (d), and (f)
RTD Learning PowerMath
3. (a) i ii 3 iii Starts neg in quad III, ends pos in quad I iv 1 to 3 v No max or min vi =, =
(b) i ii 4 iii Starts neg in quad III, ends neg in quad IV iv 0 to 4* see v Graph has a max vi =, 7
note 1
(c) i ii 4 iii Starts neg in quad III, ends neg in quad IV iv 0 to 4 v Graph has a max vi =, 1@
see note 2
(d) i ii 5* iii Starts pos in quad II, ends neg in quad IV iv 3* see note 3 v No max or min vi =, A
Note 1: We can visualize this, as the graph of ( is similar to , so visualize a “parabola” opening down and shifted
5 units up. So we know, without graphing, that there will be TWO -intercepts! 2 3 2 1
Note 2: For functions in factored form, the degree of the entire function is the sum of all exponents, so: 2 2 1 7
Note 3: Each factor corresponds to one -intercept, so we know with certainty there are 3. There’s an invisible “1” here!

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

6. Without graphing (use your reasoning abilities!), match each of the following functions with its graph.
(a) 12 # 2 27 18  

(b) ( #
11 9 18

(c) 2 (
10 #
20 9 18

(d) ( #
7 13 6  

7. A package may be sent through a particular mail service only if it conforms to specific dimensions.
To qualify, the sum of its height plus the perimeter of its base must be no more than 72 inches. Also for our
design, the base of the box (shaded in the diagram below) has a length equal to double the width.

## (a) In the blank on the left, state an

expression for the height ( ) of the box.
Need a hint? See the bottom of the next page.

## (b) Determine a function that represents the

base
Volume of the box.

(c) Use technology to graph the function obtained (d) Provide a domain and range for your function
in (b) with a suitable viewing window. obtained in (b), with respect to the “real
Provide your sketch below, labeling any world” constraints of the problem.
max/mins and intercepts. Also fully label the
Domain: Range:
axis, what each axis represents, and a suitable scale.

be sent.

## (f) State the dimensions for the box that provides

the maximum volume.

## Answers to Practice Questions on the previous page

4. (a) i ODD ii NEGATIVE iii 4 -intercepts iv 3 ∈ ℝ6 v Constant term: A (represented by -intercept)
(b) i EVEN ii POSITIVE iii 3 -intercepts iv 3 | : @. 1=, ∈ ℝ6 v Constant term: @
(c) i ODD ii POSITIVE iii 2 -intercepts iv 3 ∈ ℝ6 v Constant term: @
(d) i EVEN ii NEGATIVE iii 3 -intercepts iv 3 | 0 2. 2@, ∈ ℝ6 v Constant term: D

## 5. (a) i 1 ii 7, = , 2, = and , = iii =, = iv 3 ∈ ℝ6

(b) i 2 ii 2, = , , = and 1, = iii =, 2? iv 3 | : @A. 1=, ∈ ℝ6
(c) i 2 ii 1, = , , = and 1, = iii =, A iv 3 | 0 7. D@, ∈ ℝ6
Note: Each factor provides an -intercept
(d) i ii 1, = and 1, = iii =, 2 iv 3 | 0 2. 7, ∈ ℝ6

Chapter 2 – Polynomial Functions

8. An open box is to be made by cutting out squares from the corners of an 8 inch by 15 inch rectangular sheet
of cardboard and folding up the sides. Diagram 1 Diagram 2
(a) On diagram 1 on the right, provide
expressions that represent the
length and width of the finished box.

## (b) Determine a function that models

the volume of the box.

(c) Use technology to graph the function, and sketch below. Label each axis, provide a scale, and
indicate any intercepts or max / min points. Use your graphing calculator, provide a sketch below.

## (d) State the domain and range of the function, with

respect to the “real-world” constraints.

## (e) State the value of “ ” that gives the maximum

volume. (Round to the nearest hundredth)

the nearest J #
)

## (g) Provide the dimensions that yield the box of

maximum volume, (Round to the nearest hundredth)

HINT for #7(a): The perimeter of the base is: 2 2 @ . As we wish for the largest volume box, we’ll use all
72 inches (sum of perimeter and height) available. So ℎ 6 72, and A @ .
6. (a)  (b)  (c)  (d)  (c) ?, 1=A
(d) Domain is [=, ]
7. (a) A @ Range is [=, 1=A ]
Volume

## (b) E A @ Max when ? inches

1
Graph in your calculator. (f) Max Volume: 1=A H
Trial-and-error to get best window. (g) @ length × ? width × 2 height inches
=, = ,=
Sketch should only show graph within
domain. (between 0 and 12)
width of box

2.1 Characteristics of Polynomial Functions

## 9. The graph of * is shown on the right. The minimum possible

degree and sign of the leading coefficient are, respectively, *

A. 4, negative
 Exam
Style
B. 4, positive
C. 5, negative
D. 5, positive

10. During a regular respiratory cycle, the volume of air (in litres) in the human lungs of an average
 Exam
Style 25-year-old can be modeled by the function K L 0.035L # 0.152L 0.173L.
Where L is the time in seconds from the start of a breath.

NR According to this model, the average length of full breath of a 25-year-old, correct
to the nearest hundredth of a second, is _____ seconds.

## 11. The function * (

9 4 12 has the following transformations applied, to become < :
- A vertical reflection in the -axis
- A vertical stretch about the -axis by a factor of 3/2

## The range of < is:

 Exam
Style
A. 3 | : 11, ∈ ℝ6
B. 3 | : 25, ∈ ℝ6
C. 3 | 0 11, ∈ ℝ6
D. 3 | 0 25, ∈ ℝ6

## 12. Refer back to the function < described in question 11.

 Exam
Style
NR The -intercept of < is 0, , where is equal to _____.

8. (a) (c) . @A, D=. A2
(d) Domain is [=, 2]
Range is [=, D=. A2]
Volume

## (b) E 7 ? (e) Max when . @A inches

1
(f) Max Volume: D H
=, = 2, = (g) . @A length × 2. @A width × . @A
height inches
Height

.