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# 3.

4 Logarithm Laws

In section 4.1 we reviewed the exponent rules. A corresponding concept is the Laws of Logarithms. Remember –
the value of a logarithm is an exponent, after all!

We start by considering the sum of two logarithms of the same base, such as: STO 8 8 STO 4
Is there a simple way to evaluate this? See if you can spot the patterns below.

3 8 2 8

here here here

## Now find : STO 5

_____ Now find : STO STO _____
_____ Now find :

32
_____ _____ _____
So….. So….. So…..
VWX\$ ( 8 VWX\$ log 2 32
_________ VWX ) 8 VWX \$7 _________ VWX'// /// VWX'/// _________

4 VWX\$ (\$ STO

## Now evaluate this:

2STO 8

2 \$
So….. VWX\$ ( _________

## STO 1 000 000 STO[ 1000 8 STO[ 1000

 STO[ f g STO[ f 8 STO[ g
6 3 8 3
f 64
 STO[ STO[ f STO[ g STO 4 STO STO 64 STO 16
g 16
2 6 4

6 2

## STOd C STO 256 STO 256 STO256

 STO[ C STO! 256
STOd STO 16 STO 16 STO16
2 4 8 Verify
Change of base identity, introduced in 3.3
2 4 on calc!

3.4 Logarithm Laws

Worked Examples Evaluate each expression (a) VWX0/ 8 VWX\$/ (b) VWX '/( 8 VWX '/ VWX '\$/

## Solution: (a) Write as single log: (b) Pos (+) logs go

up here
STO 50 20 108 ∗ 10
STO STO STO 9
STO 1000 3 120
Neg (-) logs
2
down here

## Evaluate each of the following:

(a) STO 8 8 STO 32 (b) STO 288 STO 8 (c) STO 10 8 STO 100 STO 8

## Evaluate each using the

Worked Examples (a) VWX0 \$0* (b) VWX\$ (
Logarithm of a Power Law
!
Solution: (a) 6STO 25 (b) STO 8 Re-write radicals using rational exponents
2 Since 5 \$ 1
25
STO 8 Use log law: STO[ f STO[ f
12
4
6 2
1
3 3/4
4

## Simplify using logs laws, to evaluate each of the following:

\ 9
(a) STO 815 (b) STO 32 (c) 3STO50 2STO15 8 STO
50

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## Simplify the following expression ' '

Worked Example VWXk \$VWXl VWXm* VWXk
using log laws \$
!⁄
Sol.: Step 1 #’s in front of log expressions STOn STOo STO p 8 STOn!/  While we’re at it, distribute
become exponents the (-) sign through the brackets
pos (+) neg(-) neg (-) pos (+)
!⁄
STOn STOo STO p 8 STOn!/
Step 2 Prepare to write as a single
log… pos. logs, ship term to Pos (+) logs, terms go up here
the numerator, neg. logs, STO '/\$
Simplified from k
ship to denominator Neg (-) logs down here

## Step 3 Simplify terms in the brackets n n !⁄ n5/

STO STO
using exponent rules o p o p

## Express each as a single log:

1 1
(a) 2STO 4STO STO 6 (b) 2STO 8 3STO q [4STO 8 STO q ]
3 3

%
Worked Examples Expand and simplify using log laws: VWX\$
(
Solution: STO ⁄
STO 8 f
Expand using the log law: STO[ STO[ f STO[ g
g
3
STO STO 8 Isolate log term using the log law: STO[ f STO[ f
4
3
STO 3 Evaluate STO 8 … think 2 8?
4

## Class Example 3.44 Evaluating a Logarithmic Expression using Log Laws

Expand each of the following using log laws. Evaluate and simplify where possible.

5 n 1000
(a) STO 81 (b) STO (c) STO \
125o

3.4 Logarithm Laws

## If STO 2 and STO 5 , express each in terms of and .

Worked Examples Working with log laws 0/
(a) VWX '(// (b) VWX
\$7
Sol.: (a) Express 1800 as multiples of 2 and 5 So, re-write as: (b) Similarly break down “50”
STO 2 5 9 2∗5∗5
Use your calc to three STO this is “ ”
determine how many This is 1800 27
factors of 2
times “2” and “5”
divide into 1800… two factors y
STO 2 8 STO 5 8 STO 9
Split up using log laws… goal is
STO 2 5 STO 27
of 5
to isolate VWX \$ and VWX 0 STO 2 8 STO 5 3
… and 9 left over we must isolate “VWX 0”,
3STO 2 8 2STO 5 8 STO 9
as we’re given that’s “&”
Given - And this And this
this is “%” is “&” log is “\$” STO 2 8 2STO 5 3

3 82 82 82 3

## If STO 3 n and STO 5 o, express each of the following in terms of n and o.

75
(a) STO 720 (b) STO
8

## Evaluating expressions \$0%\$

Worked Examples If STO 7 and STO 4, evaluate: VWX0
using log laws &
1
Sol.: Split up using log laws: STO 25 STO 2 8 2STO STO
2
STO 25 8 STO STO !/ given, this is 7 …and this is
1
this is “\$” Isolate VWX0 % and VWX0 & 282 7 14
2

## If STO 5 and STO 8, evaluate each of the following expressions.

81
(a) STO 9 (b) STO

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

24 q
 Exam
Style A.
64
24 q
B.
4
2u
C.
64
2u
D.
4

## Class Example 3.48 Logarithmic Identities

Use the laws of logarithms to show that each equation below is true for all values , where , = 0, , 9 1.
(a) STO[ STO4 1 (b) STO! STO[
[

3.4 Practice Questions
1. Express each as a single logarithm, and then evaluate:
25
(a) STO20 8 STO5 (b) STO 10 8 STO 15 8 STO (c) STO 80 8 STO 50 STO 125
6

1 75 1 1
(d) 3STO 12 3STO 4 (e) 2STO 5 8 STO 36 STO (f) STO 250 STO 2
2 2 2 2

## 2. Use the power logarithm law to evaluate each without a calculator:

(a) STO 8! (b) STO \ 100 (c) STO 25!.

## 3. Express each as a single logarithm in simplest form:

For (a) only, also state any 1
(a) 2STOn 3STOo restrictions on the variable (b) 2STO 4 8 STO 3STO
2

1
(c) 2 STO 3 STO STO 8 STO (d) 2STO[ 8 3STO[ 2 C STO[ 2C 82
3

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## 4. If STO 3 and STO 5 , determine an expression for each of the following:

20
(a) STO 15 (b) STO 360 (c) STO
675

## 5. If STO2 and STO5 , determine an expression for each of the following:

`
32
(a) STO80 (b) STO 250 2 (c) STO
125 1000

## (a) STO (b) 3STO 3 (c) 2STO 9 !

9

1 9`
(d) 2STO (e) STO (f) STO
2

## Practice Questions answers from previous page

1. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 3 (e) 2 (f) 1.5 2. (a) 30 (b) 2/3 (c) 3
n 16
3. (a) STO where n = 0, o = 0 (b) STO (c) STO /
(d) STO[ 4
o

3.4 Logarithm Laws

7. Express each as a single logarithm in simplest form, and state any restrictions on the variable:
STO 8 ! STO 9 1
(a) (b) 2STO[ C 8 STO[ 9 3STO[ C
3 2 2

8. The students in a math class are learning about transformations of logarithmic functions. They are given the
following two functions and asked to describe the transformation of the graph of function  to the graph of
function :  STO  STO 8
Kidist claims that the graph of function  is obtained by horizontally stretching the graph of function .
Samer states that the graph of function  is obtained by vertically translating the graph of function .

## Explain how both students are correct and determine

the stretch factor and amount of vertical shift.

## Practice Questions answers from previous page

1 5 3
4. (a) 8 (b) 2 8 8 3 (c) 3 82 5. (a) 4 8 (b) 8 2 8 1 (c) 3
2 4 2
6. (a) 13 (b) 45 (c) 26 (d) 12 (e) 8 (f) 7 or, alternatively (b) can 3
83
be expressed as: 2

Chapter 4 – Radical and Rational Functions

9. The same two students are arguing again (while keeping it friendly), this time with the functions:
 STO
 2STO
This time Samer argues that the graphs of the two functions should be identical, while Kidist maintains that
the graphs will have a different domain. Analyze the two functions to determine who is correct and justify
their position with correct mathematical reasoning.

10. The expression ' VWX - \$VWX ,- 8 , where , = 1, written in terms of is:
\$

1
 Exam
Style A.
9 /

1
B. /
27
1
C. /
9
1
D. /
27

`
11. NR If STO 5, then the value of STO , correct to the nearest tenth, is ____.

## Practice Questions answers from previous page

3 5/
2
7. (a) STO (b) STO[
3 C
8. Graph  is a horiz. stretch, factor of 1⁄8.
Graph  can also be a vertical shift, 3 units up. & VWX\$ (%  & VWX\$ ( 8 VWX\$ %  & 8VWX\$ %

3.4 Logarithm Laws

## 12. The graphs of N and O on the right have a vertical asymptote

at 3. The equation of N has the form N STO ℎ
The graph of O is obtained by vertically reflecting the graph of R %
Provide two forms of an equation for O and use log laws and
exponential form to show they are equivalent.
X %

13. If VWX\$ 0 < and VWX\$ '/ ?, then an expression for VWX\$ '/// is:

A. 2 8 82
 Exam
Style
B. 8 82
C. 2 8 84
D. 4

## 14. NR If VWX, - \$. \$, where , = 0, 9 1, then the value of VWX, - , correct to the

nearest hundredth, is _____.

## Practice Questions answers from previous page

9. Graph  has domain of { 9 0, ∈ ℝ}, while graph , while “equivalent” (log law #3), has a lesser domain of { = 0, ∈ ℝ}.
(Can’t log negatives, but for  we square % so it’s never negative) So graph are not identical, well played Kidist..
10. C 11. 5.8

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## 15. Write each of the following expressions as a single log.

! \
(a) 2STOd 8 4STOd C 3 (b) STOd 9 3STOd C 8 5/3

! !
(c) STOd 3STOd C 1 (d) STOd 8 2STOd C 82

n
 Exam A. STO
Style 2

B. STO 2n

2
C. STO
n

D. STO 2n#

## 12.  O STO!/ 3 O STO 3   becomes STO 3 !

 exp RTD
form Learning
gives 2U PowerMath
3 !
! !
Exp. form of  is 1/2 U
3 which is z 3 and again,  is 2U which is equivalent.
4

## 13. A 14. 1.74

3.4 Logarithm Laws

## 17. Evaluate each of the following:

{|}F {|}F !
{|} {|} 3 3 Simplify to a single
(a) 10 10 (b)
{|}F power term of base 3
3

18. If STO 3 and STO 5 , determine an expression for each of the following:
432 12
(a) STO (b) STO
\
15 200

< \$
If VWX< ? /. 0, then the value of the expression VWX< ? 8 VWX< is:
19. ?

A. 0.5
 Exam
Style
B. 1.25
C. 2.25
D. 2.5

5⁄
3 2
15. (a) STOd C (b) STOd (c) STOd 5C (d) STOd
C C
16. B

/\$ ( ? '
17. (a) '\$ (b) 18. (a) < 8\$ (b) < \$? 19. C
\$ \$