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Chapter 3.4 Logarithm Laws from the Math 30-1 EDG Workbook
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)

39 views12 pagesChapter 3.4 Logarithm Laws from the Math 30-1 EDG Workbook
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

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4 Logarithm Laws

In section 4.1 we reviewed the exponent rules. A corresponding concept is the Laws of Logarithms. Remember –

the value of a logarithm is an exponent, after all!

We start by considering the sum of two logarithms of the same base, such as: STO 8 8 STO 4

Is there a simple way to evaluate this? See if you can spot the patterns below.

3 8 2 8

here here here

_____ Now find : STO STO _____

_____ Now find :

32

_____ _____ _____

So….. So….. So…..

VWX$ ( 8 VWX$ log 2 32

_________ VWX ) 8 VWX $7 _________ VWX'// /// VWX'/// _________

4 VWX$ ($ STO

2STO 8

2 $

So….. VWX$ ( _________

STO[ f g STO[ f 8 STO[ g

6 3 8 3

f 64

STO[ STO[ f STO[ g STO 4 STO STO 64 STO 16

g 16

2 6 4

6 2

STO[ C STO! 256

STOd STO 16 STO 16 STO16

2 4 8 Verify

Change of base identity, introduced in 3.3

2 4 on calc!

3.4 Logarithm Laws

Worked Examples Evaluate each expression (a) VWX0/ 8 VWX$/ (b) VWX '/( 8 VWX '/ VWX '$/

up here

STO 50 20 108 ∗ 10

STO STO STO 9

STO 1000 3 120

Neg (-) logs

2

down here

(a) STO 8 8 STO 32 (b) STO 288 STO 8 (c) STO 10 8 STO 100 STO 8

Worked Examples (a) VWX0 $0* (b) VWX$ (

Logarithm of a Power Law

!

Solution: (a) 6STO 25 (b) STO 8 Re-write radicals using rational exponents

2 Since 5 $ 1

25

STO 8 Use log law: STO[ f STO[ f

12

4

6 2

1

3 3/4

4

\ 9

(a) STO 815 (b) STO 32 (c) 3STO50 2STO15 8 STO

50

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Worked Example VWXk $VWXl VWXm* VWXk

using log laws $

!⁄

Sol.: Step 1 #’s in front of log expressions STOn STOo STO p 8 STOn!/ While we’re at it, distribute

become exponents the (-) sign through the brackets

pos (+) neg(-) neg (-) pos (+)

!⁄

STOn STOo STO p 8 STOn!/

Step 2 Prepare to write as a single

log… pos. logs, ship term to Pos (+) logs, terms go up here

the numerator, neg. logs, STO '/$

Simplified from k

ship to denominator Neg (-) logs down here

STO STO

using exponent rules o p o p

1 1

(a) 2STO 4STO STO 6 (b) 2STO 8 3STO q [4STO 8 STO q ]

3 3

%

Worked Examples Expand and simplify using log laws: VWX$

(

Solution: STO ⁄

STO 8 f

Expand using the log law: STO[ STO[ f STO[ g

g

3

STO STO 8 Isolate log term using the log law: STO[ f STO[ f

4

3

STO 3 Evaluate STO 8 … think 2 8?

4

Expand each of the following using log laws. Evaluate and simplify where possible.

5 n 1000

(a) STO 81 (b) STO (c) STO \

125o

3.4 Logarithm Laws

Worked Examples Working with log laws 0/

(a) VWX '(// (b) VWX

$7

Sol.: (a) Express 1800 as multiples of 2 and 5 So, re-write as: (b) Similarly break down “50”

STO 2 5 9 2∗5∗5

Use your calc to three STO this is “ ”

determine how many This is 1800 27

factors of 2

times “2” and “5”

divide into 1800… two factors y

STO 2 8 STO 5 8 STO 9

Split up using log laws… goal is

STO 2 5 STO 27

of 5

to isolate VWX $ and VWX 0 STO 2 8 STO 5 3

… and 9 left over we must isolate “VWX 0”,

3STO 2 8 2STO 5 8 STO 9

as we’re given that’s “&”

Given - And this And this

this is “%” is “&” log is “$” STO 2 8 2STO 5 3

3 82 82 82 3

75

(a) STO 720 (b) STO

8

Worked Examples If STO 7 and STO 4, evaluate: VWX0

using log laws &

1

Sol.: Split up using log laws: STO 25 STO 2 8 2STO STO

2

STO 25 8 STO STO !/ given, this is 7 …and this is

1

this is “$” Isolate VWX0 % and VWX0 & 282 7 14

2

81

(a) STO 9 (b) STO

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

24 q

Exam

Style A.

64

24 q

B.

4

2u

C.

64

2u

D.

4

Use the laws of logarithms to show that each equation below is true for all values , where , = 0, , 9 1.

(a) STO[ STO4 1 (b) STO! STO[

[

3.4 Practice Questions

1. Express each as a single logarithm, and then evaluate:

25

(a) STO20 8 STO5 (b) STO 10 8 STO 15 8 STO (c) STO 80 8 STO 50 STO 125

6

1 75 1 1

(d) 3STO 12 3STO 4 (e) 2STO 5 8 STO 36 STO (f) STO 250 STO 2

2 2 2 2

(a) STO 8! (b) STO \ 100 (c) STO 25!.

For (a) only, also state any 1

(a) 2STOn 3STOo restrictions on the variable (b) 2STO 4 8 STO 3STO

2

1

(c) 2 STO 3 STO STO 8 STO (d) 2STO[ 8 3STO[ 2 C STO[ 2C 82

3

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

20

(a) STO 15 (b) STO 360 (c) STO

675

`

32

(a) STO80 (b) STO 250 2 (c) STO

125 1000

9

1 9`

(d) 2STO (e) STO (f) STO

2

1. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 3 (e) 2 (f) 1.5 2. (a) 30 (b) 2/3 (c) 3

n 16

3. (a) STO where n = 0, o = 0 (b) STO (c) STO /

(d) STO[ 4

o

3.4 Logarithm Laws

7. Express each as a single logarithm in simplest form, and state any restrictions on the variable:

STO 8 ! STO 9 1

(a) (b) 2STO[ C 8 STO[ 9 3STO[ C

3 2 2

8. The students in a math class are learning about transformations of logarithmic functions. They are given the

following two functions and asked to describe the transformation of the graph of function to the graph of

function : STO STO 8

Kidist claims that the graph of function is obtained by horizontally stretching the graph of function .

Samer states that the graph of function is obtained by vertically translating the graph of function .

the stretch factor and amount of vertical shift.

1 5 3

4. (a) 8 (b) 2 8 8 3 (c) 3 82 5. (a) 4 8 (b) 8 2 8 1 (c) 3

2 4 2

6. (a) 13 (b) 45 (c) 26 (d) 12 (e) 8 (f) 7 or, alternatively (b) can 3

83

be expressed as: 2

Chapter 4 – Radical and Rational Functions

9. The same two students are arguing again (while keeping it friendly), this time with the functions:

STO

2STO

This time Samer argues that the graphs of the two functions should be identical, while Kidist maintains that

the graphs will have a different domain. Analyze the two functions to determine who is correct and justify

their position with correct mathematical reasoning.

10. The expression ' VWX - $VWX ,- 8 , where , = 1, written in terms of is:

$

1

Exam

Style A.

9 /

1

B. /

27

1

C. /

9

1

D. /

27

`

11. NR If STO 5, then the value of STO , correct to the nearest tenth, is ____.

3 5/

2

7. (a) STO (b) STO[

3 C

8. Graph is a horiz. stretch, factor of 1⁄8.

Graph can also be a vertical shift, 3 units up. & VWX$ (% & VWX$ ( 8 VWX$ % & 8VWX$ %

3.4 Logarithm Laws

at 3. The equation of N has the form N STO ℎ

The graph of O is obtained by vertically reflecting the graph of R %

N about the -axis.

Provide two forms of an equation for O and use log laws and

exponential form to show they are equivalent.

X %

13. If VWX$ 0 < and VWX$ '/ ?, then an expression for VWX$ '/// is:

A. 2 8 82

Exam

Style

B. 8 82

C. 2 8 84

D. 4

nearest hundredth, is _____.

9. Graph has domain of { 9 0, ∈ ℝ}, while graph , while “equivalent” (log law #3), has a lesser domain of { = 0, ∈ ℝ}.

(Can’t log negatives, but for we square % so it’s never negative) So graph are not identical, well played Kidist..

10. C 11. 5.8

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

! \

(a) 2STOd 8 4STOd C 3 (b) STOd 9 3STOd C 8 5/3

! !

(c) STOd 3STOd C 1 (d) STOd 8 2STOd C 82

n

Exam A. STO

Style 2

B. STO 2n

2

C. STO

n

D. STO 2n#

exp RTD

form Learning

gives 2U PowerMath

3 !

! !

Exp. form of is 1/2 U

3 which is z 3 and again, is 2U which is equivalent.

4

3.4 Logarithm Laws

{|}F {|}F !

{|} {|} 3 3 Simplify to a single

(a) 10 10 (b)

{|}F power term of base 3

3

18. If STO 3 and STO 5 , determine an expression for each of the following:

432 12

(a) STO (b) STO

\

15 200

< $

If VWX< ? /. 0, then the value of the expression VWX< ? 8 VWX< is:

19. ?

A. 0.5

Exam

Style

B. 1.25

C. 2.25

D. 2.5

5⁄

3 2

15. (a) STOd C (b) STOd (c) STOd 5C (d) STOd

C C

16. B

/$ ( ? '

17. (a) '$ (b) 18. (a) < 8$ (b) < $? 19. C

$ $

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