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Chapter 3.1 Exponential Equations and Expressions from the Math 30-1 EDG Workbook
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

0 ratings0% found this document useful (0 votes)

109 views10 pagesChapter 3.1 Exponential Equations and Expressions from the Math 30-1 EDG Workbook
math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

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LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS

3.1 Exponential Expressions & Equations p. 153

3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions p. 163

3.3 The Logarithmic Function p. 175

3.4 Logarithm Laws p. 191

3.5 Solving Exponential Equations Using Logs,

and Applications p. 203

3.6 Logarithmic Equations and Log Scales p. 217

To successfully complete this unit, and even enjoy it, we must first brush up

our sills on a concept last thoroughly visited in Math 10C – exponents.

Exponent

3 3 3 3

Base

Appears 4 times

Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

Exponent Rules (Remember these?) to all warm-ups and class examples

bottom of the next

page

Quotient of Powers

Try Each First!

Power of a Power

Don’t peek!

Power of a Product 4

2

Power of a Quotient

Zero Exponent 1 7 2

1 1 1

Negative Exponents or

2

2 Evaluate each of

Neg. Exp. fraction base these three, try w/o

3 using your calc!

Rational Exponents or 8

3.1 Exponential Expressions and Equations

!

2 12

(a) 2 3 (b) (c)

10 8

(a) Start with 2nd bracket, apply exp. “2” (b) Start by simplifying “inside” (c) Start by simplifying “inside”

# Higher exp. of % is on Exp. of , is higher on bottom. So start

2 9

top (3 vs. 2). So subtract w/ - term, which is higher on top.

$ exponents, start w/ top exp. of - is: ' $

$ & $ 5

% exp. of % is: $

!

10 + 2 Higher exp. of & is on 3

Square everything inside,

one at a time bottom to start. So subtract 2

exponents, start w/ bottom 12/8 reduces

Answer: Exp. of , is higher on bottom.

exp. of & is: *

'(%'' &( exp. of , is: $

Then, apply outside exp., “3”, to

$ ) &$ &* both the numerator and denom.: Next, apply the rule:

% %( add exponents

$

2 2

5

3 3

Final answers should not

have negative exponents %

,'/

'$0&*

)-$

Class Example 3.11 Simplifying Expressions with Exponents to all warm-ups and class examples

12

(a) 5 (b) 4 10 (c) (d)

6 2 !

2 .

(a) 8 (b) (c) 8 (d) 9 (e) 25

3

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

We need to re-write 32 as a power of 2.

(Since the left side is a power of 2)

An exponential equation has the variable

2 4

2 32 can be written as $0

in the exponent, for example: $ % $

4 Now our equation consists of two power terms of the

2 2 same base.

One method to solve involves writing all 3 4 5 Since the expressions are equal, and the bases are

terms in the same base. Let’s see how equal, then the exponents must also be equal.

that works here… 3 9

Re-write all terms with the same base

If necessary, simplify using Exponent Rules, so there is a single term on each side

Set the exponents equal and solve

into both sides of

Re-write 9 and 27 using the same base orig. equation

4 5 4 6

Same funky exp.

notation decimal

$

on both sides!

So equation becomes: So our solution is verified

Solve graphically on your calculator:

$ 4 5 4 6

One method is to: 1) Set Equation to zero: 94 5

27 4 6

0

First simplify each side…. 2) Graph &' left side , &$ right side

2nd + TRACE to get

multiply CALC menu

3 4 !

3 4 5 3) Sol. is the -coord. of pt. of intersect

exponents

Window Note:

Once both sides are fully simplified,

set the exponents equal We don’t need a “perfect”

window setting – it’s not

2 14 6 27 crucial to even see the graphs!

4 13 So long as the

solution is within

' these values,

% we’re good.

(If not, adjust)

4

1

For the equation: 84

4

(a) Solve algebraically

graphically on your calc.

3.1 Exponential Expressions and Equations

%

(% ' '

Worked Example Algebraically solve the Exponential Equation: $% ' (

Verify numerically:

Algebraic Re-write 8, 4, and 1/8 using the same base Substitute % $

Solution: 4 ! into orig. equation

4

4 !

Same value on

both sides!

4 !

$ 4

So equation becomes: $ So our solution is verified

$$ 4 !

Solve graphically on calc:

4

2 4 6

Simplify each side…. 2

2 4

subtract exponents 2 2

set the exponents equal Graph: 94 5

27 4 6

0

2 4 % $ Solution is the -coord.

of the pt. of intersect

4 ! 4

Exam Algebraically determine the value of in the exponential equation , where

Style

9 , 9 0, and 9 0.

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Class Example 3.16 Solving Equations where the variable is in the base

Solve: 0%$ ' 0

Example

verify your solution.

Sol.: First – isolate the

5 135

5 5

power term, %$

Goal: Get exp. of

Multiplies

27

“%” to 1.

to 1 $

$ Take both sides to

27 the exp. 2/3

! (reciprocal)

27

% )

Finally, we explore real world situations that can be modeled using exponential equations – where some initial

value (<) has a multiplication factor (?) applied every certain period of time (@).

Worked The number of bacteria in a sample is shown to triple every 7 hours. Initially, there are 9

Example colonies present. Set up and solve an equation to determine the time it would take for the

number of colonies to reach 2187.

On formula sheet: Period of time for mult.

; Solve on calc:

Algebraic @

& < ? factor to be applied Use %,<% / for “time” problems

Solution:

end amount Multiplication growth

initial amount (or decay) factor

The mult. factor ( ) is (population triples) Use &,<% greater

GROWTH: = 1

than 2187

The end amount ( ) is $'(7 ; DECAY: 0 > >1

$'(7 ) 7

The initial amount ( ) is ) “ ” is the pop.,

;

And A is 7 hrs $ 7 Isolate power term after “ ” hours

(time it takes for ;

0 7

population to triple) Re-write 243 as a power of 3 Solution is the -coord.

; of the pt. of intersect

0

7

; 0 hrs

A particularly strong investment fund has doubled in value over the past 5 years. Assuming that the fund

continues this performance, setup and algebraically solve an equation to determine how long it would take for a

$5 000 investment to grow to $80 000.

3.1 Practice Questions

! 5 8 4

(a) 5 3 (b) (c)

10 6

27 (e) 2

(d)

3 !

2. Evaluate each, showing simplification steps: Try first without a calculator, use your calc to verify!

3 25 2

(a) (b) 81 (c) (d) !

4 16 8

50

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

3. Use an algebraic process to solve each of the following equations. Verify your answers.

1

(a) 6 (b) 64 4 16

216

1 1

(c) 34 94 ! (d) 4

· 216 4

6 216

4

(e) 4 84 !

(f) 9 4

3 4 !

274 !

8 81 ! 1

16 64

1. (a) 45 (b) 4 (c) 6

(d) (e) 2. (a) (b) 27 (c) (d)

27 4 9 125 20

3.1 Exponential Expressions and Equations

4. Algebraically solve each of the following equations. Verify by graphing on your calculator.

4 !

1 1

4

3 4 ! 1

(a) 5 25 4 ! 125 4 (b) (c) 3 82

5 9 274 16

4 4 4 4

125 6

4

(e) 2 27 (f) 1 16 4 !

(d)

216 5 3 8 4 84 !

3. (a) 2 (b) 11/6 (c) 6 (d) 1/6 (e) 1 (f) 12

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

4 4 F 4

5. A student used an algebraic process to solve the equation 3 3

1 . He is able to simplify the

27 4 ! 9

equation to 8 8 C 0, where , C ∈ E

The value of C is:

A. 8

Exam

Style

B. 4

C. 2

D. 1

6. NR The simplified solution to the equation 164 · 64 4 64 is , where the values of and

are, respectively, ____ and ____.

7. The count of a bacteria culture is initially 60 and is doubling every 4 hours. Set up and algebraically

solve an exponential equation, to determine the amount of time it would take for the bacteria count

to reach 1920.

4. (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 62/3 (d) 4/3 (e) 6/5 (f) 3/7

3.1 Exponential Expressions and Equations

8. The foundation of a house has approximately 1200 termites. The termite population is doubling every 20

days. Set up and algebraically solve an equation to determine how long it would take for the termite

population to reach approximately 153 600.

9. An adult takes 400 mg of Ibuprofen. The half-life for the amount of Ibuprofen in a person’s system is 3 hours.

Note: This means that after 3 hrs, half of the original amount ingested remains in the body.

Set up and algebraically solve an equation to determine how long it would take for the amount of Ibuprofen

in the person’s body to decrease to 12.5 mg.

5. C 6. 67 7. 20 hours

8. 140 days 9. 15 hrs

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