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# Chapter 3 Exponential Functions and Logarithms REVIEW

1. Use an algebraic process to solve each of the following equations. Verify your answers.
4
4 !
1
(a) 4 4 1 (b) 16 84
4

4
4
3 8
(c)
2 27

2. For each of the following exponential functions, state the (i) domain, (ii) range, and coordinates of any
(iii) -intercepts and (iv) -intercepts. Sketch each, be sure to include the asymptote. Try doing as much
as you can without using your graphing calculator! Use an algebraic process to determine any intercepts.
4 !
1 4
(a) N 3 24 (b) O 5 2 8 40
2

i – Domain: i – Domain:

ii – Range: ii – Range:

## iii – -int: iii – -int:

iv – -int: iv – -int:

Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Review

3. The range of the exponential functions given by the graphs below are { | = 5, ∈ ℝ} for N and
4 8ˆ.
{ | > 48, ∈ ℝ} for O . Determine an equation for each function, in the form

(a) (b)
0, 45
2, 23

0, 7 2, 0

4. Evaluate each of the following logarithms. Try without using a log button on your calculator.
(a) STO 81 (b) STO! 32 (c) STO 0.125 (d) STO 27

1
(e) STO \ 100 (f) STO
125

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

N HA at
1. (a) 3/2 2. (a) i - { ∈ ℝ} (b) i - { ∈ ℝ}
0, 35 40
(b) 6/13 ii - { | = 24, ∈ ℝ} 2, 0 ii - { | > 40, ∈ ℝ}
iii - 2, 0 0, 18 iii - 3, 0 3, 0
(c) 13/12 HA at
iv - 0, 18 24 iv - 0, 35 O

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

5. Refer to #3 above. If and ˆ are both elements of the real numbers, where 9 0, ˆ 9 0, identify
which of the following scenarios provides an -intercept. Justify by providing a graph.
(a) = 0, ˆ = 0 (b) = 0, ˆ > 0 (c) > 0, ˆ = 0 (d) > 0, ˆ > 0

6. Solve each of the following for , without using a log button on your calculator.
1 4
(a) STO 512 (b) STO 3 (c) STO4
16 3

1 2
(d) 3 4 729 (e) 4 2 4 ! (f) STO 5
8 # 3

27
(g) STO 32 8 (h) STO6
3

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

4
4
1
3. (a) 2 3 85 (b) 3 8 48 4. (a) (b) 0/ (c) /\$
4
(d) * (e) \$/ (f) /\$

Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Review

7. Given the function R % < % ' 8 •, an expression for the -intercept is:

A. 8ˆ
 Exam
Style
B. 4 8 ˆ

C. 8ˆ
4
4
D. 8ˆ

1 4 !
8. A student wishes to algebraically determine the -intercept of the function 2 32 . One of
8
steps in his correct solution lists the linear equation 3 8 ,
 Exam
Style where the values of and are, respectively, ____ and ____ .

## 9. For the function R % VWX'⁄ ) % , provide a detailed sketch, and

indicate the domain, range, asymptote, and coordinates of any intercepts.
Use an algebraic process to determine the graph characteristics, where applicable
state in exact values only.

## 10. The function & \$VWX, ?% ; = 0, 9 1, 9 0 has a domain:

A. { | = ⁄3 , ∈ ℝ}
 Exam
Style
B. { | = 8 3, ∈ ℝ}
C. { | = 3 , ∈ ℝ}
D. { | = 3/ , ∈ ℝ}

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

5.
(b) YES, (c) YES, (d) No -int
(a) No -int -int -int

## 6. (a) )/\$ (b) '/* (c) ( (d)

(e) )/\$ (f) /) (g) ' / (h) '/

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## 11. The function & VWX\$ ?% 8 /. 0 ; 9 0 has a -intercept of:

A. 1/2
 Exam
Style
B. 1
C. /2
D.

12. An exponential function R % < % 8M; 9 0 has range of { = 18 , ∈ ℝ}, and an -int. at 2, 0 .
A function O is obtained by vertically reflecting the graph of N about the -axis, and horizontally
stretching it about the -axis by a factor of 3.
A function P is obtained by reflecting the graph of N about the line y .
(a) Determine an equation for the
function O

intercepts for O

the function P

## (b) State the domain, and and

intercepts for P

13. The equation <VWX? %& 8 ] can be written in exponential form as:
c d d
A.
 Exam
Style
c d
B.

C. c

c 4U
D.

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

7. C 8. 43 9. Domain {%|% > , % ∈ ℝ} 10. D
Range {& ∈ ℝ}
Vert. Asym: at %
8/3, 0
-intercept (/ , / 0, 2 V.A. at
-intercept /, \$ %

Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Review

14. The expression 0\$VWX% 0\$VWX% can be written in exponential form as:
A. 5 {|}4 F
 Exam
Style
{|}4 `
B. 5

C. 5 {|} 4 `

D. 5{|} 4F

15. A function R % VWX\$ % is transformed by horizontally stretching the graph about the line 0
by a factor of 1/8. Show how this transformation can also be obtained by vertically translating the
graph of N by a factor of M and state the value of M.

16. The graph of & VWX' % 8 ( is transformed to & R % with the following transformations applied:
\$

## - A horizontal stretch by a factor of 2

- A reflection about the -axis
- A translation 2 units to the left

## Use an algebraic process to determine each of the

following characteristics of N
(a) Domain (b) -intercept (c) -intercept

## 17. NR If VWX'/ b /. \$0 and žZ]Ÿ b, then the largest value of on [0, 2¡

has the form , where the value of is ____ (first digit of your answer) and
 Exam
Style
the value of
[
is (second digit).

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

%/
11. B 12. (a) X % \$ 8 '( (b) Range {&|& > '(, & ∈ ℝ} -int. *, / -int. /, '*
13. A '
(c) M % VWX [\$ % 8 '( ] (d) Domain {%|% = '(, % ∈ ℝ} -int. '*, / -int. /, \$

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## 18. Write each of the following expressions as simplified single logarithms.

STO[ C 1 q 1
(a) 5STO[ 3 (b) 2STO STO STO q
2 2 9 3

## 19. If VWX k ,, then find an expression for each of the following:

\
27 n
(a) STO 9n (b) STO (c) STO
n 3

20. Given that VWX k \$\$ and VWX l \$/, evaluate each of the following:
32n n
(a) STO 16no (b) STO (c) STO
o 8 o
`

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

14. C
15. Apply horiz. stretch & VWX\$ (%  & VWX\$ ( 8 VWX\$ %  & 8 VWX\$ % Same as a vert. translation 3 up
16. (a) {%|% > ' , % ∈ ℝ} (b) '\$, / (c) /, VWX/.0 7 17. 7

Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Review

21. If VWX\$ %, VWX\$ 0 &, and VWX \$ - '\$, determine an expression for each of the following:
75
(a) STO 45 (b) STO 2700 (c) STO
8

## 22. Use an algebraic process to solve the equation 3 44 ! 60,

correct to the nearest hundredth.

## 23. For the equation *\$% '/% \$

, use an algebraic process to:

## (a) Determine an approximate solutions,

correct to the nearest hundredth.

## (b) The exact solution can be written

STOn
in the form
o
STO
p
Determine the values of n, o, and p.

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

<0
18. (a) VWX? (b) VWX & t'/*
? ]'/\$
\$
19. (a) ,8\$ (b) \$, (c) , '
\$

## 20. (a) * (b) (. 0 (c) .0

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

24. The number of hours, •, that cream stays fresh decreases exponentially as the temperature of the
surrounding air, (in °p) increases. The relationship is • 160 0.1 . # .
(a) Determine how long cream will stay fresh
if it is kept at 2°p, correct o the nearest
whole hour.

## (b) If cream is left out in a room stays fresh for

16 hours, use an algebraic process to
determine the temperature of the room,
correct to the nearest tenth of a degree.

## 25. A radioactive substance is decaying at rate of 1.15% every hour.

(a) If initially there is 100% of a sample, set up and
algebraically solve an equation to determine how
long it would take to decay to half the initial amount,
correct to the nearest tenth of an hour.

## (b) Use your result from (a) to determine an alternative

exponential decay function, in the form n 100 •/Š ,
where the initial amount is multiplied by every A hours.

(c) In (a) and (b) above we saw that we can model the
amount the substance decays to using two different
types of equations, each with a different value for .
Use each to predict how much of the substance will
remain after 24 hours, correct to the nearest whole
percentage.

## 26. The effective percentage of oxygen in the air decreases as a function

of altitude. At sea level (0 km elevation), the oxygen count is 20.9,
while on top of Mount Everest (8.85 km) the oxygen count is 6.9.
Fill in the blank: Every _____ km in altitude, the effective percentage
of oxygen in the air decreases by half. Round to the nearest tenth.

## Answers to Review Questions from Previous Page

21. (a) (% 8 & 8 ( (b) '\$% 8 *& 8 (c) \$% 8 & 7 22. % ~ '. '*
23. (a) x 3.60 (b) k '//, l '(, m 0 RTD Learning PowerMath

Chapter 3 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Review

## 27. A \$1000 investment is made in a fund that promises the invested

amount will double in 9 years.
(a) If that rate of return continues, set up and algebraically
solve an equation to predict how long it will take for
the investment to reach \$5000. (Nearest tenth of a yr)

## (b) Use an algebraic process to determine the average

annual rate of return (nearest tenth of a %) for the
investment, if it is compounded:
i Annually i Monthly

## 28. Use an algebraic process to solve each of the following equations.

(a) STO 85 STO 81 STO3 (b) STO 4 8 STO 82 2

## 29. Earthquake A measured 7.2 on the Richter Scale.

Determine the magnitude of Earthquake B, if it had one-third
the intensity of Earthquake A. Round to the nearest tenth.

30. Two friends are having a discussion about Donald Trump. At the start of their conversation the intensity
of sound for their discussion measured 59 dB. Near the end, the conversation had 25 times the sound
intensity. Determine the decibel level of their conversation near the end, to the nearest whole number.

24. (a) ' hrs (b) \$*. °C 26. 0. 0 km

; (b) Alternative equation: k '// '/\$
25. (a) Solve: 0/ '// /. )((0  ; ~ 0). ) hrs 0).)

\$ \$ ¥0).) .
(c) Evaluate: ¦ '// /. )((0 and k '// '/\$  Both give ~ 7*%

27. (a) \$/. ) yrs (b) i (. /% ii (. % 28. (a) ' (b) * 29. *. 7 on Richter 30. 7 dB