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# 3.

## 2 Graphs of Exponential Functions

We saw in the previous section how exponential equations involved terms where the variable is in the exponent.
Exponential functions are can be used to model many real-world situations.

##  The world population Exponential functions can model any of these,

 The value of an investment given certain parameters.
earning positive interest We’ll dive further into applications in section 4.7,
 The measured amount of a after learning a bit about logarithms. For now
decaying radioactive isotope we’ll focus on the basic graphs.
These three involve negative exponential growth,
 The value of a used car
or exponential decay 
 The temperature of a cup of
hot chocolate as it cools

## Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

Exploration #1 The Graph of & \$% to all warm-ups and class examples

1 Complete the table of values below, and plot the remaining points on the graph.
Then, sketch the smooth curve that goes through each of your points. Then – you
will have graphed your first exponential function.

% \$% 2 Function Essentials:
State each of the following
0 2 '
1 Domain
2
3 Range

4
Asymptote
1
2 -intercept

3 /, '
-intercept

' %
The Graph of &
\$
Next, we sketch the graph of the Function Essentials:
4
function obtained by horizontally
reflecting the graph of 24 , Are there any differences
about the line 0. from the graph of y 24 ?

## 3 Use transformations to show

that the resulting function
! 4
equation is:

3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions

## We introduce the 4, 16 Applying a 4, 16

& \$% ' %
basic exponential horizontal &
function as: reflection gives: \$

3, 8 3, 8

2, 4 2, 4
0, 1 1, 2 1, 2 0, 1

1 1 1 1
2, 1, 1, 2,
4 2 2 4
For any graph, & ?% ? = /, ? 9 ' :
Domain: {% ∈ ℝ} -intercept: /, ' Asymptote: Horizontal Asymptote at & /
 As % gets larger and larger the graph
Range: {&|& = /, & ∈ ℝ} -intercept: -/< approaches, but never touches, the -axis.

Note how the characteristics; domain, range, intercepts and asymptote – are the same for any base of & ?% .
And about that base, b….  It can’t be “0” Or else would just be 0 for every …. & /%
 It can’t be “1” Or else would just be 1 for every …. & '%
 It can’t be negative Note that f we allowed negative bases, any even value of
would return a positive value
So we define the base to be: ? = /, ? 9 ' :

Now with that, let’s explore the effect of changing the base:

## Analyze the graphs on the right. All points 

with integer coordinates are shown. & \$%
1 For each equation listed to the right,
indicate the number of the matching graph. %
&
\$

## 2 Describe the effect on the graph of

4 , = 1, as gets larger. %
'/ 
&
)

& %

## 3 Describe the effect on the graph of

4
, = 1, as gets closer to 1.
& '/% 

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exploration #3 Comparing Graphs in the form & ?% , where ? is between / and '
Analyze the graphs on the right. All points
with integer coordinates are shown. %  
'
&
1 For each equation on the right, indicate the \$
number of the graph that matches.

## 2 Describe the effect on the graph of %

4 \$
, 0 > > 1, as &
gets closer to 0.

%

)
&
'/
3 Describe the effect on the graph of
4 , 0 > > 1, as
%
gets closer to 1. '
&

%
'
&
'/

## Note that for all of these graphs::

{% ∈ ℝ} {& = /, & ∈ ℝ} H.A. at & / & ' -/<
Domain Range Asymptote -intercept -intercept

Given the graph of If = 1, the graph increases If 0 > > 1, the graph decreases
4…
& ?% & ?%
=1 0> >1
0.14 104

   
0.54 & \$%

0, 1 0, 1

0.94 1.14
  If = 1, the graph bends-up from the horizontal line 1

1 The larger the base (the further from “1”), the greater the
increase… compare graphs ,, and  on the left.

The smaller the base (the further from “1”), the greater
the decrease… compare graphs , , and  on the left.

We’ll next explore the effect of adding a vertical stretch, <, and vertical translation, M, to the graph of 4
….

3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions

Exploration #4  & \$% 
Comparing Graphs of & < ? %, 9 0, =1
for different < values
Analyze the graphs on the right. All points
with integer coordinates are shown. 1 State the equation
The corresponding functions for each of of the function for:
graphs , , and can be written in the
form 2 4.
Hint: The value of “ ” can be solved for, or Graph 
obtained through reasoning, or through
Graph 
2 Describe the effect of < on the
4.
graph of
Graph 

Exploration #5
%
Effect of Parameter “M” in & < ? 8 M, 9 0, 91

## Graphs  and  on the right are obtained by applying a

vertical translation to the graph of 3 2 4.
The horizontal asymptote (HA) for graph  is shown.

## 1 Explain how the value M, where = 0,

affects whether the graph has an -intercept. 

% 
& \$

## Range Asymptote &-intercept

Graph 

Graph 

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Given the graph of & < ? %; =0… Given the graph of & < ? %; =0…

& < ? %
& < ? % 8M

## The vertical translation M

/, < 8 M represents the horizontal
The vertical stretch < < asymptote. (H.A.)
/, <
represents the &-intercept.
< M

## Given the function & \$ %8 ,

(a) Without graphing, state the range, asymptote, and -intercept.

(b) Use reasoning to state whether the graph will have an -intercept.
Explain.

## (c) Sketch and label all characteristics.

%
Exploration #6 The graph of & < ? , > 0, 9 1

## 1 Determine the value of < to state an equation for N .

2,12

1,4
4
0,
2 On the same grid, sketch the graph of O , obtained 3
by reflecting the graph of N about the line 0.
Label it graph .

## 3 State the equation of O , both in terms of N and

in terms of .

3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions

%
Exploration #7 Further Exploration of & < ? 8 M , 9 0, 9 1

## The graphs on the right can each be written in the form

4
8 P. For all four graphs, and are the same values.

## The horizontal asymptotes are:

0 for graph  2 State an equation of
4 for graph  the function for:
1 for graph 
3 for graph  Graph 

## 1 Use graph  to determine the

and values.
Graph 

Graph 

Graph 

3 Use an algebraic process to determine
the -intercept of graph .
(From the equation)

## 4 State the range of each graph.

Graph 

Graph 

Graph 

Graph 

4
5 Given an exponential function in the form 8 P,
state two possible expressions for the range.

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## An exponential function can

be written & < ? % 8M. If = 1, the If 0 > > 1,
graph increases the graph
Domain is decreases
{ ∈ ℝ}

The -intercept
is < 8 M /, < 8 M

## The range is: { | > P, ∈ ℝ}

There is a H.A. { | = P, ∈ ℝ} if < > /
P & M
at & M
if < = /

& M

/ 8P

## 1 8P since 1 for any

The graph will have an % – intercept
<8M if = 0 and P > 0 … or if > 0 and P = 0

4
& M
/ 8P

## Solve the resulting equation for

the -intercept, if it exits.

& M

%
'
Worked Given the function & 8 '* , state the domain, range, asymptote, and any intercepts.
Example \$
Sketch and label all characteristics.

## Solution: For all exponential functions (unless restricted by some application),

the DOMAIN is {% ∈ ℝ} H.A. at & '*
For range consider two things:
 The H.A. is at & '* (the vertical translation). So, the 0, 12
graph is either entirely above or entirely below & '*.
 Since > 0 (there is a negative in front of the function), the
graph opens down, and is entirely below the line 16. 2, 0
So, the RANGE is {&|& > '*, & ∈ ℝ}

%

## 0 and evaluate: ! 4 & 8 '*

/ 4 816 \$
! / 4 Horiz. Asymptote
4 8 16 ! 4 2 2
4 16
4 1 8 16 12 2 Base is less than 1, so graph “falls right”.
! 4
4 2 But 4 is negative, so vertically reflect
/, '\$ 2 ! 4
2 \$, /

3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions

## Given the function 3 4 4 848 ,

(a) State the domain, and analyze the characteristics of
equation to determine the range.

## (b) Use an algebraic process to determine the and

intercepts. Verify using your graphing calculator.

## Each graph on the right represents an exponential function that    

can be written in the form 4; =1
Use reasoning to match each equation with a graph number.

(a) & ?%

\$ %
(b) & ?
0

## (d) & ?% Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

to all warm-ups and class examples

## Each graph on the right represents an exponential function that   

can be written in the form 4; 91
Math30-1power.com
Use reasoning to match each equation with a graph number.

% % 
' \$
(a) & (d) & 
\$
% %
'
(b) & (e) &
(
%
'
(c) &

Chapter 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Worked On the graph shown the horizontal asymptote and points () shown
Example have integer values. Determine an equation for the corresponding
4
are exponential function, in the form 8P.

## Solution: Start by identifying the H.A. (horizontal asymptote), which

defines the M value.  M '/
So we have & < ? % '/
Next, the value of < (vertical stretch) can be counted as the
distance from the H.A. and the &-intercept.  < 0
So now we have & 0 ? % '/ For reference…

## Finally, use any other point on the graph, such as 1, 0 , to

solve for ?. / 5 ' 10
10 5
2
So now that we have P, , and
, we can state the equation:
%
& 0 \$ '/

## Class Example 3.25 Solving Exponential Equations of three terms

For the graph below, the horizontal asymptote and points indicated () are all integer values. Determine an
equation for the corresponding are exponential function, in the form 4 8P .

3.2 Practice Questions

1. Determine an equation for each of the following functions, in the form & < ? %:
(a) (b)

2. For each function below, without using your graphing calculator, determine:
i - The equation of the horizontal asymptote iii - The coordinates of the &-intercept
ii - The Domain and Range iv - Whether or not the graph will have an %-intercept.
4
(a) 5 3 4 (b) 1 (c) 3 6 4 82
4
5

## i - H.A. at i - H.A. at i - H.A. at

ii - D: ii - D: ii - D:
R: R: R:
iii - -int at iii - -int at iii - -int at
iv - -int ? iv - -int ? iv - -int ?

4
4 4 4
(d) 3 8 5.5 (e) 3.75 1.1 1 (f) 3 2 24
5

## i - H.A. at i - H.A. at i - H.A. at

ii - D: ii - D: ii - D:
R: R: R:
iii - -int at iii - -int at iii - -int at
iv - -int ? iv - -int ? iv - -int ?

## 3. Refer to #2 (f) above, the function 3 2 4 24.

(a) Algebraically determine the (b) Use the intercepts and other
coordinates of the -intercept. characteristics described
above, to sketch the graph:

Unit 3 – Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
4 Determine an equation for each of the following functions, in the form & < ? % 8M :
(a) (b)

4 !
5. The -intercept on the graph of N 2 8 is:
Exam A. 2
 Style
B. 2 8
C. 2
D. 2 8

4
6. The range of the function N 8 C; where > 0, C = 0, 0 > > 1 is:
A. { = C, ∈ ℝ}
 Exam
Style
B. { = 8 C, ∈ ℝ}
C. { > C, ∈ ℝ}
D. { > 8 C, ∈ ℝ}

## Given the function N 4 ! 8 5 , where > 0, = 1:

7.
(a) Determine an expression for the -intercept (b) Describe whether the graph will have

4
4
1
1. (a) 5 2 (b) 3 3. (a) -int at 3, 0
4
(b)
2. (a) i - HA at & / (b) i - HA at & / (c) i - HA at & \$
ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ} ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ} ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ}
R: {&|& = /, & ∈ ℝ} R: {Q|& > /, & ∈ ℝ} R: {&|& = \$, & ∈ ℝ} 3, 0
iii - -int at /, 0 iii - -int at /, iii - -int at /, 0
iv - NO -int iv - NO -int
. iv - NO -int
(d) i - HA at & 0. 0 (e) i - HA at & ' (f) i - HA at & \$
ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ} ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ} ii - D: {% ∈ ℝ} 0, 21
R: {&|& > 0. 0, & ∈ ℝ} R: {Q|& > ', & ∈ ℝ} R: {&|& = \$ , & ∈ ℝ} H.A. at
iii - -int at /, \$. 0 iii - -int at /, . 70 iii - -int at /, \$' 24
iv - YES -int iv - NO -int iv - YES -int

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3.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
4 !
3 1
8. Given the function N 8 48, determine:
4 8
! !
(a) The -intercept of N (b) The domain of N

## 9. The partial graph of the function N 3 4 ! 8 5 is shown below.

The graph transformed to O by applying a vertical stretch factor of , where = 1.
(a) Identify which of the following characteristics
would not change:
i Domain
ii Range
iii Horizontal Asymptote

iv -intercept N
v -intercept

## (b) Determine an expression for the -intercept

of O .

4
4
2
4. (a) 2 4 8 (b) 3 87 5. D 6. C
3
7. (a) 0, 8 5
.
(b) The H.A. is above the -axis. And since > 0 the graph is entirely below the H.A. So the
graph must intersect with the -axis and there IS an %-intercept.

## 8. (a) 0, 3 (b) { | > 48, ∈ ℝ} .

9. (a) Would not change: i, iv (b) 0, 2

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