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Al Quds University

Faculty of Dentistry
Periodontics Lab.
Blood Supply of the Periodontium
Prepared by : Haya Khalili

Spring 2011
• The Vasculature of any living organ consists of
Arterial blood supply and Venous drainage .
• We should note that the veins accompany the
arteries in their path.
• The periodontal vessels follow the nerve in
their supply.
• The Periodontium takes its arterial blood
supply from branches of the External Carotid
Artery.
• The venous drainage through the Internal
Jugular Vein and the External Jugular Vein.
• The External Carotid Artery begins opposite
the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, and,
taking a slightly curved course, passes upward
and forward, and then inclines backward to
the space behind the neck of the mandible,
where it divides into the Superficial Temporal
and Internal Maxillary arteries. It rapidly
diminishes in size in its course up the neck,
owing to the number and large size of the
branches given off from it.
Palataly:
 The posterior aspect of the periodontium (
along the levels of the molar and premolar
teeth) is supplied mainly by the Greater
Palatine Artery, a branch of the Decending
palatine Artery, which is a branch of the third
part of the Maxillary artery (pterygopalatine).
 The anterior aspect of the periodontium (at
the level of the anterior teeth , from canine to
canine) is supplies by the Nasopalatine (
Sphenopalatine ) Artery which is a branch of
the third part of the Maxillary Artery, and
some anastomoses from the Greater Palatine
Artery.
Buccaly:
 The periodontium at the level of the molar
and premolar teeth is supplied by the
Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery which is a
branch of the third part of the Maxillary
Artery.
 At the level of the anterior teeth ( canines and
incisors) the blood supply is gained from the
Infraorbital Artery, a branch of the third part
of the Maxillary Artery.
 This artery gives off the Anterior Superior
Alveolar Artery.
Buccaly:
 The periodontium at the level of the posterior
teeth is supplied by the Inferior Alveolar
Artery- a branch of the first part of the
Maxillary Artery ( Mandibular).
 Also it is provided by the Buccal Artery, which
is a branch of the second part of the Maxillary
Artery (Pterygoid).
 At the level of the anterior teeth the blood
supply comes from the Mental Artery, which is
a branch of the Inferior Alveolar Artery.
 Some branches of the Facial Artery
(Submental and Inferior Labial) has
anastomosis with the Mental Artery and may
play part in the support.
Lingually:
 The Lingual Artery – a branch of the Inferior
Alveolar Artery.
 The Sublingual artery – a branch of the
External Carotid Artery.
This figure shows the
anastomosis (arrow)
between the facial
artery (a.f) and the
blood vessels of the
mandible.
• The gingiva receives its blood
supply mainly through
supraperiosteal blood
vessels, which are terminal
branches of the: a.i
 Sublingual artery (a.s)
 The Mental artery (a.m)
 The Buccal artery (a.b)
 The Facial artery (a.f)
 The Greater palatine
artery(a.p)
 The Infraorbital artery (a.i)
 And the Posterior superior
dental artery (a.ap).
• This figure depicts the course of
the greater palatine artery ( a.p)
in a specimen of a monkey which
was perfused with plastic,
consequently , the soft tissue
dissolved.
• The greater palatine artery (a.p) ,
which is a terminal branch of the
ascending palatine artery ( from
the maxillary, “ internal
maxillary”, artery), runs through
the greater palatine canal (arrow)
to the palate.
• As this artery runs in a frontal
direction it puts out branches
which supply the gingiva and the
masticatory mucosa of the
palate.
• Note that the free
gingiva receives its
blood supply from :
1.Supraperiosteal blood
vessels .
2.The blood vessels of
the periodontal
ligament.
3.The blood vessels of
the alveolar bone.
 The Maxillary Vein is formed in the Infratemporal
fossa.
 It joins the Superficial Temporal vein to form the
Retromandibular vein.
 When the Retromandibular vein leaves the
parotid gland, it divides into anterior branch
which joins the Facial vein, and a posterior
branch which joins the Posterior Auricular vein to
form the External Jugular vein .
 The Lingual vein drains back to the Internal
Jugular vein.