The United Republic of Tanzania

THE PREVENTION AND COMBATING OF CORRUPTION BUREAU

NATIONAL GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION SURVEY

2009 REPORT
Volume 3: PUBLIC OFFICIALS SURVEY

DAR/MCC

FACEIT

Dar Management and

in Association with

Computing Centre and

21st November 2009

CONTENTS
CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................ ii  LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. iii  LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... iii  LIST OF MAPS .................................................................................................................. v  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. v  PREFACE ......................................................................................................................... vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................... ix  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................ x  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 1  1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY ........................................................................ 1  1.2 PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY ..................................................................................... 2  CHAPTER 2: SURVEY METHODOLOGY ..................................................................... 3  2.1 SAMPLE DESIGN ....................................................................................................... 3  2.2 REVIEW AND ADAPTATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................... 4  2.3 RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF FIELD TEAMS .......................................... 4  2.4 FIELD WORK ............................................................................................................. 4  2.5 DATA PROCESSING ................................................................................................. 5  2.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ULTIMATE SAMPLE OF ....................................... 5  RESPONDENTS ................................................................................................................ 5  CHAPTER 3: THE FINDINGS .......................................................................................... 7  3.1 PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF GOVERNANCE AND ............................ 7  CORRUPTION – EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC OFFICIALS .......................................... 7  3.2 USERS’ VIEWS OF INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY....................................................................................................................... 21  3.3 HONESTY AND INTEGRITY OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS ............................... 22  3.4 INSTITUTIONAL PERFORMANCE........................................................................ 23  3.5 CORRUPTION AND DEVELOPMENT .................................................................. 29  3.6 UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION ........................................ 35  3.7 OTHER CAUSES OF CORRUPTION ..................................................................... 38  3.8 SERIOUSNESS AND FREQUENCY OF CORRUPTION ....................................... 39  3.9 THE IMPACT AND COSTS OF CORRUPTION .................................................... 42  3.10 SOURCES OF CORRUPTION ............................................................................... 42  3.11 GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION IN KEY SECTORS ................................. 42  3.12 UNBUNDLING THE INCIDENCE OF CORRUPTION ....................................... 43  3.13 PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS ........................... 43  AND CAUSES OF CORRUPTION ................................................................................. 43  3.14 FIGHTING CORRUPTION ................................................................................... 44  CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................... 52  4.1 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................... 52  4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................... 53  REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 54  PUBLIC OFFICIALS SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ..................................................... 55 

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Percent Reporting that payment of "bribes" or making payments "under the table" to public servants is widely spread (i) five years ago, (ii) currently, and (iii) expectations in two years to come; percent expressing the practice is widely spread ........................................ 29 Table 2: The Perception on what year or time period corruption was most prevalent in this country (i) First Phase Government, (ii) Second Phase Government, (iii) Third Phase Government, (iv) Fourth Phase Government; Percent reporting it was/is Widely Spread .. 34 Table 3: The score on the perception on the integrity of selected Ministries, Departments and Agencies; Percent reporting ‘Completely dishonest and/or dishonest’ ......................................... 44

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Understanding of Corruption............................................................................... 8  Figure 2: Understanding of Corruption by Sex................................................................... 8  Figure 3: Understanding of Corruption by age ................................................................... 9  Figure 4: Understanding of Corruption by salary level ...................................................... 9  Figure 5: Understanding of Corruption by Other Source of Income ................................ 10  Figure 6: Understanding of corruption ............................................................................. 10  Figure 7: Understanding of Corruption as - Demand for sex (%) .................................... 11  Figure 8: Petty (small) corruption ..................................................................................... 12  Figure 9: Grand (big) corruption....................................................................................... 13  Figure 10: Seriousness of corruption ................................................................................ 13  Figure 11: Percent reporting corruption as a major problem compared to other problems ........................................................................................................................................... 15  Figure 12: Bribery is a practical necessity for getting things done quickly...................... 17  Figure 13: Corruption is beneficial provided you are not caught ..................................... 17  Figure 14: Corruption gives better services ...................................................................... 17  Figure 15: Following laid down procedures is too costly and time wasting .................... 18  Figure 16: People who report corruption end up suffering the most ................................ 18  Figure 17: There is no point of reporting corruption because nothing will be done about it. ....................................................................................................................................... 19  Figure 18: Would not have received protection from possible retaliation........................ 19  Figure 19: The case cannot be proved .............................................................................. 19  Figure 20: Do not want to betray anyone.......................................................................... 20  Figure 21: Assessment of Corruption in the Society ........................................................ 20  Figure 22: Seriousness of Corruption Compared with other Problems ............................ 21  Figure 23: All public servants have clear idea of the Institution’s objectives and strategies ........................................................................................................................................... 22  Figure 24: All public servants treat citizens and users of public services without discrimination ................................................................................................................... 22  Figure 25: Who initiates a bribe........................................................................................ 23  Figure 26: Formal ............................................................................................................. 24 

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Figure 27: Simple, clear, easy to understand .................................................................... 24  Figure 28: Decision made in a transparent manner .......................................................... 25  Figure 29: Based on influential connections within the institution .................................. 25  Figure 30: Budget administration ..................................................................................... 25  Figure 31: Budget administration – influenced by illegal Payments (% strongly disagreeing and/or disagreeing ......................................................................................... 26  Figure 32: Are of high quality .......................................................................................... 28  Figure 33:Are accessible by the poor................................................................................ 28  Figure 34: When directors make decisions, they never take into consideration their subordinates opinions........................................................................................................ 29  Figure 35: Executive decisions do not take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution ................................................................................................................ 29  Figure 36: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants is widely spread now ........................................................................... 30  Figure 37: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants to be widely spread in two years to come. (%) .................................... 32  Figure 38: During procurement process done transparently ............................................. 35  Figure 39: Process ‘Based on competition and technical criteria’ .................................... 35  Figure 40: Process ‘Influenced by Illegal Payments’ ....................................................... 36  Figure 41: Process ‘Done with the knowledge of the existence of conflict of interest’ ... 36  Figure 42: The procurement processes ............................................................................. 36  Figure 43: Entity has taken deliberate efforts to publicly announce its purchasing plans with existing regulations. .................................................................................................. 37  Figure 44: The entity has consistently complied with the PPA and its Regulations ........ 37  Figure 45: Existence of PPA and its Regulations has not prevented awarding bidders without minimum requirements. ....................................................................................... 38  Figure 46: Greed/selfishness as the cause of Corruption .................................................. 38  Figure 47: High cost of living as the cause of Corruption ................................................ 39  Figure 48: Poor leadership ................................................................................................ 39  Figure 49: High cost of living ........................................................................................... 40  Figure 50: Corruption in Public services .......................................................................... 40  Figure 51: Score on the perception on integrity of selected Ministries ............................ 45  Figure 52: Percent reporting The Police Force completely dishonest and / or dishonest. 46  Figure 53: Percent reporting District/Primary courts ‘Completely dishonest and /or dishonest. .......................................................................................................................... 48  Figure 54: Percent reporting ministry of Lands completely dishonest and / or dishonest 50 

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LIST OF MAPS
Map 1: Understanding of Corruption as demand for sex .................................................. 12  Map 2: percent reporting corruption as a major problem compared to other problems ... 16  Map 3: Budget administration – influenced by illegal Payments (% strongly disagreeing and/or disagreeing ............................................................................................................. 27  Map 4: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants is widely spread now................................................................................ 31  Map 5: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants to be widely spread in two years to come. ............................................... 33  Map 6: Percent reporting The Police Force completely dishonest and / or dishonest. ..... 47  Map 7: Percent reporting District/Primary courts ‘Completely dishonest and /or dishonest. .......................................................................................................................... 49  Map 8: Percent reporting ministry of Lands completely dishonest and / or dishonest ..... 51 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CPI ESRF FACEIT ICP LA MDAs MKUKUTA MP NACSAP NAO NFGG NGACS NGOs NSSF PCCB PPA PPRA TANESCO Corruption Perception Index as developed by Transparency International Economic and Social Research Foundation Front Against Corrupt Elements in Tanzania International Cooperating Partners Local Authorities Ministries, Departments and Agencies Mkakati wa Kuondoa Umaskini Tanzania (Poverty Reduction) Member of Parliament National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan National Audit Office National Framework for Good Governance National Governance And Corruption Survey Non Governmental Organizations National Social Security Fund Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau Public Procurement Act Public Procurement Regulatory Authority Tanzania Electricity Supply Company

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TNBS TPC TRA TTCL URT TRANSLATIONS “TAKRIMA”

Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics Tanzania Postal Corporation Tanzania Revenue Authority Tanzania Telecommunications Company Limited United Republic of Tanzania

Kiswahili word for payment or material items (including food & drinks) given ostensibly as an unsolicited “goodwill” gesture but in reality, for a favour. Kiswahili word for payment or an article given as a gift after receiving good service from someone.

“BAKSHISH”

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PREFACE
The problem of corruption in our country is not new and certainly it did not start with my Government i.e. the Fourth Phase Government of The United Republic of Tanzania. Past Governments have dealt with it in various ways, although corruption remains a problem in our country, as it is in the whole world, albeit in varying degrees. To tackle corruption, the country should generally be well governed – that is to have good governance in the country. This study, National Governance and Corruption Survey is very appropriate in that sense. To understand the problem of good governance in general and corruption in particular, it is important to conduct studies, which will generate facts and indicate appropriate way forward in the fight against the vice. Without appropriate studies, the fight against corruption cannot be scientific. The National Governance and Corruption Survey is an effort towards that end. In my inaugural speech to Parliament in 2005, I said the following and I quote: we will accelerate the war on corruption in a more scientific way and by addressing its root courses …. But all this will not account much if the public is not cooperative. I ask the full cooperation of citizens in the war on corruption. This report is part of implementation of that speech, to fight corruption in a more scientific way. The public have indeed cooperated in giving information to the consultants, who covered all the regions of Tanzania Mainland in this study. In 1996, a study similar to this was undertaken by the Third Phase Government. A Presidential Commission of Inquiry Against Corruption was appointed to carry out a study on the status of corruption in the country as part of a strategy of the government to enhance integrity and accountability. The commission released its report one year later and recommended a number of things as a way of tackling the vice. In 1999 the government formulated a National Framework on Good Governance (NFGG) to facilitate the coordination of reforms designed to foster Good Governance and improve public service delivery. The National Anti-Corruption Strategy and Action Plan (NACSAP) was formulated as a component of the NFGG to increase efforts in corruption prevention. In 2002, the Annual State of Corruption in Tanzania Report was published as part of the follow-up of the 1996 report. However, this report was less detailed and hence the need vii

for more detailed and thorough baseline report on the problem of corruption in the country. The National Governance and Corruption Survey is broad, detailed and captures important parameters which gives an insight into the problem of corruption in the country to date. The National Governance and Corruption Survey add to our understanding of the vice in the country and offers opportunities for tackling the same. Three surveys, i.e. household, public servants and enterprises were carried out and some of the main findings are that: despite the efforts enumerated above, corruption is widespread and a major impediment to development efforts; the leading cause of corruption is greed among public servants and business people; in some sectors of public service, corruption has become a way of life; the institutions which are central in safeguarding good governance like the police and the judiciary are ranked highest in perpetrating corruption. The indication one gets is that: my Government have still a long way to go in eradicating this vice and I want to assure the public that we are equal to the task. Some of the recommendations are that: more research be carried out on those institutions which ranked highest and determine the root causes of corruption; the PCCB be strengthened to be equal to the increasing tasks and increase public awareness on the vice and elicit their support. We will take the results of the survey seriously and implement the recommendations therein to contain corruption in our country. I would like to thank the Government of Denmark, for providing financial support, which made this study possible. I would like also to commend the consultants who did a good job in research and compilation of the report. Last but not least I would like to recognize the contribution of the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau, who on behalf of the Government commissioned and supervised the survey.

Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete President of the United Republic of Tanzania

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report has been prepared by many individuals under the general supervision of Mr. Enock L. Kamuzora, Chairman of FACEIT, the lead consultant, and Cletus P.B. Mkai who led the project team. Other members of the project team were: Professor A.S. Mawenya, D. Ntukamazina, B.S. Sreekumar, Dr. V.E. Muba, S. Ngallaba, R. Rutabingwa, Dr. M.M.P. Bundara, M.R. Lugongo and S.J. Chavda.

The consultants benefited from contributions made by the Technical Committee especially set up for this assignment by the Prevention and Combating of Corruption Bureau (PCCB): Dr. Vincent Kihiyo (Chairman), Abdallah Mlangwa, Oscar Hosea, Sabina Seja, Doto Nkonga, Stephen Ndaki, Ahmed Makbel, Mary Rusimbi, Dr. Flora Kessy, Daniel Kobb, Tim Harris, Emily Poskett and Jack Titsworth.

During fieldwork stage, Grace Morgan, a World Bank consultant, gave valuable insights during her visit.

Christian Karstensen, First Secretary (Governance and Political Issues) at the Royal Danish Embassy, provided helpful comments throughout.

Dr. Edward Hoseah, the Director General of PCCB, actively participated to discuss the draft Report during the first of the five zonal workshops staged in Dar es Salaam, thereby generating a constructive debate moderated by FACEIT’s Vice-Chairman, E.N. OleKambainei.

PCCB’s three counter-part staff, Sada Mzimba, Benno Shunda and Abdallah Kitwana worked long hours throughout the assignment.

We acknowledge with thanks the involvement of the 12 field supervisors and 37 field interviewers who were employed by FACEIT to carry out the actual fieldwork.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The public officials’ survey was carried out to study the environment relating to the delivery of services in public offices with special emphasis on public sector governance as well as corruption. The survey examined public employee perceptions. The respondents were representatives of a cross section of employees in public offices, including those in political leadership at regional and district levels, those charged with designing and implementing institutional policies as well as supporting or junior staff. The sample also included professionals in the Judiciary and legal offices, audit, revenue collection, public procurement, internal audit as well as staff in local government. The findings of the survey give the views of public officials on the current state of governance and corruption in the country. The current situation about corruption in Tanzania is partly determined by first understanding the word ‘corruption’. In this regard, public officials show hardly any difference between female and male, age groups, as well as salary levels: demand for unofficial payments remains on top, followed by demand for sex (which mainly relate to petty corruption) and abuse of power (which relate mainly to grand corruption). For regions, demand for unofficial payments also remains on top with hardly and regional differences.

Perception and experience of governance and corruption
When considering the two categories of corruption, that is petty and grand, public officials consider both petty and grand corruption as being very harmful. There are small regional differentials for both petty and grand corruption. The results of this survey show the following were considered causes of corruption by over 80 percent of public officials: greed/selfishness, moral indecency, poor law enforcement/punishment of the corrupt, poor remuneration, lack of control and accountability of public officials, as well as lack of effective corruption reporting system. Only a little over a half of public officials strongly disagree to the statement that ‘bribery is a practical necessity for getting things done quickly’ (55.9 percent) and that ‘following laid down procedures is too costly and time wasting (51.8 percent). However, as high as four out of every five (81.4 percent) either disagree or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘corruption is beneficial provided one is not caught’. As low as only a little over one third (35.7 percent) either disagree or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘people who report corruption end up suffering the most’. This has the consequence of discouraging reporting corruption. The discouragement in reporting is evidenced as still as high as one in three (35.1 percent) either agree or strongly agree with the statement that ‘there is no point reporting because nothing will be done about it’. There is also fear

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of retaliation since as high as two thirds (63.7 percent) of public officials either agrees and/or strongly agrees with the statement that they would not have received protection from possible retaliation. Further, as high as 59.5 percent either agrees and/or strongly agrees that even when one is reported, the case can not be proved. Also, as little as only over half strongly disagree and/or disagree with the statement that they do not report as they ‘do not want to betray anyone’. In over two thirds (69.6 percent) of the cases public officials expressed the opinion that when it comes to whom usually initiates a bribe, it is the service provider who indicates or asks for a payment. As high as one-third (32.5 percent) of public officials indicate they had at least once faced a situation where they were obliged to give a bribe to get services. Out of those who recorded giving a bribe, as high as 86.8 percent reported that what they gave in exchange for what they wanted was money. Respondents were presented a list of twenty-two problems and asked to give their opinion on extent of seriousness to each. Problems expressed as being ‘very serious’ by 75 percent and above of public officials included high cost of living, unemployment, inflation, corruption in public services, cost of education and cost of health services.

Policies, guidelines and regulations in personnel management as well as general work situation
Public officials perceptions about the quantity and quality of management policies, guidelines and regulations related to personnel issues were measured by way of responses on how decisions at the institution are taken. In a number of solicited areas or statements, only as low as two thirds of public officials reported, they agree and/or strongly agree that respective procedures, rules and practices in place depict signs of good governance. Further, public officials were requested to express their perceptions about the implementation of these procedures during the two financial years prior to the survey as relates to hiring, assignments, changes, promotions, salary increase. In a number of the areas or decisions/statements solicited, only as low as two thirds of public officials agree and/or strongly agree that there are sound governance practices in place.

Policies, guidelines and regulations of the administration of the budget
One of the questions solicited information on decisions regarding to budget administration (amount assigned to various budget lines, services rendered, programmes carried out, areas that received budget allocation). This part of the questionnaire made investigation using a list of statements related to financial discipline. On the average

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public officials agreed with these statements that check on financial discipline. Thus, public officials seem to suggest there is little room within the regulations/procedures for discretion in decision making in budget administration. It is however another thing if they are practiced, going by common complaints by service recipients.

Motivation and identification of staff with the goals, mission and institutional strategies, quality of services and citizen support to public sector reform
In relation to the development of the daily activities, tasks and functions during the implementation of the services, more than 80 percent of public officials showed that they strongly agree and/or agree with the statement that ‘there exist clearly defined mechanisms that can take into consideration the feedback and needs of the users’. Further that ‘there exist clearly defined mechanisms that channel user’s complaints as well as their preferences’ and ‘receipts of the different transactions are served in hard copy for use during internal and external audits’. However as this has been an area of complaints by recipients of public services, it is recommended that this be a subject of further investigation to exclude the possibility that public officials have been taking a defensive position. Understanding corruption can be traced through exploring decisions made during development of procurement (contracts for goods, works and services) procedures. As low as only a little over 50 percent of public officials strongly agree and/or agree with most of the practices pursued. Further, only as little as over 50 percent of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree with the following practices during procurement process: ‘are based on regional preferences’; ‘are based on political ties/political affiliations/political pressure’. The others include ‘are based on influential connections within the institution’; ‘are influenced by illegal payments; and ‘are done with the knowledge of the existence of conflict of interest’. In the case of the last statement, it is important to bear in mind that public officials often are also service providers. The contracting process was assessed. Only as low as about 60 percent of public officials strongly agree and/or agree that ‘institutions and their procurement entities do take deliberate efforts to publicly announce its purchasing plans in accordance with the existing regulations’. On whether ‘the institutions, and their procurement entities consistently complied with the Public Procurement Act and it’s Regulations’, only as low as 60.8 percent of public officials strongly agree and/or agree. When it comes to the statement: ‘consistently complying with the Public Procurement Act and its regulations has not completely eliminated awarding contracts to bidders who do not meet minimum requirements’, as high as 45.8 percent of public officials strongly agree and/or agree.

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Quality of implementation of services by institutions was measured. Only as little as over two thirds of public officials rated as strongly agree and/or agree that services offered are of high quality, that they are offered at relatively low cost, that they fully satisfy the user’s needs, and that they are accessible to the poor. It is recommended that this be counterchecked with what households and the private sector says. Further, it is recommended that in subsequent surveys this position should be further investigated as it sounds as if public officials have been showing a defensive position.

Information management
Public officials expressed opinion on information management, including transparency, feedback/information sharing, staff involvement, management record keeping and value for money. In the following three areas the percentage was about the same for the officials saying they disagree and /or strongly disagree as those saying they agree and/or strongly agree to the statements; that is (i) systems that provide information about public official productivity are scarce and insufficient; (ii) when directors/managers make decisions, they never take into consideration their subordinates’ opinions; and (iii) executive decisions do not take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution. When in an institution management information is deliberately made to be scarce and/or insufficient, this can be a big source of grand corruption. In such a situation directors may decide not to take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution and may never take into consideration subordinates’ opinion. As subordinates are invariably the professionals, only less and less factual and technical inputs may find their way to best inform top decisions.

Reforms
Public officials were required to rate various reform measures or reform outcomes. Out of the 13 areas, nine had public officials expressing ‘Don’t know’, that is their position was they were neither ‘against’, ‘in favour’ nor ‘indifferent’ to the stated reform measure. In the public sector, reforms over the years have included setting up (and strengthening) regulatory authorities, moving more into the business of regulating rather than controlling, setting up government executive agencies and other reforms across the civil service as well as pay reforms. While this current baseline survey does not have a previous similar one to compare with, it is more than likely that as a result of all the institutional reforms the situation with respect to governance and corruption has changed. It is important the subsequent surveys design instruments to capture change.

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Change over time in the perception about corruption and mechanism for reporting
Governability and perception about corruption was measured from the point of view of the rather common practice in many countries of the world where companies and people pay bribes (make payments ‘under the table’) to public servants. The change over time in the perception about corruption practices was measured for the public sector, local business persons, foreign investors/businesspersons, International Cooperating Partners, as well as Non Governmental Organisations. For the public sector public officials rated this practices was wide spread (most serious) two to five years ago (at over 70 percent) and that currently they rate it at 66 percent with an anticipated decline to 45.4 percent in the next two years to come. Though still very high, the decline may be attributed to the gradual success of the reforms measures cited above, but also legal and/or disciplinary measures on petty corruption cases. It may further be due to revelation as well as current action on grand corruption cases acting as deterrence. The above practice was also measured for the respective institutions where the respondents work. The rating by public officials showed a picture which calls for further research as only between 10 and 20 percent of public officials report this practice as ‘widely spread’, although up to 30 percent reports it occurs sometimes in their institutions. Further, the practice was also measured with the view of comparing the rate of incidence between the durations of the four phases of government from independence. The rating by public officials showed a worsening situation over the years. For the ‘widely spread’ category’ of corruption, as low a rate as 2.3 percent was expressed by public officials for the duration of the first phase government (1961 to 1985) to a high of 78.9 during the third phase government (1995 to 2005). The rate for the fourth phase government is showing signs of decline at 73.4percent. It is important to not here that it has been in the last ten or so years that issues of grand corruption have come so much to the surface.

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE SURVEY
This volume on Public Officials is the third in the series of publications for the Tanzania National Governance and Corruption Survey (NGACS) 2009. NGACS comprised of three different surveys carried out simultaneously, namely the household survey, the public officials’ survey and the enterprise survey. The others volumes are Volume 2 Households and Volume 4 - Enterprises. Volume 1 – Analysis of Main Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations is a commentary on all the three surveys. The diagnostic corruption survey of public officials lasted from 2nd week February to 3rd week June 2009. In 1999, the government of the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) formulated the National Framework for Good Governance (NFGG) to facilitate the coordination of reforms designed to foster good governance and improve public service delivery. The National Anti – Corruption Strategy and Action Plan (NACSAP) was formulated in 1999 as a component of the NFGG as Government’s key management instruments, to combat corruption. Following the launch of the second National Anti – Corruption Strategy and Action Plan (NACSAP II) in 2006, the Government of URT has expressed commitment to undertake a comprehensive diagnostic baseline survey on corruption. The concept paper for NACSAP II states that: “A comprehensive National Governance and Corruption Survey will be launched presently, and, in the future it will be conducted every two years. It will be established as one of NACSAP’s standard instruments for identifying where corruption occurs and on what scale, conducting analytical work relating survey results to the delivery of services, communicating with the public, and helping set priorities for tackling corruption issues and strengthening corruption – prone ministries, departments, agencies and local government authorities”. During 2006, the Transparency International Corruption Index for Tanzania was 2.9 giving the country a ranked of 93 out of 163 countries. In 2007, the country’s position improved a bit with a score of 3.2. However, corruption remains a problem. Information on governance issues and levels of corruption is not been adequately collected to inform policy and decision-making. Attempts to gather information on corruption have included the report of the Presidential Commission of Inquiry against Corruption, commonly known as The Warioba Commission Report, 1996 and the State of Corruption in Tanzania 2002 report. However, these surveys while answering specific questions on corruption do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the state of corruption in Tanzania and do not establish a baseline needed for policy reform. 1

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY
The Tanzania National Governance and Corruption Survey (NGACS) 2009 is a baseline survey. The purpose of this survey includes soliciting information and fostering public awareness about national governance and corruption issues. Further it intends to identify areas or issues for further research, providing an empirical and analytical basis to argue for budgetary resources for NACSAP and related reforms, and providing an empirical benchmark and basis for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of government’s governance and anti – corruption programmes over time. The Public Officials survey of NGACS was focused at studying the environment relating to the delivery of services in public offices with special emphasis on public sector governance as well as corruption. The survey examined public employee perceptions.

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CHAPTER 2: SURVEY METHODOLOGY
2.1 SAMPLE DESIGN
The scope of the survey covered the 21 regions of Tanzania Mainland. The design allows estimates of the results at regional level. The sample employed included 30 public establishments per region or municipality in Dar es Salaam. The overall sample was 690 public establishments. The management team in Dar es Salaam did this respective sample selection. The frame was from the Central Register of Establishments maintained at the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. This design is adopted from such design as annual surveys of Employment and Earnings as well as Survey of Manufacturing by the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Ten respondents were selected per establishment giving a sample of 6900 public officials. Within each domain of study (region or municipality in Dar es Salaam), selection of the sample of respondents in the 30 public establishments was controlled to ensure finding the following mix of respondents: Members of Parliament Regional politicians District politicians Representatives of the Executive Branch Policy makers – those designing institutional policies Programme managers – those charged with implementation of the policies Support staff – those charged with assisting the policy makers/programme managers so they best deliver • Public servants • Officers of the Judiciary • Officers of the National Audit Office • Officers of the Tanzania Revenue Authority • Officers of the Public Procurement Regulatory Authority • Officers of Local Authorities (Councils) • Representatives of junior staff • Legal Officer • Officers of the Internal Audit section • Staff of Procurement section. A guide to help in arriving at pertinent (frame) information to allow this required representative selection was developed for use by the field teams. The response rate was 88.6 percent. • • • • • • •

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2.2 REVIEW AND ADAPTATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
A questionnaire for the public official survey was adapted from the generic World Bank instrument. The initial process was to compare the generic instruments against a few other African countries specific modifications. To secure Tanzania specific sharpening of the draft instruments, key stakeholders from inside and outside Tanzania with the assistance of FACEIT consultants developed a conceptual framework for adapting an advanced draft for initial approval by the NGACS Technical committee. This version of the questionnaires was translated into Kiswahili followed by a pilot test by FACEIT field team in Dar es Salaam region Temeke municipality. Inputs from the pilot test was used to fine – tune, initially the English version of the questionnaire, by the project management team and then subjected them to review by the Technical Committee. A final set of the both the English and Kiswahili versions of the survey instrument as well as Kiswahili version of field instructions manual were developed to assess the views public officials on corruption in Tanzania. The questionnaire is in appendix 1 and has twelve sections seeking to interrogate on the following: General information of the respondent, Current situation about corruption in Tanzania, Management of personnel, Budget administration, Performance and/or provision of services, Information management, Reforms, Governability, Perception of the National situation, Analysing the corruption problem, and Perception on what action to take for anyone found to be involved in corruption.

2.3 RECRUITMENT AND TRAINING OF FIELD TEAMS
Twelve field teams were utilized which comprised of a supervisor and three enumerators. The consultants outsourced both these categories from a pool of freelance field cadre. Supervisors had a degree or its equivalent, with wide experience in field data collection. Enumerators were secondary school leavers also with survey field experience. A set of guidelines prepared by the consultancy firm was used to shortlist and finally pick the required number, plus some reserve to participate in the training. The training initially started with a five-day session for a number equivalent to three teams to manage the pilot test. This was, among other reasons used to sharpen the training manual. Training of the whole team followed approval of the questionnaire.

2.4 FIELD WORK
Data collection took place between February and June 2009 for the public officials surveys simultaneously with the other two surveys. This was a difficult period because in many parts of the country it was raining. There were twelve field teams. Apart from Dar es Salaam region each team was assigned two adjacent regions. For Dar es Salaam there were three teams, one covering Ilala and the other two covering Kinondoni and Temeke districts. 4

The field work was initially planned to take about three months, but due to unforeseen reasons the work was extended to over 100 days. Passage to different areas was quite difficult due to the ongoing rains. Lack of reliable transport between and within districts was another problem that slowed movement of the teams.

2.5 DATA PROCESSING
Questionnaires were returned to FACEIT office in Dar es Salaam for data processing. Data processing operations consisted of recording of received questionnaires, manual editing, coding, data entry and data cleaning. The data processing team recruited by FACEIT was responsible for the operation. Data entry and editing were performed in Microsoft Office Access software and SPSS 16 (statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software respectively. Data processing commenced on 7th April, 2009 and was completed on 3rd July, 2009.

2.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ULTIMATE SAMPLE OF RESPONDENTS
While the sample of public enterprises was selected by the planning team from the Central Register of Establishments maintained at the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, the selection of respondents was done by the supervisors of the field teams after soliciting pertinent information (to establish a useful sampling frame) from the management of the public enterprise selected. The respondents of the public officials’ survey of the National Governance and Corruption Survey 2009 constituted of 57.7 percent males and 42.1 percent women. This is a consequence of the instructions given to the field teams that to the extent possible they should ensure gender balance. Overall, age distribution of respondents was evenly distributed within the five-year age groups of 25 – 29 up to 50 – 54 ranging from a low of 12.9 percent (for the 25 – 29 years age group) to a high of 15.9 (for the age group 30 – 34). The rest of the age groups had lower percentage in terms of representation. In addition to this respondents with college advanced diploma, degree and above accounted for 45.4 percent. Those below secondary school were a mere 2.3 percent. The respondents for the survey were widely spread across professions and functions. The final sample included four members of parliament, eight regional and district politicians 5

and, in respective institutions, 249 policy makers. Otherwise, the majority (53 percent) were a set of selected cadre of officers followed by senior professionals who are supporting staff to Programme Managers (28.2 percent). The remaining categories accounted for less than 5 percent each in the sample. Public officials in the sample working in the area of ‘direct attention, services and/or decisions’ relating to customers accounted for 42.8 percent, with those charged with ‘administrative processes’ 17.8 percent of the respondents. The main activity of the respondents prior to joining the public sector varied. However, they were dominated by those joining the service straight after school or college (64.1 percent) and distantly followed by those working in private sector (12.3 percent). The terms of service for the public service officials in the sample was, as anticipated, lead by staff that are on permanent and pension terms (90.7 percent) and very distantly followed by those on contract (6.9 percent). The procedure reported to have been employed to put the officials interviewed to their present position is governed by three approaches lead by normal promotion (34.6 percent) followed by interview managed by Public Service Commission (32.3 percent) and interviews managed by senior management officials (25.2 percent). Respondents earning less than Tshs 300,000/= accounted for 50 percent, with those earning 300,000/= and above but less than 1,000,000/= being 45 percent. The total number of respondents earning 1,000,000/= and above was 250 in the sample. A quarter of public officials interviewed reported that they had other source(s) of income in addition to the salary. Further, the survey also investigated whether any member of the respondent’s nucleus family (father, mother and their children) own a company or business. About one out of eight public officials are in this category. In summary, the ultimate sample of respondents for the public officials’ component of the NGACS 2009 has the representation to ensure robust and accurate result.

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CHAPTER 3: THE FINDINGS
3.1 PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCE OF GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION – EVIDENCE FROM PUBLIC OFFICIALS
The current situation about corruption in Tanzania is partly examined by looking at the understanding of the word ‘corruption’. The survey did recognize that the word ‘corruption’ is sometimes difficult to define. However Tanzania PCCB, in the publication ‘Yajue Makosa ya Rushwa Yaliyoainishwa katika Sheria ya Kuzuia na Kupambana na Rushwa, Namba 11 ya 2007’, gives the following (translated from Kiswahili by FACEIT): “Corruption occurs where a person commits or does not do something to another person or a group of people with an intention of acquiring personal benefits after being given or promised to be given a certain amount of money or other valuable things contrary to laid down procedures and work conditions. Normally, the recipient has certain authority or is employed in an establishment. Moreover, corruption may feature where the recipient or the provider does this for personal interests, interests of another person or a group of people contrary to established procedures.” Respondents were required to present their opinion on what they understand when one mentions the word ‘corruption’. Eight options were given and a respondent was to mention as many that they think are relevant. Public officials mostly related the word corruption to ‘unofficial payments’ (94.4 percent), ‘demand for sex’ (57.4 percent) and ‘abuse of power’ (31.1 percent) as shown in figure 1.

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Figure 1: Understanding of Corruption

Thereafter a respondent was requested to list his/her first most serious/important problem, as well as second to third in that order. For the first most important problem these were ‘demand for unofficial payment’ (74.5 percent), ‘demand for sex’ (8.9 percent) and ‘abuse of power’ (5.6 percent). The same three problems appear as second and third problems in terms of seriousness, though with different percentage level and ordering. Results show hardly any difference between female and male public officials. Both sexes hold similar position. As shown in figure 2, demand for unofficial payments remains on top with 94.6 and 94.1 percent for male and female respectively. This is followed by demand for sex with 54.1 and 62 percent for male and female. The third was abuse of power at 34.5 and 26.5 percent for male and female respectively.

Figure 2: Understanding of Corruption by Sex

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When considering age groups there is again hardly any difference observed. All age groups hold similar position. Thus demand for unofficial payments remain on top with 94.2, 94 and 94.9 percent for the under 30, those 30 to 44 and 45 and above respectively. This is followed by demand for sex with 64.6, 58.9 and 52.5 percent. The third was abuse of power at 28.9, 31.6 and 31.4 percent respectively as shown in figure 3. Figure 3: Understanding of Corruption by age

When considering salary levels there is again hardly any difference observed. Cadre at different pay levels hold similar position. Figure 4 show demand for unofficial payments remain on top with 91.1, 93.7 and 95.2 percent for those in the salary ranges of under Tshs 300,000/=, Tshs 300,000/= and above but less than one million and one million and above respectively. This is followed by demand for sex with 49.4, 56.6 and 59.1 percent. The third was abuse of power at 25.3, 27.8 and 32.5 percent respectively. Figure 4: Understanding of Corruption by salary level

9

When considering respondents with or without other sources of income, figure 5 show there is again hardly any difference and the pattern is the same, though with different percentage levels. Public officials coming from households with different household income hold similar position. Figure 5: Understanding of Corruption by Other Source of Income

Figure 6 show that demand for unofficial payments remain on top and shows little variations between regions with between 75.7 (Kigoma region) and 99.7 (Tabora and Mara regions). There are only two regions registering below 90 percent. Figure 6: Understanding of corruption
150 100 50 0 Mbeya Mwanza Morogoro Manyara Mtwara Mara Shinyang Kilimanja Tanzania Arusha Tanga Iringa Ruvuma Tabora Singida Dodoma Kigoma Kagera Rukwa Pwani Dar es Lindi Percent

Region Demand Payment (%) Demand Sex (%)

10

Figure 7 shows that demand for sex show much greater variation, ranging from 23.4 percent for Rukwa to 83.6 percent for Tabora regions. Figure 7: Understanding of Corruption as - Demand for sex (%)
Tabora Singida Dodoma Kagera Mw anza Shinyanga Mtw ara Dar es Salaam Tanga Morogoro Region Tanzania Mainland Kigoma Kilimanjaro Mara Pw ani Iringa Lindi Arusha Ruvuma Manyara Mbeya Rukw a 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

Map 1 shows pattern by zones, with Lake Victoria and central zones showing comparatively high percent of public officials expressing understanding of corruption as demand for sex and southern western highland zone the lowest.

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Map 1: Understanding of Corruption as demand for sex

When considering the two categories of corruption, that is petty and grand, the average of the scale recorded for each indicates that public officials consider both petty and grand corruption as being very harmful. From figures 8 and 9 below, as high as 88.4 percent of public officials expressed the opinion that petty corruption was very harmful. An even higher percent, 92.8 percent had the opinion that grand corruption was very harmful.

Figure 8: Petty (small) corruption

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Figure 9: Grand (big) corruption

There are regional differentials with regard to petty corruption ranging from 71.7 percent for Tanga and 99.0 percent for Manyara. Three regions recorded 80 percent or below, nine each recording over 80 to 89 percent and over 90 percent respectively. For grand corruption the range is from 77.1 to 98.7 percent with two regions recording 80 percent or below, three over 80 to 89 percent and sixteen over 90 percent. When compared with other problems in Tanzania, figure 10 shows corruption was considered to be a major problem by 92.9 percent of public officials. Figure 10: Seriousness of corruption 13

Percent reporting corruption as a major problem compared to other problems across regions is high and shows little variation. Public officials in Morogoro showed the highest concern with Mbeya showing the lowest.

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Figure 11: Percent reporting corruption as a major problem compared to other problems
Morogoro Lindi Mara Shinyanga Mtwara Dar es Salaam Kagera Mwanza Dodoma Pwani Region Kigoma

Tanzania Mainland Singida Kilimanjaro Iringa Manyara Tabora Arusha Ruvuma Tanga Rukwa Mbeya 75 80 85 90 95 100

Percent

Map 2 continues to show the Lake Victoria zone, including Shinyanga and Kigoma regions as well as the central to east and southern coastal zone with the highest percent of public officials expressing corruption as a major problem compared to other problems. Once again the southern western highland zone shows the lowest.

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Map 2: percent reporting corruption as a major problem compared to other problems

A little over a half (55.9 percent) of public officials strongly disagree to the statement that ‘bribery is a practical necessity for getting things done quickly’. When combining with those who just expressed disagreement the figure comes to 79.1. There were still 19.5 who have the opinion that they either just agree or strongly agree with this statement.

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Figure 12: Bribery is a practical necessity for getting things done quickly

Further, about four out of every five (81.4 percent) either disagree and/or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘corruption is beneficial provided one is not caught’. There are, however still 16.8 who have the opinion that they either just agree or strongly agree with this statement. Figure 13: Corruption is beneficial provided you are not caught

Figure 14: Corruption gives better services

A little over half (57 percent) of public officials also either disagree and/or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘corruption gives better services’. 17

Figure 15: Following laid down procedures is too costly and time wasting

A little over half (51.8 percent) of public officials also either disagree and/or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘following laid down procedures is too costly and time wasting. As high as 46.5 percent agree and/or strongly agree with the statement. Figure 16: People who report corruption end up suffering the most

However, as shown in figure 16 only a little over one-third (35.7 percent) either disagree and/or strongly disagree with the statement that ‘people who report corruption end up suffering the most’. With 56.8 agreeing and/or strongly agreeing with the statement, this has the consequence of discouraging reporting corruption.

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Figure 17: There is no point of reporting corruption because nothing will be done about it.

The discouragement in reporting is evidenced as still about one in three (35.1 percent) either agree and/or strongly agree with the statement that ‘there is no point reporting because nothing will be done about it’ as shown in figure 17. Figure 18: Would not have received protection from possible retaliation

There is fear of retaliation as about two thirds (63.7 percent) of public officials either agrees and/or strongly agrees with the statement that they would not have received protection from possible retaliation. Figure 19: The case cannot be proved

Further over a half (59.5 percent) either agree and/or strongly agree that even when one is reported, the case cannot be proved. 19

Figure 20: Do not want to betray anyone

Further as shown in figure 20, a little over half strongly disagree and/or disagree with the statement that they do not report as they ‘do not want to betray anyone’. From the above analysis there is evidence that educational campaigns to public officials are required if their mindset with respect to fighting corruption have to be changed. Public officials have expressed they consider corruption as a major problem in the society in general. This is shown in figure 21 to be irrespective of gender and is assessed so by over 90 percent of public officials. Figure 21: Assessment of Corruption in the Society

Corruption is considered to be a major problem across age groups of public officials, being over 90 percent of public officials.

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Figure 22: Seriousness of Corruption Compared with other Problems

In assessing public officials’ perception on support to public sector reforms, 83.1 percent expressed that the government has full support of public officials in the efforts in implementing public sector reforms. The rate is about the same, at 80.1 percent for the general public.

3.2 USERS’ VIEWS OF INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY FOR PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY
Motivation as well as identification of public officials with institutional goals, mission and strategies has a bearing on performance and/or provision of services. Seven statements having a bearing on these areas were involved to gauge the opinion of public officials. On the average public officials agree with six in the list. These are:- ‘all levels of public servants have a clear idea of institution’s objectives and strategies’; ‘all levels of public servants consider the citizens and users of public services, without discrimination’; ‘all levels of public servants identify with, and are involved with the institutions’ objectives and strategies’. Others are ‘staff clearly understand institutional roles and responsibilities and what duties comprise each role’; ‘the purchasing plan is considered an important planning exercise and takes into consideration the investment plans of the institution and its inventory requirements’; and ‘the budget is an effective tool for planning and executing the plans and strategies of the institution’. However, they showed to be indifferent to the statement that ‘for all levels of public servants, there are incentives to improve the quality of services rendered’. Public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree with the statement that ‘for all levels of public servants, there are 21

incentives to improve the quality of services rendered’ (52 percent). For the rest of the six statements queried, the position of strongly agree and/or agree was taken by more than 50 percent of public officials. Figure 23: All public servants have clear idea of the Institution’s objectives and strategies

Figure 24: All public servants treat citizens and users of public services without discrimination

3.3 HONESTY AND INTEGRITY OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS
When it comes to the perception about the mechanisms of corruption, public officials were asked to reflect on the corruption cases that they have knowledge of either directly or indirectly. Three scenarios were read to them, i.e. ‘the public official (service provider) would suggest that a bribe must be paid’; ‘the service user offers the bribe’; and ‘normally the parties know how the process works and how much money need to be payed’. Respondents were requested to express their position on this with respect to: (i) a service user being attended, (ii) a local company, in a contractor/client relationship, and (iii) a foreign company, in a contractor/client relationship. When offering services, the 22

public official is the service provider, however for contracts, the situation is different but the question still focused on the public official. In over two thirds (69.6 percent) of the cases public officials expressed the opinion that when it come to whom usually initiates a bribe, it is the service provider who indicates or asks for a payment as shown in figure 25.

Figure 25: Who initiates a bribe Public officials rated various reform measures or reform outcomes. Out of the 13 areas, nine received an average in the scale showing public officials are ‘in favour’; two had an average showing they were ‘indifferent’ and two had an average expressing being ‘against’. The two depicting ‘against’ were the reforms relating to ‘a decrease in the number of public officials if salary and benefits are increased’, and ‘greater control given to the private sector and civil society over public sector activities’.

3.4 INSTITUTIONAL PERFORMANCE
Public officials perceptions about the quantity and quality of management policies, guidelines, regulations related to personnel issues were measured by way of responses on how decisions at institutions are taken. Only two areas, which are ‘some decisions are based on nepotism considerations’ and ‘some decisions are based on religious considerations’ were recorded with an overall average scale that shows that public officials ‘disagree’ with these statements. The rest of the statements were recorded with an overall average scale showing they ‘agree’ with the statements. Areas or statements where more than two thirds of public officials agree and/or strongly agree include:- ‘that these procedures are formal and written’; ‘that these are simple, clear, and easy to understand’; ‘that these do not require an excessive number of administrative steps’. Others are ‘that these are well supervised (managers make sure that the rules are 23

followed)’; ‘that these are strictly applied (non – compliance always leads to negative consequences for those who do not follow the rules)’; as well as ‘agreed performance targets and measurement criteria are simple’. On the contrary, areas or statements where only less than 10 percent of public officials agree and/or strongly agree include: ‘some decisions are based on nepotism considerations as well as ‘some decisions are based on religious considerations’. Figure 26: Formal

Figure 27: Simple, clear, easy to understand

Further, public officials perceptions about the implementation of these procedures during the last two financial years as relates to hiring, assignments, changes, promotions, salary increase were measured. Areas or decisions/statements where more than two thirds of public officials agree and/or strongly agree include:- ‘decisions were made in a transparent manner (all know who were assigned, promoted, transferred, or received wage increases and why)’; ‘positions falling vacant are made public(when appropriate)’; ‘that decisions are useful for the improvement of institutional efficiency’. Others are ‘that they are subjected to regular audits based on specific criteria and/or process defined in writing’; ‘that they are based on professional experience/merit/performance’; and ‘that they are based on level of education’. On the contrary, areas or decisions/ statements where less than 20 percent of public officials agree and/or strongly agree include: based 24

on family ties, friendship or acquaintance’; ‘influenced by business ties/associations; based on political ties. Others are based on influential connections within the institution; influenced by illegal payments (purchase of positions or promotions); may be due to administration changes within the institution; and likely to favour female staff. Figure 28: Decision made in a transparent manner

Figure 29: Based on influential connections within the institution

With respect to the perception that budget administration decisions in the establishment are, among others, based on (i) Influential Connections within the Institution and (ii) Influenced by Illegal Payments was investigated, the percent of public officials who expressed that they strongly disagree and/or disagree varied between regions as shown in figure 30 below. Figure 30: Budget administration
100 80 60 40 20 0
Li nd i ar a R uv um a Iri ng a M be ya Si ng id Ta a bo ra R uk w a Ki go m Sh a in ya ng a Ka ge ra M w an za M a Ta M ra nz an any ar ia a M ai nl an d M tw od om Ar a us Ki h li m a an ja ro Ta ng M a or og or o D ar Pw es an Sa i la am

Percent

D

Region Based on Influential Connections (%) Influenced by Illegal Payments (%)

25

For the later (i.e. Influenced by Illegal Payments) Lindi and Dar es Salaam are at the extreme ends with respect to those disagreeing, as shown in figure 31, in terms of position taken by public officials. Similarly for the perception on the decisions in the procurement (contracts for goods, works and services) process during the last two calendar years (i.e. 2006 and 2007). Figure 31: Budget administration – influenced by illegal Payments (% strongly disagreeing and/or disagreeing

Mara Lindi Mtwara Shinyanga Iringa Rukwa Pwani Singida Kilimanjaro Dodoma Region Morogoro

Tanzania Mainland Manyara Mbeya Arusha Tabora Ruvuma Mwanza Kagera Tanga Kigoma Dar es Salaam 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent Influenced by Illegal Payments (%)

26

Map 3 continues to show that highest percentage of public officials from the Lake Victoria Zone, including Shinyanga region, as well as south eastern coastal belt expressed the position of strongly disagreeing and/or disagreeing with the statement that ‘Budget administration are influenced by illegal payment.. Map 3: Budget administration – influenced by illegal Payments (% strongly disagreeing and/or disagreeing

Quality of implementation of services by institutions was measured. More than two thirds of public officials rated as agree and/or strongly agree that services offered are of high quality; that they are offered at relatively low cost; that they fully satisfy the user’s needs; and that they are accessible to the poor. Areas for which public officials rated as agree and/or strongly agree with a rank less than 20 percent is the one that the services are performed according to informal (not written) rules. 27

Figure 32: Are of high quality
7.60% 0.20% 3.10% No response Strongly disagree Disagree 7.60% 7.60% 15.40% Indifferent Agree Strongly agree

Figure 33:Are accessible by the poor
7.40% 0.30% 2.30% 8.30% No response Strongly disagree Disagree Indifferent 7.40% 7.40% Agree Strongly agree

Public officials expressed opinion on information management, including transparency, feedback and/or information sharing, staff involvement, management, record keeping and value for money. The average scale scores in four of the five cases indicate that in this case public officials were mostly ‘indifferent’ and the fifth case show they disagree (in the case of ‘the institution does not have an adequate system for recording managerial decisions). This later case indicates that public officials are expressing considerable trust in information management, which is an important basis in good governance and allaying grand corruption. In the following three areas, the percentage was about the same for the officials who took the position to disagree and /or strongly disagree as those saying they agree and/or strongly agree: (i) systems that provide information about public official productivity are scarce and insufficient (ii) when directors/managers make decisions, they never take into consideration their subordinates’ opinions (iii) (iii) executive decisions do not take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution,

28

Figure 34: When directors make decisions, they never take into consideration their subordinates opinions
15.80% 0.40% 13.50% No response Strongly disagree Disagree 28.50% 13.80% 28% Indifferent Agree Strongly agree

Figure 35: Executive decisions do not take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution
14% 0.40% 13.60% No response Strongly disagree Disagree 26.30% 17.50% 28.20% Indifferent Agree Strongly agree

3.5 CORRUPTION AND DEVELOPMENT
About one third (32.5 percent) of public officials indicate they had at least once faced a situation where they were obliged to give a bribe to get services. Out of those who recorded giving a bribe 86.8 percent reported that what they gave in exchange for what they wanted was money. Public officials in most regions reported the payment of "bribes" or making payments "under the table" to public servants as more widely spread five years ago, declining as at the current period and with an expectation it will be lower in two years to come as shown in Table 1 across all the regions. Table 1: Percent Reporting that payment of "bribes" or making payments "under the table" to public servants is widely spread (i) five years ago, (ii) currently, and (iii) expectations in two years to come; percent expressing the practice is widely spread Five years ago Expectations in (%) Currently two years to (%) come (%)
Dodoma Arusha

73.3 56.7

73.3 54.3

47.9 27.0

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Kilimanjaro Tanga Morogoro Pwani Dar es Salaam Lindi Mtwara Ruvuma Iringa Mbeya Singida Tabora Rukwa Kigoma Shinyanga Kagera Mwanza Mara Manyara

67.1 62.1 84.5 62.5 82.8 67.4 65.4 61.4 66.5 76.0 59.9 73.2 68.2 71.8 66.8 78.6 79.1 82.9 68.2

52.3 36.9 56.7 63.2 84.7 57.7 67.8 46.4 49.2 51.6 61.8 63.6 70.5 76.4 77.5 67.6 63.5 96.5 68.8

33.6 28.7 30.2 37.5 69.4 26.2 41.0 38.0 55.0 44.4 30.0 29.9 48.6 43.6 71.5 25.1 40.9 89.9 42.1

Figures 36 present the fluctuations across regions, showing significant differences Figure 36: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants is widely spread now
120 100 Percent 80 60 40 20 0
od om Ar a us Ki li m ha an ja r Ta o M ng or a og or o D ar Pw es an Sa i la am Li n M di tw a R ra uv um a Iri ng M a be y Si a ng id Ta a bo R ra uk w Ki a Sh gom in ya a ng Ka a ge M r w a an za M Ta ar nz M an an a y ia M ara ai nl an d

D

Region

30

Map 4 still shows percentage reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under the table payments to public servants is widely spread currently/now is highest in Lake Victoria zone, including Shinyanga region and lowest in south western highland zone. Map 4: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants is widely spread now

Figures 37 present the fluctuations across regions, showing again significant differences

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Figure 37: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants to be widely spread in two years to come. (%)
100 80 60 40 20 0
uv a um a Iri ng a M be Si ya ng id Ta a bo ra R uk w Ki a go Sh m in a ya ng Ka a ge M ra w an za Ta M ar nz M an a a ia nya M r ai a nl an d ga og or o D ar Pw es a Sa ni la am ha a ro Li nd i M tw m us od o an ja Ta n ar

Percent

Ar

lim

or

D

Ki

M

R

Region

Map 5 continues to show percentage reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under the table payments to public servants is widely spread in two years to come is highest in Lake Victoria zone, including Shinyanga region, and lowest in south western highland zone.

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Map 5: Percent reporting expectations for payment of bribes or under table payments to public servants to be widely spread in two years to come.

Perceptions of public officials on how this situation has evolved in the last four decades are presented for the four phases of government as shown in table 2 below. Overall, the figures show that while the situation had worsened to a high of 78.9 percent during the third phase government, there is evidence of improvement during the fourth phase government (73.4 %). This trend is evident in 13 out of the 21 regions, with the remaining showing no sign of improvement.

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Table 2: The Perception on what year or time period corruption was most prevalent in this country (i) First Phase Government, (ii) Second Phase Government, (iii) Third Phase Government, (iv) Fourth Phase Government; Percent reporting it was/is Widely Spread First Phase Second Phase Third Phase Fourth Phase Government Government Government Government (%) (%) (%) (%)
Dodoma Arusha Kilimanjaro Tanga Morogoro Pwani Dar es Salaam Lindi Mtwara Ruvuma Iringa Mbeya Singida Tabora Rukwa Kigoma Shinyanga Kagera Mwanza Mara Manyara Tanzania Mainland

1.8 0.3 1.0 1.3 3.7 4.4 1.1 3.9 5.4 6.6 5.0 0.0 2.9 1.4
0.0

53.9 49.8 60.1 24.2 61.2 54.4 43.1 44.8 43.1 48.8 63.5 45.3 57.5 44.0 45.9 57.9 34.9 51.5 49.8 57.8 47.3 47.3

64.5 91.5 81.9 84.1 89.0 83.1 89.2 60.6 58.3 78.3 87.3 72.9 63.3 76.3 75.5 78.9 73.5 69.6 72.8 92.0 86.2 78.9

68.2 80.2 62.1 74.5 73.5 58.8 84.8 60.9 68.5 78.3 76.5 73.3 60.9 65.6 78.2 73.2 68.1 59.2 78.1 87.1 85.9 73.4

0.7 3.7 3.0 1.3 2.4 1.3 2.3

.

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3.6 UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF CORRUPTION
Understanding corruption can be traced through exploring decisions made during development of procurement (contracts for goods, works and services) procedures. More than 50 percent of public officials strongly agree and/or agree with the following practices during procurement process as shown in figures 37 t0 40: ‘done transparently (every one can know who was awarded what and why)’; processes are public and open to the knowledge of and suggestions from the users’. In addition, ‘they are subjected to regular audits by the internal control unit’; ‘subjected to regular external audits’; ‘are based on specific criteria defined in writing’. Further, ‘based on direct evaluation of the directors/managers immediately involved in the matter (free from excessive bureaucratic steps); and ‘are based on competition and technical criteria’. On the other hand more than 50 percent of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree with the following statements regarding procurement process: ‘are based on regional preferences’; ‘are based on political ties/political affiliations/political pressure’. Others are based on influential connections within the institution’; ‘are influenced by illegal payments’; and ‘are done with the knowledge of the existence of conflict of interest’. Figure 38: During procurement process done transparently

Figure 39: Process ‘Based on competition and technical criteria’

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Figure 40: Process ‘Influenced by Illegal Payments’

Figure 41: Process ‘Done with the knowledge of the existence of conflict of interest’

Two statements on the process of procurement are displayed to indicate extent of regional differentials, these are: ‘decisions are based on influential connections’ and decisions influenced by illegal payments’. There are regional differences as shown in figure 42. Figure 42: The procurement processes
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Percent

od om Ar a u Ki sha li m an ja ro Ta ng M a or og or o D Pw ar an es i Sa la am Li nd i M tw ar a R uv um a Iri ng a M be ya Si ng id Ta a bo ra R uk w a Ki go m Sh a in ya ng a Ka ge ra M w an za M a Ta M ra nz an any ar ia a M ai nl an d
Region Based on Influential Connections (%) Influenced by Illegal Payments (%)

D

36

Further, the contracting process was assessed. While 10.8 percent of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree that ‘institutions and their procurement entities do take deliberate efforts to publicly announce its purchasing plans in accordance with the existing regulations’, 60 percent strongly agree and/or agree that this practice exists, with the rest showing to be indifferent. On whether ‘the institutions, and their procurement entities, consistently complied with the Public procurement Act and its regulations’ 8.4 percent of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree while 60.8 percent strongly agree and/or agree. Further, on the issue that ‘consistently complying with the Public Procurement Act and its regulations has not completely eliminated awarding contracts to bidders who do not meet minimum requirements’, 18.7 of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree while 45.8 percent strongly agree and/or agree with the statement. The position taken by the rest showing they are indifferent. Figure 43: Entity has taken deliberate efforts to publicly announce its purchasing plans with existing regulations.

Figure 44: The entity has consistently complied with the PPA and its Regulations

37

Figure 45: Existence of PPA and its Regulations has not prevented awarding bidders without minimum requirements.

Perception about irregularities and misappropriation of funds were measured from the point of view of outputs of audit reports. From such reports awarded in the previous financial year to public institutions, about 53 percent of public officials expressed having no knowledge about them. A little over a quarter (26.2 percent) of the audit reports were reported by these officials to be ‘unqualified’ or clean reports.

3.7 OTHER CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
Invariably with respect to petty corruption, one third of public officials do not consider poverty as a source of corruption. However the following were considered by more than two thirds as causes of corruption; greed/selfishness (96.6 percent), high cost of living (79.3 percent), poor remuneration (83 percent), lack of control and accountability of public officials (81.2 percent), lack of independent and effective judiciary (69.3 percent). Others are moral indecency (90.9 percent), poor leadership (78.5 percent), lack of effective corruption reporting system (80.6), and poor law enforcement/punishment of the corrupt (85.2 percent). Furthermore, a little over two thirds (65.9 percent) expressed the opinion that corruption does not lead to giving better services. Figure 46: Greed/selfishness as the cause of Corruption

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Figure 47: High cost of living as the cause of Corruption

Figure 48: Poor leadership

3.8 SERIOUSNESS AND FREQUENCY OF CORRUPTION
Respondents were presented a list of problems and asked to give their opinion on extent of seriousness to each. The majority of public officials consider that each area in the list, with the exception of ‘violence’ pose a ‘very serious’ problem. For ‘violence’ a small majority (38 percent) expressed this as just ‘serious’. Problems expressed as being ‘very serious’ by 75 percent and above by public officials included high cost of living, unemployment, inflation, corruption in public services, cost of education and cost of health services. Those considered ‘very serious’ by 50 percent or more but less than 75 percent included safety concerns/crime, drug trafficking, lack of good leadership, corruption in private sector, access to clean water, food availability, poor quality roads, police harassment, unfair judicial system, destruction of environment, shortage of housing and delinquency. Finally, problems related to drug abuse, political instability, gender stereotypes/bias and violence were rated ‘very serious’ by under 50 percent of public officials. Respondents were also asked to express their opinion as to which, among the list of problems, is the three most serious problems currently affecting Tanzania. For the first 39

important problem, results show public officials ranked ‘high cost of living’ (39.9 percent), followed by ‘inflation’ (10.8 percent), ‘corruption in public service’ (9.6 percent) and ‘unemployment’ (9.2 percent). Each of the rest in the list accounted for less than 6 percent. For the second important problem results show public officials ranked ‘inflation’ (18.6 percent), followed by ‘unemployment’ (15.5 percent), ‘corruption in public service’ (12.5 percent) and ‘high cost of living’ (10.8 percent). Each of the rest in the list accounted for less than 8 percent. For the third important problem, results show public officials ranked ‘corruption in public service’ (13.9 percent), ‘inflation’ (13.6 percent), followed by ‘high cost of living’ (8.1 percent) and ‘cost of education’ (7.6 percent). Each of the rest in the list accounted for less than 7 percent. From the above one may deduce that the top most serious problems currently affecting Tanzania include ‘high cost of living’ and/or ‘inflation’ and ‘corruption in public services’ in that order. Figure 49: High cost of living 0.50% 0.40%
9.10% No response Very serious Serious Very trivial 90%

Figure 50: Corruption in Public services

1.40% 12.90%

0.50% No response Very serious Serious Very trivial 85.20%
40

Governability and perception about corruption was measured from the point of view of the rather common practice in many countries of the world where companies and people pay bribes (make payments ‘under the table’) to public servants. Public officials rated this practices was wide spread (most serious) two to five years ago (at over 70 percent) and that currently they rate it at 66 percent with an anticipated decline to 45.4 percent in the next two years to come. For local businesspersons the rating by public officials showed about the same level and pattern. The practice was also measured for foreign investors/businesspersons. The rating by public officials showed hardly any change during the last five years (rating at over 60 percent). However the expectation for this category of investors is a decline to about 47 percent in the next two years. The above practice was also measured for International Cooperating Partners. The highest rating by public officials showed, by 30 to 50 percent, that the practice has been nonexistent over the last five years and the expectation shows the same in the next two years. For Non Governmental Organisations the rating by public officials showed hardly any change during the last five years (rating at over 60 percent). The highest rating by public officials showed, by 40 to 50 percent, that the practice has been there only sometimes. The above practice was measured for the institution in which respondents are employed. The rating by public officials showed a picture which calls for further research as only between 10 and 20 percent of public officials report this practice as ‘widely spread’, although up to 30 percent reports it occurs sometimes. The above practice was measured with the view of comparing the rate of incidence between the durations of the four phases of government from independence to the current period. The rating by public officials showed a worsening situation over the years. For the ‘widely spread’ category’ of corruption, as low a rate as 2.3 percent was expressed by public officials for the duration of the first phase government (1961 to 1985) to a high of 78.9 during the third phase government (1995 to 2005). While still high, there is a likelihood of improvement the fourth phase period is rated at 73.4 percent. Public officials expressed their opinion regarding the practices of bribes to obtain public services, bribes to alter regulatory and legal decisions as well as bribes in the procurement (goods, works and services) processes. In all the cases the rating was lowest for the practice ‘widely spread’ at around 20 percent.

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3.9 THE IMPACT AND COSTS OF CORRUPTION
The issue of governability or governance as relates to irregularities and/or misappropriation of funds in the process of the awarding mechanisms of public contracts (goods, works and services) may not be public knowledge to the majority of public officials in their institutions. Despite this, knowledge on the number of public contracts where illegal payments was used in order to secure the awarding of contracts was investigated. As expected, 76.7 percent of public officials expressed they do not know. However 14.8 percent are of the opinion that there are no such contracts. A little fewer than 10 percent of the numbers of public contracts however were expressed to have had involvement of illegal payments according to public officials.

3.10 SOURCES OF CORRUPTION
In relation to the development of the daily activities, tasks and functions during the implementation of the services, the average scale score for the three statements showed that public officials agree with the statements. Public officials showed that they strongly disagree and/or disagree with the statement that ‘there exist clearly defined mechanisms that can take into consideration the feedback and needs of the users’ (11.6 percent). Those who strongly agree and/or agree were 82.3 percent. With respect to whether ‘there exist clearly defined mechanisms that channel user’s complaints as well as their preferences’ 14.5 percent of public officials strongly disagree and/or disagree with the statement while 80.4 strongly agree and/or agree. Finally, with respect to whether ‘receipts of the different transactions are served in hard copy for use during internal and external audits’ the figures were 1.8 and 86 percent respectively. The difference in percentage in all the cases noted they were indifferent.

3.11 GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION IN KEY SECTORS
The survey investigated the corruption problem across public institutions, basically in an attempt to assess the integrity of respective organisations. Out of the institutions listed for investigation, eleven were rated by two thirds or more as being honest and/or completely honest. These are the Parliament (69.4 percent), the Army (81.1 percent), National Audit Office (66.9 percent), Offices of District Commissioners (72.1 percent), Social Security Funds (66.5 percent), Commercial Banks (72 percent), the Private Sector (70.3 percent), Trade Unions (77.8 percent), NGOs (73.5 percent) and PCCB (68.7 percent). On the 42

other hand the organisation which were rated lowest with respect to honesty were Ministry of Finance (50.5 percent), High Court (51.2 percent), Bank of Tanzania (41.9 percent), Police Force (31.1 percent), District/Primary Courts (36.3 percent), Ministry of Home Affairs (52.8 percent) and the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development (44.9 percent). Public officials were also required to assess how efficient or inefficient a list of selected institutions was at exercising social control over public entities. Those rated by public officials as having the highest influence are Faith Based Institutions (94.7 percent), Mass Media (93.6 percent), Trade Unions (86 percent), Commission for Human Rights (82.2 percent) and NGOs (81.8 percent).

3.12 UNBUNDLING THE INCIDENCE OF CORRUPTION
Clients of public institutions in many countries are known to influence in various capacity or domain, through bribes, the decisions made by top public sector officials. Public officials rated multinational companies (at 63.9 percent) and unscrupulous businesspersons (at 64.8) as the top two. Public officials were requested to state how frequently a selected list of corrupt practices occurred in contracting processes. The list includes technical deviation of the contract, Contractor monopolies, Modifying the terms of the contract to favour the interest of a company, contracting with fictitious or nonexistent, presenting offers from non existent competitors, Bribery to award contract, and Bid rigging. This question has a rather high number not responding, with a little over one third of public officials falling in this category. For the public officials who expressed their position, the majority rated the corrupt practices as ‘not frequent’ (at around 35 to 40 percent).

3.13 PERFORMANCE OF PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANISATIONS AND CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
Decisions regarding to budget administration (amount assigned to various budget lines, services rendered, programmes carried out, areas the received budget allocation) were investigated using a list of statements. On the average public officials agreed with the following statements – ‘the budget administration decisions are subjected to regular audits by internal control unit’; ‘the budget administration decisions are subjected to regular external audits’; ‘the budget administration decisions are based on specific criteria defined in writing’; and ‘the budget administration decisions are based on purely 43

technical criteria’. However on the average they disagree with the statements – ‘the budget administration decisions are influenced by regional ties’; ‘the budget administration decisions are based on political ties/political affiliation/political pressure’; ‘the budget administration decisions are based on influential connections within the institution’. Others are ‘the budget administration decisions are influenced by illegal payments’; and ‘the budget administration decisions are influenced by administration changes within the institutions’. This last position suggests little room for discretion in decision making in budget administration, which is positive for good governance.

3.14 FIGHTING CORRUPTION
Information on general work satisfaction with occupation and compensation was solicited from public officials in a list of four identified areas as an entry point in fighting corruption. Public officials, on the average rated that they agree to the statement that ‘to work in the public sector is better than to work in the private sector’. They were indifferent to the statement ‘I have nowhere else to go’. However, they disagree to the statements ‘my salary and benefits are very satisfactory’ as well as ‘my standard of living or personal economic standing has improved due to my salary increase’. The positions taken by public officials in this respect do not seem to be very consistent, thus more research may be called for. Fighting corruption can have its starting point from the study of integrity within institutions. The score on the perception by public officials on the integrity of selected Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), looking at percent perceived as ‘completely dishonest and/or dishonest’ is presented in table 3 below. For each region there are differences across MDAs and for each MDA there are differences across regions. Table 3: The score on the perception on the integrity of selected Ministries, Departments and Agencies; Percent reporting ‘Completely dishonest and/or dishonest’

Ministry The of Health Ministry of Police Education Force
Dodoma Arusha Kilimanjaro Tanga 40.6 50.6 40.6 31.9 46.1 46.8 36.2 29.9 57.1

District/Primary PCCB Ministry Courts of Lands
60.9 77.4 48.0 40.1 33.2 17.4 16.8 12.5 59.9 69.6 49.0 44.6

84.3
62.1 52.2

44

Morogoro Pwani Dar es Salaam Lindi Mtwara Ruvuma Iringa Mbeya Singida Tabora Rukwa Kigoma Shinyanga Kagera Mwanza Mara Manyara Tanzania Mainland

47.8 37.5 51.4 27.9 34.5 17.5 12.7 6.2 51.3 46.7 44.1 47.9 53.7 20.7 34.9 43.5 28.6 39.3

31.1 28.0 46.1 8.6 15.6 15.7 17.3 6.2 41.5 27.5 38.2 37.1 40.9 17.4 28.9 34.5 42.4 32.5

73.5
54.1 73.9

62.2 48.2 66.8 44.5 46.8 21.1 23.5 37.8 59.9 57.4 54.5 62.2 68.8 49.8 61.5 87.1 76.2 57.4

17.5 28.4 41.6 10.8 22.8 15.0 6.9 19.1 33.4 24.4 30.0 36.4 16.8 18.0 19.6 1.7 9.7 21.7

58.4 44.5 61.6 30.5 41.4 25.9 17.0 33.4 63.7 55.3 43.6 63.9 46.0 27.5 45.8 40.1 68.5 48.8

49.1 58.0
33.7 46.6 42.7 60.9

66.7
60.5 73.9 75.5

58.2 65.4
93.8 72.6 65.0

Figure 51 presents line graph showing regions differentials for the situation for the Police Force and Ministry of Lands. Across all the regions the situation is worse, almost without exception, for the Police Force. Figure 51: Score on the perception on integrity of selected Ministries
100 80 60 40 20 0 Percent

od om Ar a u Ki s ha li m an ja ro Ta ng M or a og or o D ar Pw an es Sa i la am Li n M di tw ar a R uv um a Iri ng a M be ya Si ng id Ta a bo ra R uk w a Ki go Sh m a in ya ng a Ka ge ra M w an za M a Ta M ra nz an an ya ia ra M ai nl an d
Region The Police Force Ministry of Lands

D

45

Figures 52, however, show significant variations across regions for the Police Force. The extremes are Mara region expressing the highest dissatisfaction and Ruvuma region with a majority of Public Officials happy with the Police Forces’ performance. Figure 52: Percent reporting The Police Force completely dishonest and / or dishonest.
Mara Arusha Manyara Shinyanga Dar es salaam Kigoma Morogoro Tabora Mw anza Tanzania Mainland Region K/njaro Singida Rukw a Kagera Mtw ara Dodoma Pw ani Tanga Lindi Iringa Mbeya Ruvuma 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

Map 6 presents similar extremes as the previous maps where the Lake Victoria zone, including Shinyanga, Kigoma and northern regions has the highest percent of public officials reporting that the Police force is completely dishonest and/or dishonest. Again south western zone had the lowest percent. The northern zone, including Morogoro region show the same pattern as the Lake Victoria zone.

46

Map 6: Percent reporting The Police Force completely dishonest and / or dishonest.

Figure 53 give bar charts for District/Primary Court Magistrates. There are significant variations across regions, in this case Mara region showing the worst situation and the best situation being expressed by Ruvuma region.

47

Figure 53: Percent reporting District/Primary courts ‘Completely dishonest and /or dishonest.
Mara Arusha Manyara Morogoro Shinyanga Dar es salaam Kigoma Mw anza Dodoma Singida R egion Tanzania Mainland Tabora Rukw a Kagera Pw ani K/njaro Mtw ara Lindi Tanga Mbeya Iringa Ruvuma 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent

Map 7 presents the situation in District and Primary courts. Again, the pattern is the same for the zone with public officials showing the lowest percent as map 6 above.

48

Map 7: Percent reporting District/Primary courts ‘Completely dishonest and /or dishonest.

Figure 54 give bar charts for the Ministry of Lands. The worst situation is in Arusha region and the best inIringa region.

49

Figure 54: Percent reporting ministry of Lands completely dishonest and / or dishonest
Arusha Manyara Kigoma Singida Dar es salaam Dodoma Morogoro Tabora K/njaro Tanzania Mainland Rg n e io Shinyanga Mw anza Tanga Pw ani Rukw a Mtw ara Mara Mbeya Lindi Kagera Ruvuma Iringa 0 20 40 Percent 60 80

Map 8 presents a similar pattern for the south western highlands zone showing that the public officials reported lowest percent with the opinion that the ministry of Lands is completely dishonest and/or dishonest. For this ministry it is the central belt zone, including Kigoma, Tabora, Singida, Arusha, Manyara, Dodoma and Morogoro regions which registered the highest percent.

50

Map 8: Percent reporting ministry of Lands completely dishonest and / or dishonest

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CHAPTER 4: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1 CONCLUSIONS
The Public Officials survey was carried out to find the environment under which those entrusted with the task to deliver public services operate with special emphasis on assessing public sector governance and corruption. The survey examined public employee perceptions. The following are conclusions in a span of nine areas and these include ‘Perception as to Scope and Structure of Corruption’, ‘Service Quality and Integrity of Key Public Agencies’, ‘Corruption and Development’. Other areas are ‘Severity of and Trends in Corruption’, ‘Sources and Patterns of Corruption’, ‘Major Factors Influencing Personnel Recruitment’. The rest are ‘Management and Reward System’, ‘Fighting Corruption - Assessing the Diffusion and Scope of Corruption’, ‘Fighting Corruption - Political Will’ and ‘Fighting Corruption - Institutional Support’. The conclusions are summarised as follows: 1. Public officials have a common understanding and they mostly relate the word corruption to ‘unofficial payments’, ‘demand for sex’ (which mainly relate to petty corruption) and ‘abuse of power’ (which mainly relate to grand corruption), in that order. This perception of corruption is undifferentiated by public officials’ gender, age, salary level, or whether the public employee has other sources of income or not 2. Public officials seem to confirm that the requisite legal and regulatory frameworks are already in place and that a firm foundation for ensuring good governance exists. However, clearly, these are habitually violated. 3. The survey has identified institutions that can be taken as role models, or be encouraged to play the role of ‘champions’ in the fight against corruption. The survey also identifies institutions where proportionately more effort needs to be directed. Conversely, these institutions now have a basis for soliciting more resources to fight corruption within their organisations 4. Public officials purport to ‘disagree’ with the statements that ‘some decisions are based on nepotism considerations’ and ‘some decisions are based on religious considerations’. Since both nepotism and religious considerations in decision making processes are linked to corrupt practises, these responses are not reliable. 5. Since as high as one third (32.5 percent) of public servants were obliged to give a bribe to get services and out of those who recorded giving a bribe, as high as 86. 8 percent reported that what they gave in exchange for what they wanted was money is proof enough that public servants are accustomed to bribe giving. 6. Public officials consider both petty and grand corruption as being very harmful. Further, when compared with other problems in Tanzania, corruption is considered a major problem and that corruption, having gradually increased to very high levels over the years, have now expressed the need for instituting stern measures. 52

7. Public officials indicated by as high as over two thirds (69.6 percent) of the cases, when it comes to who usually initiates a bribe: it is the service provider. 8. Response form public officials rank the top three most serious problems currently affecting Tanzania as ‘high cost of living’ and/or ‘inflation’ and ‘corruption in public services’ in that order 9. The response that as high as three quarters (76.7 percent) of public officials are not aware of the number of public contracts where illegal payments was used in order to secure the awarding of contracts and that as high as 14.8 percent of them are even of the opinion that there are no such contracts where illegal payments was used is, quite simply, unbelievable! 10. Public officials recognize the strategic importance of information management as a tool for good governance and effective means of combating grand corruption

4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Public institutions should be required to demonstrate that they strictly follow the axisting legal and regulatory framework 2. Proportionately more resources should be channelled by the Government to MDAs displaying low level of integrity so as to address recruitment, internal restructuring, competence level enhancement and capacity building 3. The Government must demonstrably take stern measures against those public servants who perpetrate corruption. 4. The Government and its complement of public servants need to instil the culture of ‘information management’, to monitor and evaluate, on a regular basis, the compliance level of its existing regulations.

5. The Government needs to put in place an effective complaint mechanism to enable ordinary citizens to expose those public officials who act with impunity and with utter disregard as to laid down regulations.

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REFERENCES
Centre for Democracy and Development – Ghana (2000): The Ghana Governance and Corruption Survey – Evidence from Households, Enterprises and Public Officials, CDD – Ghana Accra. FACEIT and ESRF (2002): The State of Corruption Report – Annual Report, Dar es Salaam. Government of Kenya (2007): National Corruption Perception Survey; Kenya Anti – Corruption Commission, Nairobi. Government of Malawi (2005); Governance and Corruption Baseline Survey, Millennium Consulting Group Ltd, Lilongwe. Government of Nigeria (no year); Governance and Corruption Diagnostic Survey – Analysis of Survey Results, Households, Enterprises and Public Officials, Lagos Government of Sierra Leone (no year): Governance and Corruption Study, CDMA/GRS I; Freetown. Government of Zambia (no year): Corruption Survey Report: Zambia National Governance Baseline Survey – Executive Summary, Lusaka. Kaufmann, D et al (2008): Governance Indicators, World Bank Washington D C. Political Economy Centre (2000): Corruption in the public Sector in Thailand; Chulalongkorn University Bangkok. The United Republic of Tanzania (1999): The National Anti – Corruption Strategy and Action Plan for Tanzania; President’s Office State House Dar es Salaam. The United Republic of Tanzania (2006): The National Anti – Corruption Strategy and Sector Specific Action Plans for all Ministries, Independent Government departments and Executive Agencies Phase II 2006 – 2010, President’s Office State House Dar es Salaam USAID, nola and PCCB (2007): Yajue Makosa ya Rushwa Yaliyoainishwa Katika Sheria ya Kuzuia na Kupambana na Rushwa Namba 11 ya 2007

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UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

THE 2009 NATIONAL GOVERNANCE AND CORRUPTION SURVEY PUBLIC OFFICIALS SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE CONFIDENTIAL

IDENTIFICATION

REGION ………………………………………………………………………………. DISTRICT ……………………………………………………………………..

NAME OF ORGANIZATION ……………………………………. BRANCH...…..………………………………………………………. EXECUTIVE = 1; LEGISLATVE = 2; JUDICIAL = 3; PARASTATAL = 4; OTHER = 5 Code number ………………………………………………………. VISIT 1 VISIT 2 __________________

VISIT 3

Date of Interview ________________ _________________

Interviewer Name __________________________________________

55

Supervisor Name ________________ Date ________ _________________ Date ________

Office Editor Name

DATA PROCESSING Keyed in by: Name Date ----/----/2009

READ THE FOLLOWING TO THE RESPONDENT Good Morning/good afternoon; I am __________________ an interviewer from FRONT AGAINST CORRUPT ELEMENTS IN TANZANIA (FACEIT), an independent Civil Society Organisation and Consulting firm. We are conducting a study about opinions and interests of public officials in our country. The purpose of this study is to identify the practices that have developed within the public institutions related to the distribution of public services, specifically the understanding institution – specific determinants of corruption. All information received is strictly confidential. It is extremely important for us to maintain the confidentiality of your answers. Your participation will not be revealed under any circumstances, nor will your name be printed or divulged in any document. Each official interviewed will have a code assigned and the data gathered will be compared with other answers. None of the questionnaires will be revealed to any person or entity. This survey will be conducted and processed by (FACEIT), and its results will be used by the Government, the Development Partners and Civil Society for the design of an integration of a national strategy to fight against corruption. Most questions require you to give your opinion about the issue that I am going to ask you. Feel free to give your opinion because this survey is aiming at assisting the Government to improve the provision of public services to her people.

PART 1: GENERAL INFORMATION OF THE RESPONDENT RECORD THE TIME WHEN YOU START THE INTERVIEW ______________________ 101. RECORD THE SEX OF THE RESPONDENT MALE 1 FEMALE 2 (Now I am going to ask you a few starting questions about yourself) 102. How old are you? YEARS

103. What is your marital status? (CIRCLE APPROPRIATE NUMBER)

56

Single 4

1

Married

2

Widowed

3

Divorced/separated

104. What is the highest level of education you have attained? PRIMARY SECONDARY COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY 1 3 5 TRAINING AFTER PRIMARY TRAINING AFTER SECONDARY POST GRADUATE STUDIES 2 4 6

105. What is your current position in the society or Institution in which you are employed? (CIRCLE APPROPRIATE NUMBER) POSITION Member of Parliament Regional or District politician Institution’s Policy Maker Institution’s Manager Programme CODE 1 2 3 4 5 6 POSITION National Audit Office Officer Tanzania Officer Revenue Authority CODE 7 8 9 10 11 12

Public Procurement Regulatory Authority Officer Local Government Officer Council

Institution’s Supporting Staff Judiciary Officer

Other selected Officers (refer to list at end of this questionnaire) Representative of junior staff

106. Which of these activities best describes your occupation in the institution where you work? Policy Development Direct Attention Services/Decisions Administrative Processes Procurement Position Other (Specify) __________________________ 1 2 3 4 5

107. For how long have you worked in: (i) The public sector? (ii) The current organisation (iii) The present position (iv) This Local Government Authority ……… years ………. years ……….. years ……….. years

57

108. I will read to you salary ranges, please state in which range your current (year 2009) Gross monthly salary including allowances fall: SALARY RANGE Up to Tshs 99,999/= From Tshs 100,000/= to 299,999/= From Tshs 300,000/= to 499,999/= From Tshs 500,000/= to 749,999/= From Tshs 750,000/= to 999,999/= From Tshs 1,000,000/= to 1,499,999/= From Tshs 1,500,000/= to 2,499,999/= Tshs 2,500,000/= and above Not Stated/No Response CODE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

109.

Do you have any other source of income? YES 1 NO 2

110. What was your main activity before entering the public sector? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
Own Private Business Working in Private Sector Farmer Working with an NGO 111. 111A. 01 02 03 04 Was a Student 05 Was unemployed 06 Independent Professional 07 OTHER (SPECIFY) _____________ 08

May you please tell me about the following? Your family size, including extended family members living with you.

111B.

Do you or any member of your nucleus family (father, mother and their children) own a company or business? YES 1 NO 2 (SKIP TO 112)

111C.

What income is derived from the company/business as a percentage of total family income?

____________%

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112.

What are your terms of Service? (i) Permanent and Pensionable (ii) Contract (iii) Internship/Attachment (iv)Temporary/Casual (v) Voluntary (vi)Other (SPECIFY) ____________________

1 2 3 4 5 6

113. How were you appointed to the present position? Through interview Chaired by Public Service Commission Through interview by outsourced Firm or Committee Through interview by Senior Management Official(s) Through normal promotion Through influence by friend/relative As an Executive appointment As a political appointment Elected Other (SPECIFY) _________________________________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

SECTION 2: CURRENT SITUATION ABOUT CORRUPTION IN TANZANIA 201. The word “Corruption” is sometimes difficult to define. Now I would like to ask you, what do you understand when one mentions the word “corruption”? (CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED) DEMAND FOR UNOFFICIAL PAYMENT 01 TAKRIMA 02 BAKSHISH 03 DEMAND FOR FAVOUR 04 DEMAND FOR SEX 05 EMBEZZLEMENT OF PUBLIC FUNDS 06 FRAUD 07 ABUSE OF POWER 08 OTHER (SPECIFY) _________________________________ 09 DOES NOT KNOW 99 (SKIP TO 203) In your opinion, which three forms of corruption do you consider to be most serious in Tanzania?

202.

(TRANSFER CODE NUMBER OF RESPONSE MENTIONED)  ____________________________________________________     ____________________________________________________      59

____________________________________________________ 
203. What types of corrupt practices do usually occur in your vicinity? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 204. Where do such corrupt practices occur? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 205. In your opinion, how does each of the following corruption affect society in general? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
VERY HARMFUL SOMEHOW HARMFUL NOT HARMFUL DON’T KNOW

Petty (Small) Grand (Big)

corruption corruption

1 1

2 2

3 3

9 9

206.

In your opinion, corruption in Tanzania when it is compared with other problems is: A Major problem A Moderate problem A Minor problem Not a problem at all DON’T KNOW 1 2 3 4 9

207.

From your personal perspective, would you consider the following to be the major causes of corruption in Tanzania? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
CAUSE YES NO DON’T KNOW

01. Poverty

1

2

9

60

02. Greed/selfishness 03. High cost of living 04. Poor remuneration 05. Lack of control and accountability of public officials 06. Lack of independent and effective judiciary 07. Moral decency 08. Poor leadership 09. Lack of effective corruption reporting system 10. Poor law enforcement/punishment of the corrupt 11. Corruption gives better services 12. Other ___________________________ 208. (SPECIFY)

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

In your opinion, would you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree with the following statements? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STATEMENT STRONGLY AGREE AGREE DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE DON’T KNOW

Bribery is a practical necessity for getting things done quickly Corruption is beneficial provided you are not caught Corruption gives better services Following laid down procedures is too costly and time wasting People who report corruption end up suffering the most There is no point of reporting corruption because nothing will be done about it Would not protection retaliation have from received possible

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

9 9 9 9 9

1

2

3

4

9

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

9 9 9

The case can not be proved Do not want to betray anyone

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209.

From the following statements, in your opinion, who usually initiates a bribe? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A service provider indicates or asks for a payment The service receiver offers a payment on his/her own accord It is known before hand how to pay and how much to pay An known agent is engaged to do the transaction Do not know 1 2 3 4 9

210.

Have you ever encountered a situation where you were obliged to give something in order that you get what you wanted? YES 1 NO 2 GO TO 212

211.

What did you give in exchange for what you wanted to get? MONEY 1 PROPERTY 2 SEX OTHER (SPECIFY) __________________________ 3 4

212.

In the following questions, I will describe to you some situations that sometimes happen. In your opinion, how do you rate each action, would you consider it to be totally acceptable, somehow acceptable, somehow not acceptable or totally not acceptable? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
SITUATION TOTALLY ACCEPTABLE SOMEHOW ACCEPTABLE SOMEHOW NOT ACCEPTABLE TOTALLY NOT ACCEPTABLE

01. In order to keep the car from being towed and avoid paying a fine, an offender offers to pay the Traffic Police Officer directly. The Officer had not asked for money, but he/she accepts it. 02. A government official uses a government car for personal business or leisure 03. A person is promoted thanks to a family or other intimate relationship with a high ranking official

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

213.

We are going to propose a hypothetical situation. Suppose that one night, a little late in the evening, you are walking in the parking lot of a shopping street/area/mall, the parking lot is empty, there is no security at this time and you are by yourself. Suddenly, you notice that there is an envelope on the ground. You pick it up and realize it contains 5 million shillings.

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How probable is it that your reaction would be as follows? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
REACTION NOT PROBABLE AT ALL NOT PROBABLE PROBABLE HIGHLY PROBABLE

01. Since this money has no owner, this lucky break can help you with your family expenses. 02. You will take it home and think overnight about what to do with it. 03. Right away you look for a guard in order to report the incidence and give him the envelope with the money. 04. Knowing that whoever will be given the envelope will pocket it, better you take it.

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

214.

I will read to you a list of problems. Please tell me how serious you consider each problem to be. Let us use a scale from 1 to 4 where 1 means very serious problem; 2 means serious problem; and 3 means very minor problem. (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) PROBLEM VERY SERIOUS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SERIOUS VERY MINOR 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

01. High cost of living 02. Unemployment 03. Inflation 04. Safety concerns/crime 05. Drug abuse 06. Drug trafficking 07. Lack of good leadership 08. Corruption in public services 09. Corruption in private sector 10. Cost of Education 11. Cost of Health services 12. Access to clean water

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13. Food availability 14. Poor quality of roads 15. Police harassment 16 Unfair judicial system of the

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

17. Destruction environment

18. Political instability 19. Shortage of Housing 20. Gender stereotype type/bias 21. Violence 22 Delinquency

23. Any other problem? (Specify)

215.

In your opinion, from the aforementioned problems, what do you think are the three most serious problems affecting Tanzania? List them in order of importance among those I have read to you? 1st in importance ___________________________________________ 2nd in importance __________________________________________ 3rd in importance __________________________________________

PART 3: MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL (INSTITUTION WHERE INTERVIEWEE WORKS) (Thank you, and now I will turn and ask you a few questions regarding the management of personnel in your institution) SECTION 3.1: POLICIES /GUIDELINES / REGULATIONS IN PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF THE POLICIES/GUIDELINES/REGULATIONs 301. Please evaluate to what extent you would agree or disagree with the statements below regarding decisions of your institution related to administration / policies / regulations of personnel management: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) (Use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 indicates that you strongly disagree. 3 means that you are indifferent 5 means that you strongly agree).

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Decisions about the management / policies /regulations of personnel in your Institution: 01. Formal (i.e. written) 02. Simple, clear, easy to understand 03. Do not require an excessive number of administrative steps 04. Stable (do not change or are not always being rewritten) 05. Well supervised (managers make sure that the rules are followed) 06. Strictly Applied (non-compliance always leads to negative consequences for those who do not follow the rules) 07. The rules are considered useful for the objectives of the institution and their application creates institutional benefits 08. Agreed Performance Targets and Measurement Criteria are simple, clear and easy to understand 09. Right information about job description is given and is fully understood 10. Some decisions are based on nepotism considerations 11. Some decisions are based on religious considerations

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE

STRONGLY AGREE

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE IMPLEMENT ATION OF POLICIES /GUIDELINES / REGULATIONS 302. During the last two financial years, to what extent were you in agreement with the statements below regarding decisions related to personnel management (hiring, assignments, changes, promotions, salary increases) in your Institution? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) STRONGL AGRE STRONGLY DISAGREE Y E AGREE INDIFFERENT DISAGREE 1 2 3 4 5

To what extent were the decisions on human resources: 01. Made in a transparent manner (know who were assigned, promoted, transferred, or received wage increases and why). 02. Revealing positions falling vacant within the institution as well as announced publicly outside the institution (when appropriate) 03. Useful for the improvement of institutional efficiency

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

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04. Subjected to regular audits by the internal unit of control 05. Are subject to regular external audits performed by professionals qualified and experienced in conducting audits 06. There is a system of evaluating jobs and Compensating employees 07. Peers at the work place rate the compensation system as effective 08. Subject to a formal procedure of appeal 09. Based on specific criteria defined in writing (as opposed to tacit - not written 10. Based on a process specifically defined in writing 11. Based on professional experience/ merit /performance 12. Based on level of education 13. Based on seniority / age 14. Based on family ties, friendship or acquaintance 15. Influenced by business ties/associations 16. Based on political ties / political affiliations / political pressure 17. Based on influential connections within the institution 18. Influenced by illegal payments (purchase of positions or promotions) 19. Due to administration changes within the Institution 20. Likely to favour female staff

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

SECTION 3.2: GENERAL WORK SATISFACTION 303. Please indicate to what extent you agree with the following expressions: (CIRCLE AS

APPROPRIATE)

GENERAL SATISFACTION WITH OCCUPATION AND COMPENSATION:

STRONGLY DISAGREE

DISAGREE

INDIFFERENT

AGREE STRONGLY AGREE

01. To work in the public sector is better than to work in the private 02. My salary and benefits are very satisfactory 03. My standard of living (personal economic standing) has improved due to my salary increase 04. I have nowhere else to go

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

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304.

In your opinion, to what extent do you agree with the following expressions? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT DISAGREE AGREE STRONGLY AGREE

REASONS TO WORK IN THIS INSTITUTION:

01. Because of stability / job security 02. Because of learning / training opportunities 03. Because of conviction or personal satisfaction with public sector work 04. Because of social status 05. Because of the level of influence and access to other opportunities 06. Because of the relationships being established and/or experience being gained for future work in the private 07. Because opportunities outside the public sector are limited 08. Never found a reason to leave 09. I have considerable spare time to work on personal things

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

SECTION 3.3: TRAINING 305. Please evaluate the frequency of offering training opportunities, communication of training opportunities to employees and criteria of offering training to staff. (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) TRAINING IN PUBLIC INSTITUTION 01. Skills, knowledge and ability considered in offering training to staff 02. All training opportunities communicated to employees NEVER SOMETIME ALWAYS DON’T HAPPEN S HAPPENS HAPPEN KNOW S S 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 4

03. How frequently does the institution offer training 1 2 3 opportunities 306. Please evaluate: How effective are the training opportunities offered by your institution at improving your work performance. : NOT EFFECTIVE 1 EFFECTIVE 2 VERY EFFECTIVE 3 DON’T KNOW 4 SECTION 3.4: PAYMENT OF WAGES 307. During the last two financial years how frequently did you receive your payment late? :

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NEVER RARELY FREQUENTLY VERY FRFEQUENTLY

1 2 3 4

PART 4: BUDGET ADMINISTRATION
Thank you, and I will now turn and ask you a few questions regarding the administration of budget or finances in your institution. SECTION 4.1: POLICIES / GUIDELINES / REGULATIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE BUDGET PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF POLICIES/GUIDELINES/REGULATIONS

401. Please evaluate to what extent you and your colleagues would agree that the policies / guidelines and regulations of the administration of the budget are: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) The budget administration decisions STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE are: 01. Formal (i.e. written) 1 2 3 4 5 02. Simple, clear, easy to understand 03. Do not require an excessive number of 04. Stable (do not change or are not always being rewritten) 05. Well supervised (managers make sure that the rules are 06. Strictly Applied 07. Based on the rules presented in the General Plan for Public Accountability 08. The rules are considered useful for the objectives of the institution and their application creates institutional b fit 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5

1

2

3

4

5

PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF POLICIES /GUIDELINES/ REGULATIONS 402.During the last two financial years to what extent would you agree that the statements below regarding decisions relating to the budget administration (amounts assigned to the budget, services, programs which were carried out, groups that received budget allocations) have been: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

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The budget administration decisions were: STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE STRONGLY INDIFFERENT DISAGREE AGREE 01. Done transparently (we know who received what and why) 02. Announced and open to public knowledge through various legal 03. Subjected to regular audits by the internal control unit 04. Subject to regular external audits performed by professionals qualified and experienced in 05. Based on specific criteria defined in writing (as opposed to tacit – not 06. Based on purely technical criteria 07. Influenced by regional ties 08. Based on political ties / political affiliations / political pressure 09. Based on influential connections within the institution 10. Influenced by illegal payments 11. Due to administration changes within the Institution Planned with consideration given to institutional ulfilment Subject to unforeseen reductions that affected their proper execution 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

403.To what extent would you be in agreement with the following expressions? : (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) EXPRESSIONS 01. It is possible to influence the amount of the budget assigned to where you work in the institution 02. Receipts for the different transactions are saved in hard copy for use during internal or external audits 03. The operating processes such as accounting, budget, payments, etc. are integrated in order to achieve efficiency in the financial area 04. The entity/institution divulges its quarterly financial reports to the general public
STRONGLY STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE AGREE DISAGREE

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

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05. Internal control systems are in place in order to protect the resources of this entity/institution against loss or inappropriate use 06. Third party payments made by the institution are made in a manner that respects the order in which the invoice was received

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION 4.2: PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE RESOURCES NECESSARY FOR INSTITUTIONAL OPERATION 404. Please evaluate how frequently the following resources fulfil your needs as well as the needs of your Peers in your institution to allow you to complete your activities successfully? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) RESOURCES: 01. Amount of budgetary resources 02. Properly qualified personnel 03. Office equipment / Computers 04. Space / Offices / Physical plants NEVER SOMETIMES 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 ALWAYS 3 3 3 3

PART 5: PERFORMANCE AND/OR PROVISION OF SERVICES
(Thank you, and now I will turn and ask you a few questions relating to the performance and/or provision of services in your institution) SECTION 5.1: MOTIVATION / IDENTIFICATION / GOALS / MISSION / STRATEGIES 501. Please indicate to what extent you and your colleagues in the institution would be in agreement with the following expressions: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STRONGLY STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE AGREE

In the Institution where you work: 01. All levels of public servants have a clear idea of the Institution’s objectives and strategies 02. All levels of public servants consider the citizens and users of public services, without discrimination, as your clients 03. All levels of public servants identify with, and are involved with the institutions’ objectives and strategies

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

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04. For all levels of public servants, there are incentives to improve the quality of services rendered 05. You clearly understand your institutional roles and responsibilities and what duties comprise each role 06. The purchasing plan is considered an important planning exercise and takes into consideration the investment plans of the institution and its inventory requirements 07. The budget is an effective tool for planning and executing the plans and strategies of the institution

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION 5.2: PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE QUALITY OF INSTITUTIONS AND THE ECISION MAKING PROCESS 502. Please indicate to what extent you are in agreement with the following statements? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) STATEMENT 01. At the Institution where you work, there are too many levels in the decisionmaking process 02. At the Institution where you work, the decision making processes are too centralized
STRONGL STRONGLY Y AGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE DISAGREE

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION 5.3: PERCEPTION ABOUT TIME MANAGEMENT

503. How frequently do you believe that a public official such as yourself must engage in other work activities, say in the private sector because the salary in the public sector is not sufficient to make a living? NEVER HAPPENED RARELY HAPPENED SOMETIMES FREQUENT VERY FREQUENT DON’T KNOW 1 2 3 4 5 9

SECTION 5.4: FULFILLMENT OF OBJECTIVES AND REFORMS

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PERCEPTION ABOUT THE IMPLEMENTA TION OF POLICIES /GUIDELINES / REGULATIONS 504. In relation to the development of the daily activities, tasks and functions during the implementation of the services, to what extent would you agree with the following statements? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE At the institution where you work: 01. There exist clearly defined mechanisms that take into consideration the feedback and needs of the users 02. There exist clearly defined mechanisms that channel user’s complaints as well as their preferences 03. Receipts for the different transactions are saved in hard copy for use during internal or external audits. 505.
STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

During the last two financial years, to what extent would you have been in agreement with the statements below regarding decisions made by your institution during the development of procurement (contracts for goods, works and services) procedures? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STRONGLY STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE AGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT

The decisions in the procurement (contracts for goods, works and services) process were: 01. Done transparently (we know who was awarded what and why) 02. Public and open to the knowledge of and suggestions from the users 03. Subjected to regular audits by the internal control unit 04. Subjected to regular external audits performed by professionals qualified and experienced in conducting audits 05. Based on specific criteria defined in writing (as opposed to tacit – not written – and informal rules) 06. Based on the direct evaluations of the directors/managers immediately involved in the matter (free from excessive bureaucratic steps)

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

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07. Based on competition and technical criteria 08. Based on regional preferences 09. Based on political ties / political affiliations / political pressure 10. Based on influential connections within the institution 11. Influenced by illegal payments 12. Done with the knowledge of the existence of conflict of interest 506.

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5

In relation to the contracting processes, to what extent would you agree with the following statements? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE

ISSUE 1.The entity has taken deliberate efforts to publicly announce its purchasing plans in accordance with the existing regulations 2. The entity has consistently complied with the Public Procurement Act and its Regulations 3. To consistently comply with the Public Procurement Act and its Regulations has not completely eliminated awarding contracts to

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION 5.5: PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE QUALITY OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SERVICES 507. Please evaluate, to what extent you would agree that the services offered by institution are: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
SERVICES OFFERED BY YOUR INSTITUTION: STRONGLY STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE AGREE

01. Are of high quality 02. Are performed according to informal (not written) rules 03. Are offered at relatively low cost 04. Fully satisfy the user’s needs 05. Are accessible by the poor

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

SECTION 5.6: PERCEPTION OF DISCRETION USED DURING THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

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508.

Please evaluate to what extent the following groups of people perform their duties according to consistently applied institutional policies and rules, (i.e. using institutional criteria and not arbitrarily applied criteria) (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Frequency of decisions made in a discretionary manner by: 01. Employees who you supervise 02. Employees who supervise you 03. You / Your peers NEVER SOMETIMES ALWAYS 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

509. Please evaluate the following statement: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
STATEMENT STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGL Y AGREE

01. Your colleagues, as well as yourself at the work place enjoy ample freedom and discretionary power in the daily performance of your jobs. 02. Your colleagues, as well as yourself at the work place are prudent and follow organisational norms in the daily performance of duties

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

SECTION 5.7: PERCEPTION ON CITIZEN SUPPORT TO PUBLC SECTOR REFORMS 510. Do you think the government has the full support of the following persons in implementing public sector reforms? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Constituent of Persons 01. Public officials 02. The general public Yes 1 1 No 2 2 Don’t Know 3 3

511.

If answer is NO to any response to Question 510, in your opinion state reasons 1. …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 2. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………. .…………………………………………………………………………………………… .. 3. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………………….

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.

PART 6: INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (Thank you, and now I will turn and ask you a few questions relating to the area of information management)
601. Please evaluate the following statements (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Decisions about the management/policies /regulations of personnel in your Institution: 01. Systems that provide information about public official productivity are scarce and insufficient 02. People affected by broad public sector decisions are the last to know about them 03. When directors/managers make decisions, they never take into consideration their subordinates’ opinions 04. The institution does not have an adequate system for recording managerial decisions. 05. Executive decisions do not take into consideration the financial requirements of the institution.
STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE DISAGREE STRONGLY AGREE

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

PART 7: REFORMS
701. Please indicate to what extent you would be in ulfil of the following types of reforms: (circle number) REFORMS 01. Establish a public service career structure in which job assignments, salary increases and promotions are based on defined job performance criteria 02. A decrease in the number of public officials if salary and benefits are increased 03. Decentralization of state administrations, delegating operational functions of the national government to the Local Government Administrations 04. Greater control given to the public and civil society over public sector activities 05. Rationalization of budgetary increases 06. Privatization of public sector services
AGAINST INDIFFERENT IN FAVOR DON’T KNOW

1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4

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07. Establish effective mechanisms for allowing citizens free access to all information held by the state 08. A law that ensures that economic resources used by political parties will have their origin and final use clearly 09. A public servant statute regulating the application of penalties and rewards according to job completion 10. Strengthen the operational management (output oriented) 11. Simplifying administrative procedures 12. Establishing objectives and norms for fulfilment of services 13. Declaration of assets by public officials

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

PART 8: GOVERNABILITY
(Thank you and I will now turn and ask you a few questions relating to governance)

SECTION 8.1: PERCEPTION ABOUT CORRUPTION 801. In many of the countries of the world one can find as a common practice that companies and people from the community pay “bribes” or make payments “under the table” to public servants. What is your perception about the proportion of public service procurement (goods, works and services), etc. that are affected by these types of illegal payments and other types of irregular practices? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 1 HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2 NONEXISTENT 3 3 3 3

PUBLIC SECTOR 01. Today 02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come 802.

Please evaluate, how widely spread are these practices among local businessmen? (CIRCLE AS
APPROPRIATE)

LOCAL BUSINESSMAN 01. Today

WIDELY SPREAD 1

HALF OF THE CASES 2

NON EXISTENCE 3

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02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come 803.

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

Please evaluate: How widely spread are these practices among foreign investors/Businessmen: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

FOREING WIDELY SPREAD INVESTORS/BUSINESSMAN 01. Today 1 02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come 1 1 1

HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2

NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3 3

804.Please evaluate: How widely spread are these practices among International Cooperating Partners /Lending Agencies (Multilateral/Bilateral Agencies, UN Agencies etc): (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATING PARTNER 01. Today 02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come

WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 1

HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2

NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3 3

805.Please evaluate: How widely spread are these practices among NGOs (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) NGOs 01. Today 02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 1 HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2 NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3 3

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806.

In many of the countries of the world one can find as a common practice that companies and people from the community pay "bribes" or make payments "under the table" for public services or in order to improve the quality of service. Using the following scale, please evaluate: "To what extent does this practice exist in the institution in which you work?" (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) INSTITUTION WHERE THE INTERVIEWEE WORKS 01. Today 02. Two years ago 03. Five years ago 04. Expectation in the next two years to come WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 1 HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2 NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3 3

807. In your opinion, in what year or time period was corruption the most prevalent in this country? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

TIME PERIOD First Phase Government (1961 to 1985) Second Phase Government (1985 to 1995) Third Phase Government (1995 to 2005) Fourth Phase Government (2005 to current) 808.

WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 1

HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 2

NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3 3

How widely spread is the following practices in the institution in which you work? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) PRACTICES 01. Bribes to obtain public services 02. Bribes to alter regulatory and legal decisions 03. Bribes in the procurement (goods, works and services) process WIDELY SPREAD 1 1 1 HALF OF THE CASES 2 2 2 NON EXISTENCE 3 3 3

809

In many of the countries in the world, there are known to be different actors and groups in the private sector that apply pressure on the government through the payment of bribes to further their own interests. Using the same scale, tell me to what extent the following forms of

78

corruption have a significant impact on the business environment of this country? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
NOT VERY SOMEWHAT NOT STATED/ NO SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT RESPONSE

FORMS OF CORRUPTION 01. Bribes to employees of the Bank of Tanzania in order to ensure that their private interests are favoured by bank decisions 02. Fees, Gifts and/or Bribes to elected representatives ( Members of Parliament) to ensure that particular laws and 03. Bribes to public officials to ensure that presidential or ministerial decisions favour their interests 04. Bribes to regulatory commission Officials or supervising agencies to ensure specific group interests 05. Bribes directed to the authorities of the local council to favour private interests 06. Bribes to judicial authorities to revert a ruling or decision and benefit particular interests

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

810.Would you please tell me in what capacity or domain would the following actors have to influence, through bribes, the decisions made by top state officials. ? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
INFLUENTIAL ACTORS HIGH CAPACITY SOME CAPACITY LOW CAPACITY NOT STATED/ NO RESPONSE

01. Chambers of Commerce 02. Trade Unions 03. Professional Associations 04. Board registering professionals 05. Other Pressure/lobby groups 06. Multinational companies 07. Unscrupulous Businessmen 08. The Media 09. Other groups of organized crime

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

SECTION 8.2: PERCEPTION ABOUT THE MECHANISMS OF CORRUPTION

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811.

From the corruption cases that you have knowledge of either directly or indirectly, which would you say occurs most frequently for each of the three cases? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) The public official would The service user Normally, the groups know how insinuate that a bribe offers the bribe the process works and how much must be paid money they need to pay 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

CORRUPTION 01. With the service user 02. With a local company 03. With a foreign company 812.

From the corruption cases you have been aware of either directly or indirectly, how frequently do you think the person would share the bribe? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) With whom the bureaucrat would share the bribes with: 01. Their superiors 02. Their colleagues 03. A Member of Parliament/ Other Politician / Political Party

NEVER SOMETIMES 1 1 1 2 2 2

ALWAYS 3 3 3

813. From the corruption cases that you know about either directly or indirectly, public officials increase their salaries with extra unofficial payments (bribes), which they receive when they perform their tasks. How significant is the amount of income received from bribes when compared to their total income (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) For: 01. Your co- workers' superiors (people with a higher rank than you, without including your supervisors) 02. Co-workers (people at the same level as your, without including yourself) 03. Subordinates of your colleagues (people at a lower level than you, not including your subordinates) NOT SOMEWHAT VERY SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT 1 1 2 2 3 3

1

2

3

814.In many countries of the world, we know that many of the public officials pay to "buy" positions in the public sector. Based on your direct or indirect experience, and using the same scale, tell me how significant do you believe that these practices are prevalent among the following groups of people: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) For:
NOT SIGNIFICANT SOMEWHAT VERY SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT

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01. Your colleagues' superiors (people at a higher level than your, not including your superiors) 02. Co-workers (people at your same level, not including yourself) 03. Your colleagues' subordinates (people at a lower level than you, not including your b di t )

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

SECTION 8.3: PERCEPTIONS ABOUT CAUSES OF CORRUPTION AND MECHANISMS FOR REPORTING ACTS OF CORRUPTION: 815. During the last two financial years, did you consider reporting a case of corruption, but decide not to do it? YES 816. 1 NO 2

Many people know about cases of corruption but do not report them. If you or any of your peers decided to report a case of corruption, what would be your motive for doing it? Specify how important the following factors would be in your decision. (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Not report a case of corruption because: 01. Nobody knows the reporting procedure 02. Nobody can prove anything 03. The cases are never investigated or punished 04. Under the current economic situation, illegal payments are sometimes justified 05. What is deemed as corruption in other countries is normally accepted in our culture 06. There is no protection for possible reprisals against those who report corruption 07. The cases are so trivial that it is not worthwhile to report them 08. People perceive that filing a complaint against a public official is like betraying a colleague 09. Fear of recrimination or other negative consequences (whistle blowers)
COMPLETELY EXTREMELY IRRELEVANT IRRELEVANT IMPORTANT

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

817.

Please evaluate the following positions: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
THE PROCESS FOR REPORTING CASES OF CORRUPTION STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE AGREE

01. Difficult and time consuming 02. Implies personal security risks

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

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03. Politicized 04. A threat to the interests of politicians 05. Wastage of time 06. A threat to the interest of powerful businessman 07. A threat to job security

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

SECTION 8.4: PERCEPTION ABOUT IRREGULARITIES / MISAPPROPRIATION OF FUNDS 818. During the last two financial years, in the use of budget funds in your institution, how frequently were there irregularities such as misappropriation of funds or any other type of abuse of budget resources?

Never 1 Frequently 2 Very frequently 3 DON’T KNOW 9 819. In your opinion, in the last two financial years, what percentage of the institutional budget was misused as a consequence of fraudulent practices, irregularities or any other type of public service abuse? : (ENTER PERCENT, IF DON’T KNOW CIRCLE 999) ___________ % DON’T KNOW

999

820. What type of Audit Report was awarded in the last financial year by the Controller and Auditor General to your institution? Unqualified (Clean) Qualified (Issues to be refined) Disclaimer (Services and pending items to be revisited) Adverse Opinion (Bad) Unable to express opinion DON’T KNOW 1 2 3 4 5 9

SECTION 8.5: PERCEPTIONS ABOUT THE AWARDING MECHANISMS OF

PUBLIC CONTRACTS
821. What percent of the number of public contracts (goods, works and services) were illegal payments used in order to secure the awarding of contracts? (ENTER PERCENT, IF DON’T KNOW CIRCLE 999) ___________ % 822. DON’T KNOW 999

When an illegal payment is made in relation to the awarding of public contracts, what percentage of the total value of the contract do you think is paid in order to be awarded the contract? (ENTER PERCENT, IF DON’T KNOW CIRCLE 999)

82

___________ %

DON’T KNOW

999

823

Would you be able to tell me how frequently the following have occurred in contracting (goods, works or services) cases? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
NOT SOMEWHAT VERY FREQUENTLY FREQUENTLY FREQUENTLY

TYPE OF INCIDENCE 01. Technical deviation of the contract 02. Contractor monopolies/carteling 03. Modifying the terms of the contract to favour the interest of a company 04. Contracting with fictitious/nonexistent companies 05. Presenting offers from non-existent competitors 06. Modification of the terms of the contract during the execution stage 07. Bribery to award contract 08. Bid rigging

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

824. Would you be able to tell me about the expected quality in execution of contracts which were involved in corrupt practices (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Expected quality surpassed No change in Expected quality Expected quality adversely affected Don’t know 1 2 3 4

PART 9: PERCEPTION OF THE NATIONAL SITUATION
901 I am going to read to you a list of problems so that you can tell me how serious each one is.: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

(READ ONE PROBLEM AT A TIME AND ASK THE RESPONDENT TO RATE THE SERIOUSNESS OF EACH)

PROBLEMS 01. High Cost of Living 02. Consumption of drugs/ drug abuse 03. Drug Trafficking

VERY SERIOUS

SERIOUS

VERY TRIVIAL

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

83

04. Delinquency 05. Violence 06. Corruption in Public services 07. Corruption in Private sector 08. Unemployment 09. Cost of education 10. Cost of health services 11. Shortage of housing 12. Public Services (cost, quality, availability) 13. Public Utilities (cost, quality, availability) 14. Quality of roads 15. Destruction of the environment 16. Lack of good Leadership 17. National security 18. Personal security 19. Gender stereotype type/bias 20. Poor remuneration 21. Lack of control and accountability of public officials 22. Lack of independent and effective Judiciary 23. Poverty 24. Greed and/or selfishness 25. Job insecurity 26. Any other problem? (SPECIFY) ______________ 902

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

Of the problems you just mentioned, please tell me, in order of importance, the three worst problems that Tanzania Mainland faces today 1._________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________

903. Are you confident that the government will solve the three problems you just mentioned above? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) PROBLEMS 01.
CONFIDENT NOT CONFIDENT DON’T KNOW

1

2

3

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02. 03.

1 1

2 2

3 3

PART 10: ANALYZING THE CORRUPTION PROBLEM
1001 Please tell me, in your opinion, how do you assess the INTEGRITY of the following organizations? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS 01. Ministry of Finance 02. Ministry responsible for Public Service 03. Ministry of Health 04. Ministry of Education 05. The High Court 06. Universities/Institutions of Higher Learning 07. The Bank of Tanzania 08. The National Bureau of Statistics 09. Parliament 10. Ministry of Infrastructure Development 11. Police Force 12. The Army 13. National Audit Office 14. City/Municipal/Town/District Council 1 5. Ministry of Justice 16. District/Primary Courts 17. Office of the District Commissioner 18. Social Security Funds – NSSF /PPF /LGPF /PSPF 19. BRELA/RITA 20. Commercial Banks 21. Ministry of Industry 22. Ministry of Agriculture 23. Ministry of Home Affairs 24. Attorney-General's Chambers 25. Tanzania Revenue Authority 26. Directorate Public Prosecution
COMPLETELY DISHONEST HONEST COMPLETELY DISHONEST HONEST DO NOT KNOW

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

85

27. Private Sector 28. Trade Unions 29. NGOs 30. PCCB 31. Ministry of Lands Housing and Urban Development 32. Ministry of Labour, Employment and Youth Development 33. Tanzania Investment Centre 1002

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4

9 9 9 9 9 9 9

How efficient/inefficient are each one of the following institutions at exercising social control over public entities? (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)
COMPLETELY INEFFICIENT EFFICIENT COMPLETELY DON'T EFFICIENT KNOW INEFFICIENT

OTHER INSTITUTIONS
01. Faith Based Institutions – Church/Mosque 02. Chambers of Commerce 03. Mass Media 04. NGO’s 05. Commission for Human Rights 06. Trade Unions 07. Professional Groups 08. Civic Movements 09. Community Groups 10. Permanent Commissioner of Enquiry 11. Commissioner for Ethics 12. Political Parties

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

1003. In order of importance, mention 3 entities from the public, private or community sector that you think would be able to lead strategies in the fight against corruption? 1.__________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________ 1004. Please evaluate the following statement (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE)

86

There is a STRONGLY DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGLY genuine and DISAGREE AGREE sincere desire to fight against corruption by the following 01. Government 1 2 3 4 5 02. Political P ti Faith based organizations(Ch 04. Mass Media 05. NGOs 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5

PART 11: PERCEPTION ON WHAT ACTION TO TAKE FOR ANYONE FOUND TO BE INVOLVED IN CORRUPTION
1101. Please evaluate the following statements: (CIRCLE AS APPROPRIATE) Anyone purported/found to be involved in corruption should: 01. Be prosecuted 02. Have his properties confiscated 03. If public servant, terminated without benefits 04. Name submitted to the media for public knowledge 05. Put to jail 06. Hanged 07. Put to detention 08. If in political leadership position, ripped of leadership ii 09. If businessperson, business license revoked and name listed for those not to be issued business license 10. To be heavily fined 11. Other (SPECIFY)
STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE INDIFFERENT AGREE STRONGLY AGREE

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

87

PART 12: FINAL COMMENTS 1201. In your personal capacity, what steps are you proposing to be taken so that the problem of corruption is reduced? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____
1202. If you were in a position of the Minister responsible for this sector, what would be the first action that you would undertake so that the problem of corruption is reduced? If you were in a position of President of the United Republic of Tanzania, what would be the first action that you would undertake to reduce the level of corruption in this country?

1203.

RECORD TIME WHEN YOU FINISH THE INTERVIEW (adopt the 12 hour clock) …………………………………………

Thank You for Your Participation!
POST – INTERVIEW INFORMATION

(THIS PART SHOULD BE FILLED OUT BY THE INTERVIEWER AFTER THE INTERVIEW)
A.

Overall, how was the respondent’s reaction to the interview? (i) Very positive (ii) Positive (iii) Negative (iv) Very negative (i) Very sincere (ii) Sincere (iii) Not sincere (iv) Very insincere 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

B. Overall, how sincere did the respondent seem to be in his/her answers?

C. Were you, after finishing interviewing your respondent(s), approached by senior officials/management? (i) Yes (ii) No D. Back check information. (i) Interview completed (ii) Interview partially completed 1 2 1 2

88

 
E. Other Comments by Enumerator

……………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………… 
F. Comments by Supervisor

……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………    
Supervisor’s signature: ………………………………….. Date checked: …../…../2009

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