# LONG REPORT

BENT 3741

LAB 2 : IMPEDANCE MATCHING 1.0 OBECTIVES To measure the reflected power in an unmatched circuit (ED-3300E) whose one end is terminated by a certain load, and to learn how to match it by means of the λ/4 converter and the parallel stub (ED-3300F).

2.0 EQUIPMENTS
i.

Power supply VCO Circulator Directional coupler Unmatched load Spectrum analyzer 50Ω connector Unmatched load Stub and λ/4 trainer Wire

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part of the wave is reflected. If not. RF impedance matching is important so that the maximum power can be transferred from the source of RF signal to its load. The line transmission as shown in Figure 1 is transferred without reflection if the load impedance RL matches the line impedance Zo.0 THEORY There are always some problem when dealing with the practical implementation of RF application. Two reasons that usually lead the RF system to this problem is unmatching and reflection. Figure 1 2 . One of the common problems is the need to match the difference impedances of the interconnected blocks.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 3.

Pr to incident power. The matching network can be achieved by insertion of another transmission line known as stub on the line like the figure below: 3 .Pi is : |Γ|2 = Pr / Pi There are three cases that show the range of values of reflected wave : Matched Load: RL = Z0 Vr / Vi = 0 No reflection. Shorted Load: RL = 0 Vr / Vi = -1 Full reflection. same polarity. inverted polarity.Z0 ) / ( RL + Z0 ) The ratio of reflected power.Vi is which is known as reflection coefficient is : Vr / Vi = ( RL . Open Load: RL = ∞ Vr / Vi = +1 Full reflection.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 The ratio of reflected signal. Vr to incident signal.

Any load impedance can be matched to the line by using stub matching network. It is the simple and useful circuit for matching a real load impeance to a transmission line. The figure below show the short-stub matching and open-stub matching : A short circuited stub is less prone to leakage of electromagnetic radiation and easier to realize. The end of the stub line is shortcircuited or open-circuited. as the stub length is varied from zero to half a wavelength.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 The technique is known as stub matching network. Another impedance matching network is quarter( λ/4 ) wave transformer. Any value of reactance can be made. an open circuited stub may be more practical for certain types of transmission lines. The transmission line realizing the stub is normally terminated by a short or by an open circuit. On the other hand. if the load is changed. for example microstrips where one would have to drill the insulating substrate to short circuit the two conductors of the line. the location of insertion may have to be moved. But. λ/4 wave transformer is consists of a transmission line section of length λ/4 like the figure below : 4 .

4. where ρ is the reflection coefficient. the electrical length of the matching section is λ/4. c is speed of light.0 PROCEDURE 1) A reference circuit as shown in Figure 1 is constructed. At the operating frequency fo. 5 . it is more common to use it to match real impedance. The wavelength in the macthing section given by : λ = c/( εreff1/2f ) where εreff is effevtive dielectric.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 It consists of a quarter-wavelength long section of transmission line of characteristic impedance Zm. like other transformation methods. However bear in mind that a complex load impedance can always be transformed to a real impedance by adding the correct series or shunt reactive component. Zin = Zo and ρ = 0. When the load impedance and the impedance of the connecting transmission line is properly matched. The quarter wave transformer has a limited bandwidth. so a perfect match is no longer obtained. But at other frequencies the length is different. where Zm = (ZoZL)1/2 where ZL is the load impedance and Zo is the impedance to which you are trying to match. ρ = (Zin− Zo) / (Zin + Zo) Although λ/4 wave transformer can used to match complex impedance in theory.

8) The reflected power at spectrum analyzer is observed and recorded.6GHz frequency.6GHz frequency.9GHz and 2. 6 .P i is observed and recorded.5GHz and 1. 3) The stop and start frequency of spectrum analyzer is set to 1. the stop and start frequency of spectrum analyzer is set to 1. 1.8GHz.0GHz.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 Power supply Spectrum analyzer VCO Circulator Directional coupler Unmatche d load Figure 1 2) Then. 6) After that.7GHz.5GHz and 1. 1. 1.Pr for stub matching network and λ/4 transmission line network. 4) The waveform resulting at spectrum analyzer which is incident power. 1.0GHz for both stub matching network and λ/4 transmission line network. the power supply is turned on and set to 12V.8GHz. to measure the reflected power. 5) Step 3 is repeated by varying the frequency to 1.7GHz. the unmatched load in circuit is replace with λ/4 and stub trainer.7GHz for 1. 9) Next.9GHz and 2. 7) Once again. step 6 to 8 is repeated by varying the frequency to 1. The 12V DC supply is connected to VCO.7GHz for 1.

34 0.7 1.079 0.13 7 .93m 0.38 -19.87m Stub Matching Network : Frequency (GHz) 1.14 -0.Pi and reflected power.64m 0.28 0.7 1.6 1.035m 0.Pr that we measured is used L to calculate the reflection coefficient.21 0.029 0.93 -0.62 -15.70 -15.17 0.8 1.048m 0.017 = 0. Pr (dBm) -13.20 λ/4 Transmission Line Network : Frequency (GHz) 1.27 0.6 1. by using the formula above : |Γ|2 = Pr / Pi 5.27m 0.12 -15.115 0.61m 0.19 0.16 -14.0 Reflected power.034m |Γ|2 = Pr / Pi 0.33 0.9 2.029m 0.9 Reflected power.0 RESULTS Reference circuit : Frequency (GHz) 1.027m 0.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 10) The incident power.9 2.039 = 0.031m 0.57 Pi (dBm) = 10log (P / 1m) Pi = antilog (Pi / 10)(1m) 0.74 Pr (dBm) = 10log (P / 1m) Pr = antilog (Pr / 10)(1m) 0.63 Pr (dBm) = 10log (P / 1m) Pr = antilog (Pr / 10)(1m) 0.7 1.070 0.107 0.6 1.0 Incident power.045 0.32 -14.31 -5.043m 0. Pi (dBm) -2.8 1.8 1. Pr (dBm) -13.038 0.61 -1.011m |Γ|2 = Pr / Pi 0.029m 0.51 -15.

LONG REPORT BENT 3741 2. we can observe if the reflection coefficient is equal to 0.041 0.036m 0. the system is match and if the reflection coefficient is equal to 1. we just connect the power supply to VCO.0 DISCUSSION 0. we can observed that the value of reflection coefficient for λ/4 transmission line is lower compared to stub matching network. The reflection coefficient can be calculated by using this formula : |Γ|2 = Pr / Pi To find the incident power. A complex load impedance can always be transformed to real impedance.40 6. so we can say that it is nearly good match.20 This lab session is all about the impedance matching. In this lab session. After that. we have exposed to two method in impedance matching which are stub matching and λ/4 transmission line network. for reflected power we replace unmatched load with stub trainer for stub matching and λ/4 trainer for λ/4 transmission line network. According to the result that we measured for incident and reflected power. Unfortunately. however it can effect 8 . in order to observed whether which method is the best in impedance matching we need to calculate their reflection coefficient. The load and transmission line need to perfectly match so that maximum power can be delivered when the load is matched to the line and power loss in the feed line is minimized. We can say that the value of reflected power during the transmission is lower for λ/4 transmission line compared to stub matching. The result that we get show that λ/4 transmission line method is better than stub matching since its reflection coefficient is smaller. Then.0 -14. The value of reflection coefficient for λ/4 transmission line is near to 0. circulator and unmatched load. the λ/4 transmission line can only match a real load impedance. the system is fully mismatched. So.

0 CONCLUSION After completing this lab session. While for wider bandwidth matching. Other than that.cecs.LONG REPORT BENT 3741 the bandwidth of the match by lowering it.0 REFERENCES I.aps.pdx. IV. Microwave Engineering. Third Edition. 8.com/mentor/transmission%20line%20basics.edu/~greenwd/xmsnLine_notes.pd f 9 . we have been able to measure the reflected power in an unmatched circuit whose one is terminated by a certain load.gov/Accelerator_Systems_Division/Radio_Frequency/Presenta tions_and_Lectures/RF_and_Microwave_Physics/documents/Lecture5_102902.com/Circuits/tline1/tline1. we can say that λ/4 transmission line is best perform when there is only real load impedance.ecircuitcenter.htm http://www.pdf http://www. http://web.anl.pdf http://www. V.ultracad. II. David M. III. we also have been able to learn how to match it by means of the λ/4 converter and the parallel stub. Stub matching only used for for low fractional bandwidths. So.Pozar. 7. 2005. After completing this lab session we learn that λ/4 transmission line network is work better than stub network in impedance matching. a λ/4 transmission line can be used.

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