CMMI® : St George or the Dragon?

I T &S

A e r o s p a c e

D e f e n c e

 Trevor Rudge,  Thales Research and Technology, UK
® CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University

Thales Research and Technology UK

Contents
    Overview Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter Deployment in Thales Pitfalls and Risks

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Contents
    Overview Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter Deployment in Thales Pitfalls and Risks

Date, reference
3

Thales Research and Technology UK

Key Points to Improve Performance
PEOPLE

PROCESS

TECHNOLOGY

Process holds the elements together

Major determinants of product cost, schedule, and quality

Process SW Products Practices Technology

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People

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Thales Research and Technology UK

What Is a Capability Maturity Model ?

 Capability Maturity Model (CMM®*) :

"A Capability Maturity Model (CMM) contains the essential elements of effective processes for one or more disciplines. It also describes an evolutionary improvement path from an ad hoc, immature process to a disciplined, mature process with improved quality and effectiveness"
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(R) CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

Thales Research and Technology UK

CMMI® -Based Improvement Could Help
 Improve how people work so they can make better use of tools and technology.  Use a reference model which is based on practices already found to be successful.  Use a reference model developed by other industry members and which is internationally recognised  CMMI® models meet this requirement.
Date, reference

® CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Proliferation of CMMs ==> CMMI®
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

Sw-CMM® v2.0 IPPD*
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

SE-CMM & SECAM Sw- ACQUISITION CMM
* IPPD : Integrated Product and Process Development SS : Supplier Sourcing

CMMI® for CMMI SE/SW/IPPD*/SS* (v1.1)
reducing of : - redundancies - additional complexity - costs & times - discrepancies

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Overview of CMMI® Process Areas
CMMI Options: * with Integrated Product & Process Development (IPPD)
Level 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed Project Management
**

with Supplier Sourcing (SS)

Engineering

Support

Process Management

CAR: Causal Analysis
and Resolution

OID: Organizational
Innovation &Deployment OPP: Organizational Process Performance

QPM: Quantitative
Project Management

IPM: Integrated Project RD: Requirements
Management Development

DAR: Decision Analysis OPF: Organizational
and Resolution Process Focus

RSKM: Risk
3 Defined Management

TS: Technical
Solution

OEI*: Organizational
Environment for Integration

OPD: Organizational
Process Definition

IT*: Integrated
Teaming

PI: Product
Integration

OT: Organizational
Training

ISM**: Integrated Supplier Management PP: Project Planning PMC: Project
2 Managed
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VER: Verification REQM: Requirements MA: Measurement and VAL: Validation
Management Analysis

Monitoring and Control

PPQA: Process &
Product Quality Assurance

SAM: Supplier
Agreement Management

CM: Configuration
Management

1 Initial

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The CMMI® Project
 Sponsored by the DOD and the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA)  1998 to 2000  Collaborative endeavour
 Industry (Defense, Aerospace & Commercial)  Government  Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Carnegie Mellon

University
         U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force Federal Aviation Administration National Security Agency Software Engineering Institute ADP, Inc. AT&T Labs BAE Boeing Computer Sciences Corporation          EER Systems Ericsson Canada Ernst and Young General Dynamics Harris Corporation Honeywell KPMG Litton Lockheed Martin

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        

Motorola Northrop Grumman Pacific Bell Q-Labs Raytheon Rockwell Collins Sverdrup Corporation THALES TRW

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Some CMMI® Early Adopters
 The Boeing Company  Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC)
 Defense Group

 Northrop Grumman
Information Technology Sector Integrated Systems Sector -

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    Lockheed Martin  Motorola, Inc.

Airborne Early Warning/Electronic Warfare Systems Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC)  Raytheon Company  National Security Division  TRW  United Space Alliance General Dynamics Land Systems Goddard Space Flight Center NASA  U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Software Enterprise Harris Corporation  THALES

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Contents
    Overview Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter Deployment in Thales Pitfalls and Risks

Date, reference
11

Thales Research and Technology UK

THALES Process Improvement Roadmap

In synergy with ISO 9000, Tickit, EFQM, ... Hw - CMM

SE - CMM Sw - CMM Level 2 Level 3 Level 4

Transition to CMMI

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92

94

96

98

2000

02

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What is a Low Maturity Organization?

 Highly dependent on current practitioners  Improvised by practitioners and management  Not rigorously followed  Results difficult to predict  Low visibility into progress and quality  Compromise of product functionality and quality to meet schedule
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 Use of new technology is risky

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What is a High Maturity Organization

 A disciplined approach for development and management  Defined and continuously improving  Supported by management and others  Well controlled  Supported by measurement  Basis for disciplined use of technology Institutionalized
Thales Research and Technology UK

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Some Typical Problems
 Specifications
 requirements not always identified  requirements not always verifiable  Allocation to components incomplete  Requirements traceability informal

 Poor integration of disciplines  Lessons are not learned from the past
 The systems engineers are permanently reinventing the
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wheel

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Some Typical Problems
 Specifications
 requirements not always identified  requirements not always verifiable  Allocation to components incomplete  Requirements traceability informal
Look what I’ve already Invented We’ll See We’ll See

 Poor integration of disciplines  Lessons are not learned from the past
 The systems engineers are permanently reinventing the
Date, reference

wheel

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Thales Research and Technology UK

CMMI® : the Manager’s Vision
Characteristics Management visibility Optimising Continuous and S measurable E process 5 improvement is a Quantita- way of life Business-oriented tively process S Managed E management, the 4 performance of the process Defined The processesis defined at the predictable S E organisation level
Maturity Level

Probability

Business view
Time / Cost

Target Probability

Target Probability

Time / Cost

3

2
Initial
Date, reference

1

management is more disciplined. E Past successes can be expected Performance is on similar projects difficult to predict. E Practices may not be effective, rely on individuals

S

Probability

Managed

are tailored to the project. Performance is more predictable Project

Targe t

Time / Cost

Target Probability

Time / Cost

S

Target

Time / Cost

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Results measured by a THALES Unit for Software impact on cost deviation
Average Cost Variance reduced by 20% On average late to acceptance divided by 24 Number of defects during Customer acceptance divided by 20 Cost of customer acceptance reduced by 60%
30 20 10

% Project Distribution
60

Between CMM level 1 and CMM level 3 10 software projects for each plot

96 Level 3
50

94 Level 2
40

30

92 Level 1
20

10

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+ 10

+ 20

+ 30

+ 40

+ 50

+ 60

+ 70

% Cost deviation

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Impact of Process Improvement
GLOBALLY

• Change of culture • Inter-personnel relationships improvement • Confidence & Responsibility atmosphere
On PROJECTS On ORGANISATIONS

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• Respect of Cost and Schedule Commitments • Practices Efficiency Improvement • Satisfaction of business and quality objectives

• Engineering community sharing common references & practices facilitates : • People mobility • Career management • Company workforce management

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Contents
    Overview Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter Deployment in Thales Pitfalls and Risks

Date, reference
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Thales Research and Technology UK

CMMI Assessments in Thales
 6 SCAMPI Appraisals in Thales Units from October

2001 to June 2003

From Level 2 to Level 4

 Approx. 70 assessments using CMM and CMMI in

Thales Units in 2003, of all types (launch, mini, official,…)
 A pool of 89 corporate assessors from Thales Units,

trained in CMMI and/or CMM and the assessment method
 Assessment needs are managed by Thales Research
Date, reference

& Technology via a corporate database and using a defined process

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Thales Research and Technology UK

Elements for Cost/Benefit (SW experience)
 Cost of PI primarily attributed to :
   

Cost of Engineering Process Group (coord. of actions) Cost of WG to define/optimize practices Cost of assessments Cost of training/deployment of practices Primarily on the ability to meet schedule Better requirements elicitation Better Software management Higher defect detection and lower verification effort

 Benefits :
   

 Non measurable benefits :
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 improved morale of the developers  improved customer satisfaction (fewer post release problems in

the SW)

 ROI : 6 to 1

Reference: Data & Analysis Center for Software /DOD http://www.dacs.dtic.mil/techs/roispi2

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Average cost and ROI (Thales source)
 For software:
 1.5% of software development effort for SEPG team  1.5% of software development effort for dissemination  Key figures : aprox. 30 units; teams from 50 to 300 engineers

 Measured ROI between 3 (minimum) and 6 (maximum)  period from 1992 to 1997  Investment in multi-discipline Process Improvement with CMMI:  2%-3% of development effort in population affected to move from one level to another
 Factors affecting cost:

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Number of disciplines, number of sites, size of population, range of different types of project

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Contents
    Overview Why Thales is a CMMI® Early Adopter Deployment in Thales Pitfalls and Risks

Date, reference
24

Thales Research and Technology UK

Management of the improvement initiative
An improvement initiative must be managed as a project

A customer Objective Responsibilities Activities Budget / schedule Milestones Final Acceptance
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Sponsorship of the Top Management Clear identification of business objective and improvement scope A project leader and people involved Definition / improvement of practices Deployment Training Estimation / Tracking of cost and delay Tracking of the actions Regular mini-assessments Official assessment Change of culture and practices on projects and in the organization

Product

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Other Risks and Pitfalls
 Common-sense failure:
 “Compliance-based” process definition  Lack of focus on business benefit/improvement of

performance
 Standard processes defined based on practices

which already do not work and which are not tailorable to all business needs

 Change Management
 Buy-in, communication not addressed  Practitioners not involved
Date, reference

 Changing business-critical processes is risky

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Some Ways Process Improvement Can Get Stuck
Shared Objectives Skilled People Maturity Rewarded Resources Provided PI Managed as a Project

Change
Lack of Clear Decisions Common Mistakes repeated Change Depends on Individuals Lack of Progress Uncoordinated Actions

Skilled People

Maturity Rewarded

Resources Provided

PI Managed as a Project

Shared Objectives

Maturity Rewarded

Resources Provided

PI Managed as a Project

Shared Objectives

Skilled People

Resources Provided

PI Managed as a Project

Shared Objectives
Date, reference

Skilled People

Maturity Rewarded

PI Managed as a Project

Shared Objectives

Skilled People

Maturity Rewarded

Resources Provided

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Summary
 The CMMI model is well established and has a credible origin  Thales has been long time advocator of the model  A culture of Process Improvement is well established within the organisation  Process Improvement needs to be managed and coordinated in order to succeed

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Thales Research and Technology UK

 Thank You for your attention

Trevor Rudge Thales Research and Technology

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Thales Research and Technology UK

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