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, and other network services. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is comprised of digital telephony and data-transport services offered by regional telephone carriers. ISDN involves the digitalization of the telephone network, which permits voice, data, text, graphics, music, video, and other source material to be transmitted over existing telephone. The emergence of ISDN represents an effort to standardize subscriber services, user/network interfaces, and network and internetwork capabilities. ISDN applications include high-speed image applications (such as Group IV facsimile), additional telephone lines in homes to serve the telecommuting industry, high-speed file transfer, and video conferencing. Voice service is also an application for ISDN. This chapter summarizes the underlying technologies and services associated with ISDN. Difference Between ISDN and PSTN 1. PSTN lines аrе analogue whіƖе ISDN lines аrе digital. 2.Whеn comparing thе two networks, thе PSTN lines аrе used fοr small companies аnԁ ISDL аrе used fοr bіɡɡеr companies. 3.Thе ISDN provides 128 kbit/s, whісh іѕ really ɡοοԁ fοr thе Internet. PSTN hаѕ a disadvantage thаt іt ԁοеѕ nοt mаkе thе mοѕt possible υѕе οf thе broadband. 4.WhіƖе PSTN ԁοеѕ nοt allow two simultaneous connections, іt іѕ allowed іn ISDN service. 5.Whеn using ISDN, one саn mаkе fаѕtеr calls thаn whеn using thе PSTN. • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems (Sat Nav) that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line-of-sight by radio from satellites. Receivers calculate the precise time as well as position, which can be used as a reference for scientific experiments. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The GPS uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, that enable GPS receivers to determine their location, speed, direction, and time. GPS was developed by the United States Department of Defense..
In radio communications, a base station is a wireless communications station installed at a fixed location and used to communicate as part of either: • • a push-to-talk two-way radio system, or; a wireless telephone system such as cellular CDMA or GSM cell site.
A wireless telephone base station communicates with a mobile or hand-held phone. For example, in a wireless telephone system, the signals from one or more mobile telephones in an area are received at a nearby base station, which then connects the call to the land-line network
A cell site is a term used primarily in North America for a site where antennas and electronic communications equipment are placed on a radio mast or tower to create a cell in a cellular network. A cell site is composed of a tower or other elevated structure for mounting antennas, and one or more sets of transmitter/receivers transceivers, digital signal processors, control electronics, a GPS receiver for timing (for CDMA2000 or IS-95 systems), regular and backup electrical power sources, and sheltering. A synonym for "cell site" is "cell tower", although many cell site antennas are mounted on buildings rather than as towers. In GSM networks, the technically correct term is Base Transceiver Station (BTS). Cellular network tower in the Philippines.
 Channel reuse- Cellular networks are designed to create a mass communication solution from a limited amount of channels (slices of radio frequency spectrum necessary to make one conversation) that are licensed to an operator of a cellular service. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to repeat and reuse the same channels at different locations.
where R is the cell radius and N is the number of cells per cluster. Cells may vary in radius in the ranges (1 km to 30 km). The boundaries of the cells can also overlap between adjacent cells and large cells can be divided into smaller cells. • Handover - In a cellular system, as the distributed mobile transceivers move from cell to cell during an ongoing continuous communication, switching from one cell frequency to a different cell frequency is done electronically without interruption and without a base station operator or manual switching. This is called the handover or handoff. Typically, a new channel is automatically selected for the mobile unit on the new base station which will serve it. The mobile unit then automatically switches from the current channel to the new channel and communication continues.
Full Rate or FR or GSM-FR or GSM 06. The most sensitive class has CRC and together with moderate sensitivity class is encoded using ½ rate convolutional encoder of length 4 – each input bit is encoded as two bits.65 bits/audio sample. The speech is analog. Testing let to distinguish three classes of bits out of 260. known as demultiplexing. . that are classified by they sensitivity to errors. Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples. While transmitter is off.8 kbps). comfort noise is generated trying to match the characteristics of background noise. one for each message signal or data stream to be transferred. current sample may be predicted from previous samples.10 was the first digital speech coding standard used in the GSM digital mobile phone system. which may be a physical transmission medium. Multiplexers are used to connect terminals located throughout a building to a central mainframe. the receiving end will hear a total silence. For example. To avoid this. several phone calls may be transferred using one wire. The main idea behind this smart-looking name is simple. The aim is to share an expensive resource. The bit rate of the codec is 13. that’s due to slow change of voice patterns. They are also used to connect terminals located at remote locations to a central mainframe through the phone lines. In order to distinguish voice and background noise. and a device that performs the reverse process is called a demultiplexer (DEMUX). Thus we have 456 bits per 20 milliseconds sample (that requires 22.2 kbit/s.Full Rate . very accurate Voice Activity Detector should be used. Discontinuous transmission The idea is based on the fact that a person speaks less than 40% of time in normal conversation. A device that performs the multiplexing is called a multiplexer (MUX). The multiplexing divides the capacity of the low-level communication channel into several higher-level logical channels. based on 4 previous bits. that’s due to digital transmission. can extract the original channels on the receiver side. multiplexing (also known as muxing) is a process where multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. Each 20-millisecond sample is encoded using 260 bits (that requires 13 kbps). so in order to be transmitted over digital communication it should be digitized. or 1. Predicted and real information are compared and the difference is saved. The multiplexed signal is transmitted over a communication channel. The method used by GSM is Regular Pulse Excited – Linear Predictive Coder (RPE-LPC) with a Long Term Predictor loop. so turning the transmitter off can save power. in telecommunications. A reverse process.
. Figures 7-7a and 7-7b show how this division is accomplished for a case of three sources at one end of a system that are communicating with three separate users at the other end. [+] Enlarge Image Figure 7-7a—A system using frequency division multiplexing.6 MHz).Types of multiplexing space-division multiplexing (SDM) frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) means that the total bandwidth available to the system is divided into a series of nonoverlapping frequency sub-bands that are then assigned to each communicating source and user pair. Note that each transmitter modulates its source's information into a signal that lies in a different frequency sub-band (Transmitter 1 generates a signal in the frequency sub-band between 92.2 MHz and 92. The signals are then transmitted across a common channel.0 MHz and 92.4 MHz. Transmitter 2 generates a signal in the sub-band between 92.4 MHz and 92.2 MHz. and Transmitter 3 generates a signal in the sub-band between 92.
The stations are identified by the center frequency within their channel (e. Thus. 103. As we saw in Chapter 6. uses relatively simple and less costly digital logic circuits.7 MHz). bandpass filters are used to pass the desired signal (the signal lying in the appropriate frequency sub-band) to the appropriate user and to block all the unwanted signals. on the other hand.5 MHz. Disadvantages of FDM include the need for bandpass filters. Only one cable reaches a customer's home but . it is necessary to use more complex linear amplifiers in FDM systems. The main advantage is that unlike TDM. Example 7. which are relatively expensive and complicated to construct and design (remember that these filters are usually used in the transmitters as well as the receivers). One of FDM's most common applications is cable television. it is also common to place appropriate passband filters at the output stage of each transmitter. FDM has both advantages and disadvantages relative to TDM. It is also appropriate to design an FDM system so that the bandwidth allocated to each sub-band is slightly larger than the bandwidth needed by each source.4—FDM for commercial FM radio The frequency band from 88 MHz to 108 MHz is reserved over the public airwaves for commercial FM broadcasting.g.e. allows systems to use less expensive filters (i. the power amplifier in the transmitter has nonlinear characteristics (linear amplifiers are more complex to build). At the receiving end of the system. Another disadvantage of FDM is that in many practical communication systems. This extra bandwidth. filters with fewer poles and therefore less steep rolloffs). and nonlinear amplification leads to the creation of out-of-band spectral components that may interfere with other FDM channels. FDM achieves the combining of several digital signals into one medium by sending signals in several distinct frequency ranges over that medium. To ensure that the transmitted signals do not stray outside their assigned sub-bands.. FDM is not sensitive to propagation delays. called a guardband.. TDM.Figure 7-7b—Spectral occupancy of signals in an FDM system. the 200 kHz bandwidth of each sub-band is sufficient for high-quality FM broadcast of music. Channel equalization techniques needed for FDM systems are therefore not as complex as those for TDM systems. The 88–108 MHz frequency band is divided into 200 kHz sub-bands. 91. This system can provide radio listeners with their choice of up to 100 different radio stations.
A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1. . and then the sequence is repeated.the service provider can send multiple television channels or signals simultaneously over that cable to all subscribers. and in such a way that they can be associated with the appropriate receiver. The sample period has to be fast enough to sample each channel according to the Nyquist Theory (2x highest frequency). The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length. which are physically taking turns on the channel. one after the other. sub-channel 2 during timeslot 2. Each channel is sampled in turn. After the last sub-channel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame. etc. Receivers must tune to the appropriate frequency (channel) to access the desired signal. Each individual channel occupies a finite frequency range Time-division multiplexing (TDM) TDM involves sequencing groups of a few bits or bytes from each individual input stream. and to be able to sample all the other channels within that same time period. Broadcast radio and television channels are separated in the frequency spectrum using FDM. byte or data block from sub-channel 1. Time Division Multiplexing is a technique where a short time sample of each channel is inserted into the multiplexed data stream. starting with the second sample. one for each sub-channel. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analog multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred as subchannels in one communication channel. then going on to the next channel. It can be thought of as a very fast mechanical switch: selecting each channel for a very short time. One TDM frame consists of one timeslot per sub-channel. etc.
Suppose that three sources. Clearly. This storage will produce delay. into a single high-speed bit stream that can be transmitted over a single channel. the system must divide the 192 kbit/sec multiplexed data stream back into the original three 64 kbit/sec data streams. Choosing the proper size for the time slots involves a trade-off between efficiency and delay. The three sources are thus capable of transmitting all of their data across the single. If the time slots are too small (say. TDM also uses less bandwidth than FrequencyDivision Multiplexing (FDM) signals. which are then provided to three different users). and the time slots can be alternately used by the three sources.e. This technique is called time division multiplexing (TDM). Figure 7-2—Time division multiplexing. unless the bitrate is increased. for instance. If the time slots are too large. Benefits of TDM TDM is all about cost: fewer wires and simpler receivers are used to transmit data from multiple sources to multiple destinations.. all located in Chicago. This reverse process is called demultiplexing. the process must be reversed (i. each with a fixed and predefined bit rate. a channel capable of transmitting 192 kbit/sec from Chicago to New York. If the time slots are larger than one bit. It would be very expensive if each low-bit-rate stream were assigned a costly physical channel (say. the high-bit-rate channel can be divided into a series of time slots. then a significant delay will be introduced between . shared channel. in New York). at the other end of the channel (in this case. an entire fiber optic line) that extended over a long distance. data from each source must be stored (buffered) while other sources are using the channel.It's often practical to combine a set of low-bit-rate streams. which will subsequently increase the necessary bandwidth of the transmission Consider. one bit long) then the multiplexer must be fast enough and powerful enough to be constantly switching between sources (and the demultiplexer must be fast enough and powerful enough to be constantly switching between users). As shown in Figure 7-2. each have 64 kbit/sec of data that they want to transmit to individual users in New York.
two different telephone substations (called central offices) within a city. cannot tolerate long delays. which are each eight bits wide (corresponding to the number of bits needed to digitize a speech sample).1—The T1 system for wireline telephone networks The T1 system is used for wireline long-distance service in North America and is an excellent example of TDM. Some applications. say. a transmission speed of 64. As shown in Example 7-2.544 Mbit/sec bit stream is divided into 193-bit frames. the 1. When this occurs. has a transmission speed of 44. As shown in Figure 7-3.736 Mbit/sec and uses TDM to carry 28 T1 lines (a total of 672 different speech signals) plus signaling. the sources that are multiplexed may have different bit rates. Using this technique. Speech from a telephone conversation is sampled once every 125 msec and each sample is converted into eight bits of digital data (see Chapter 8 for more details). between two large cities) higher-capacity channels are used and multiple T1 lines are time division multiplexed onto the new channels. see BeIlamy [7. One additional bit at the end of the frame is used for signaling. The eight bits of data corresponding to a sample of the speech are placed into one of the 24 slots in the frame. A T3 channel for example.544 Mbit/sec. This is a much higher transmission speed than a single telephone conversation needs.each source and its user. For longer distances (say. so TDM is used to allow a single T1 line to carry 24 different speech signals between. Each frame is divided into 24 slots. each source is assigned a number of time slots in proportion to its transmission rate. The duration of each frame is corresponding to the period between samples of the speech. For more information on this hierarchical multiplexing system.1]. A T1 line is essentially a channel capable of transmitting at a speed of 1.000 bits/sec is required to transmit the speech. Example 7. . such as teleconferencing and videoconferencing.
which is the sum of the bit rates of the three sources. to the lowest possible form.Figure 7-3—Time division multiplexing on a T1 line.3—A more complex TDM system Consider a system with four low-bit-rate sources of 10 kbit/sec. Solution . and 30 kbit/sec. and three slots to Source: C (24 kbit/sec). and 24 kbit/sec. We want to combine these streams into a single high-speed stream using TDM. To determine the number of time slots to be assigned to each source in the multiplexing process. Determine the slot assignments when the data streams are combined using TDM. and “c” to indicate data from Source C.16 kbit/sec. 15 kbit/sec. Figure 7-4 illustrates this assignment. Example 7. Figure 7-4—Multiplexing input lines with different transmission speeds. which in this case is 1:2:3. Example 7. we must reduce the ratio of the rates. respectively. using “a” to indicate data from Source A. The sum of the reduced ratio is 6. two slots to Source B (16 kbit/sec). The high-speed stream in this case must have a transmission rate of 48 kbit/sec.2—TDM with sources having different data rates Consider the case of three streams with bit rates of 8 kbit/sec. 8:16:24. “b” to indicate data from Source B. The solution is now readily obtained: In each cycle of six time slots we assign one slot to Source A (8 kbit/sec). 20 kbit/sec. which will then represent the minimum length of the repetitive cycle of slot assignments in the multiplexing process.
. every third time-slice is reserved for Signal C. So far we have considered a form of TDM that is based on fixed slot assignments to each of the low-bit-rate data streams.. Each input connection has a time slot alloted in the output irrespective of the fact whether it is sending data or not. the receiver (De-TDM) needs only to switch after the signal on each time-slice is received... A -----|A3|A2|A1|---> |---| . Synchronous TDM Synchronous TDM is a system where the transmitter and the receiver both know exactly which signal is being sent. Within each cycle of 15 slots.. The length of the cycle is therefore 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 15 slots.. must be perfectly synchronized to the slot period..|C3|B3|A3| C2|B2|A2|C1|B1|A1| |------| ---> A | | | | | | | B -----|B3|B2|B1|---> |MUX| -------------|--------|--------|----------> |De-MUX| ---> B | | | | | | | C -----|C3|C2|C1|---> |---| | | | |------| ---> C <--> <--------> Bit Interval Frame (x seconds) . the technique is usually called synchronous TDM.. Both transmission ends. The data flow of each input connection is divided into units where each input occupies one input time slot. each stream has predefined slot positions in the combined stream. In other words. and the receiver must be aware which slots belong to which input stream. three slots to the 15 kbit/sec source.The rate ratio 10:15:20:30 reduces to 2:3:4:6.. we assigrn two slots to the 10 kbit/sec source. the transmitter and the receiver. starting at time-slice 1. In this situation. For this reason. and starting at time-slice 2. Consider the following diagram: Signal A ---> |---| |A|B|C|A|B|C| |------| ---> Signal A Signal B ---> |TDM| --------------> |De-TDM| ---> Signal B Signal C ---> |---| |------| ---> Signal C In this system. every third time-slice is reserved for Signal A. every third time-slice is reserved for Signal B... starting at time-slice 0.. and six slots to the 30 kbit/sec source. four slots to the 20 kbit/sec source.
Maximum sampling rate = twice the maximum frequency all the signals There is another important version of TDM. With statistical TDM. or to indicate priority level for a particular message). for instance). a particular pattern of bits. For example. Extra bits can also be added to the beginning and end of a block for synchronization. we divide each stream of bits coming from a source into fixed-size blocks. Sampling rate is same for all signals. such as extra bits for error control (see Chapter 10) or additional bits for link control (used. Combined. we need to buffer the output of the low-bit-rate streams when the combined rate exceeds the transmission rate of the high-speed link. called a start flag. then we will be wasting slots when the rate drops well below the peak value. Actually. with the header containing the addresses of the source and intended user for that block. Rather. Statistical TDM works by calculating the average transmission rates of the streams to be combined. Since the transmission rates from each source are variable. can be used in the header to mark the start of a block. for example. we no longer assign a fixed number of time slots to each data stream. This waste can be especially significant if the system has many variable-speed low-bit-rate streams. a low-bit-rate stream to a single terminal in a computer network may fluctuate between 2 kbit/sec and 50 kbit/sec during an active connection session (we've all seen variable speeds during Internet connections. can be used to conclude the block. Each block transmitted across the channel thus contains a group of information bits that the user wants. to indicate the position of a particular block in a sequence of blocks coming from the same user. and then uses a high-speed multiplexing link with a transmission rate that is equal to (or slightly greater than) the statistical average of the combined streams. it is used with lines with high data traffic. Statistical TDM is useful for applications in which the low-bit-rate streams have speeds that vary in time. usually referred to as statistical TDM. for 50 kbit/sec). we are no longer relying on synchronized time slots with fixed assignments for each input stream. the block and header are called a packet. as we did with synchronous TDM. If we assign the stream enough slots for its peak rate (that is. Because the combined rate of all the streams will also fluctuate in time between two extreme values. we dynamically assign the appropriate number of slots to accommodate the current transmission rates from each stream. the header may contain other information besides the source and user addresses. called an end flag. The block and the header are then transmitted together across the channel. plus additional bits needed by the system to ensure proper .Sync TDM is inefficient when one or more input lines have no data to send. We then add a small group of bits called a header to each block. and another particular pattern of bits. So how does the demultiplexer in statistical TDM know which of the received bits belongs to which data stream? Prior to transmission. Thus.
host port sharing. network port control. Figure 7-5—Statistical TDM. Figure 7-6—Structure of a typical statistical TDM packet Statistical Time Division Multiplexing uses intelligent devices that are capable of identifying when a terminal is idle. Figures 7-5 and 7-6 present the statistical TDM technique and the structure of a typical packet. consider the most well-known network: the Internet. a given computer might have a data rate of 1kbps when hardly anything is happening. Statistical TDM Synchronous TDM is beneficial because the receiver and transmitter can both cost very little. However. This means that more lines can be connected to a transmission medium because this device statistically compensates for normal idle time (in data communication lines). while necessary to system operation. reduce the effective transmission rate on the channel. They allocate time only to lines when required. How are the time-slices divided in this instance? If every time slice is made big enough to hold . Newer STDM units provide additional capabilities: data compression. In the Internet. but might have a data rate of 100kbps when downloading a large file from a fast server. line priority.transmission. These additional bits. mixed speed lines. automatic speed detection and much more.
The downside to statistical TDM is that the sender needs to be smart enough to write a header. known as the payload (we used time-slices to describe these earlier). In Statistical TDM.) send the packet toward its destination. the time required to download bigger files will be greatly increased. Because of this. The utilization or fraction of time actually used by a packet multiplexing system to process packets is given by: .100Kbps. whereas the service time is constant. A queue is simply a line of customers or packets waiting to be served. The solution to this problem is called Statistical TDM. Packets are like envelopes in the traditional "snail mail" system: Each packet contains a destination address and a return address as well as some enclosed data. and is the solution that the Internet currently uses. when the computer isn't downloading any data. the arrival rate is unpredictable and therefor follows a random or Poisson distribution pattern. Link Utilization Statistical multiplexing attempts to maximize the use of a communication path. The study of this is often called queuing theory. all of that time and electricity will be wasted. Under most circumstances. is appended with a certain amount of information about who sent it. and who is supposed to receive it (the header). The combination of a payload and a header is called a packet. we know where each packet was sent from and where it is going. and the receiver needs to be smart enough to read the header and (if the packet is to be forwarded. each data item. If every time-slice is only big enough for the minimum case.
6 Kbps channels and has a combined user data rate of 1. for a total of 115 customers. the . Access to this channel is offered to 100 customers. If the user arrival time is strictly random find the T1 link utilization. Solution The utilization or fraction of time used by the system to process packets is given by: A 24 channel system dedicated to DATA. If however. with room to spare if they transmit on the average 20% of the time. each requiring 9.167 and were easily fitted.The queue length or average number of items waiting to be served is given by: Example A T1 link has been divided into a number of 9.6 Kbps data 20% of the time. In the above statistical link. 100 customers created an average utilization of 0. can place five 9.152 Mbps.6 Kbps customers in each of 23 channels.
we can define the pulse width as: τ = DTb Where: The pulse width is equal to the bit time if we are using a 100% duty cycle code division multiplexing (CDM). Duty Cycles Duty cycle is defined as " the time that is effectively used to send or receive the data. Many headers contain error-checking information (checksum.customer usage were not randomly distributed." The more the duty cycle . such as electrical noise. a single T1 may be able to support hundreds of low volume users. Service providers carefully monitor delay and utilization and assign customers to maximize utilization and minimize cost. Packets Packets will be discussed in greater detail once we start talking about digital networks (specifically the Internet). This coded transmission typically is accomplished by transmitting a unique time-dependent series of short pulses. This example shows the potential for statistical multiplexing. Packet headers not only contain address information. then the above analysis would have to be modified. A utilization above 0. but may also include a number of different fields that will display information about the packet. We can define the pulse width. If we have a duty cycle of D. which are . Cyclic Redundancy Check) that enables the receiver to check if the packet has had any errors due to interference.8 is undesirable in a statistical system. τ. Code division multiplexing (CDM) is a technique in which each channel transmits its bits as a coded channel-specific sequence of pulses. the more effective transmission or reception. as being the time that a bit occupies from within it's total alloted bit-time Tb. since the slightest variation in customer requests for service would lead to buffer overflow. expressed as a percentage of total period of time. If channels were assigned on a demand basis (only when the customer had something to send).
which provides different frequency bands to different data-streams . a fixed amount of spectrum is allocated for a cellular system by a national regulator (For example. based on wavelength division multiplex (WDM). the Federal Communications Commission in the United States). Space division multiple access (SDMA). The code division multiple access (CDMA) scheme is based on spread spectrum. etc until the last user. Then it starts all over again. For example. and therefore it is not considered as TDM or TDMA. user 1 may use time slot 1. Multiple Access techniques specify the way signals from different sources are to be combined efficiently for transmission over a given radio frequency band and then separated at the destination without mutual interference. that allows several data streams or signals to share the same communication channel or physical medium.in the FDMA case to different users or nodes. can be transmitted on the same fiber and asynchronously demultiplexed Multiple access methods Generally. A related technique is wave-length division multiple access (WDMA). Due to its random character it can be categorised as statistical multiplexing methods. making it possible to provide dynamic bandwidth allocation.placed within chip times within the larger bit time. Time Division multiple Access . but not in a cyclically repetitive frame structure. An example is the 3G cell phone system. All channels. These are the fundamental forms of channel access schemes: • • • • • The frequency division multiple access (FDMA) channel-access scheme is based on the frequency-division multiplex (FDM) scheme. user 2 time slot 2. Multiple Access techniques are necessary in order to allow many users to share the available spectrum in an efficient way. The time division multiple access (TDMA) channel access scheme is based on the time division multiplex (TDM) scheme. Packet mode multiple-access is typically also based on time-domain multiplexing. a channel access method or multiple access method allows several terminals connected to the same multi-point transmission medium to transmit over it and to share its capacity. each with a different code. where different users get different colors in fiber-optical communication. An example of FDMA systems were the first-generation (1G) cell-phone systems. which provides different time-slots to different data-streams (in the TDMA case to different transmitters) in a cyclically repetitive frame structure. Thus. A channel-access scheme is based on a multiplexing method.
triple the capacity of cellular frequencies by dividing a 30-kHz channel into three time slots. Nyquist's sampling theorem assures that if a band limited signal with bandwidth W is sampled at rate of at least Ws=2*W then the signal can be fully reconstructed from its samples and no information is lost. The stream is compressed by a digital speech code into bursts 1/n of their original length. TDMA is a store and burst system. This method of multiplexing that combines data streams by assigning each stream a different time slot in a set is called Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) (this technique is also used in T1/E1 channels). As a result the signal is converted into a stream of digital information. for example. Thus. The channel's frequency and the allocated time slot for the user are informed to the mobile user by the base station when the call is set up via a control channel. . The number of time slots in a frame (n) is standard dependent. the transmission is divided to frames. the signal's samples can be transmitted instead of the signal itself. divide the channel's given bandwidth into n time slots) increase capacity by n. Incoming user traffic is stored in memory and when a user's turn comes up. The burst takes only 1/n of the airtime required to transmit the original audio signal. this accumulated traffic is transmitted in a digital burst. a different user transmits his digital burst. Effectively. enabling three different users to occupy it at the same time. The digital burst is then modulated into the channel's frequency and in the time slot that was allocated for the user the burst is transmitted. This is a simplified conceptual description of how TDMA works. leaving n-1/n of the time for the other u. More elaborately. TDMA implementations that use n:1 multiplexing (i. quantized and digitized in a process that is called PCM-Pulse Code Modulation (If the signal is already digitized (data signal) this is unnecessary). In each time slot. North American cellular standards IS-54 and IS-136. the time between transmitted samples can be utilized to transmit samples of other signals in order to increase the capacity of the frequency channel.e. when a user wishes to transmit an analog signal (voice). which contain several time slots.How TDMA works Time division multiple access takes advantage of the digitization of the signals in order to accommodate information from several users within one frequency channel. In TDMA. But now. the signal is sampled.
this technique can almost double the bandwidth utilization efficiency of TDMA. However. If partners in a phone conversation do not speak over one another. he is skipped. like FDMA. Top TDMA Advantages and Disadvantages . making it almost 10 times as efficient as analog transmission. So. the capacity should approach 40 times analog capacity. it had the weakness that it wasted bandwidth: the time slot was allocated to a specific conversation whether or not anyone was speaking at that moment. notices that the user has something to transmit. with the utilization of hierarchical cells.Currently. In the future. he puts one bit in a buffer queue. ETDMA sends data through those pauses which normal speech contains. If a user has nothing to transmit. instead of being arbitrarily assigned. systems are in place that allows six times capacity. and adaptive channel allocation. intelligent antennas. An enhanced version of TDMA (ETDMA) improve the bandwidth utilization by assigning time slots to users dynamically instead of waiting to determine whether a user is transmitting. When a user has something to transmit. Top Enhanced TDMA TDMA substantially improved upon the efficiency of analog cellular. and allocates bandwidth accordingly. time is allocated according to need. The system scans the buffer.
this extends the battery life and as a result of that the talk time. Cost While upgrading a current analog system to digital. . voice band data. Efficiency This technology increases the efficiency of transmission. fax. the users will not experience interference from other simultaneous transmissions because of the separation in time between different users. Utilization of HCS TDMA supply an efficient utilization of HCS . equipment and maintenance.Advantages Personal Communication Services such as SMS . All of these can be supplied by the TDMA because of the ability to carry data rates of 64 Kbps to 120 Mbps. This can be done because of the TDMA's inherit compatibility with FDMA analog system. and also multimedia. which is bandwidth-intensive application. Battery life Because the mobile is only transmitting a portion of the time. micro and macrocells. video-conferencing. Installation This technology installation offers substantial savings in base-station space. Interference In this technology. using TDMA is the advisable technology for that as the most cost-effective.Hierarchical Cell Structures by offering pico. Service Compatibility This technology allows Service Compatibility with the use of dual-mode handsets.short message data.
with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver. one after the other.this might cause a call to be disconnected in case that all time slots in the next cell are already occupied. Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks.An Interference might be caused in case that a signal which is coming from a tower to a handset might also come from any one of several directions and will be bounced off several different buildings before arriving to it's target.g. Multipath Distortion This technology is subject to multipath distortion . if all time slots are already occupied. each using his own time slot. new users wishing to transmit and get access rights won't be able to do so (their call will be disconnected).Disadvantages Predefined Time Slot Each user has a predefined time slot. . there are multiple transmitters. Thus. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. Another problem with predefined timeslots is that a fixed and predefined number of users will have channel access. TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing. The users transmit in rapid succession. radio frequency channel) while using only a part of its channel capacity. but the users are not allocated a time slot while they are roaming from one cell to another .
It allows easy integration with personal communication systems (PCS) devices. Digital technology is now the standard for the public telephone system where all analog calls are converted to digital form for transmission over the backbone. It is difficult to decode. Digital has a number of advantages over analog transmission: • • • • • It economizes on bandwidth. . The Digital Advantage All multiple access techniques depend on the adoption of digital technology. It can use lower average transmitter power.1. It maintains superior quality of voice transmission over long distances.
echoes and reflections. the synchronization of the mobile phones is achieved by sending timing advance commands from the base station which instructs the mobile phone to transmit earlier and by how much. The mobile phone is not allowed to transmit for its entire time slot. As the transmission moves into the guard period. each user's timeslot ends with a guard period. It offers voice privacy. however. A peaking equalizer raises or lowers a range of frequencies around a central point in a bell shape. In the GSM system. the mobile phone is at just less than 35 km from . but any frequency dependent response characteristic could be equalized.• • It enables smaller and less expensive individual receivers and transmitters. Guard interval In telecommunications. Equalisation Equalization. guard intervals are used to ensure that distinct transmissions do not interfere with one another. caused by propagation delay. The mobile attempts to broadcast at the beginning of the time slot. If the mobile is located next to the base station.05) clearly define the guard period as being at the end of each timeslot. and protection against interference to the following timeslot. thus providing protection against data loss within that timeslot. there will be no time delay and this will succeed. Each has a different pattern of attenuation or boost. It is a common misconception that each TDMA timeslot begins with a guard interval. For this reason. as received from the network. to which digital data is normally very sensitive. If. Thus a user's timeslot is protected from interference from the preceding user. The purpose of the guard interval is to introduce immunity to propagation delays. however the ITU Technical Specifications (such as GSM 05. to avoid data loss and to reduce interference to the following user. an entire time slot has to be dedicated to mobiles attempting to contact the network (known as the RACH in GSM). Initial synchronization of a phone requires even more care. The term generally implies Amplitude equalization. In TDMA. the mobile network adjusts the timing advance to synchronize the transmission. equalisation or EQ is the process of using passive or active electronic elements or digital algorithms for the purpose of altering (originally flattening) the frequency response characteristics of a system. There are many kinds of EQ. Before a mobile transmits there is no way to actually know the offset required. by the guard interval (guard period) at the end of that preceding user's timeslot. These transmissions may belong to different users (as in TDMA) or to the same user (as in OFDM). This compensates for the propagation delay resulting from the light speed velocity of radio waves. but there is a guard interval at the end of each time slot.
voiceband data. In that case. TDMA offers a number of other advantages over standard cellular technologies. however. TDMA is the most cost-effective technology for upgrading a current analog system to digital. rather than limitations of power. ensures that they will not experience interference from other simultaneous transmissions. and maintenance. and short message services (SMSs) as well as bandwidth-intensive applications such as multimedia and videoconferencing. if the mobile is beyond the 35 km cell range in GSM.and CDMA based network) especially for initial Access and Bursty data transmission. By changing the synchronization between the uplink and downlink at the base station. that only a single device makes a connection attempt at one time. The Advantages of TDMA In addition to increasing the efficiency of transmission. Unlike spread-spectrum techniques which can suffer from interference among the users all of whom are on the same frequency band and transmitting at the same time. which separates users in time. an important factor as cell sizes grow ever smaller. Random Access Channel (RACH) is used in mobile phones or other wireless device on a TDMA-based network when it needs to get the attention of a base station in order to initially synchronize its transmission with the base station. and collisions can result. it can be easily adapted to the transmission of data as well as voice communication. then the RACH will arrive in a neighboring time slot and be ignored. the mobile will be instructed to broadcast its messages starting nearly a whole time slot earlier than would be expected otherwise. A key feature of a Random Access Channel is that messages are not scheduled (compared to for example a "Dedicated Channel" in UMTS. TDMA installations offer substantial savings in base-station equipment. that limits the range of a GSM cell to 35 km when no special extension techniques are used. TDMA offers the ability to carry data rates of 64 kbps to 120 Mbps (expandable in multiples of 64 kbps). This enables operators to offer personal communicationlike services including fax. space. There is no certainty. . TDMA also provides the user with extended battery life and talk time since the mobile is only transmitting a portion of the time (from 1/3 to 1/10) of the time during conversations. First and foremost. the time delay will mean the mobile's broadcast arrives at the very end of the time slot. that is assigned exclusively to one user at a time). It is this feature. Finally. this limitation can be overcome.the base station. Random Access Channel is a shared channel that is used by Wireless Access terminals to Access the Access Network(TDMA/FDMA. TDMA’s technology.
Time Division multiple Access (TDMA) imply partitioning the bandwidth of a channel shared by many nodes. HCSs allow coverage for the system to be tailored to support specific traffic and service needs. Another problem with TDMA is that it is subjected to multipath distortion. whereas for tdma (also fdm. A signal coming from a tower to a handset might come from any one of several directions. etc.e. The main difference between tdm and tdma (also fdm/fdma. etc) is that with tdm (also fdm.Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) imply partitioning the bandwidth of the channel connecting two nodes into finite set of time slots. The main difference between tdm and tdma (also fdm/fdma.) the signals multiplexed (i.e. Because of its inherent compatibility with FDMA analog systems. users roaming from one cell to another are not allotted a time slot. and macrocells. etc. a call might well be disconnected.) the signals multiplexed come from different sources/transmitters. This is . if all the time slots in the cell in which a user happens to be in are already occupied. . system capacities of more than 40-times AMPS can be achieved in a cost-efficient way. micro. a scheduling algorithm dynamically reserves a variable number of time slots in each frame to variable bit-rate data streams. etc. TDMA allows service compatibility with the use of dual-mode handsets. . Likewise. typically an infrastructure node and several mobile nodes. a user will not receive a dial tone. However.) the signals multiplexed come from different sources/transmitters. sharing a resource) come from the same node. where each node gets to access its dedicated time slot. etc) is that with tdm (also fdm. if all the time slots in the next cell are already occupied.) the signals multiplexed (i. The Disadvantages of TDMA One of the disadvantages of TDMA is that each user has a predefined time slot. sharing a resource) come from the same node. Thus.TDMA is the only technology that offers an efficient utilization of hierarchical cell structures (HCSs) offering pico. etc. Dynamic TDMA In dynamic time division multiple access. based on the traffic demand of each data stream. By using this approach. whereas for tdma (also fdm. It might have bounced off several different buildings before arriving.
each band represents one call. Signalling . Frequency division multiple access FDMA divides the given spectrum into channels by the frequency domain. Each phone call is allocated one channel for the entire duration of the call.the reason why we use tdm for downlink (forward link) and tdma for uplink (reverse link). In the figure above.
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