Project Report


IPv6 Of
Certified Network Administrator
Project Guide Mr. Hardik Jangada

This is to certify that, Miss. DEEPIKA .P. VINCHURKAR Has Successfully completed project on Certified Network Administrator.

Center Manager

Project Guide

Mr. Yogesh Yawalkar ( With Seal Of Center )

Mr. Hardik Jangada ( Faculty )


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"340. in terms of the numbers of people. IPv6 uses 128 bits (16 byte) long address. the Internet as we know it would not exist. This means that by comparison. To use up every single IPv6 addresses we would need to stack ten billion computers on top of each other over the entire world including the sea. IPv6 is the “next generation” of IP.Although.463.The exact number of IPv6 addresses available is. looking atthe bigger picture it is obvious that at some point in the future IPv4 will have reached its exhaustion point. providing the basic service upon which the entire Internet is built. Currently the Internet makes use of IP version 4. the set of digital communication codes which underlies the Internet nfrastructure.920. which is now reaching the limits of its capacity to address additional devices..938. which provides a vastly expanded address space. trillion. Using IPv6.. trillion addresses. Comparing this to IPv4's address space of "4.211.431. it's possible to see the shear size of IPv6 address space. IP allows the flow of packets of data between any pair of points on the network.296" or approximately four billion. IPv6 has a lot more addresses. In simple terms 64 bits are used for network identification and the remaining 64 bits are used for the host identification. IPv6 uses 128 bits as apposed to IPv4's 32.456" This is approximately three hundred and forty trillion.607. Though the IPv6 space is large.What is IPv6? “IP” is the Internet Protocol. the Internet will be able to grow to millions of times its current size. The facts show that it is almost impossible to run out of IPv6 addresses. . This is also a main reason for using IPv6 in the future. Without IP.967.There is still a heated debate that IPv4 will not run out in the near future since the rate of addresses required by customers has slowed down in the last few years.768. that does not mean it is unstructured .374. So the number of addresses available in IPv6 already removes the main problem that we face with IPv4 which is the inevitable exhaustion point.282. IPv6 is a completely classless scheme.294.366..463. or IPv4. devices and objects connected to it1.

• IPv4 addresses used up at an alarming rate. This slowly led to theconcept of IPv6.Why we need IPv6? The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was a group created during the 1980s and provided a setting for people who used internetworking devices to communicate with each other. • More networked devices. the new IPv6 protocol has features such as stateless autoconfiguration and neighbour discovery which assigns addresses automatically. With mobile phones connecting to the Internet and becoming more networked devices. Household appliances such as microwaves. Initially the IETF started on a protocol called the Next Generation Internet Protocol (IPng). This number continued to double every five years. televisions and DVD players may be next. IPv6 was first published in 1995 and became a standard in 1998. Around the year 1990 approximately ~ 536 million or one eighth of the available IPv4 IP addresses had been used. At this rate it was predicted that the address space for IPv4 would run out sometime between 2005 and 2011 this was declared the "exhaustion point". Here are the main reasons behind the deployment of IPv6 and the ideas which surround them. Therefore a new Internet Protocol was born called IPv6. . With the growth of technology will not only be computers that will need to be addressed. This allows users to maintain connections when moving into new networks. The existing IPv4 protocol would not be suitable for this kind of networking growth.


this makes up a prefix of ::/48.0. Ipv6 has its own loop back address. The next 45 bits are allocated by the ISP of the host. .  Aggregatable global.1. This address is also used for troubleshooting a network. The unique scope of this address scheme is the Internet itself. The following higher 16 bits determine site topology (subnet) on which the host belongs to.  Prefixing Within the Ipv6 protocol there is a similar notation to a forward slash net mask prefix in IPv4. This process is called zero compression. The format prefixes of these addresses are 001::/3. These addresses were designed to support efficient hierarchical addressing and routing.  Leading zeros Leading zeros in an IPv6 address are optional.IPv6 Address Structure IPv6 addresses are 128 bits in length.0. They are made up of eight 16 bit blocks separated by colons. The remaining 64 bits are the unique interface identifier made up of the MAC address and subnet of which it’s on. The lower 3 bits are used to identify the address as globally unique.  Loopback Address Similar to IPv4’s 127. For example x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x where"x" is equal to 16 bits. In this case it is clear that four zeros were removed. The loopback in Ipv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or can also be zero compressed to ::1. The prefix notation in IPv6 determines how many left most bits are assigned by authority and how many bits are assigned locally. Aggregatable global unicast addresses are similar to the IPv4 public addresses and can be routed over an IPv6 Internet. but only one time in an address. or how many bits of the address specify the prefix. Each block contains a 16 bit case sensitive hexadecimal value. Successive fields of zeros are allowed. For example an IP address of 2001:db8:31:0:0:0:0:1 can also be written as 2001:db80:31::1 the missing zeros are calculated to make the address 128 bits.

which can be categorized by type and scope:  Unicast addresses. A global unicast address is a unicast address that is globally unique. The value “fffe” is inserted into the middle of the 48 bit MAC address therefore making it 64 bits. A packet is delivered to the nearest of multiple interfaces (in terms of routing distance). you should be aware that this obsolescence is relatively recent and you are likely to encounter some books and documents that show the old IPv6 address format. A packet is delivered to multiple interfaces. A packet is delivered to one interface. The IPv6 general unicast address format. This also means that it becomes a unique identifier for that machine. obsoletes and simplifies an earlier format that divided the IPv6 unicast address into Top Level Aggregator (TLA).  Multicast addresses. Perhaps the most striking difference between IPv4 addresses and IPv6 addresses. The reason for this name is that a host can have more than one IPv6 interface.  IPv6 Address Types IPv6 has three types of addresses. Figure 2-1. The host portion of the address is called the Interface ID. and can have an IPv4 address in addition. The general format of the IPv6 unicast address is shown in Figure 2-1. However.  IPv6 does not use broadcast messages.To create the EUI a device’s MAC address is used. and other fields. A MAC address is a global unique identifier for networked machines. aside from their lengths. in which case the Interface ID is only one of that interface's several identifiers. is the location of the Subnet Identifier as a part of the network portion of the address rather than the host portion.  Anycast addresses. A legacy of the IPv4 address class architecture is that the subnet portion of an IPv4 address is taken from the host portion . and so the address more correctly identifies an interface on a host than a host itself. For security reasons RFC 3041 states that a networked machine can also generate random identifiers that only last a few hours. this means long term tracking of computers would be a lot more difficult. NextLevel Aggregator (NLA). This format. specified in RFC 3587. But that subtlety only goes so far: A single interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses.  Unicast Addresses A unicast address is an address that identifies a single device.

In the majority of cases. and Central Asia. so the address is not routable off its link Link-local addresses have great utility for functions such as the Neighbor Discovery Protocol that communicates only on a single link. the prefixes assigned by the LIRs are /48. IPv6 also has a link-local unicast address. It also allows devices that are on links that do not have assigned global prefixes. If one and only one device is to be addressed. and Asia Pacific Network Information Centre serves Asia and the Pacific Ocean nations. however.  Local Unicast Addresses When we talk of global unicast addresses. which is an address whose scope is confined to a single link. a /64 might be assigned. which are usually large Internet Service Providers. the host portion of the IPv4 address varies not only with its class. That is. Its uniqueness is assured only on one link. a /128 might be assigned. we mean an address with global scope.of the address. American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) serves North America and parts of the Caribbean. a prefix shorter than /48 might be assigned. As a result.    If the customer is very large. then allocate longer prefixes to their customers. simplifying the parsing of the address. Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry (LACNIC) serves Central and South America and the Caribbean. but also with the number of bits you use for subnet identification. If one and only one subnet is to be addressed. There are. The immediate benefit of making the IPv6 Subnet ID field a part of the network portion of the address is that the Interface ID can be a consistent size for all IPv6 addresses. AfriNIC serves Africa. and an identical address might exist on another link. or devices that do not yet know the global . a few exceptions in which the LIR might assign a prefix of a different length: As of this writing there are five RIRs: Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) serves Europe. The IANA and the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) assign IPv6 prefixesnormally /32 or /35 in lengthto the Local Internet Registries (LIRs). as mentioned in the previous paragraph. an address that is globally unique and can therefore be routed globally with no modification. the Middle East. And making the Subnet ID a part of the network portion creates a clear separation of functions: The network portion provides the location of a device down to the specific data link and the host portion provides the identity of the device on the data link. The LIRs.

and after some heated debate. However. In Figure 2-3 this is the route to server C with a cost of 20. Not the least of the difficulties is the fact that the definition of a "site" is vague and can mean different things to different network administrators. some service is offered by three servers. Therefore a site-local address is routable only within the site to which it is assigned. then. . In Figure 2-3. Site-local addresses are also key to several proposed IPv6 multihoming mechanisms. An assurance has been given to those who see advantages in site-local addresses to introduce another scheme with similar "bigger scope than link but smaller scope than global" benefits. The router. One prominent application is for network operators that wish to use NAT. functionally similar to private IPv4 addresses as defined in RFC 1918. devices in other sites can use the same address. Other potential problems cited include increased complexity for applications and routers that must recognize and cope with site-local addresses.  Anycast Addresses An anycast address represents a service rather than a device. the router assumes that it has three routes to the same destination and chooses the lowest-cost route. and the same address can reside on one or more devices providing the same service. but as of this writing such a replacement scheme has yet to be seen. all advertising the service at the IPv6 address 3ffe:205:1100::15. does not know that it is being advertised by three different devices. even with IPv6 addresses. A site-local address is unique only within a given site. As a result of these concerns. like RFC 1918 IPv4 addresses. to maintain independence of their address architecture from that of their service providers. the IETF IPv6 Working Group determined that site-local unicast addresses introduced a number of difficulties. instead. Site-local IPv6 addresses are. receiving advertisements for the address.prefix assigned to the link. Advocates of site-local addresses cite several applications. the IPv6 Working Group deprecated site-local addresses in RFC 3879. the administrative difficulties introduced when such addresses are mistakenly "leaked" outside of their intended site boundaries. Another problem is concern over. to create IPv6 addresses that allow them to communicate with other devices on the link IPv6 originally defined a site-local unicast address in addition to the link-local address.

making traffic patterns in the network more efficient. if server C becomes unavailable due to a network or server failure. A packet being sent to a multicast group is originated by a single device.  Multicast Addresses A multicast address identifies not one device but a set of devicesa multicast group. defined in RFC 2526. Anycast addresses have been used for some time in IPv4 networks. The advantage of anycast addresses is that a router always routes to the "closest" or "lowest-cost" server. IPv6 does not have a reserved broadcast address like IPv4. or even all devices in a network.Figure 2-3. it is just choosing the next-best route to the same destination. but are formalized in their definition in IPv6. An anycast address represents a service that might appear on multiple devices. In fact. the router chooses the path to server A as the next-lowest-cost route. In Figure 2-3. not by format. However. there is a format for reserved anycast addresses. So servers providing some commonly used service can be spread across a large network and traffic can be localized or scoped to the nearest server. Anycast addresses are defined by their service function only. From the router's viewpoint. A multicast address never appears in a packet as a source address. And if one server becomes unavailable. and theoretically might be any IPv6 unicast address of any scope. for example. therefore a multicast packet normally has a unicast address as its source address and a multicast address as its destination address. . The members of a multicast group might include only a single device. the router routes to the next nearest server.

well-known IPv6 multicast addresses. Current usage sets the first 80 bits to 0 and just uses the last 32 bits. well-known address (0) or an administratively assigned transient address (1). The next four bits indicate the scope of the address as shown in Table 2-1. The first eight bits of the address are always all ones. all of which are link-local scope. identifying individual multicast groups. The format of the IPv6 multicast address is shown in Figure 2-4. Scope Field Value 0x0 0x1 0x2 0x5 0x8 0xE 0xF Scope Reserved Node-Local Link-Local Site-Local Organization Local Global Reserved . So the last 112 bits are used as the Group-ID.but it does have a reserved all-nodes multicast group. there is no needor sensefor having a subnet field in the multicast address. The fourth bit indicates whether the address is a permanent. and the next four bits are designated as flags. Table 2-2 shows several reserved. which is essentially the same thing: a multicast group to which all receiving devices belong. Figure 2-4. Multicasting is essential to the basic operation of IPv6. The IPv6 multicast address format. Currently the first three of these bits are unused and always set to 0. Table 2-1. Multicast address scopes. Because a multicast group is always a set of individual nodes. particularly some of its plug-and-play features such as router discovery and address autoconfiguration.

for instance. So. recognizing the hexadecimal representations of global unicast addresses is fairly easy: They all start with either 2 or 3. . and the following subsections describe the other major IPv6 address types. Binary 001 is expected to suffice for global unicast addresses for some time to come. Table 2-3 lists the currently allocated leading bit combinations.Table 2-2. Address FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::5 FF02::6 FF02::9 FF02::A FF02::B FF02::C FF02::D  Multicast Group All Nodes All Routers OSPFv3 Routers OSPFv3 Designated Routers RIPng Routers EIGRP Routers Mobile Agents DHCP Servers/Relay Agents All PIM Routers Identifying IPv6 Address Types The first few bits of the address specify the address type. a few other bit combinations are assigned to other defined address types. Examples of well-known IPv6 multicast addresses. depending on the value of the fourth bit in the global routing prefix. the first three bits of all global unicast addresses currently are 001. For example. and IPv6 addresses currently allocated by the RIRs begin with 2001. currently allocated prefixes used by the 6Bone (the public IPv6 research network) begin with 3ffe. As a result. and the majority of leading bit combinations are reserved.

High-order bits of IPv6 address types..Table 2-3..0 00.1 11111111 1111111010 1111111011 001 Everything else High-Order Bits (Hex) ::/128 ::1/128 FF00::/8 FF80::/10 FFC0::/10 2xxx::/4 or 3xxx::/4 ... Address Type Unspecified Loopback Multicast Link-Local Unicast Site-Local Unicast (Deprecated) Global Unicast (Currently allocated) Reserved (Future global unicast allocations) High-Order Bits (binary) 00.


Routing and IPv6 As in IPv4. and like IPv4. routers in IPv6 find best paths to destinations based on metrics and administrative distances. and timers.  RIPng Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng) is actually similar to RIP for IPv4. with these characteristics:  It's a distance vector protocol. The tag is a locally significant identifier used to differentiate between multiple RIP processes running on the router. IPv6 routers look for the longest matching prefix in the IPv6 routing table to forward a packet to its destination.  Cisco routers running 12. such as disabling split horizon. you use the ipv6 router rip tag command to enable RIPng globally: Router(config)# ipv6 router rip tag This takes you into a subcommand mode.  Split horizon and poison reverse are used to prevent routing loops. use the show ipv6 rip command: . Instead. First. Enabling RIPng is a little bit different than enabling RIP for IPv4.  The hop-count limit is 15.2(2) T and later support RIPng.  The ALL-RIP routers multicast address (FF02::9) is used as the destination address in routing advertisements and is delivered to UDP port 521. you must enable RIPng on a per-interface basis with the ipv6 rip tag enable command: Router(config)# interface type [slot_#/]port_# Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip tag enable The tag parameter associates the interface with the correct RIPng routing process. there is no network command to include interfaces in RIPng.  These are the enhancements in RIPng:  An IPv6 packet is used to transport the routing update. The main difference is that the IPv6 router is looking at 128 bits when making a routing decision instead of 32 bits. Unlike RIP for IPv6.  It is based on RIPv2. where you can change some of the global values for RIPng. the administrative distance.  Routing updates contain the IPv6 prefix of the router and the next-hop IPv6 address. To view the routing protocol configuration.

the tag is RIPPROC1 for the name of the RIPng routing process and RIPng is enabled on FastEthernet0/0. pid 187 Administrative distance is 120. the use of the network command is gone. multicast-group FF02::9. and just as with RIPng. it’s FF02::A (A = 10 in hexadecimal notation). EIGRPv6 works much the same as its IPv4 predecessor does— most of the features that EIGRP provided before EIGRPv6 will still be available. poison reverse is off Default routes are not generated Periodic updates 2. The neighbor discovery process using hellos still happens. Most notably. expire after 180 Holddown lasts 0 seconds. and the network and interface to be advertised must be enabled from interface configuration mode. in IPv6. Maximum paths is 16 Updates every 30 seconds. But you still have to use the router configuration mode to enable the routing protocol in EIGRPv6 because the routing process must be literally turned on like an interface with the no shutdown command The configuration for EIGRPv6 is going to look like this: Router1(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 12 The 12 in this case is still the autonomous system (AS) number.10.Router# show ipv6 rip RIP process "RIPPROC1". there are differences between the two versions. To view the IPv6 routing table for RIPng. and from here you must perform a no shutdown: Router1(config-rtr)#no shutdown .  EIGRPv6 As with RIPng.0. In IPv4 it was 224. The prompt changes to (config-rtr).0. garbage collect after 120 Split horizon is on. But obviously. port 521. EIGRPv6 is still an advanced distance-vector protocol that has some link-state features. use the show ipv6 route rip command. and it still provides reliable communication with reliable transport protocol that gives us loop-free fast convergence using the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). trigger updates 0 Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0 Redistribution: None In this example.

These new addresses are the replacements for 224. makes the new version of OSPF capable of being routed over almost any Network layer protocol! Adjacencies and next-hop attributes now use link-local addresses. respectively. In version 3. let's go to the interface and enable IPv6: Router1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 12 The 12 in the interface command again references the AS number that was enabled in the configuration mode. Changes regarding how these values are assigned. which are all still 32bit values but are not found using the IP address anymore because an IPv6 address is 128 bits. like redistribution. Other. . area ID.0. the interfaces and therefore the networks attached to them are configured directly on the interface in interface configuration mode. Last to check out in our group is what OSPF looks like in the IPv6 routing protocol. and OSPFv3 still uses multicast traffic to send its updates and acknowledgments. and link-state ID. just as with the other IPv6 routing protocols we have talked about.6. The foundation of OSPF remains the same—it is still a link-state routing protocol that divides an entire internetworks or autonomous system into areas. with the addresses FF02::5 for OSPF routers and FF02::6 for OSPF-designated routers. you assign the RID. And with OSPFv3. In OSPF version 2. making a hierarchy.  OSPFv3 The new version of OSPF continues the trend of the routing protocols having many similarities with their IPv4 versions. less flexible IPv4 protocols don’t give us the ability that OSPFv2 does to assign specific networks and interfaces into the OSPF process—however. along with the removal of the IP address information from OSPF packet headers.0.0. So now.5 and 224.0.Other options also can be configured in this mode. this is something that is still configured under the router configuration process. the router ID (RID) is determined by the highest IP addresses assigned to the router (or you could assign it).

0 . but we don’t even need to configure OSPFv3 from this prompt if we configure OSPFv3 from the interface.1.0.1 You get to perform some configurations from router configuration mode like summarization and redistribution.1.The configuration of OSPFv3 is going to look like this: Router1(config)#ipv6 router osfp 10 Router1(config-rtr)#router-id 1.0. the router configuration process is added automatically and the interface configuration looks like this: Router1(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 10 area 0. When the interface configuration is completed.


Let’s take a look at what IPv4 only application stack looks like for data flow as depicted in Figure 4-1. Software on the network infrastructure must support IPv6 configuration and routing protocols. Hardware must be evaluated in the network infrastructure to see if there is proper memory for route tables and the switch forwarding tables to handle IPv6 routes and packets. • IPv6 Dual Stack Implementation The second and most popular implementation is dual stack. while operating systems on the host side must also be IPv6 capable. • IPv6 Native Implementation The first implementation method is to install IPv6 in a native configuration. Dual stack implementation allows IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to exist on the same physical and/or logical interface. Native implementation limits the network to only IPv6 communication to other networks and would require translation to interface other IPv4 networks. Dual stack offers the best of both worlds with hosts able to communicate with other hosts on networks that could support either protocol. . This implementation is also the easiest to implement in an environment that already is established. The primary concerns for the dual stack implementation are in software and hardware. This configuration configures all hosts and routers to utilize IPv6 only and not in conjunction with IPv4. IPv6 Implementation Strategies There are four distinct methods to implement IPv6 in a network infrastructure: Native Implementation  Dual Stack Implementation  IPv6 Tunneling  IPv6 Only to IPv4 Only Translation  Let’s go over each of these in more detail.

IPv4 or IPv6 addresses can be manually selected. like web browsers. If applications allow. .So how would a dual stack implementation work? Well. Figure 2 shows how an application must be aware of both IP stacks to utilize either. Operating systems are configured to select which one will have priority if connectivity is available on the remote side for both protocols.

which is typically seen as a WAN network.• IPv6 Tunneling The next implementation available for IPv6 is tunneling. so IPv6 route propagation to other sites is not needed. Edge routers for each IPv6 implementation are connected to the IPv4 network and a tunnel is configured between them. IPv6 original headers and payloads are not modified in the tunnel. Tunneling is used to connect two native IPv6 implementations over an existing IPv4 only network. The 6to4 protocol supports a dynamic method to tunnel IPv6 addresses across IPv4 clouds and will utilize global unicast IPv6 prefixes for each IPv6 site for communication. One of the most common tunnel protocols to use for this implementation is 6to4 and is defined in RFC 3056: Connection for IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds. but instead an IPv4 header is inserted in front of the IPv6 header for transmission over the IPv4 network and then stripped off on the other side. Figure 3 displays the implementation of this tunnel and communication between two IPv6 native environments. 6to4 must be installed on the edge routers and will map addresses according to their global prefixes. .

SOCKS-based IPv6/IPv4 gateway is based on the SOCKSv5 protocol and is a proxy mechanism to translate addresses. Dual Stack Translation Mechanism (DSTM). IPv6 nodes may require interaction with IPv4 only nodes for certain services such as: mail or web services. For ALGs to properly function the applications on the server must be IPv6 aware and the server must configured to support both protocols. For IPv6 nodes that require access. Bump in the Stack (BIS). Other translation methods include NAT-PT. The best location for the ALG is often identified by the location of the targeted services. Let’s look quickly at some other translation methods that could be employed. The most commonly method used is Application Level Gateways (ALG). and SOCKS-based IPV6/IPv4 gateway. but it does offer a mechanism to achieve connectivity to end IPv4 nodes. but performs translation at the Transport Layer of the OSI stack and not the Network Layer. placing an ALG at the edge of the IPv6 network is the best location. Why would we need this? Well. TCP-UDP relay. TCP-UDP relay is similar to NAT-PT. There are several ways to accomplish translation. DSTM allows dual stacked hosts in IPv6 only domains to communicate to other IPv4 hosts by dynamically creating tunnels for communication. .• IPv6 Only to IPv4 Only Translation IPv6 only to IPv4 only translation is the last implementation method we will examine. which utilizes a server that act as proxy to services that may be other IPv6 or IPv4 nodes.      NAT is not favored for use with IPv6. but offer no services to other IPv4 nodes. BIS is designed to work with dual stack hosts and was used as an initial step for translation since many applications did not support IPv6. Figure 4 shows how this might be implemented.


168.3. Vlan ID 501.1 is up. address is 001c. IP address currently assigned to the interface is 192. Before this can be accomplished.1Q Virtual LAN. IPv6 unicast routing and CEF forwarding will need to be enabled. Implementing IPv6 Addresses on Cisco Router Interfaces Now that we have talked about IPv6 implementation schemes.1 TenGigabitEthernet2/1. ARP type: ARPA. BW 10000000 Kbit.100.7400) Description: “Interface 1″ Internet address is 192.7400 (bia 001c. ARP Timeout 04:00:00routert#sh int ten 2/1 . Below is an example of a ten Gigabit Ethernet interface 2/1 that has a sub interface assigned.1.b0b4.168.b0b4. A show interface gives us this result: Router#showinterface ten 2/1. If a syntax error occurs. let’s look at how to implement IPv6 addresses on a router interface. Now let’s configure and interface with IPv6 address. The designation of the interface is ten 2/1. To enable IPv6 on a router for configuration. Once you have logged into a router and entered enabled mode. the IOS version is not setup to support IPv6 and will need to be upgraded. txload 1/255.1/30 MTU 9216 bytes. type "show ipv6 ?" at the router prompt. Enter configuration mode on the router and type the following: Router(config)#ipv6unicast-routing Router (config) #ipv6 cef distributed This will enable IPv6 to be statically configured for routes and on interfaces.1/30.100. DLY 10 usec. line protocol is up (connected) Hardware is C6k 10000Mb 802. rxload 1/255 Encapsulation 802. reliability 255/255. you need to verify that the current version of IOS code on the Cisco router will support IPv6.

1 Router (config-subif) #ipv6 address FEC0:0:0:100::1/128 We have now configured the interface with an IPv6 IP address. a special show command is needed for the interface. number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses You can clearly see that interface has a link-local and a global unicast address. . The example below displays the IPv6 addresses assigned to the ten 2/1.Now let’s enter configuration mode again and add ipv6 address.1 interface: Router# show ipv6 interface ten 2/1.1 TenGigabitEthernet2/1. subnet is FEC0:0:0:100::1/128 Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 FF02::1:FF00:1 FF02::1:FFB4:7400 MTU is 9216 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ND DAD is enabled. the Joined group addresses define the multicast and anycast addresses also needed for our router interface using IPv6. but to see the result and all the associated IPv6 types of addresses that were discussed in my previous article.1 is up. link-local address is FE80::21C:B0FF:FEB4:7400 Description: “Interface 1″ Global unicast address(es): FEC0:0:0:100::1. Also. line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled. Router (config) #interface ten 2/1.


In this paper. its advantages over IPv4. we propose that it will be new services that need the benefits of IPv6 (larger address space. In other words.  The State of IPv6 Today There are a number of standards efforts underway today to deal with issues such as: IPv6 architecture. IPv6 might take off in totally new applications that the current incumbents in the networking business have not foreseen. commercial IPv6 networks deployed.  Disruptive Technology and IPv6 According to the article “Upgrading the Internet” (The Economist. raised by Pete Loshin. name service. routing. These are online gaming. management. as well as the mechanisms for transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6. . transition. applications.” While we agree that some disruptive technology might really push IPv6. March 22. mobile IP. security. and home networking. but not quite ready in the past. many are actively being discussed and worked upon. and addressing. rather than simply via upgrades of existing equipment. Though the one question that is not addressed adequately is. Basically it is a set of IPv6 “islands” with tunnels over the IPv4 Internet. We will discuss three new applications that we believe will help push IPv6. security. The IPv6 forum has well over 100 companies involved Their mission is to promote IPv6. discovery. a computer consultant and the author of ‘IPv6 Clearly Explained’. A number of active IPv6 testbeds are also underway. but not to force its deployment or its specifications. mobility. what will really drive IPv6 implementations? Although there are experimental IPv6 services. it is more likely that applications talked about for years. Some are complete. This is a worldwide IPv6 backbone that is completely IPv6 end-to-end. 2001).There has been much published about the basics of IPv6. is that IPv6 might spread in the form of a disruptive technology’. may take advantage of IPv6 and spread using this new protocol. We also examine the current state of IPv6 in terms of experimental and real-life implementations. The 6BONE is an IPv6 testbed that is designed to assist in the evolution and deployment of the IPv6 Internet. there are not many actual commercial implementations. “Another possibility. More than 50 countries are involved NTT has one of the largest experimental. end-to-end service) that will drive IPv6 commercial implementations.

online gaming products and services must support both fixed and mobile networking. Online gaming needs to utilize the full peer-topeer model of TCP/IP. mainly because of address depletion. such as the Sony Play Station 2. Essentially the game allows individuals to play against each other via wireless radio-frequency technology. online gaming really cannot succeed without using IPv6 networking. privacy. This should drive the requirement for IPv6 native networking software and equipment. Over 3 million copies of Final Fantasy IX were sold in Japan in 2000. Online gaming products and services must scale to many geographically distributed players and must be able to provide security for authentication. This is an example of a multiple player game that can be played across a network. Idei. IEEE 1394. and payment. “I’m telling people in Sony not to create anything without network interface. A player starts by building a “warrior” character on his or her POX unit. Research Lead. Shin Miyakawa. Mr. Japan. Internet Technologies at the NTT Multimedia Communications Laboratory has recently expressed his personal opinion. The network in this case is a wireless network with limited range. Online Gaming Recently. It has a PC-Card slot. Hasbro announced a new handheld game called Pox. In the US alone. When two units are in range of each other. 4 million copies of Dragon Quest were sold. and a USB port. What if we could network current game units. In fact. Round-robin type tournaments will ensue until a single victor emerges when multiple POX units are in range. The Chairman and CEO of Sony Corporation. we believe that online gaming is technically feasible and will rapidly occur over the next few years. In Japan. recently stated at the IPv6 Summit in Osaka. . the game market is currently over $10B. The number of game units sold worldwide is gigantic and growing. While the Sega Dreamcast has a serial port and embedded analog modem with RJ11 to PSTN interface. from August 2000 to January 2001. More importantly. the warriors will face off in a virtual battle. and allow players to play across the country rather than just in their own rooms? The possibilities are endless of course. that “Online games can be one of the killer applications which will boost IPv6 suddenly in (the) very near future. Because of these technical and business requirements. Today’s game hardware is becoming more sophisticated and network ready.” The current IPv4 Internet does not provide the infrastructure required for peer-to-peer online gaming.” The Sony Play Station 2 is almost network ready. if we look at the market. In addition. we see that the potential is massive.

it is ever more likely that these devices will be network ready. home appliances. The neighbor discovery protocols inherent in IPv6 greatly simplify the process of finding a foreign agent. With the explosion of mobile devices that need always-online connectivity. and 3COM all have home networking projects currently underway. because consumers are not savvy enough to perform complex management tasks on their own. If all devices are stamped with an unchangeable IPv6 address. In fact IBM. video equipment. But how do you manage networking for a refrigerator or camera? Clearly these devices must come hardwired for IP connectivity.7B during this same time span. This standard defined the concept of a Home Agent (HA) and Foreign Agent (FA). and Care-of-Address (COA . IPV6 . it is very likely that Mobile IP will be heavily deployed using the IPv6 protocol. The answer to this problem is the development by the IETF of the mobile IP standard. Think of the security possibilities. Home Networking Embedded devices are all the rage in the electronics industry. New technology such as IEEE 1394 and Bluetooth for both mobile and home use are being developed. and games. together with a Mobile Node (MN). The solution is to embed IPv6 technology into new devices. Cisco. The growth of home-based broadband and DSL equipment is also driving the market for home networking. The discovery and registration process are defined in RFC 2002. such as cars. More and more devices contain microchips and processors. Microsoft. TV’s.8 million by 2005 according to Allied Business Intelligence. cell phones. The problem is that IP was not meant for roaming devices. Sun. it is imperative that protocols be developed that allow for IP connectivity regardless of the physical location of a device. We have already seen that this is happening with gaming equipment. In fact the number of home gateway units shipped is estimated to grow from 618. we could easily catch criminals that connect stolen property to the Internet. Because these protocols are so new and will incorporate a potentially huge number of devices with embedded IP addresses.000 units in 2000 to 16. This should greatly expand the use of IPv6. both in residential gateways and appliances.  Mobile IP Mobile computing is one of the most talked about technologies. Home networking will drive the use of IPv6. Mobile IP is a protocol that will grow with the advent of new mobile devices and equipment.The Future . Global revenue of home gateways will rise from $223M to $3. IPv6 offers such a large address space that it is likely devices and appliances of the future will contain IPv6 network processors and be stamped with IP addresses that act as serial numbers. As processors make their way into more and more devices.

One rumor is. remembering. The main idea of tunnelling transition mechanisms was to set a stage for smooth migration between the new and old protocol. We kept it alive with public IP addressing and NAT. and ultimately replace the old protocl IPv4. The reason being. As far as they are aware. Bring on IPv6. only good things can come of it (we hope).The last and most important future work topic must be the design. no one really knows for how long IPv4 is going to live. implementation and evaluation of a pure IPv6 network. However. I know that Google one of the global IT leaders is looking into developing the new protocol. The truth is. they are going to start charging more for Public IPv4 addresses. Apparently large companies like Google and others like them are worried that the new protocol will cost them millions of dollars. there is no problem with the current state of the internet. A long shot. With all the tunnelling techniques and encapsulation aside IPv6 was created to clean up the old protocol and in essence make the improve the protocol in every way. and additionally making IPv6 addresses cheaper. . the Internet Protocol is hugely out of date and in need for change. because small companies working will not see the need to switch over to the new protocol. the change is inevitable. classless addressing schemes and other brilliant ideas. but a good move in the right direction. Obviously there is a lot of controversy over how the protocol will evolve. which would then give companies an insentive to buy into IPv6. Why should they spend all of this money upgrading their routers and swictches? Software developers who work within IPv4 are also going to be at high risk when the change takes place.


The main challenge to this protocols acceptance is the sheer size of the effort necessary for the transition. These include home networking. not if. with over 1 billion being sold by 2005. we have little choice but to proceed with IPv6. . But it is likely that the main driver for the deployment of commercial IPv6 are the new services which are now being defined. IPv6 has a bright future. With billions of appliances and games potentially network ready. with approximately 15% having GPS or Yellow Page services. Fortunately IPv6 offers a number of new features and simplifications. and others as yet unimagined. But there were 405 million mobile phones sold in 2000. which are available. which should enhance its cost effectiveness and provide additional services to the Internet community. it is estimated that there will be over 550 million by 2005. The when begins now. There will be 1 billion cars sold by 2010. even with the vast array of transition tools. we see a growing chorus of voices that are asking for IPv6 solutions. There were 320 million Internet users in 2000. The question is when. mobile IP.Although few commercial IPv6 offerings are available today. gaming.

Yogesh Yawalkar for their excellent guidance and support. .CHAPTER 8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are thankful to those people who has helped us specially our guide Mr.Hardik Jangada Sir & our Centre Manager Mr.

www. .CHAPTER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: Cisco Networks(Jetking Book) WEBSITES: 1.

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