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Project Report

On
IPv6

Of
Certified Network Administrator
(MODULE IV)

Prepared By

Miss. DEEPIKA .P. VINCHURKAR

Project Guide

Mr. Hardik Jangada


Certificate

This is to certify that, Miss. DEEPIKA .P. VINCHURKAR

Has Successfully completed project on Certified Network


Administrator.

Center Manager
Project Guide

Mr. Yogesh Yawalkar


Mr. Hardik Jangada
( With Seal Of Center ) ( Faculty )

Examiner
Index
1. INTRODUCTION

2. ADDRESS FORMAT OF IPv6

3. ROUTING AND IPV6


4. IPv6 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

5. CONFIGURING IPv6

6. FUTURE SCOPE

7. CONCLUSIONS

8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
What is IPv6?
“IP” is the Internet Protocol, the set of digital communication
codes which underlies the Internet nfrastructure. IP allows the flow of packets of data
between any pair of points on the network, providing the basic service upon which the entire
Internet is built. Without IP, the Internet as we know it would not exist.

Currently the Internet makes use of IP version 4, or IPv4, which


is now reaching the limits of its capacity to address additional devices. IPv6 is the “next
generation” of IP, which provides a vastly expanded address space. Using IPv6, the Internet
will be able to grow to millions of times its current size, in terms of the numbers of people,
devices and objects connected to it1.

IPv6 uses 128 bits as apposed to IPv4's 32. This means that by
comparison, IPv6 has a lot more addresses. This is also a main reason for using IPv6 in the
future.The exact number of IPv6 addresses available is....

"340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456"

This is approximately three hundred and forty trillion, trillion,


trillion addresses. Comparing this to IPv4's address space of "4,294,967,296" or
approximately four billion, it's possible to see the shear size of IPv6 address space. To use up
every single IPv6 addresses we would need to stack ten billion computers on top of each
other over the entire world including the sea. The facts show that it is almost impossible to
run out of IPv6 addresses.There is still a heated debate that IPv4 will not run out in the near
future since the rate of addresses required by customers has slowed down in the last few
years.Although, looking atthe bigger picture it is obvious that at some point in the future IPv4
will have reached its exhaustion point.

IPv6 uses 128 bits (16 byte) long address. So the number of
addresses available in IPv6 already removes the main problem that we face with IPv4 which
is the inevitable exhaustion point. IPv6 is a completely classless scheme. Though the IPv6
space is large, that does not mean it is unstructured . In simple terms 64 bits are used for
network identification and the remaining 64 bits are used for the host identification.
Why we need IPv6?

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was a group created


during the 1980s and provided a setting for people who used internetworking devices to
communicate with each other. Here are the main reasons behind the deployment of IPv6 and
the ideas which surround them.

• IPv4 addresses used up at an alarming rate. Around the year 1990


approximately ~ 536 million or one eighth of the available IPv4 IP addresses had been
used. This number continued to double every five years. At this rate it was predicted
that the address space for IPv4 would run out sometime between 2005 and 2011 this
was declared the "exhaustion point". Initially the IETF started on a protocol called the
Next Generation Internet Protocol (IPng). This slowly led to theconcept of IPv6.
Therefore a new Internet Protocol was born called IPv6. IPv6 was first published in 1995
and became a standard in 1998.

• More networked devices. With the growth of technology will not only
be computers that will need to be addressed. Household appliances such as
microwaves, televisions and DVD players may be next. The existing IPv4 protocol would
not be suitable for this kind of networking growth. With mobile phones connecting to
the Internet and becoming more networked devices, the new IPv6 protocol has
features such as stateless autoconfiguration and neighbour discovery which assigns
addresses automatically. This allows users to maintain connections when moving into
new networks.
CHAPTER 2

ADDRESS FORMAT OF IPv6


IPv6 Address Structure

IPv6 addresses are 128 bits in length. They are made up of eight
16 bit blocks separated by colons. Each block contains a 16 bit case sensitive hexadecimal
value.

For example x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x where"x" is equal to 16 bits.

 Leading zeros

Leading zeros in an IPv6 address are optional. For example an IP address of


2001:db8:31:0:0:0:0:1 can also be written as 2001:db80:31::1 the missing zeros are
calculated to make the address 128 bits. In this case it is clear that four zeros were removed.
This process is called zero compression. Successive fields of zeros are allowed, but only one
time in an address.

 Loopback Address

Similar to IPv4’s 127.0.0.1, Ipv6 has its own loop back address. The loopback
in Ipv6 is 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 or can also be zero compressed to ::1. This address is also used for
troubleshooting a network.

 Prefixing

Within the Ipv6 protocol there is a similar notation to a forward slash net
mask prefix in IPv4. The prefix notation in IPv6 determines how many left most bits are
assigned by authority and how many bits are assigned locally, or how many bits of the
address specify the prefix.

 Aggregatable global.

Aggregatable global unicast addresses are similar to the IPv4 public addresses
and can be routed over an IPv6 Internet. The format prefixes of these addresses are 001::/3.
These addresses were designed to support efficient hierarchical addressing and routing. The
unique scope of this address scheme is the Internet itself. The lower 3 bits are used to
identify the address as globally unique. The next 45 bits are allocated by the ISP of the host,
this makes up a prefix of ::/48. The following higher 16 bits determine site topology (subnet)
on which the host belongs to. The remaining 64 bits are the unique interface identifier made
up of the MAC address and subnet of which it’s on.
To create the EUI a device’s MAC address is used. The value “fffe” is inserted
into the middle of the 48 bit MAC address therefore making it 64 bits. This also means that it
becomes a unique identifier for that machine. A MAC address is a global unique identifier for
networked machines. For security reasons RFC 3041 states that a networked machine can
also generate random identifiers that only last a few hours, this means long term tracking of
computers would be a lot more difficult.

 IPv6 Address Types

IPv6 has three types of addresses, which can be categorized by type and scope:
 Unicast addresses. A packet is delivered to one interface.
 Multicast addresses. A packet is delivered to multiple interfaces.
 Anycast addresses. A packet is delivered to the nearest of multiple interfaces
(in terms of routing distance).
 IPv6 does not use broadcast messages.

 Unicast Addresses
A unicast address is an address that identifies a single device. A global unicast
address is a unicast address that is globally unique. The general format of the IPv6 unicast
address is shown in Figure 2-1. This format, specified in RFC 3587, obsoletes and simplifies an
earlier format that divided the IPv6 unicast address into Top Level Aggregator (TLA), Next-
Level Aggregator (NLA), and other fields. However, you should be aware that this
obsolescence is relatively recent and you are likely to encounter some books and documents
that show the old IPv6 address format.

Figure 2-1. The IPv6 general unicast address format.

The host portion of the address is called the Interface ID. The reason for this
name is that a host can have more than one IPv6 interface, and so the address more
correctly identifies an interface on a host than a host itself. But that subtlety only goes so far:
A single interface can have multiple IPv6 addresses, and can have an IPv4 address in addition,
in which case the Interface ID is only one of that interface's several identifiers.

Perhaps the most striking difference between IPv4 addresses and IPv6
addresses, aside from their lengths, is the location of the Subnet Identifier as a part of the
network portion of the address rather than the host portion. A legacy of the IPv4 address
class architecture is that the subnet portion of an IPv4 address is taken from the host portion
of the address. As a result, the host portion of the IPv4 address varies not only with its class,
but also with the number of bits you use for subnet identification.

The immediate benefit of making the IPv6 Subnet ID field a part of the
network portion of the address is that the Interface ID can be a consistent size for all IPv6
addresses, simplifying the parsing of the address. And making the Subnet ID a part of the
network portion creates a clear separation of functions: The network portion provides the
location of a device down to the specific data link and the host portion provides the identity
of the device on the data link.

The IANA and the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) assign IPv6
prefixesnormally /32 or /35 in lengthto the Local Internet Registries (LIRs). The LIRs, which
are usually large Internet Service Providers, then allocate longer prefixes to their customers.
In the majority of cases, the prefixes assigned by the LIRs are /48. There are, however, as
mentioned in the previous paragraph, a few exceptions in which the LIR might assign a prefix
of a different length:

As of this writing there are five RIRs: Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE) serves
Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia; Latin American and Caribbean Internet Address
Registry (LACNIC) serves Central and South America and the Caribbean; American Registry for
Internet Numbers (ARIN) serves North America and parts of the Caribbean; AfriNIC serves
Africa; and Asia Pacific Network Information Centre serves Asia and the Pacific Ocean
nations.

 If the customer is very large, a prefix shorter than /48 might be assigned.
 If one and only one subnet is to be addressed, a /64 might be assigned.
 If one and only one device is to be addressed, a /128 might be assigned.

 Local Unicast Addresses


When we talk of global unicast addresses, we mean an address with global
scope. That is, an address that is globally unique and can therefore be routed globally with no
modification.

IPv6 also has a link-local unicast address, which is an address whose scope is
confined to a single link. Its uniqueness is assured only on one link, and an identical address
might exist on another link, so the address is not routable off its link

Link-local addresses have great utility for functions such as the Neighbor
Discovery Protocol that communicates only on a single link. It also allows devices that are on
links that do not have assigned global prefixes, or devices that do not yet know the global
prefix assigned to the link, to create IPv6 addresses that allow them to communicate with
other devices on the link

IPv6 originally defined a site-local unicast address in addition to the link-local


address. A site-local address is unique only within a given site; devices in other sites can use
the same address. Therefore a site-local address is routable only within the site to which it is
assigned. Site-local IPv6 addresses are, then, functionally similar to private IPv4 addresses as
defined in RFC 1918.

Advocates of site-local addresses cite several applications. One prominent


application is for network operators that wish to use NAT, even with IPv6 addresses, to
maintain independence of their address architecture from that of their service providers.
Site-local addresses are also key to several proposed IPv6 multihoming mechanisms.

However, the IETF IPv6 Working Group determined that site-local unicast
addresses introduced a number of difficulties. Not the least of the difficulties is the fact that
the definition of a "site" is vague and can mean different things to different network
administrators. Another problem is concern over, like RFC 1918 IPv4 addresses, the
administrative difficulties introduced when such addresses are mistakenly "leaked" outside
of their intended site boundaries. Other potential problems cited include increased
complexity for applications and routers that must recognize and cope with site-local
addresses. As a result of these concerns, and after some heated debate, the IPv6 Working
Group deprecated site-local addresses in RFC 3879. An assurance has been given to those
who see advantages in site-local addresses to introduce another scheme with similar "bigger
scope than link but smaller scope than global" benefits, but as of this writing such a
replacement scheme has yet to be seen.

 Anycast Addresses
An anycast address represents a service rather than a device, and the same
address can reside on one or more devices providing the same service. In Figure 2-3, some
service is offered by three servers, all advertising the service at the IPv6 address
3ffe:205:1100::15. The router, receiving advertisements for the address, does not know that
it is being advertised by three different devices; instead, the router assumes that it has three
routes to the same destination and chooses the lowest-cost route. In Figure 2-3 this is the
route to server C with a cost of 20.
Figure 2-3. An anycast address represents a service that might appear on multiple devices.

The advantage of anycast addresses is that a router always routes to the


"closest" or "lowest-cost" server. So servers providing some commonly used service can be
spread across a large network and traffic can be localized or scoped to the nearest server,
making traffic patterns in the network more efficient. And if one server becomes unavailable,
the router routes to the next nearest server. In Figure 2-3, for example, if server C becomes
unavailable due to a network or server failure, the router chooses the path to server A as the
next-lowest-cost route. From the router's viewpoint, it is just choosing the next-best route to
the same destination.

Anycast addresses are defined by their service function only, not by format,
and theoretically might be any IPv6 unicast address of any scope. However, there is a format
for reserved anycast addresses, defined in RFC 2526. Anycast addresses have been used for
some time in IPv4 networks, but are formalized in their definition in IPv6.

 Multicast Addresses

A multicast address identifies not one device but a set of devicesa multicast
group. A packet being sent to a multicast group is originated by a single device; therefore a
multicast packet normally has a unicast address as its source address and a multicast address
as its destination address. A multicast address never appears in a packet as a source address.

The members of a multicast group might include only a single device, or even
all devices in a network. In fact, IPv6 does not have a reserved broadcast address like IPv4,
but it does have a reserved all-nodes multicast group, which is essentially the same thing: a
multicast group to which all receiving devices belong.

Multicasting is essential to the basic operation of IPv6, particularly some of its


plug-and-play features such as router discovery and address autoconfiguration.

The format of the IPv6 multicast address is shown in Figure 2-4. The first eight
bits of the address are always all ones, and the next four bits are designated as flags.
Currently the first three of these bits are unused and always set to 0. The fourth bit indicates
whether the address is a permanent, well-known address (0) or an administratively assigned
transient address (1). The next four bits indicate the scope of the address as shown in Table
2-1. Table 2-2 shows several reserved, well-known IPv6 multicast addresses, all of which are
link-local scope. Because a multicast group is always a set of individual nodes, there is no
needor sensefor having a subnet field in the multicast address. So the last 112 bits are used
as the Group-ID, identifying individual multicast groups. Current usage sets the first 80 bits to
0 and just uses the last 32 bits.

Figure 2-4. The IPv6 multicast address format.

Table 2-1. Multicast address scopes.


Scope Field Value Scope

0x0 Reserved

0x1 Node-Local

0x2 Link-Local

0x5 Site-Local

0x8 Organization Local

0xE Global

0xF Reserved
Table 2-2. Examples of well-known IPv6 multicast addresses.
Address Multicast Group

FF02::1 All Nodes

FF02::2 All Routers

FF02::5 OSPFv3 Routers

FF02::6 OSPFv3 Designated Routers

FF02::9 RIPng Routers

FF02::A EIGRP Routers

FF02::B Mobile Agents

FF02::C DHCP Servers/Relay Agents

FF02::D All PIM Routers

 Identifying IPv6 Address Types

The first few bits of the address specify the address type. For example, the
first three bits of all global unicast addresses currently are 001. As a result, recognizing the
hexadecimal representations of global unicast addresses is fairly easy: They all start with
either 2 or 3, depending on the value of the fourth bit in the global routing prefix. So, for
instance, currently allocated prefixes used by the 6Bone (the public IPv6 research network)
begin with 3ffe, and IPv6 addresses currently allocated by the RIRs begin with 2001.

Binary 001 is expected to suffice for global unicast addresses for some time to come; a few
other bit combinations are assigned to other defined address types, and the majority of
leading bit combinations are reserved. Table 2-3 lists the currently allocated leading bit
combinations, and the following subsections describe the other major IPv6 address types.
Table 2-3. High-order bits of IPv6 address types.

Address Type High-Order Bits (binary) High-Order Bits (Hex)

Unspecified 00...0 ::/128

Loopback 00...1 ::1/128

Multicast 11111111 FF00::/8

Link-Local Unicast 1111111010 FF80::/10

Site-Local Unicast (Deprecated) 1111111011 FFC0::/10

Global Unicast (Currently allocated) 001 2xxx::/4 or 3xxx::/4

Reserved (Future global unicast allocations) Everything else


CHAPTER 3
ROUTING AND IPV6
Routing and IPv6

As in IPv4, routers in IPv6 find best paths to destinations based on metrics and
administrative distances; and like IPv4, IPv6 routers look for the longest matching prefix in
the IPv6 routing table to forward a packet to its destination. The main difference is that the
IPv6 router is looking at 128 bits when making a routing decision instead of 32 bits.

 RIPng

Routing Information Protocol next generation (RIPng) is actually similar to RIP for IPv4, with
these characteristics:

 It's a distance vector protocol.


 The hop-count limit is 15.
 Split horizon and poison reverse are used to prevent routing loops.
 It is based on RIPv2.
 Cisco routers running 12.2(2) T and later support RIPng.
 These are the enhancements in RIPng:
 An IPv6 packet is used to transport the routing update.
 The ALL-RIP routers multicast address (FF02::9) is used as the destination address
in routing advertisements and is delivered to UDP port 521.
 Routing updates contain the IPv6 prefix of the router and the next-hop IPv6
address.

Enabling RIPng is a little bit different than enabling RIP for IPv4. First, you use
the ipv6 router rip tag command to enable RIPng globally:

Router(config)# ipv6 router rip tag

This takes you into a subcommand mode, where you can change some of the
global values for RIPng, such as disabling split horizon, the administrative distance, and
timers. The tag is a locally significant identifier used to differentiate between multiple RIP
processes running on the router. Unlike RIP for IPv6, there is no network command to
include interfaces in RIPng. Instead, you must enable RIPng on a per-interface basis with the
ipv6 rip tag enable command:

Router(config)# interface type [slot_#/]port_#

Router(config-if)# ipv6 rip tag enable

The tag parameter associates the interface with the correct RIPng routing
process. To view the routing protocol configuration, use the show ipv6 rip command:
Router# show ipv6 rip

RIP process "RIPPROC1", port 521, multicast-group FF02::9,


pid 187
Administrative distance is 120. Maximum paths is 16
Updates every 30 seconds, expire after 180
Holddown lasts 0 seconds, garbage collect after 120
Split horizon is on; poison reverse is off
Default routes are not generated
Periodic updates 2, trigger updates 0
Interfaces: FastEthernet0/0
Redistribution: None

In this example, the tag is RIPPROC1 for the name of the RIPng routing process
and RIPng is enabled on FastEthernet0/0. To view the IPv6 routing table for RIPng, use the
show ipv6 route rip command.

 EIGRPv6

As with RIPng, EIGRPv6 works much the same as its IPv4 predecessor does—
most of the features that EIGRP provided before EIGRPv6 will still be available. EIGRPv6 is still
an advanced distance-vector protocol that has some link-state features. The neighbor
discovery process using hellos still happens, and it still provides reliable communication with
reliable transport protocol that gives us loop-free fast convergence using the Diffusing
Update Algorithm (DUAL).

In IPv4 it was 224.0.0.10; in IPv6, it’s FF02::A (A = 10 in hexadecimal notation).


But obviously, there are differences between the two versions. Most notably, and just as
with RIPng, the use of the network command is gone, and the network and interface to be
advertised must be enabled from interface configuration mode.

But you still have to use the router configuration mode to enable the routing
protocol in EIGRPv6 because the routing process must be literally turned on like an interface
with the no shutdown command The configuration for EIGRPv6 is going to look like this:

Router1(config)#ipv6 router eigrp 12

The 12 in this case is still the autonomous system (AS) number. The prompt
changes to (config-rtr), and from here you must perform a no shutdown:

Router1(config-rtr)#no shutdown
Other options also can be configured in this mode, like redistribution. So now,
let's go to the interface and enable IPv6:

Router1(config-if)#ipv6 eigrp 12

The 12 in the interface command again references the AS number that was
enabled in the configuration mode. Last to check out in our group is what OSPF looks like in
the IPv6 routing protocol.

 OSPFv3

The new version of OSPF continues the trend of the routing protocols having
many similarities with their IPv4 versions. The foundation of OSPF remains the same—it is
still a link-state routing protocol that divides an entire internetworks or autonomous system
into areas, making a hierarchy. In OSPF version 2, the router ID (RID) is determined by the
highest IP addresses assigned to the router (or you could assign it).

In version 3, you assign the RID, area ID, and link-state ID, which are all still 32-
bit values but are not found using the IP address anymore because an IPv6 address is 128
bits. Changes regarding how these values are assigned, along with the removal of the IP
address information from OSPF packet headers, makes the new version of OSPF capable of
being routed over almost any Network layer protocol!

Adjacencies and next-hop attributes now use link-local addresses, and OSPFv3
still uses multicast traffic to send its updates and acknowledgments, with the addresses
FF02::5 for OSPF routers and FF02::6 for OSPF-designated routers. These new addresses are
the replacements for 224.0.0.5 and 224.0.0.6, respectively.

Other, less flexible IPv4 protocols don’t give us the ability that OSPFv2 does to
assign specific networks and interfaces into the OSPF process—however, this is something
that is still configured under the router configuration process. And with OSPFv3, just as with
the other IPv6 routing protocols we have talked about, the interfaces and therefore the
networks attached to them are configured directly on the interface in interface configuration
mode.
The configuration of OSPFv3 is going to look like this:

Router1(config)#ipv6 router osfp 10

Router1(config-rtr)#router-id 1.1.1.1

You get to perform some configurations from router configuration mode like
summarization and redistribution, but we don’t even need to configure OSPFv3 from this
prompt if we configure OSPFv3 from the interface.

When the interface configuration is completed, the router configuration


process is added automatically and the interface configuration looks like this:

Router1(config-if)#ipv6 ospf 10 area 0.0.0.0


CHAPTER 4
IPv6 IMPLEMENTATION
STRATEGIES
 IPv6 Implementation Strategies
There are four distinct methods to implement IPv6 in a network
infrastructure:

 Native Implementation
 Dual Stack Implementation
 IPv6 Tunneling
 IPv6 Only to IPv4 Only Translation

Let’s go over each of these in more detail.

• IPv6 Native Implementation

The first implementation method is to install IPv6 in a native configuration.


This configuration configures all hosts and routers to utilize IPv6 only and not in conjunction
with IPv4.
Native implementation limits the network to only IPv6 communication to
other networks and would require translation to interface other IPv4 networks.

• IPv6 Dual Stack Implementation

The second and most popular implementation is dual stack. Dual stack
implementation allows IPv4 and IPv6 addresses to exist on the same physical and/or logical
interface. This implementation is also the easiest to implement in an environment that
already is established.

The primary concerns for the dual stack implementation are in software and
hardware. Hardware must be evaluated in the network infrastructure to see if there is proper
memory for route tables and the switch forwarding tables to handle IPv6 routes and packets.
Software on the network infrastructure must support IPv6 configuration and routing
protocols, while operating systems on the host side must also be IPv6 capable.

Dual stack offers the best of both worlds with hosts able to communicate with
other hosts on networks that could support either protocol. Let’s take a look at what IPv4
only application stack looks like for data flow as depicted in Figure 4-1.
So how would a dual stack implementation work? Well, Figure 2 shows how an application
must be aware of both IP stacks to utilize either. Operating systems are configured to select
which one will have priority if connectivity is available on the remote side for both protocols.
If applications allow, like web browsers, IPv4 or IPv6 addresses can be manually selected.
• IPv6 Tunneling

The next implementation available for IPv6 is tunneling. Tunneling is used to


connect two native IPv6 implementations over an existing IPv4 only network, which is
typically seen as a WAN network.

Edge routers for each IPv6 implementation are connected to the IPv4 network
and a tunnel is configured between them. IPv6 original headers and payloads are not
modified in the tunnel, but instead an IPv4 header is inserted in front of the IPv6 header for
transmission over the IPv4 network and then stripped off on the other side.

Figure 3 displays the implementation of this tunnel and communication


between two IPv6 native environments.

One of the most common tunnel protocols to use for this implementation is 6to4 and is
defined in RFC 3056: Connection for IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds. The 6to4 protocol
supports a dynamic method to tunnel IPv6 addresses across IPv4 clouds and will utilize global
unicast IPv6 prefixes for each IPv6 site for communication. 6to4 must be installed on the
edge routers and will map addresses according to their global prefixes, so IPv6 route
propagation to other sites is not needed.
• IPv6 Only to IPv4 Only Translation
IPv6 only to IPv4 only translation is the last implementation method we will
examine. Why would we need this? Well, IPv6 nodes may require interaction with IPv4 only
nodes for certain services such as: mail or web services.
There are several ways to accomplish translation. The most commonly
method used is Application Level Gateways (ALG), which utilizes a server that act as proxy to
services that may be other IPv6 or IPv4 nodes. Figure 4 shows how this might be
implemented.

For ALGs to properly function the applications on the server must be IPv6
aware and the server must configured to support both protocols. The best location for the
ALG is often identified by the location of the targeted services. For IPv6 nodes that require
access, but offer no services to other IPv4 nodes, placing an ALG at the edge of the IPv6
network is the best location.
Let’s look quickly at some other translation methods that could be employed.
Other translation methods include NAT-PT, TCP-UDP relay, Bump in the Stack (BIS), Dual
Stack Translation Mechanism (DSTM), and SOCKS-based IPV6/IPv4 gateway.

 NAT is not favored for use with IPv6, but it does offer a mechanism to achieve
connectivity to end IPv4 nodes.
 TCP-UDP relay is similar to NAT-PT, but performs translation at the Transport Layer of
the OSI stack and not the Network Layer.
 BIS is designed to work with dual stack hosts and was used as an initial step for
translation since many applications did not support IPv6.
 DSTM allows dual stacked hosts in IPv6 only domains to communicate to other IPv4
hosts by dynamically creating tunnels for communication.
 SOCKS-based IPv6/IPv4 gateway is based on the SOCKSv5 protocol and is a proxy
mechanism to translate addresses.
CHAPTER 5
CONFIGURING IPv6
 Implementing IPv6 Addresses on Cisco Router Interfaces

Now that we have talked about IPv6 implementation schemes, let’s look at
how to implement IPv6 addresses on a router interface. Before this can be accomplished,
you need to verify that the current version of IOS code on the Cisco router will support IPv6.

Once you have logged into a router and entered enabled mode, type "show ipv6
?" at the router prompt. If a syntax error occurs, the IOS version is not setup to support IPv6
and will need to be upgraded.

To enable IPv6 on a router for configuration, IPv6 unicast routing and CEF
forwarding will need to be enabled. Enter configuration mode on the router and type the
following:

Router(config)#ipv6unicast-routing
Router (config) #ipv6 cef distributed

This will enable IPv6 to be statically configured for routes and on interfaces.
Now let’s configure and interface with IPv6 address.

Below is an example of a ten Gigabit Ethernet interface 2/1 that has a sub
interface assigned. The designation of the interface is ten 2/1.1. IP address currently assigned
to the interface is 192.168.100.1/30. A show interface gives us this result:

Router#showinterface ten 2/1.1


TenGigabitEthernet2/1.1 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
Hardware is C6k 10000Mb 802.3, address is 001c.b0b4.7400 (bia 001c.b0b4.7400)
Description: “Interface 1″
Internet address is 192.168.100.1/30
MTU 9216 bytes, BW 10000000 Kbit, DLY 10 usec,
reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
Encapsulation 802.1Q Virtual LAN, Vlan ID 501.
ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00routert#sh int ten 2/1
Now let’s enter configuration mode again and add ipv6 address.

Router (config) #interface ten 2/1.1


Router (config-subif) #ipv6 address FEC0:0:0:100::1/128

We have now configured the interface with an IPv6 IP address, but to see the
result and all the associated IPv6 types of addresses that were discussed in my previous
article, a special show command is needed for the interface. The example below displays the
IPv6 addresses assigned to the ten 2/1.1 interface:

Router# show ipv6 interface ten 2/1.1


TenGigabitEthernet2/1.1 is up, line protocol is up
IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::21C:B0FF:FEB4:7400
Description: “Interface 1″
Global unicast address(es):
FEC0:0:0:100::1, subnet is FEC0:0:0:100::1/128
Joined group address(es):
FF02::1
FF02::2
FF02::1:FF00:1
FF02::1:FFB4:7400
MTU is 9216 bytes
ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds
ICMP redirects are enabled
ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1
ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds
ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds
ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds
ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds
ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds
Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses

You can clearly see that interface has a link-local and a global unicast address.
Also, the Joined group addresses define the multicast and anycast addresses also needed for
our router interface using IPv6.
CHAPTER 6
FUTURE SCOPE
There has been much published about the basics of IPv6, its advantages over
IPv4, as well as the mechanisms for transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6. Though the one question
that is not addressed adequately is, what will really drive IPv6 implementations? Although
there are experimental IPv6 services, there are not many actual commercial
implementations. In this paper, we propose that it will be new services that need the
benefits of IPv6 (larger address space, security, end-to-end service) that will drive IPv6
commercial implementations. We also examine the current state of IPv6 in terms of
experimental and real-life implementations.

 The State of IPv6 Today

There are a number of standards efforts underway today to deal with issues
such as: IPv6 architecture, applications, mobility, discovery, routing, security, transition,
name service, management, and addressing. Some are complete, many are actively being
discussed and worked upon. The IPv6 forum has well over 100 companies involved Their
mission is to promote IPv6, but not to force its deployment or its specifications.

A number of active IPv6 testbeds are also underway. The 6BONE is an IPv6
testbed that is designed to assist in the evolution and deployment of the IPv6 Internet.
Basically it is a set of IPv6 “islands” with tunnels over the IPv4 Internet. More than 50
countries are involved NTT has one of the largest experimental, commercial IPv6 networks
deployed. This is a worldwide IPv6 backbone that is completely IPv6 end-to-end.

 Disruptive Technology and IPv6

According to the article “Upgrading the Internet” (The Economist, March 22,
2001), “Another possibility, raised by Pete Loshin, a computer consultant and the author of
‘IPv6 Clearly Explained’, is that IPv6 might spread in the form of a disruptive technology’. In
other words, IPv6 might take off in totally new applications that the current incumbents in
the networking business have not foreseen, rather than simply via upgrades of existing
equipment.”
While we agree that some disruptive technology might really push IPv6, it is
more likely that applications talked about for years, but not quite ready in the past, may take
advantage of IPv6 and spread using this new protocol. We will discuss three new applications
that we believe will help push IPv6. These are online gaming, mobile IP, and home
networking.
 Online Gaming

Recently, Hasbro announced a new handheld game called Pox. Essentially the
game allows individuals to play against each other via wireless radio-frequency technology. A
player starts by building a “warrior” character on his or her POX unit. When two units are in
range of each other, the warriors will face off in a virtual battle. Round-robin type
tournaments will ensue until a single victor emerges when multiple POX units are in range.
This is an example of a multiple player game that can be played across a network. The
network in this case is a wireless network with limited range. What if we could network
current game units, such as the Sony Play Station 2, and allow players to play across the
country rather than just in their own rooms? The possibilities are endless of course.
In fact, if we look at the market, we see that the potential is massive. In Japan,
from August 2000 to January 2001, 4 million copies of Dragon Quest were sold. Over 3
million copies of Final Fantasy IX were sold in Japan in 2000. The number of game units sold
worldwide is gigantic and growing. In the US alone, the game market is currently over $10B.
Today’s game hardware is becoming more sophisticated and network ready. The Chairman
and CEO of Sony Corporation, Mr. Idei, recently stated at the IPv6 Summit in Osaka, Japan,
“I’m telling people in Sony not to create anything without network interface.” The Sony Play
Station 2 is almost network ready. It has a PC-Card slot, IEEE 1394, and a USB port. While the
Sega Dreamcast has a serial port and embedded analog modem with RJ11 to PSTN interface.
Shin Miyakawa, Research Lead, Internet Technologies at the NTT Multimedia
Communications Laboratory has recently expressed his personal opinion, that “Online games
can be one of the killer applications which will boost IPv6 suddenly in (the) very near future.”
The current IPv4 Internet does not provide the infrastructure required for peer-to-peer
online gaming, mainly because of address depletion. Online gaming needs to utilize the full
peer-topeer model of TCP/IP. Online gaming products and services must scale to many
geographically distributed players and must be able to provide security for authentication,
privacy, and payment. In addition, online gaming products and services must support both
fixed and mobile networking. Because of these technical and business requirements, online
gaming really cannot succeed without using IPv6 networking. More importantly, we believe
that online gaming is technically feasible and will rapidly occur over the next few years. This
should drive the requirement for IPv6 native networking software and equipment.
 Home Networking

Embedded devices are all the rage in the electronics industry. More and more
devices contain microchips and processors, such as cars, cell phones, video equipment, TV’s,
home appliances, and games. In fact the number of home gateway units shipped is estimated
to grow from 618,000 units in 2000 to 16.8 million by 2005 according to Allied Business
Intelligence. Global revenue of home gateways will rise from $223M to $3.7B during this
same time span. The growth of home-based broadband and DSL equipment is also driving
the market for home networking. In fact IBM, Cisco, Sun, Microsoft, and 3COM all have home
networking projects currently underway.
New technology such as IEEE 1394 and Bluetooth for both mobile and home
use are being developed. As processors make their way into more and more devices, it is
ever more likely that these devices will be network ready. But how do you manage
networking for a refrigerator or camera? Clearly these devices must come hardwired for IP
connectivity, because consumers are not savvy enough to perform complex management
tasks on their own. The solution is to embed IPv6 technology into new devices. We have
already seen that this is happening with gaming equipment. IPv6 offers such a large address
space that it is likely devices and appliances of the future will contain IPv6 network
processors and be stamped with IP addresses that act as serial numbers. Think of the security
possibilities. If all devices are stamped with an unchangeable IPv6 address, we could easily
catch criminals that connect stolen property to the Internet. Home networking will drive the
use of IPv6, both in residential gateways and appliances.

 Mobile IP

Mobile computing is one of the most talked about technologies. With the
explosion of mobile devices that need always-online connectivity, it is imperative that
protocols be developed that allow for IP connectivity regardless of the physical location of a
device. The problem is that IP was not meant for roaming devices. The answer to this
problem is the development by the IETF of the mobile IP standard. This standard defined the
concept of a Home Agent (HA) and Foreign Agent (FA), together with a Mobile Node (MN),
and Care-of-Address (COA
. The discovery and registration process are defined in RFC 2002. Because
these protocols are so new and will incorporate a potentially huge number of devices with
embedded IP addresses, it is very likely that Mobile IP will be heavily deployed using the IPv6
protocol. The neighbor discovery protocols inherent in IPv6 greatly simplify the process of
finding a foreign agent. Mobile IP is a protocol that will grow with the advent of new mobile
devices and equipment. This should greatly expand the use of IPv6.

IPV6 - The Future


The last and most important future work topic must be the design,
implementation and evaluation of a pure IPv6 network. The main idea of tunnelling
transition mechanisms was to set a stage for smooth migration between the new and old
protocol. With all the tunnelling techniques and encapsulation aside IPv6 was created to
clean up the old protocol and in essence make the improve the protocol in every way.

Obviously there is a lot of controversy over how the protocol will evolve, and
ultimately replace the old protocl IPv4. I know that Google one of the global IT leaders is
looking into developing the new protocol.

Apparently large companies like Google and others like them are worried that
the new protocol will cost them millions of dollars. The reason being, because small
companies working will not see the need to switch over to the new protocol. As far as they
are aware, there is no problem with the current state of the internet. Why should they spend
all of this money upgrading their routers and swictches? Software developers who work
within IPv4 are also going to be at high risk when the change takes place, remembering, the
change is inevitable.

One rumor is, they are going to start charging more for Public IPv4 addresses,
and additionally making IPv6 addresses cheaper, which would then give companies an
insentive to buy into IPv6. A long shot, but a good move in the right direction.

The truth is, no one really knows for how long IPv4 is going to live. We kept it
alive with public IP addressing and NAT, classless addressing schemes and other brilliant
ideas. However, the Internet Protocol is hugely out of date and in need for change. Bring on
IPv6, only good things can come of it (we hope).
CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSIONS
Although few commercial IPv6 offerings are available today, we see a growing
chorus of voices that are asking for IPv6 solutions. There were 320 million Internet users in
2000, it is estimated that there will be over 550 million by 2005. But there were 405 million
mobile phones sold in 2000, with over 1 billion being sold by 2005. There will be 1 billion cars
sold by 2010, with approximately 15% having GPS or Yellow Page services. With billions of
appliances and games potentially network ready; we have little choice but to proceed with
IPv6. Fortunately IPv6 offers a number of new features and simplifications, which should
enhance its cost effectiveness and provide additional services to the Internet community.

The main challenge to this protocols acceptance is the sheer size of the effort
necessary for the transition, even with the vast array of transition tools, which are available.
But it is likely that the main driver for the deployment of commercial IPv6 are the new
services which are now being defined. These include home networking, mobile IP, gaming,
and others as yet unimagined.
IPv6 has a bright future. The question is when, not if. The when begins now.
CHAPTER 8

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are thankful to those people who has helped us


specially our guide Mr.Hardik Jangada Sir & our Centre
Manager Mr.Yogesh Yawalkar for their excellent guidance
and support.
CHAPTER 9
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:
1.Implementing Cisco Networks(Jetking Book)
WEBSITES:
1. www.cisco.com
2. www.fengnet.com
3. www.technet.microsoft.com