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SAP2000/Bridge

Bridge Seismic Design


Automated Seismic Design of Bridges
AASHTO Guide Specification for
LRFD Seismic Bridge Design

ISO SAP041709M22 Rev. 0 Version 14


Berkeley, California, USA April 2009
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Contents

Bridge Seismic Design

Foreword

Step 1 Create the Bridge Model


1.1 Sample Model 1-1
1.2 Description of the Sample Bridge Model 1-2

1.3 Bridge Layout Line 1-4


1.4 Frame Section Property Definitions 1-4
1.4.1 Bent Cap Beam 1-5
1.4.2 Bent Column Properties 1-5
1.4.3 I-Girders Properties 1-6
1.4.4 Pile Properties 1-7

1.5 Bridge Deck Section 1-8


1.6 Bent Data 1-8
1.7 Bridge Object Definition 1-10
1.7.1 Abutment Property Assignments 1-11
1.7.2 Abutment Geometry 1-13

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SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

1.7.3 Bent Property Assignments 1-14


1.7.4 Bent Geometry 1-15
1.8 Equivalent Pile Formulation 1-16
1.9 Bent Foundation Modeling 1-16
1.10 Mass Source 1-17

Step 2 Ground Motion Hazard


2.1 Overview 2-1
2.2 AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps 2-1

2.3 Seismic Design Request 2-3


2.4 Perform Seismic Design 2-6
2.5 Auto Load Patterns 2-7
2.6 Auto Load Cases 2-7

Step 3 Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties


3.1 Overview 3-1

Step 4 Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements


4.1 Overview 4-1
4.2 Response Spectrum Load Cases 4-1

4.3 Response Spectrum Results 4-4

Step 5 Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments


5.1 Overview 5-1
5.2 Plastic Hinge Lengths 5-1
5.3 Nonlinear Hinge Properties 5-3
5.4 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions 5-6
5.4.1 Nonlinear Material Properties Definitions
For Concrete 5-6
5.4.2 Nonlinear Material Properties Definitions
For Steel 5-8

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Contents

5.5 Plastic Hinge Options 5-9

Step 6 Capacity Displacement Analyses


6.1 Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C 6-2
6.2 Displacement Capacities for SDC D 6-3
6.3 Pushover Results 6-6

Step 7 Demand/Capacity Ratios


7.1 D/C Ratios 7-1

Step 8 Review Output and Create Report


8.1 Design 01 – D/C Ratios 8-2
8.2 Design 02 – Bent Column Force Demand 8-2
8.3 Design 03 – Bent Column Idealized Moment Capacity 8-2
8.4 Design 04 – Bent Column Cracked Section Properties 8-3
8.5 Design 05 – Support Bearing Demands – Forces 8-3
8.6 Design 06 – Support Bearing Demand Displacements 8-4

8.7 Design 07 – Support Length Demands 8-4


8.8 Create Report 8-5

References

iii
SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 3D View of Example Model 1-1


Figure 1-2 Example Bridge Elevation 1-2
Figure 1-3 Example Bridge Plan 1-3
Figure 1-4 Example Bridge BENT1 Elevation 1-3
Figure 1-5 3D Bridge Layout Line Data 1-4
Figure 1-6 3D Cap Beam Section Property Definition 1-5

Figure 1-7 Bent Column Property Definition 1-6


Figure 1-8 Precast I-Girder Properties 1-6
Figure 1-9 Pile Properties 1-7

Figure 1-10 Bridge Deck Section Properties 1-8


Figure 1-11 Bridge Bent Data 1-9
Figure 1-12 Bent Column Data 1-9

Figure 1-13 Bent Column Base Restraint Definitions 1-10


Figure 1-14 Bridge Object Data form 1-11
Figure 1-15 Abutment Property Definitions 1-12

Figure 1-16 Abutment Bearing Properties 1-13


Figure 1-17 Abutment Bearing Geometry 1-13
Figure 1-18 Bent Assignments form 1-14

Figure 1-19 Bent Bearing Data 1-15


Figure 1-20 Bent Support Geometry 1-15
Figure 1-21 Equivalent Pile Properties 1-16

Figure 1-22 View of Bent Foundations 1-17


Figure 1-23 Bent Column Base Connectivity 1-17
Figure 1-24 Mass Source Definition 1-18

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Contents

Figure 2-1 AASHTO/USGS Hazard Maps used to determine


the Demand Response Spectrum 2-2

Figure 2-2 Response Spectrum Function Data form 2-2


Figure 2-3 Bridge Design Request form 2-3
Figure 2-4 Seismic Design Parameters form 2-4
Figure 2-5 Perform Seismic Design 2-7
Figure 2-6 Auto Load Patterns 2-7
Figure 2-7 Auto Load Cases 2-8

Figure 3-1 Auto Stage Construction Load Case used to apply


Cracked Section Property Modifiers 3-2
Figure 4-1 U1 Direction Response Spectrum Load
Case form 4-2
Figure 4-2 ABS Response Spectrum Load Case form 4-3
Figure 4-3 BENT1 Displacements for the three
Auto-Defined Response Spectrum Load cases 4-3
Figure 4-4 Modal Load Case Definition 4-4
Figure 5-1 Hinge Locations 5-2

Figure 5-2 Hinge Locations 5-3


Figure 5-3 Moment Curvature Diagram 5-4
Figure 5-4 Auto Hinge Assignment Data 5-5
Figure 5-5 Sample Hinge Data form 5-5
Figure 5-6 Nonlinear Material Data form for Concrete 5-6
Figure 5-7 Nonlinear Stress-Strain curves for Confined
and Unconfined Concrete 5-7
Figure 5-8 Concrete Model - Mander Confined 5-7
Figure 5-9 Nonlinear Material Data form for steel 5-8

Figure 5-10 Nonlinear Stress-Strain Plot for steel 5-9


Figure 5-11 Plastic Hing Fiber option 5-10

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SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-12 Section Designer options 5-10


Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design 6-1

Figure 6-2 Design Requirements for SDC 6-2


Figure 6-2 BENT1 Transverse Pushover Load Case 6-4
Figure 6-3 BENT1 Application of Property Modifiers
and Dead Loads to BENT1 6-5
Figure 6-4 BENT1 Pushover Load Pattern for the
Transverse Direction 6-6

Figure 6-5 Display of BENT1 Pushover Curves 6-7


Figure 7-1 D/C Displacement Ratios 7-1

vi
Foreword

SAP2000/Bridge has become a widely recognized and widely used analysis


and design program for bridge structures. Over the past thirty-five years, Com-
puter and Structures, Inc, has introduced new and innovative ways to model
complex structures. The latest innovation for the analysis and design of bridge
structures is the automated seismic design feature that is now part of the
SAP2000/Bridge. Automated seismic design incorporates the recently
adopted AASHTO Guide Specification for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design.
SAP2000/Bridge allows engineers to define specific seismic design parame-
ters that are then applied to the bridge model during an automated cycle of
analysis through design.

Now, users can automate the response spectrum and pushover analyses. Fur-
thermore, the SAP2000/Bridge program will determine the demand and capac-
ity displacements and report the demand/capacity ratios for the Earthquake Re-
sisting System (ERS). All of this is accomplished in eight simple steps outlined
as follows:
1. Create the Bridge Model

2. Evaluate the Ground Motion Hazard and the Seismic Design Request

3. Complete the Dead Load Analysis and evaluate the Cracked Section Properties

4. Identify Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

5. Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

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SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

6. Complete Capacity Displacement Analysis

7. Evaluate Demand/Capacity Ratios

8. Review Output and Create Report

A detailed explanation of each of the steps is presented in the chapters that fol-
low. The example bridge model shown in the figure illustrates the
SAP2000/Bridge Automated Seismic Design features.

Schematic of the Eight Steps in the


Automated Seismic Design of Bridges using SAP2000/Bridge

vi Foreword
STEP 1
Create the Bridge Model

1.1 Example Model


This chapter describes the first step in the process required to complete a Seis-
mic Design Request for a bridge structure using SAP2000/Bridge. It is as-
sumed the user is familiar with the requirements in the program related to cre-
ating a Linked Bridge Object. Only select features of the model development
are included in this chapter. The SAP2000/Bridge model used throughout this
manual is available on the CD and includes all of the input parameters.

Figure 1-1 3D View of Example Model

Example Model 1-1


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

As described in the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge


Design, the seismic design strategy for this bridge is Type 1 – Design a ductile
substructure with an essentially elastic superstructure. This implies that the de-
sign must include plastic hinging in the columns.

1.2 Description of the Example Bridge


The example bridge is a three-span concrete I-girder bridge with the following
features:
Piles: 14-inch-diameter steel pipe pile filled with concrete. The concrete is re-
inforced with six #5 vertical bars with three #4 spirals having a 3-inch pitch.
Pile Cap: The bent columns are connected monolithically to a concrete pile cap
that is supported by nine piles each. The pile caps are 13’-0” x 13’-0” x 4’-0”
Bents: There are two interior bents with three 36-inch-diameter columns.
Deck: The deck consists of five 3’-3”-deep precast I-girders that support an
8½-inch-thick deck and a wearing surface (35 psf). The deck width is 35'-10"
from the edge-of-deck to edge-of-deck.
Spans: Three spans of approximately 60’-0”.
The abutments are assumed to be free in both the longitudinal and transverse
directions.

Figure 1-2 Example Bridge Elevation

1-2 Description of the Example Bridge


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-3 Example Bridge Plan

Figure 1-4 Example Bridge BENT1 Elevation

Description of the Example Bridge 1-3


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

1.3 Bridge Layout Line


The example model has three spans of approximately 60 feet each. The layout
line is defined using the Bridge menu > Layout Line command and the
Bridge Layout Line Data form shown in Figure 1-5. The layout line is straight,
with no variation in elevation. The actual length of the layout line is 178.42 ft.

Figure 1-5 3D Bridge Layout Line Data

1.4 Frame Section Property Definitions


Four frame section properties must be described by the user to develop the ex-
ample model. The four types of frame elements used in the example model
consist of a pile, bent cap beam, bent column, and precast concrete I-Girder.
The section property definition for each of the elements is given in the subsec-
tions that follow.

1-4 Bridge Layout Line


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

1.4.1 Bent Cap Beam


The bent cap beams were defined using the Define menu > Section Property
> Frame Sections command. The Add New Property option was used to add
the following concrete rectangle:

Figure 1-6 3D Cap Beam Section Property Definition

The material property used was 4000 psi. Note that the units shown in Figure
1-6 are in inches.

1.4.2 Bent Column Properties


The bent columns were defined using the Section Designer option that can be
accessed using the Define menu > Section Property > Frame Sections com-
mand. The size and quantity of both the vertical and confinement reinforcing
steel were defined using the form shown in Figure 1-7. Further discussion of
the column section properties as they pertain to the plastic hinge definitions is
provide in Step 5.

Frame Section Property Definitions 1-5


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-7 Bent Column Property Definition

1.4.3 I-Girder Properties


The I-Girder properties were
input using inch units, as
shown in Figure 1-8.

Figure 1-8 Precast I-Girder


Properties

1-6 Frame Section Property Definitions


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

1.4.4 Pile Properties


The piles were defined as 14–inch-diameter concrete piles with six #9 vertical
bars. The outer steel casings of the pile were found to increase in the flexural
stiffness of the piles by a factor of 2.353. This value was applied as a property
modifier to the pile section property. The pile will be added to the bridge
model as “Equivalent Cantilever” piles, as shown in Figure 1-9 and as de-
scribed in subsequent Section 1.8. Using this method, the pile is replaced by a
beam that has equivalent stiffness properties to that of the pile with the sur-
rounding soil.

Figure 1-9 Pile Properties

Frame Section Property Definitions 1-7


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

1.5 Bridge Deck Section


The bridge deck section is 38.833 feet wide with a total of five
I-girders, as shown in the form included in Figure 1-10. The parapets as well as
the wearing surface are not part of the bridge deck structural definition but will
be added to the bridge model as superimposed dead loads (SDEAD).

Figure 1-10 Bridge Deck Section Properties

1.6 Bent Data


The bents for the subject model have three columns each with a cap beam
width of 38.25 feet. The Bridge Bent data form shown in Figure 1-11 is used to
input the number of columns and the cap beam width. Since multiple columns
are specified, the location, height and support condition for each column needs
to be specified using the Bent Column Data form, which is accessed using the
Modify/Show Column Data button.

1-8 Bridge Deck Section


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-11 Bridge Bent Data

After the Modify/Show Column Data button is used, the Bent Column Data
form shown in Figure 1-12 can be used to define the type, location, height, an-
gle and boundary conditions for each bent column.

Figure 1-12 Bent Column Data

An important part of this example model is the inclusion of the foundation ele-
ments. Although the foundations can be represented as Fixed, Pinned, or
Spring-Support restraints at the base of the columns, these have been explicitly
modeled in this example. It is important to note that when foundation objects

Bent Data 1-9


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

are part of the bridge model, the base of the bent column must not be re-
strained, but instead, connected to the foundation elements. Restraining the
base of the columns in the Bent Column Data form using Fixed or Pinned re-
straints would prevent the bridge loads from reaching the foundation. In this
example, a foundation spring (BFSP1) having no stiffness in any direction is
used as the Base Support data. After the foundations have been modeled and
connected to the bent column bases, support of the bent columns will be
achieved. The Foundation Spring Data form is shown in Figure 1-13.

Figure 1-13 Bent Column Base Restraint Definitions

1.7 Bridge Object Definition


The Bridge Object Data form is used to define the location and bearing prop-
erty assignments of the abutments and bearings. The seismic response of the
bridge model will depend on the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS). The user
can define the types of support conditions at the abutments and bents. The ERS
will depend on the types of supports used at the abutments and bents and the
bearing properties that are used for each. If a bearing has a restrained DOF, it
will provide a load path that will act as part of the bridge ERS. Abutments can

1 - 10 Bridge Object Definition


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

be defined using bents as supports (this feature was note used in the subject ex-
ample).

Figure 1-14 Bridge Object Data form

The span data is used to define the span lengths and bent locations. Cross dia-
phragms also can be included in a bridge model using the Modify/Show As-
signments > In Span Cross Diaphragms command. No cross diaphragms
were used as part of the example model.

1.7.1 Abutment Property Assignments


Both the start and end abutment assignments are defined using the Bridge Ob-
ject Abutment Assignment form shown in Figure 1-15. The abutment bearing
direction can be assigned a bearing angle if skewed abutments are needed. Dia-
phragms can be added to the abutment as well. Abutments can be modeled us-
ing bents by selecting, ’Bent Property’, in the Substructure Assignment box.
After that selection has been, an option is available to select the appropriate
property definition from a list of previously defined bent properties.

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 11


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 1-15 Abutment Property Definitions

The substructure location is critical because SAP2000/Bridge accounts for the


superstructure/substructure kinematics. The ends of the bridge deck will have a
tendency to rotate due to gravity loading. If the abutment bearings are re-
strained against translation at both ends of a bridge, outward reactions on the
bearings and deck moments can be induced as a result of these restraints. The
amount of outward thrust and the moment in the deck are a function of the
amount of rotation and distance from the deck neutral axis to the top of abut-
ment bearings. Therefore, the user should pay special attention to the substruc-
ture and bearing elevations as well as the bearing restraint properties. The user
also must keep in mind that the seismic resisting load path is dependent on the
restraint properties of the bearing at both abutments and bents.
For this example, only the vertical translation of the abutment bearings was set
to Fixed. All other abutment bearing components were set to Free since the
abutment restrain was assumed to be free in the longitudinal and transverse di-
rections. See Figure 1-16.
To help visualize the abutment geometry, the graphic shown in Figure 1-17 in-
cludes the values in the example model to define the location of the abutment
bearings and substructure. It should also be noted that the SAP2000/Bridge
program automatically includes the BFXSS Rigid Link when the bridge object
is updated.

1 - 12 Bridge Object Definition


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-16 Abutment Bearing Properties

1.7.2 Abutment Geometry


Figure 1-17 also shows the location of the BRG1 action point. This is the loca-
tion where the bearing will translate or rotate depending on the bearing defini-
tions.

Figure 1-17 Abutment Bearing Geometry

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 13


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

1.7.3 Bent Property Assignments


The bent property assignments are made using the Bridge Object Bent As-
signment form, shown in Figure 1-18. Similar to the abutment property as-
signments, the bent property assignments will include the bent directions, bear-
ing properties, and substructure locations.

Figure 1-18 Bent Assignments form

For this example model, the bearing properties at the bents have fixed transla-
tion restraints in all directions but free restraints for all rotational directions.
See Figure 1-19.

1 - 14 Bridge Object Definition


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-19 Bent Bearing Data

1.7.4 Bent Geometry


The bent geometry is shown in Figure 1-19 for the input values used to define
the bearing and substructure elevations from the Bent Assignment form (Figure
1-17).

Figure 1-20 Bent Support Geometry

Bridge Object Definition 1 - 15


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Note that the BRG2 connects to the center of the cap beam. The substructure
elevation is used to define the top of the cap beam. The action point of BRG2
will be at Elevation -49.0”.

1.8 Equivalent Pile Formulation


Although it is not required to include explicit foundation elements (foundations
can be modeled as fixed, pinned or partially fixed restraints at the base of the
columns), these were included as part of the example model. Foundations can
be modeled in many ways. Equivalent length piles were used with an equiva-
lent length of 5.1 feet to model the pile surrounded by soil, as described in Sec-
tion 1.4.4. The equivalent lengths were established using the equations shown
in Figure 1-21.

Point of fixity  EI f 
15

K  EI T 3
K  EI T
K  EI T
2

f = yield calculated from an average


spt blow count N.
T = 5.1 feet; this effective length is
used in modeling the bridge foundation.

Figure 1-21 Equivalent Pile Properties

After the lengths of the piles were known, the piles were connected to an area
object representing the pile cap. The cap was meshed at the top of the pile loca-
tions. The completed pile cap appears in Figure 1-22, which is shown using a
3D extruded view.

1.9 Bent Foundation Modeling


The next and critical step in the model definition is to connect the foundation to
the base of the bent columns. For this example, joint constraints were used as
illustrated in Figure 1-23. This method of connecting the column base to the
foundation preserves connectivity even when updating the linked bridge model.

1 - 16 Equivalent Pile Formulation


STEP 1 - Create the Bridge Model

Figure 1-22 View of Bent Foundations

Column-to-Foundation Connection

Figure 1-23 Bent Column Base Connectivity

1.10 Mass Source


The Mass Source definition is used to define the mass and loads to be included
in the modal and response spectrum load cases. In this example, the combined
weight of the parapets and wearing surface was approximated as 2.0 kips per
linear foot acting along the bridge deck. A load pattern was added as a super-
imposed type with the name SDEAD. Using the option, ‘From Element and

Mass Source 1 - 17
SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Additional Masses and Loads’, the program will calculate the self weight of the
bridge structure and include that mass along with the mass derived from the
SDEAD load assignment.

Figure 1-24 Mass Source Definition

1 - 18 Mass Source
STEP 2
Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

2.1 Overview
The ground motion hazard (response spectrum) can be determined by
SAP2000/Bridge by defining the bridge location using the latitude and longi-
tude or the postal zone. As an alternative, the user can input any user defined
response spectrum file. The site effects (soil site classifications) also are con-
sidered and are part of the user input data.

2.2 AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps


The recently adopted AASHTO Guide Specification for the LRFD Seismic
Bridge Design incorporates hazard maps based on a 1000-year return period.
When the user defines the bridge location by Latitude and Longitude,
SAP2000/Bridge creates the appropriate response spectra curve as follows:

Overview 2-1
SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 2-1 AASHTO/USGS Hazard Maps used to determine the Demand Response Spectrum

Figure 2-2 Response Spectrum Function Data form

From the Response Spectrum Data form, the values for SDS and SD1 are deter-
mined by SAP2000 and reported. The SD1 value is used to determine the Seis-

2-2 AASHTO and USGS Hazard Maps


STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

mic Design Category (SDC). The SDC is used to determine the analysis and
design requirements to be applied to the bridge. For example, if the SDC is A,
no capacity displacement calculation is performed. If the SDC is B or C,
SAP2000 uses an implicit formula (see Section 4.8 of the AASHTO Seismic
Guide Specification). If the SDC is D, SAP2000 uses a nonlinear pushover
analysis to determine the capacity displacements.

2.3 Seismic Design Request


The Design menu > Bridge
Design > Define Seismic De-
sign Request command ac-
cesses a form that can be used
to specify the name and de-
sign request parameters for a
Seismic Design Request. The
form is shown in Figure 2-3.
Figure 2-3 Bridge Design
Request form

For this example, clicking the Modify/Show button will display the Substruc-
ture Seismic Design Request Parameters form, shown in Figure 2-4. A brief
description of the parameters on that form follows.

Item Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

1 Response Spec- After a response spectrum function has been defined (see Step 2), the
trum Function name of the response spectrum to be used for a specific Seismic Design
Request should be selected here.
2 Seismic Design The user can choose to have the SDC be selected by the program (i.e.,
Category (SDC) “Programmed Determined”), or the user can impose a value for the SDC
Option (i.e., “User Defined”). To impose a value, select it from Item 3, the Seis-
mic Design Category.

Seismic Design Request 2-3


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 2-4 Seismic Design Parameters form

Item Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

3 Seismic Design If the user has opted to specify the Seismic Design Category in Item 2,
Category the user must specify the Seismic Design Category here as B, C or D.
4 Bent Displace- This is a scale factor. The bent displacement demands obtained from
ment Demand the response-spectrum analysis are multiplied by this factor. It can be
Factor used to modify the displacement demand due to a damping value
other than 5%, or to magnify the demand for short-period structures.
This factor will be applied to all bents in both the longitudinal and
transverse directions.
5 Gravity Load The user can specify which gravity load case is used to determine the
Case Option cracked section properties for the bent columns. The choices include
Auto-Entire Structure, Auto Current BrObj or User Defined. As a default,
all Dead and Super Dead loads are included in the Auto-Entire Structure
gravity load case.
6 Gravity Load If the User Option is selected for the gravity load case option in item 5
Case above, the gravity load case name must be selected here.

2-4 Seismic Design Request


STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

Item Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

7 Additional If the Auto-This Bridge Object option is selected for the gravity load
Group case option in item 5 above, an additional group can be included in the
gravity load case. This item is only required when the gravity load case
is program determined. It may include pile foundations and other auxil-
iary structures.
8 Include P-Delta If P-Delta Effects are to be included, the user needs to specify ‘yes’ here.
P-Delta effects will cause a more abrupt drop in the pushover curve
results if an idealized bilinear hinge has been assigned to the bent col-
umns. It is recommended that an initial Seismic Design Request be
performed before including the P-Delta effects to help the user under-
stand the nonlinear behavior of the bents.
9 Cracked The cracked section properties for the bent columns can be automati-
Property cally determined by the program or they can be user defined. If pro-
Option gram determined, the automatic gravity load case will be run iteratively.
Section Designer will use the calculated axial force at the top and bot-
tom on the column to determine the cracked moments of inertia in the
positive and negative transverse and longitudinal directions. The aver-
age of the top and bottom column cracked properties will be applied as
named property modifier sets and the analysis will be re-run to make
sure the cracked-modified model converges to within the specified
tolerance.
10 Convergence This value sets the relative convergence tolerance for the bent-column
Tolerance cracked-property iteration. This item is required only when the cracked-
property calculation is program determined.
11 Maximum This value sets the maximum number of iterations allowed for the bent-
Number of column cracked-property iteration. The first run is considered to be the
Iterations zero-th iteration. Usually only one iteration is needed. This item is re-
quired only when the cracked-property calculation is program deter-
mined.
12 Accept Specifies whether or not the seismic design should continue if the bent-
Unconverged column cracked-property iteration fails to converge. This item is re-
Results quired only when the cracked-property calculation is program deter-
Convergence mined.
13 Modal Load Specifies whether the modal load case is to be determined by program
Case Option or specified by the user. The modal load case is used as the basis of the
response-spectrum load case that represents the seismic design. If pro-
gram determined, the modal load case will use the stiffness at the end
of the auto-gravity load case that includes the cracked property effects.
If user-defined, the user can control the initial stiffness, Eigen vs. Ritz,
and other modal parameters by selecting the user defined modal load
case in item 14.
14 Modal Load The name of an existing modal load case to be used as the basis of the
Case response-spectrum load case. This item is required only if the modal
load case option is user-defined in item 13 above.

Seismic Design Request 2-5


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Item Substructure Seismic Design Request Parameter

15 Response Spec- Specifies whether the response-spectrum load case is to be determined


trum Load Case by program or specified by the user. The response-spectrum load case
Option represents the seismic demand. If program determined, this load case
will use the given response-spectrum function and modal load case.
Acceleration load will be applied in the longitudinal and transverse
directions of the bridge object, and combined using the 100% + 30%
rule. If user-defined, the user can control the loading or select SRSS as
the method to account for directional combinations.
16 Response Spec- The name of an existing response-spectrum load case that represents
trum Load Case the seismic demand. This item is required only if the response-spectrum
load case option is user-defined.
17 Response Spec- Specifies whether the angle of loading in the response-spectrum load
trum case is to be determined by program or specified by the user. If pro-
Angle Option gram determined, the longitudinal (U1) loading direction is chosen to
be from the start abutment to the end abutment, both points located
on the reference line of the bridge object. This item is required only if
the response-spectrum load case option is user-defined.
18 Response Spec- Angle (degree, from global X) that defines the direction of the response
trum spectrum load case. This item is required only if the response spectrum
Angle load case is User-defined.
19 Foundation If foundations are included and explicitly modeled, then the foundation
Group objects need to be assigned to a group and that group needs to be
identified here. This way the foundation objects will be included in the
pushover load case. This item is required only if the seismic design cate-
gory is D.
20 Pushover The target displacement is defined as the target ratio of Capac-
Target Dis- ity/Demand for the pushover analyses. This item is required only if the
placement seismic design category is D.
Ratio
21 Bent Failure The criteria to determine the bent failure. <Pushover Curve Drop>
Criterion means the bent fails when the pushover curve slope becomes negative.
This item is required only if the seismic design category is D.

2.4 Perform Seismic Design


It is not necessary to execute an analysis of the bridge model before running
the Seismic Design Request. To start the Bridge Seismic Design Request, the
Design Now command should be selected while in the Perform Bridge Design
form, which is shown in Figure 2-5.

2-6 Perform Seismic Design


STEP 2 - Ground Motion Hazard and Seismic Design Request

Figure 2-5 Perform Seismic Design

2.5 Auto Load Patterns


After the Bridge Seismic Design has been run, the user can review the load pat-
tern and load cases that SAP2000/Bridge has automatically generated using the
Define Load Patterns form show in Figure 2-6.

Figure 2-6 Auto Load Patterns

2.6 Auto Load Cases


The reason for each of the auto load cases is explained in Step 7.

Auto Load Patterns 2-7


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 2-7 Auto Load Cases

2-8 Auto Load Cases


Step 3
Dead Load Analysis and Cracked Section Properties

3.1 Overview
As shown in the schematic included in the Foreword, the third step begins with
the dead load analysis of the entire bridge model. The results of the dead load
analysis are then used to verify the analytical model followed by the determina-
tion of the cracked section properties that are then applied to the bent columns as
frame section property modifiers. The reduced stiffnesses of the bent columns
will affect the response spectrum and pushover analyses. The frame section prop-
erty modifiers are defined separately for each of the bent and abutment columns
as a named property set. The user can use the Section Designer program to ob-
serve the moment-curvatures and I,cracked properties for the various cross-sections
(see also Step 5).

Auto load patterns and auto load cases are produced by the program. The load
case, which has the default name, _GRAV_SDReq1, is automatically developed
by SAP2000/Bridge as a single stage construction load case and is used to apply
the cracked section property modifiers to the columns. Figure 3-1 shows the
Load Case Data form for the _GRAV_SDReq1 load case. The auto load cases are
not modifiable.

Overview 3-1
SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 3-1 Auto Stage Construction Load Case used to apply


Cracked Section Property Modifiers

As an option, the user can overwrite the cracked section property determined by
the program and instead, apply a user defined value. See Step 2 for the user op-
tions available in the Seismic Design Request.

3-2 Overview
Step 4
Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

4.1 Overview
The seismic response of the entire bridge structure is analyzed by SAP2000/
Bridge using the response spectrum function defined in Step 2. The number of
modes used by SAP2000/Bridge is automated and depends on the number of
bridge spans. The user should check the total mass participation to ensure that an
adequate number of modes are included in the modal analysis. The response
spectrum displacements are used by SAP2000/Bridge as the displacement de-
mands as defined in Section 4.4 of the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification.

4.2 Response Spectrum Load Cases


Three response spectrum load cases are automatically produced by SAP2000/
Bridge: _RS_X_SDReq1, _RS_Y_SDReq1 and _RS_XY_SDReq1. The first two
response spectrum load cases apply the dynamic loads along the U1 and U2 di-
rections. The U1 direction is defined as the longitudinal loading direction that is
chosen to be from the start abutment to the end abutment, both points located on
the reference line of the bridge object. If the user wants to apply a response spec-
trum load along a different axis, a directional overwrite is available in the Sub-
structure Seismic Design Parameters form (see Chapter 2).

Overview 4-1
SAP2000 Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 4-1 U1 Direction Response Spectrum LOAD Case form

The third response spectrum load case uses a Directional Combination option of
“ABS,” with an ABS scale factor of 0.3. This response spectrum load case will
satisfy the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification, Section 4.4, which requires
the response spectrum loads to be combined using the 100/30 percent rule in each
of the major directions. The single response spectrum load case,
_RS_XY_SDReq1, envelopes the maximum response spectrum results for each of
the combinations 100/30 and 30/100. The Load Case Data form for the response
spectrum load case _RS_XY_SDReq1 is shown in Figure 4-2.

The modal damping coefficient is set to 5 percent, but this value can be modified
as necessary by the user in the Substructure Seismic Design Parameters form
(Chapter 2).

4-2 Response Spectrum Load Cases


Step 4 - Response Spectrum and Demand Displacements

Figure 4-2 ABS Response Spectrum LOAD Case form

To illustrate the ABS directional combination feature, the following BENT1 dis-
placements are summarized for example model MO_1C:

Figure 4-3 BENT1 Displacements for the three


Auto Defined Response Spectrum Load cases

Response Spectrum Load Cases 4-3


SAP2000 Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 4-4 Modal Load Case Definition

4.3 Response Spectrum Results


Upon completion of the response spectra analysis, the displacements are tabu-
lated for each bent. The displacements are calculated using “Generalized Dis-
placements” to account for the average cap beam displacements and the relative
displacement between the cap beam and foundation. The displacements for the
ABS response spectrum load case also are tabulated for each of the bearing ac-
tive degrees of freedom. These can be view using the Display menu > Show
Tables command by selecting the Design Results for Bridge Seismic option and
selecting the Support Bearing Demands-Deformations item. These displacements
also can be displayed and animated on screen or read from the quick report cre-
ated using the Design menu > Bridge > Quick Report command.

4-4 Response Spectrum Results


Step 5
Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

5.1 Overview
For bridge structures having a Seismic Design Category (SDC) D the
AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification requires that the displacement capacity
be determined using a nonlinear pushover analysis. This requires that the col-
umn plastic hinge lengths and plastic hinge properties be determined for each
column that participates as part of the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS).

In this step, the methodologies used to calculate the plastic hinge lengths and
properties will be explained. After the hinge properties have been determined,
the plastic hinges are assigned to the ERS columns. The automation of the plas-
tic hinge assignments will also be explained in this step.

5.2 Plastic Hinge Lengths


The plastic hinge lengths used in the Seismic Design Request is determined for
the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification, Section 4.11.6, as follows:

Plastic Hinge Length, LP  0.08 L  0.15 f ye dbl ,

where

Overview 5-1
SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

f ye = the effective yield strength of the longitudinal reinforcing, and

dbl = the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcing.

The hinge length is compared to the value for the maximum hinge length value
described as, LP  0.3 f ye dbl , and the controlling value is used. After the hinge
lengths and properties have been determined, the hinges are placed on the bent
columns at each end of the column at distances from each end equal to 1/2 the
hinge length, as shown below in Figure 5-1.

Figure 5-1 Hinge Locations

5-2 Plastic Hinge Lengths


Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-2 Hinge Locations

5.3 Nonlinear Hinge Properties


Currently, the SAP2000/Bridge Automated Seismic Design Request uses a
hinge property that is consistent with the AASHTO/CALTRANS idealized bi-
linear moment-curvature diagram, as shown in Figure 5-3. From the moment
curvature shown, the yield and plastic moments along with the I,cracked proper-
ties can be observed for a specific axial load, P. Note that this form is made
available to allow users to better understand the effects of axial loads and fiber
mesh layouts on the frame member properties. The axial load values input on
this form are not used in the analysis and design of a model.

Nonlinear Hinge Properties 5-3


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-3 Moment Curvature Diagram

Typically, the axial loads in the bent columns change as the bent is pushed over
due to the overturning effects. Therefore, the yield and plastic moments will
change depending on the amount of axial load present in a particular column at
a particular pushover step. These effects are captured in the nonlinear hinge re-
sponses whenever P-M or P-M-M hinges are specified. For this reason, the
Automated Seismic Design procedure assigns coupled P-M-M hinges to the
bent columns. The default settings are shown in Figure 5-4. The length of the
plastic hinge also is calculated by SAP2000/Bridge when using the Automated
Seismic Design procedure.

5-4 Nonlinear Hinge Properties


Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-4 Auto Hinge Assignment Data

Figure 5-5 Sample Hinge Data form

Nonlinear Hinge Properties 5-5


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Upon completion of the Pushover Analysis, the Hinge Results can be traced.
This feature is explained in detail in Step 6.

5.4 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions


The ductile behavior of a plastic hinge is significantly affected by the nonlinear
material property used to define the frame member receiving the hinges. The
material nonlinear properties must be defined using the Advanced Nonlinear
Material Data forms.

5.4.1 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions for Concrete


For concrete the nonlinear material property data form appears in Figure 5-6 as
follows:

Figure 5-6 Nonlinear Material Data form for Concrete

5-6 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions


Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-7 Nonlinear Stress-Strain curves for Confined and Unconfined Concrete

Figure 5-8 Concrete Model - Mander Confined

Nonlinear Material Property Definitions 5-7


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

5.4.2 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions for Steel


Similarly, for steel, the nonlinear material data form appears as show in Figure
5-9. The user can specify the parametric strain data, which includes the values
for the strain at the onset of hardening, ultimate strain capacity, and the final
slope of the stress-strain diagram.

Figure 5-9 Nonlinear Material Data form for steel

5-8 Nonlinear Material Property Definitions


Step 5 - Determine Plastic Hinge Properties and Assignments

Figure 5-10 Nonlinear Stress-Strain Plot for steel

5.5 Plastic Hinge Options


There are two ways that concrete column section properties can be defined for
use as such that hinges properties can be assigned to them during the Auto-
mated Seismic Design procedure. One method is to use the Section Designer
and the other is to define a rectangle or circle using the Define menu >Section
Property > Frame Section > Add New Property command and define a rec-
tangular or circular shape. Internally, SAP2000/Bridge will convert the rectan-
gular or circular shapes into Section Designer sections for the purposes of de-
termining the hinge and cracked section properties. The advantage of using the
Section Designer feature is that the user can choose to have the hinge defined
using fibers. This option is activated when the user activates the Design menu
> Fiber Layout command from within Section Designer and sets the Fiber
Application to “Calculate Moment Curvature Using Fibers,” as shown in the
following form.

Plastic Hinge Options 5-9


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 5-11 Plastic Hing Fiber option

The fiber mesh also can be specified in this form. The mesh can be rectangular
or cylindrical depending on the shape of the column. Another advantage of us-
ing the Section Designer feature is that complex sections, similar to the one be-
low, can be handled.

Figure 5-12 Section Designer options

5 - 10 Plastic Hinge Options


Step 6
Capacity Displacement Analysis

This step describes the automated procedure that SAP2000/Bridge uses to de-
termine the bridge seismic capacity displacements. The method used varies de-
pending on the Seismic Design Category (SDC) of a particular bridge. A flow-
chart that describes when an implicit or pushover analysis is used to determine
the capacity displacements is shown in Figure 6-1:

Figure 6-1 Rectangular Beam Design

Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C 6-1


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 6-2 Design Requirements for SDC


A B C D

Identification ERS  Recommended Required Required

Demand Analysis  Required Required Required

Implicit Capacity  Required Required Required

Push Over Capacity    May be required

Support Width Required Required Required Required

Detailing – Ductility  SDC B SDB C SDB D

Capacity Protection  Recommended Required Required

Liquefaction  Recommended Required Required

The user can overwrite the program determined SDC to enforce that a push-
over analysis is used to determine the displacement capacity. The differences
between the implicit and pushover approaches are described in the following
sections.

6.1 Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C


For structures having reinforced concrete columns, the displacement capacities
for SDC B and C are found using the following equations. The AASHTO
Seismic Guide Specification equations are also noted.

For SDC B:

CL  0.12 H o  1.27 ln( x)  0.32   0.12 H o (4.8.1-1)

For SDC C:

CL  0.12 H o  2.32ln( x)  1.22   0.12 H o (4.8.1-2)

in which

 Bo
x (4.8.1-3)
Ho

where,

6-2 Displacement Capacities for SDC B and C


Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

Ho = Clear height of the column (ft)

B0 = Column diameter or width parallel to the direction of displace-


ment under consideration (ft)

 = Factor for the column end restraint conditions

6.2 Displacement Capacities for SDC D


When the Seismic Design Category for a bridge structure is determined to be
SDC D or the user overwrites the SDC as D, SAP2000/Bridge uses a pushover
analysis in accordance with the AASHTO Seismic Guide Specification, Sec-
tion 4.8.2 to determine the displacement capacities. This requires that
SAP2000/Bridge actually perform several pushover analyses, depending on the
number of bents that are part of the Earthquake Resisting System (ERS). Each
bent is analyzed in a transverse and longitudinal direction local to the specific
bent. For the example bridge used in this manual, there are three spans with
two interior bents. Bents can be used as abutment supports so it is possible to
have additional bents participating as part of the ERS. But, for the example
bridge, there are two interior bents. This means that a total of four pushover
analyses is needed to determine the displacements capacities for each bent in
each of the transverse and longitudinal directions.

To perform multiple pushover analyses on a single bridge model, SAP2000/


Bridge uses several nonlinear single-staged construction load cases. A license
for the Staged Construction Module is not required to run the Bridge Seismic
Design because SAP2000 allows for ‘single-staged’ construction load cases to
be run with any license. If, however, the user wants to create multi-staged con-
struction load cases, an additional license will be required.

For the example bridge, the four separate pushover load cases are named as fol-
lows:

_PO_TR_BT1_SDReq1

_PO_LG_BT1_SDReq1

_PO_TR_BT2_SDReq1

_PO_LG_BT2_SDReq1

Displacement Capacities for SDC D 6-3


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

The SDReq1 is the name provided by the user to identify a particular seismic
design request.

TR denotes Transverse and LG denotes Longitudinal.

The “_” symbol is added to the beginning of each auto load case name to dis-
tinguish the load cases that are automatically provided by SAP2000/Bridge
from user defined load cases.

Figure 6-3 shows the nonlinear single-staged construction load case for the
BENT1 transverse direction.

Figure 6-3 BENT1 Transverse Pushover Load Case

The user can not modify this load case because it is defined automatically. The
_PO_TR_BT1_SDReq1 load case starts from the end of the initial nonlinear
load case named, _ bGRAV_SDReq1.

6-4 Displacement Capacities for SDC D


Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

The _ bGRAV_SDReq1 load case is shown in Figure 6-4 and is needed to iso-
late the bents from the rest of the bridge model and to apply the cracked section
property modifiers as well as apply the dead load.

Figure 6-4 BENT1 Application of Property Modifiers


and Dead Loads to BENT1

The load pattern used to apply the lateral pushover loads or displacements to
BENT1 is named, _PO_TR1_SDReq1. A 3D view of the _PO_TR1_SDReq
loads is shown in Figure 6-5. The magnitudes of these loads are based on the
reactions from the superstructure.

Displacement Capacities for SDC D 6-5


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

Figure 6-5 BENT1 Pushover Load Pattern for the Transverse Direction

6.3 Pushover Results


After the pushover analyses have run, the capacity displacements are automati-
cally identified as the maximum displacement of the pushover curve just before
strength loss (negative slope on the pushover curve) for each of the pushover
runs.

6-6 Pushover Results


Step 6 - Capacity Displacement Analysis

The pushover results can be viewed using the Display menu > Pushover Re-
sults command. An example output is shown in Figure 6-6 for the BENT1
transverse and longitudinal pushover load cases.

Figure 6-6 Display of BENT1 Pushover Curves

Pushover Results 6-7


Step 7
Demand/Capacity Ratios

7.1 D/C Ratios


After the demand displacement (Step 4) and displacement capacity (Step 6)
analyses have been completed, SAP2000/Bridge computes the ratio of the De-
mand/Capacity displacements and reports these values in the Seismic Design
Report. The table of D/C ratios can be viewed using the Display menu > Show
Tables command, and then selecting Design Data > Bridge > Seismic Design
data > Table: Bridge Seismic 01-Bent D-C-AASHTO LRFD 2007. The sub-
ject table will appear similar to the table shown in Figure 7-1:

Figure 7-1 D/C Displacement Ratios

D/C Ratios 7-1


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

In the table shown, all four D/C ratios are reported, namely, the transverse and
longitudinal direction for each bent (the example model has two bents). Note
that the Generalized Displacement name also is reported. Generalized dis-
placements are used to average the top of bent displacements and to determine
the relative displacements between the bent cap beam and the foundation. The
generalized displacement definition is automatically defined by SAP2000/
Bridge and can be viewed using the Define menu > Generalized Displace-
ments command.

7-2 D/C Ratios


Step 8
Review Output and Create Report

This step describes the two methods of viewing the seismic design results. The
first way to review the results is to use the Display menu > Show Tables com-
mand. The second way is to create a report using the Design menu > Bridge De-
sign > Create Report command.

The entire list of output tables for the Bridge Seismic Design includes the follow-
ing:

The seven Bridge Seismic Design tables are described in the sections that follow:

Design 01 – D-C Ratios 8-1


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

8.1 Design 01 – D-C Ratios


The Demand/Capacity ratios are summarized for each bent in each direction.
Values less than 1.0 indicate that an adequate capacity exists for a given bent and
direction for the ground motion hazard used in the seismic design request. Values
greater than 1.0 indicate an overstress condition.

8.2 Design 02 – Bent Column Force Demand


A summary of the bent column seismic demand forces are tabulated.

8.3 Design 03 – Bent Column Idealized Moment Capacity


The idealized column plastic moments are calculated and tabulated. The axial
load P represents the demand axial load. The idealized plastics moments are de-
termined using the associated axial load value, P.

8-2 Design 01 – D-C Ratios


Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

8.4 Design 04 – Bent Column Cracked Section Properties


A summary of the cracked property modifiers that get applied to each of the bent
columns is tabulated.

8.5 Design 05 – Support Bearing Demand – Forces


The forces in the bearing due to the seismic loads are presented in the table
above. All bearings at the abutments and bents that are found to resist seismic
forces are included in the subject table.

Design 04 – Bent Column Cracked Section Properties 8-3


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

8.6 Design 06 – Support Bearing Demand – Displacements


The displacements for all bearings at the abutments and bents that resist seismic
loads are tabulated and reported.

8.7 Design 07 – Support Length Demands


The support lengths are calculated from the bearing displacements and represent
the amount of displacement normal to a specific bent or abutment.

8-4 Design 06 – Support Bearing Demand – Displacements


Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

8.8 Create Report


A single command can be used to create a report using the Design menu >
Bridge Design > Create Seismic Design Report command. Several representa-
tive pages of the report that can be created using the previously noted report re-
quest are included in the following pages. Theses have been excerpted from a 30
page summary report that SAP2000/Bridge writes as a Microsoft Word docu-
ment.

Create Report 8-5


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

8-6 Create Report


Step 8 - Review Output and Create Report

Create Report 8-7


SAP2000/Bridge Seismic Design

8-8 Create Report


References

ACI, 2008. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-08)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-08), American Concrete Institute, P.O.
Box 9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

AASHTO, 2009. AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge


Design. American Association of Highway and Transportation Offi-
cials, 444 North Capital Street, NW Suite 249, Washington, DC 2001

R-1