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# TRIGONOMETRIC

## 7.1 Trigonometric Identities p. 451

7.2 Sum, Difference, and Double-Angle
Identities p. 465
7.3 Proving Trigonometric Identities p. 479
7.4 Trigonometric Equations p. 493

## 7.1 Trigonometric Identities

Welcome to part II of Trigonometry! We’ll now move into trigonometric identities, many basic forms of which
are listed on your formula sheet.
1 Use your graphing calculator to sketch each
of the following trigonometric functions.
Match with the correct graph on the right.
sin

cos
cos

sin

## 2 Refer to your formula sheet to determine a trigonometric

identity that applies to each function graphed above. Function # _____
List each here.

## 3 How do the graphs of both sides of an identity relate?

Function # _____
Warm-up is continued on the next page

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

4 Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of cos tan . Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions
Is the curve identical to the graph of sin ? to all warm-ups and class examples

## 5 Use TRACE on your calculator to input ⁄.

What value of do you get? Explain.

## 6 Compare the graphs of  cos tan and  sin below.

How are they similar? Different?
 

## 7 Substitute an equivalent expression for

that will allow to you to simplify .

## 8 Substitute an equivalent expression for

that will allow to you to simplify .

An identity is an equation that is true for all defined values of the variable in the expressions on
both sides. Therefore if two expressions form an identity, they are equivalent.

## For example, is an equation, Whereas, is an identity

which is true when 4 or 2 which is true for all real values of and .

## Reciprocal Identities: Quotient Identities:

1 1 1
csc sec

Trigonometric Identities enable us to write the same expression in different ways. It is often possible to rewrite a
complicated expression using a much simpler one. In this section we will:

##  Verify identities, both numerically and graphically To simplify trigonometric expression,

 Use algebraic methods to simplify trigonometric a common first step is to write all
expressions or prove identities functions in terms of #\$% and &'#.

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

## For the equation: cos , csc , cot ,

Worked
Example (a) Determine any non-permissible values, in radians.
(
(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , and , 135°.
6
(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain ( 0 , 1 2( .
(d) Simplify the left side of the equation to a single trigonometric expression, equal to the right.
Solutions:
Where on the unit circle is the
(a) For non-permissible values (NPVs), cos , csc , cot ,
-coordinate (“sin,”) equal to 0?
we must restrict any angles , that 1 cos ,
would result in dividing by zero. sin , sin ,
1, 0 1, 0
So, NPV when sin , 0 , 2 0, (, 2( … 5 6 or 5

## That is, there is a NPV at 0, then every (

7 2 %5 ; % ∈ :

(b) Evaluate both the left side (L.S.) and cos sin
i Substitute Use the unit circle to evaluate
right side (R.S.) of the equation at π trig ratios for , 5 3 1
, : ⁄; …
6 ,
the given values ,. < 2 2
cos sin
ii Substitute L.S. R.S.
2 2
, 135°: , ( ( (
2 2 cos csc cot
6 6 6
Use the unit circle ?@°
( 1 (
for , 135° … cos
cos 6
6 sin ( (
6 sin is the x-coordinate
6
on the unit circle
3 1 3
· 2 is the y-coordinate
L.S. R.S. 2 1
2 1
1 2 Verify on your calc…
cot 135° 3 2
cos 135° ·
sin 135° 2 1 3 
cos 135°

2 1 sin 135° 3
· 
2 2 2
2 2 Verify on your calc…
2 2 2
· 2 You must be able to verify simplifying exact unit
2 2
1   circle values.
1  (Use your calculator as a second verification)

## R.S. substituting known identities:

L.S. ,· ,
1
cos , ·
Verify that both the left side and the sin ,
right side yield the same graph.
cos ,
(note how the second graph is
sin ,
sketched “over top” of the first)
Note that both graphs have a vertical asymptote (not shown in the graph CDE 7 (same as R.S.!)
above) at 0, then another every ( (; ∈B
V.A.s at

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

## Class Example 7.11 Verifying Trigonometric Identities

tan ,
For the equation: sec ,
sin ,
(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in degrees.
2(
(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 30° and ,
.
3
(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain 180° 0 , 1 360°.
(d) Simplify the expression on the right side of the equation to a single trigonometric expression.

## Class Example 7.12 Simplifying Trigonometric Expressions

cot , sec ,
For the expression
csc ,
(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in radians. (b) Simplify the expression.

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

## 1 Use your knowledge of the principles of the

unit circle to label the coordinates of G, in H
terms of the angle in standard position, ,.

the -axis. ,

## 3 Using the coordinates identified above, label all

three sides of the triangle.

## 4 Equate the three triangular sides using the

Pythagorean Theorem.

The Pythagorean Identity can be visualized by considering any point G on a unit circle.
Recall that any point G on the unit circle has coordinates
H ,, , cos , , sin , , where , is an angle in standard position whose
1 terminal arm passes through G.
,
, The right triangle formed inside the circle has a hypotenuse of 1,
= , and legs of cos , and sin , .
So by Pythagorean Theorem: cos , sin , 1
Simplifies to: &'# 7 #\$% 7

## Now whenever we encounter “&'# 7 #\$% 7” in a trigonometric expression, we can substitute “ ”

Similarly, we can we can substitute “ &'# 7” with “#\$% 7”
And should we encounter “ #\$% 7”, we can substitute “&'# 7”

## Your formula sheet contains the identity 1 tan , sec ,

(a) Verify the identity using , 60° (b) Show that this is related to the Pythagorean Identity by
dividing both sides by J , and simplifying.

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

## Your formula sheet contains the identity 1 , ,

(a) Verify the identity graphically. (b) Divide both sides of the Pythagorean Identity, , , 1,
by ,, to show it is equivalent to 1 , ,.

There are three forms of the Pythagorean Identity. Each is on your formula sheet

## We can also re-arrange each of these to get further alternate forms.

, 1 , , J , 1 , , 1
, 1 ,

## Simplify each of the following to a single trigonometric function.

(a) cos , tan , sin , (b) cos , sec , cos ,

7.1 Practice Questions

## i Determine any non-permissible values, in radians.

5(
ii Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 30° and ,
.
4
iii Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain 180° 0 , 1 360°.
iv Simplify the more complex side to show that both sides are equivalent.

## csc , tan , sec , cos ,

(a) cos , (b) sin ,
sec , tan ,

## 2. Numerically verify the Pythagorean Identity sin , cos , 1, using , 60°.

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

3. Determine any non-permissible values, in radians, for each of the following expressions.
cos , cot , tan cos , sin ,
(a) (b) (c)
sin , 1 cos tan , 1

sin cos
(d) (e)
2 cos 1 2 sin 1

1. (a) i N.P.V.s where cos , 0, sin , 0 iii Graphs look identical,
5 so identity is verified.
72 %; ∈B
Note that at 90°,
L.S. R.S. A is not defined (Point
ii Discontinuity), while
1 sin 30° is. So graphs are
· cos 30 °
sin 30° cos 30° not actually identical!
1
cos 30° 3

2
1 1/2
· 5(
1/2 3⁄2 1 sin ,
Use a similar process with
1 4 iv L.S. : sin , · cos ,
2 1
3⁄2 to get on both sides.
2 cos ,
3
2· 3 3 1 cos ,
Verified!  · &'# 7 
4/3
 cos , 1
2

5 1
(b) i 7 2 %; ∈B ii Substiute , 30° (as shown above) to get on both sides.
2
5( 2
Substitute , to get on both sides.
4 2
iii Graph 1⁄ / 1 cos ,
A 1 cos , cos ,
iv L.S. : cos , cos , ·
sinx sin , cos , sin ,
cos ,
See that graphs are identical, except that
0°, 90°, etc. 1 cos , sin ,
A is undefined at #\$% 7 
sin , sin ,
3 1 3 1
2. L.S.: sin 60° cos 60° 1
2 2 4 4

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

4. sec ,
Given the trigonometric equation sin , ;
tan , cot ,
(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in degrees.
5(
(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 60° and ,
.
6
(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain ( 0 , 1 2(.
(d) Simplify the more complex side to show that both sides are equivalent.

5. Simplify each of the following expressions to a single trigonometric function. Use a graphing approach to
verify the given expression is equivalent to its simplified form.
tan
(a) (b) cos , sec , (c) co , tan ,
sec tan , csc ,

5 ?5 5
3. (a) 7 2 5% ; ∈ B (b) 2 5% , %5% ; ∈B (c) 7 2 %5 ; ∈B (d) 2 5% ,
and
Q ?
R5 5 @5
(e) 2 5% , 2 5% , 2 %5 ; ∈B 2 5% ; ∈B
< < ?

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

6. Use a Pythagorean Identity to simplify each of the following expressions to its simplest form.
sin sec cos
(a) (b) sin cot cos (c)
1 cos sin

## cot sec cos

(d) (e) 1 sin 1 tan (f)
csc sin sec

4. (a) 7 2 6°% ; ∈ B 1
(d) L.S. : cos ,
sin , cos ,
(b) Substitute , 60° to get 3/2 on both sides, cos , sin ,
5(
subst. , to get 1/2 on both sides. 1
6 cos ,
sin , cos ,
(c) Graph A 1⁄ / 1/ cos , sin , cos , sin ,
1 cos , sin ,
Graphs are identical, except that A is undefined × #\$% 7 
cos , sin , cos ,
(point discontinuity) at 0, ⁄ , (, …. etc

5. (a) Simplifies to: TUV (b) Simplifies to: CDE 7 (c) Simplifies to: TUV 7
For each, graph A Each given expression, Simplified form to confirm graphs appear identical

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

## (a) cos sin (b) sin sin Hint: re-write using a

sec csc 1 cos 1 cos common denominator

## (c) csc cot csc cot

cos , 1
8. The non-permissible values of , for the expression are:
tan , 1 cos , 1
(
Exam A. (, ( 2( ; ∈B
 Style 4
(
B. (, ( 2( ; ∈B
2
(
C. (, ( ; ∈B
4
(
D. (, ( ; ∈B
2

6. (a) &#& (b) &#& (c) KL% (d) #M& (e) (f) #\$%

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

## Use the following information to answer the next question

Each of the following trig expressions can be simplified to a numerical value, where , 2 0 and , 2 0.
cos , sin , cot , tan ,
1 cot , csc , 1 2 3 cos , sec , 4
sin , cot , cos , 2 sec , csc ,

9. NR
 Exam
Style
The expressions, arranged from lowest to highest , are
numbered ____, ____, ____, and ____.

7. (a) (b) &#& (c)
8. Answer: A Possible solution: N.P.V.s where , 1, , 1
( 2 2
,
4 2 2 tan ratio is “1” where the cos ratio is “–1” where 1,0 (
sin and cos ratios are equal the x-coord is –1.
2 2 5( ( 5(
, , or , ( … then every 2( after
2 2 4 4 4
, … then every (, to get from one
Note that , … “ ”
, solution to the next

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

## Use the following information to answer the next question

Each of the following expressions can be simplified to a single trigonometric function, where cos 2 1,
cos 2 0, and sin 2 0.
sin tan sec
(a) csc cos sin (b) (c)
1 cos tan cot

10. NR Use the codes below to indicate the simplified form of each code simplified form
 Exam
Style trigonometric expression: 1 cos
The first expression, (a), simplifies to code ____ (first digit of answer), 2 sin
the second expression, (b) simplifies to code ____, (second digit) 3 tan
and the third expression, (c), simplifies to code ____. (third digit)
4 csc

9. Answer: 1342 Possible solutions for 1, 3, and 4 are provided: , ,
, , 1 4 ,
, 1 NOTE: 3 1 1
1 1 2·
, , 2 Simplifies , , , ,· ,
, 1 to “1” , , 1 , ,
1 , , , ,
, ,
2
1 , 1 1 , ,
1
, , , , , ,
, ·
1 1 1 6 , , 2
,
/

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

cos , 4(
11. If the identity csc , sin , is verified using , , then the exact value of each side is:
sec , sin , 3

3 2 3
 Exam
Style A.
6

2 3 3
B.
6

3
C.
6

7 3
D.
6

tan , sec ,
12. The trigonometric expression , where csc , 2 1 , is equivalent to
csc , 1
A. tan ,
 Exam
Style
B. cot ,
C. cos ,
D. sin ,

2 3
1 1
1 ·
1
1

1 1
·
1 1 1
&#& ·
1
code 4
KL% #\$%
code 3 code 2

11. C 12. A

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