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Trig Identities Section from the Math 30-1 EDGE Study Guide and Workbook. To purchase a complete written copy please visit math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

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95 views14 pagesTrig Identities Section from the Math 30-1 EDGE Study Guide and Workbook. To purchase a complete written copy please visit math30-1edge.com

© All Rights Reserved

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7.2 Sum, Difference, and Double-Angle

Identities p. 465

7.3 Proving Trigonometric Identities p. 479

7.4 Trigonometric Equations p. 493

Welcome to part II of Trigonometry! We’ll now move into trigonometric identities, many basic forms of which

are listed on your formula sheet.

1 Use your graphing calculator to sketch each

of the following trigonometric functions.

Match with the correct graph on the right.

sin

cos

cos

sin

Match your window settings

identity that applies to each function graphed above. Function # _____

List each here.

Function # _____

Warm-up is continued on the next page

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

4 Use your graphing calculator to sketch the graph of cos tan . Visit math30-1edge.com for solutions

Is the curve identical to the graph of sin ? to all warm-ups and class examples

What value of do you get? Explain.

How are they similar? Different?

that will allow to you to simplify .

that will allow to you to simplify .

An identity is an equation that is true for all defined values of the variable in the expressions on

both sides. Therefore if two expressions form an identity, they are equivalent.

which is true when 4 or 2 which is true for all real values of and .

1 1 1

csc sec

Trigonometric Identities enable us to write the same expression in different ways. It is often possible to rewrite a

complicated expression using a much simpler one. In this section we will:

Use algebraic methods to simplify trigonometric a common first step is to write all

expressions or prove identities functions in terms of #$% and &'#.

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

Worked

Example (a) Determine any non-permissible values, in radians.

(

(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , and , 135°.

6

(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain ( 0 , 1 2( .

(d) Simplify the left side of the equation to a single trigonometric expression, equal to the right.

Solutions:

Where on the unit circle is the

(a) For non-permissible values (NPVs), cos , csc , cot ,

-coordinate (“sin,”) equal to 0?

we must restrict any angles , that 1 cos ,

would result in dividing by zero. sin , sin ,

1, 0 1, 0

So, NPV when sin , 0 , 2 0, (, 2( … 5 6 or 5

7 2 %5 ; % ∈ :

(b) Evaluate both the left side (L.S.) and cos sin

i Substitute Use the unit circle to evaluate

right side (R.S.) of the equation at π trig ratios for , 5 3 1

, : ⁄; …

6 ,

the given values ,. < 2 2

cos sin

ii Substitute L.S. R.S.

2 2

, 135°: , ( ( (

2 2 cos csc cot

6 6 6

Use the unit circle ?@°

( 1 (

for , 135° … cos

cos 6

6 sin ( (

6 sin is the x-coordinate

6

on the unit circle

3 1 3

· 2 is the y-coordinate

L.S. R.S. 2 1

2 1

1 2 Verify on your calc…

cot 135° 3 2

cos 135° ·

sin 135° 2 1 3

cos 135°

2 1 sin 135° 3

·

2 2 2

2 2 Verify on your calc…

2 2 2

· 2 You must be able to verify simplifying exact unit

2 2

1 circle values.

1 (Use your calculator as a second verification)

L.S. ,· ,

1

cos , ·

Verify that both the left side and the sin ,

right side yield the same graph.

cos ,

(note how the second graph is

sin ,

sketched “over top” of the first)

Note that both graphs have a vertical asymptote (not shown in the graph CDE 7 (same as R.S.!)

above) at 0, then another every ( (; ∈B

V.A.s at

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

tan ,

For the equation: sec ,

sin ,

(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in degrees.

2(

(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 30° and ,

.

3

(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain 180° 0 , 1 360°.

(d) Simplify the expression on the right side of the equation to a single trigonometric expression.

cot , sec ,

For the expression

csc ,

(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in radians. (b) Simplify the expression.

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

unit circle to label the coordinates of G, in H

terms of the angle in standard position, ,.

the -axis. ,

three sides of the triangle.

Pythagorean Theorem.

The Pythagorean Identity can be visualized by considering any point G on a unit circle.

Recall that any point G on the unit circle has coordinates

H ,, , cos , , sin , , where , is an angle in standard position whose

1 terminal arm passes through G.

,

, The right triangle formed inside the circle has a hypotenuse of 1,

= , and legs of cos , and sin , .

So by Pythagorean Theorem: cos , sin , 1

Simplifies to: &'# 7 #$% 7

Similarly, we can we can substitute “ &'# 7” with “#$% 7”

And should we encounter “ #$% 7”, we can substitute “&'# 7”

(a) Verify the identity using , 60° (b) Show that this is related to the Pythagorean Identity by

dividing both sides by J , and simplifying.

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

(a) Verify the identity graphically. (b) Divide both sides of the Pythagorean Identity, , , 1,

by ,, to show it is equivalent to 1 , ,.

There are three forms of the Pythagorean Identity. Each is on your formula sheet

, 1 , , J , 1 , , 1

, 1 ,

(a) cos , tan , sin , (b) cos , sec , cos ,

7.1 Practice Questions

5(

ii Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 30° and ,

.

4

iii Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain 180° 0 , 1 360°.

iv Simplify the more complex side to show that both sides are equivalent.

(a) cos , (b) sin ,

sec , tan ,

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

3. Determine any non-permissible values, in radians, for each of the following expressions.

cos , cot , tan cos , sin ,

(a) (b) (c)

sin , 1 cos tan , 1

sin cos

(d) (e)

2 cos 1 2 sin 1

1. (a) i N.P.V.s where cos , 0, sin , 0 iii Graphs look identical,

5 so identity is verified.

72 %; ∈B

Note that at 90°,

L.S. R.S. A is not defined (Point

ii Discontinuity), while

1 sin 30° is. So graphs are

· cos 30 °

sin 30° cos 30° not actually identical!

1

cos 30° 3

2

1 1/2

· 5(

1/2 3⁄2 1 sin ,

Use a similar process with

1 4 iv L.S. : sin , · cos ,

2 1

3⁄2 to get on both sides.

2 cos ,

3

2· 3 3 1 cos ,

Verified! · &'# 7

4/3

cos , 1

2

5 1

(b) i 7 2 %; ∈B ii Substiute , 30° (as shown above) to get on both sides.

2

5( 2

Substitute , to get on both sides.

4 2

iii Graph 1⁄ / 1 cos ,

A 1 cos , cos ,

iv L.S. : cos , cos , ·

sinx sin , cos , sin ,

cos ,

See that graphs are identical, except that

0°, 90°, etc. 1 cos , sin ,

A is undefined at #$% 7

sin , sin ,

3 1 3 1

2. L.S.: sin 60° cos 60° 1

2 2 4 4

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

4. sec ,

Given the trigonometric equation sin , ;

tan , cot ,

(a) Determine any non-permissible values, in degrees.

5(

(b) Numerically verify that that the equation could be an identify, using , 60° and ,

.

6

(c) Graphically verify that that the equation could be an identify, over the domain ( 0 , 1 2(.

(d) Simplify the more complex side to show that both sides are equivalent.

5. Simplify each of the following expressions to a single trigonometric function. Use a graphing approach to

verify the given expression is equivalent to its simplified form.

tan

(a) (b) cos , sec , (c) co , tan ,

sec tan , csc ,

5 ?5 5

3. (a) 7 2 5% ; ∈ B (b) 2 5% , %5% ; ∈B (c) 7 2 %5 ; ∈B (d) 2 5% ,

and

Q ?

R5 5 @5

(e) 2 5% , 2 5% , 2 %5 ; ∈B 2 5% ; ∈B

< < ?

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

6. Use a Pythagorean Identity to simplify each of the following expressions to its simplest form.

sin sec cos

(a) (b) sin cot cos (c)

1 cos sin

(d) (e) 1 sin 1 tan (f)

csc sin sec

4. (a) 7 2 6°% ; ∈ B 1

(d) L.S. : cos ,

sin , cos ,

(b) Substitute , 60° to get 3/2 on both sides, cos , sin ,

5(

subst. , to get 1/2 on both sides. 1

6 cos ,

sin , cos ,

(c) Graph A 1⁄ / 1/ cos , sin , cos , sin ,

1 cos , sin ,

Graphs are identical, except that A is undefined × #$% 7

cos , sin , cos ,

(point discontinuity) at 0, ⁄ , (, …. etc

5. (a) Simplifies to: TUV (b) Simplifies to: CDE 7 (c) Simplifies to: TUV 7

For each, graph A Each given expression, Simplified form to confirm graphs appear identical

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

sec csc 1 cos 1 cos common denominator

cos , 1

8. The non-permissible values of , for the expression are:

tan , 1 cos , 1

(

Exam A. (, ( 2( ; ∈B

Style 4

(

B. (, ( 2( ; ∈B

2

(

C. (, ( ; ∈B

4

(

D. (, ( ; ∈B

2

6. (a) &#& (b) &#& (c) KL% (d) #M& (e) (f) #$%

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

Each of the following trig expressions can be simplified to a numerical value, where , 2 0 and , 2 0.

cos , sin , cot , tan ,

1 cot , csc , 1 2 3 cos , sec , 4

sin , cot , cos , 2 sec , csc ,

9. NR

Exam

Style

The expressions, arranged from lowest to highest , are

numbered ____, ____, ____, and ____.

7. (a) (b) &#& (c)

8. Answer: A Possible solution: N.P.V.s where , 1, , 1

( 2 2

,

4 2 2 tan ratio is “1” where the cos ratio is “–1” where 1,0 (

sin and cos ratios are equal the x-coord is –1.

2 2 5( ( 5(

, , or , ( … then every 2( after

2 2 4 4 4

, … then every (, to get from one

Note that , … “ ”

, solution to the next

Chapter 7 – Trigonometric Identities and Equations

Each of the following expressions can be simplified to a single trigonometric function, where cos 2 1,

cos 2 0, and sin 2 0.

sin tan sec

(a) csc cos sin (b) (c)

1 cos tan cot

10. NR Use the codes below to indicate the simplified form of each code simplified form

Exam

Style trigonometric expression: 1 cos

The first expression, (a), simplifies to code ____ (first digit of answer), 2 sin

the second expression, (b) simplifies to code ____, (second digit) 3 tan

and the third expression, (c), simplifies to code ____. (third digit)

4 csc

9. Answer: 1342 Possible solutions for 1, 3, and 4 are provided: , ,

, , 1 4 ,

, 1 NOTE: 3 1 1

1 1 2·

, , 2 Simplifies , , , ,· ,

, 1 to “1” , , 1 , ,

1 , , , ,

, ,

2

1 , 1 1 , ,

1

, , , , , ,

, ·

1 1 1 6 , , 2

,

/

7.1 Trigonometric Identities

cos , 4(

11. If the identity csc , sin , is verified using , , then the exact value of each side is:

sec , sin , 3

3 2 3

Exam

Style A.

6

2 3 3

B.

6

3

C.

6

7 3

D.

6

tan , sec ,

12. The trigonometric expression , where csc , 2 1 , is equivalent to

csc , 1

A. tan ,

Exam

Style

B. cot ,

C. cos ,

D. sin ,

10. Answer: 432 1

2 3

1 1

1 ·

1

1

1 1

·

1 1 1

&#& ·

1

code 4

KL% #$%

code 3 code 2

11. C 12. A

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