Mathematical Model for Preliminary feasibility study of Opencast Coal Mine Development in simplest way ....

Sanjay Singh

INTRODUCTION: Effective Mine planning and Mine economics depend on the detailed
exploration and geological modelling. Exploration work need detailed geological mapping of the area, Coal seam interpretation, Drilling operation with Open hole, Core hole for true thickness and quality aspect and seam continuity in dip and strike direction, topography of prospected area, River network and drainage plan , , startigraphy, geological modelling with skilled Geologists and Mining Engineer. Mine Planning and design depends on the confidence of the exploration data and as its failure may lead to high risk of loss with rated quality and production as well as investment risk on overall project. In this paper author try to the simplify the complex thing for common understanding & approximate idea on Volume of Overburden Required to exposed Coal face, Volume of Overburden to continue Operation with optimised SR,Overall Stripping Ratio and Stripping Ratio in stage as in Coal Mining Business Overburden removal involve huge Capital & operating Cost. As accurate exploration and geological modelling take years for completion with huge investment without any cash flow so to overcome that stress mostly Businessman need approximate idea on Capital & Revenue budget with projected Operation Cost for Mining Operation during & after completion of preliminary exploration & survey and hope that this paper will facilitate to visualise & understand Coal Mining Development in sample way.

MINE PLANNING PROCEDURE: Major steps in Surface Mine Developments after lease
acquisition are as: Mapping the area Drilling Program Drilling, Sampling, logging, analysis Drilling on closer interval( Development drilling) Topography Geological modelling Reserve evaluation Conceptual Mine Development Plan Mining System design, layout & development Equipment selection Mine Plan developments

Planning a Surface Mine using Opencast Mining Method required consideration of many variables parameters with their complex interrelationships.. the same are: 1. INFORMATION ON DEPOSIT:  i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) OVERBURDEN GEOLOGY: Stratigraphy Geologic Structure Physical properties Thickness & Variability Overall depth Top Soil parameter 2. GENERAL PROJECT INFORMATION  MARKET i) Customers ii) Production Specification( Tonnage & Quality) iii) Contract Agreement iv) Sale & Marketing  TRANSPORTATION i) Property access ii) Coal transportation( Method,Distance,Cost)  UTILITIES: i) Availability ii) Location iii) Costs  LAND & MINERAL RIGHTS i) Ownership( Surface, Mineral acquisition)  WATER i) Potable & preparation ii) Sources iii) Quantity iv) Quality v) Cost  LABOUR i) Availability & type( Skilled/Unskilled) ii) Rates & trends iii) Degree of organisation iv) Labour history  GOVERNMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS i) Taxes( Local,State,Federal) ii) Royalties iii) Reclamation and operating requirements iv) Proposed & pending Mining legislations

 COAL GEOLOGY: i) Quality ( Rank & Analysis) ii) Thickness and Variability iii) Chemical characteristics iv) Structural discontinuity v) Physical characteristics  HYDROLOGY( OVERBURDEN & COAL): i) Permeability ii) Porosity iii) Aquifer(s) & ground water  GEOMETRY: i) Size ii) Shape iii) Attitude iv) Continuity  GEOGRAPHY: i) Location ii) Topography iii) Altitude iv) Climate v) Surface Condition vi) Drainage pattern vii) Political boundaries  Exploration i) Historical ii) Current program iii) Sampling

3. DEVELOPMENT & EXTRACTION:  Compilation of Geologic & geographic data i) Surface and Coal Contours ii) Isopach Development( Thickness of Coal and overburden, Stripping ratio,Quality,Cost)  MINE SIZE DETERMINATION i) Market Constrains ii) Optimum economics  RESERVE i) Method of determination ii) Economic stripping ratio iii) Mining and Barrier losses iv) Burned, oxidised area  MINING METHOD SELECTION i) Topography ii) Refer Geologic/geographic factor iii) Production requirements iv) Environmental Consideration

 PIT LAYOUT i) Extent of available area ii) Pit dimension & geometry iii) Pit orientation iv) Haulage, Power and drainage system  EQUIPMENTS SELECTION i) Sizing, production estimates ii) Capital & Operating Cost estimates  i) ii) iii) iv) v) PROJECT COST ESTIMATION( CAPITAL & OPERATING) Mine Mine Support equipments Office, shop and other facility Auxiliary facilities Manpower requirements

 DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE i) Additional exploration ii) Engineering and feasibility study iii) Environmental approval iv) Equipments purchase & delivery v) Site preparation and set up vi) Start up vii) Production 4. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

MINE DEVELOPMENT: The Opencast Coal Mine involve huge volume of overburden for
exposure of Coal seams and its continuous excavation for maintaining the Production targets. Overburden stripping involves maximum Capital and operating cost during Mining Operation. Orientation of the pit and its sequencing are very important for entire mine planning and main purpose to design the mine pit are effective with averaging and minimising the stripping ratio.

To simply the complex things we consider the following inputs as guideline: 1. Planned for straight Pit design instead of Curved pits 2. For Multi Coal seam average seam thickness and dip can be taken and consider the same as Composite seam at bottom( Inter-burden etc will come under the calculation of Overburden) 3. The same is only for quick calculation as required before starting of project with minimal data and for detailed work...normal process has to be considers before and during project implementation.. 4. The same can be made by simple arithmetic equation for different bench dimension as per requirement of area.. 5. Geologically discontinued area can be analysed as different block and can be clubbed.. 6. Buffer Coal stock in the pit should be consider in the Mine Planning with consideration of Power plant requirements, Rain period and frequency to supply continuous production and particular Tonnage may be add in Development volume instead of SR volume for better Coal supply management.. 7. Length of Coal face should be optimised wrt Production targets and External Waste Disposal area..

VOLUME OF OVERBURDEN TO EXPOSE COAL SEAM:
Volume of Overburden to expose Xc mtr (Length) of Coal/Lignite face: Bench height in Overburden- Ho Average thickness of Coal seam – Tc True dip of Coal Seam- α Specific gravity of Coal – d N- Number of bench below Z RL Y- Width of bench in North direction W- Width of bench in West & East direction A- Length of advance in North direction after exposure of Coal bed (Rate of advance of bench mt/day in North direction) Xz – Xc + 2WN - Length of block / length of Z RL bench.

Vd- Total Volume of Overburden at – Z RL to expose Xc mt of Coal face. Volume of Overburden for 1st box cut/bench- Vi - Ho * Xz * Y Volume of Overburden for 2nd bench- Vii2 *Ho*Y *(Xz-2W)

Volume of Overburden for 3rd bench- Viii- 3 *Ho*Y *(Xz-4W)

Volume of Overburden for 4th bench- Viv- 4 *Ho*Y *(Xz-6W) Volume of Overburden for 5th bench- Vv5 *Ho*Y *(Xz-8W)

Volume of Overburden for 6th bench- Vvi- 6 *Ho*Y *(Xz-10W) Volume of Overburden for 7th bench- Vvii- 7 *Ho*Y *(Xz-12W) Volume of Overburden for Nth bench- Vn- N*Ho*Y *{Xz-( N-1)2W} Vd = Vd = {[Ho*Xz*Y*(1+2+3+4+......+ N)]-[ Ho*Y* 4W*(1+3+6+10+15+21+.........N-1)]} = {[ Ho*Xz*Y*N(N+1)/2]-[ 4*Ho*W*Y*N(N-1)(N+1)/6]} = Ho*Y*N*(N+1)/6* [(3* Xz – 4*W*(N-1))]

VOLUME OF OVERBURDEN AFTER DEVELOPMENT FOR RATED PRODUCTION:
Vsr – Volume of Overburden to produce P MT Coal per day After Exposure of Coal Face of Xc m I.e ( Xz- 2*W*N)m. Volume of Overburden for advance of 1st Bench by A mtr - Vi - Ho *Xz *A Volume of Overburden for advance of 2nd Bench by A mtr - Vii - Ho*( Xz-2W)*A Volume of Overburden for advance of 3rd Bench by A mtr - Viii - Ho *(Xz-4W)*A Volume of Overburden for advance of 4th Bench by A mtr - Viv - Ho*(Xz-6W)*A Volume of Overburden for advance of 5th Bench by A mtr - Vv - Ho*( Xz-8W)*A Volume of Overburden for advance of 6th Bench by A mtr - Vvi - Ho*(Xz-10W)*A Volume of Overburden for advance of 7th Bench by A mtr - Vvii - Ho*(Xz-12W) *A Vsr = = {Ho*A*Xz*N- [2Ho*A*W*(1+2+3+4+.......N-1)]} = {Ho*A*Xz*N- [2Ho*A*W*N*(N-1)/2]} = Ho*A*N*[(Xz- W*(N-1)] A- Rate of advance in North direction after exposure of Coal bed A* (Xc/Cosα)*Tc*d = P A = *(P*Cosα)/(Xc*Tc*d)+ mtr /day

Volume of Overburden for inclined seam for Xc m length and Y m Width of Coal seam: Vi = Y *Y tan α*Xc/2

CASES STUDY OF INDIA LIGNITE MINE:
       Number of Lignite Seam- 3 Average thickness of Lignite Seam- 5 m(Tc) Average Roof RL of Lignite Seam = -5 m Bench Height in Overburden = 5 m(Ho) Ultimate Bench width at Boundary = 4 m(W) Bench width in Development- 12 m(Y) Number of Bench below 34 RL ( Level )= 8(N)

Stripping Ratio & Volume of OB of the Mine Block @ 1000MT per day with Different Length of Lignite face
Xc 100 150 200 250 300 590 Xz ( Xx+NW) 260 310 360 410 460 750 Vd 480960 588960 696960 804960 912960 1539360 A 1.91 1.27 0.96 0.76 0.64 0.32 Vsr 14521 12228 11082 10394 9935 8808 Vi 2539 3809 5078 6348 7617 14981 SR-After Development ( Vsr+Vi)/P 17.1 16.0 16.2 16.7 17.6 23.8 Volume Total (Vd+ Vsr) 498020 604997 713120 821702 930513 1563149 Total SR 498 605 713 822 931 1563

Vd=Ho*Y*N*(N+1)/6* [(3* Xz – 4*W*(N-1))],Vsr=Ho*A*N*[(Xz- W*(N-1)] A=*(P*Cosα)/(Xc*Tc*d)+ m /day, Ho-5 m, W-4 m, Y -12M, N-8,d-1.4,α-10 °,P-1000,Tc-5 Volume of Overburden to expose Coal seam (Vd) booked in Capital Budget and Volume of Overburden as required to produce rated Production (Vsr) was proposed to be planned in Yearly Operational Budget during feasibility steady.

SUMMARY: It is recommended that all feasibility study for Mining Business should be
done with normal process based on actual topography and exploration reports as standard practices. This paper will only facilitate Mining Engineer to get a preliminary idea on the volume of Overburden as required for Development and Rated Production of Coal in initial stage of Mining with minimum data of explorations.

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