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VRAYforC4D Manual - table of contents

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Manual Version 1.1 written by Stefan LAUB / Updated by Anton Goroh (aka Tong) / Last update: 11.11.2008

TERMS OF CONDITION............................................................................................................... 3

Change Log .............................................................................................................................. 6

VRAYforC4D Features .............................................................................................................. 10

About Info.............................................................................................................................. 11

Activating VrayforC4D.............................................................................................................. 14

Overview................................................................................................................................ 17

Render Settings
Options.................................................................................................................................. 24
Image Sampler (Antia-aliasing)................................................................................................. 27
DMC sampler .......................................................................................................................... 31
Indirect Illumination (GI) ......................................................................................................... 33
Brute force GI......................................................................................................................... 39
Irradiance map ....................................................................................................................... 40
Photon mapping...................................................................................................................... 47
Light cache............................................................................................................................. 50
Combining GI Methods............................................................................................................. 55
Caustics ................................................................................................................................. 57
Displacement.......................................................................................................................... 59
Environment........................................................................................................................... 60
Color Mapping......................................................................................................................... 63
Vray Camera .......................................................................................................................... 65
System .................................................................................................................................. 68
MultiPass................................................................................................................................ 71
Camera Clipper ....................................................................................................................... 72

Materials
Material Layered Channels........................................................................................................ 73
Matte Layer ............................................................................................................................ 75
Material Weight....................................................................................................................... 76
Bump .................................................................................................................................... 77
Luminosity Layers ................................................................................................................... 79
Reflection Layer ...................................................................................................................... 81
Specular Layers ...................................................................................................................... 83
Diffuse Layers......................................................................................................................... 87
Refraction Layer...................................................................................................................... 89
Cinema4d Shaders .................................................................................................................. 92
Assigment .............................................................................................................................. 93

Vray2SideMaterial ................................................................................................................... 94

VrayBlendMaterial ................................................................................................................... 96

VrayDisplaceMaterial ............................................................................................................... 98
Displacement Tag.................................................................................................................. 100

Vray OverrideMaterial ............................................................................................................ 102

Vray Compositing Tag............................................................................................................ 104

VRay Motion Blur Tag ............................................................................................................ 107


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Vray Material Converter ......................................................................................................... 108

Vray Lights
VRayLight parameters............................................................................................................ 109
Vray Light - Common Tab ...................................................................................................... 110
Vray Light - Spot light............................................................................................................ 113
Vray Light - Area light............................................................................................................ 114
Vray Light - Sun light............................................................................................................. 116
Vray Light - IES Light ............................................................................................................ 118

VRay Physical Camera ........................................................................................................... 120

VRay Camera Dome .............................................................................................................. 123

Vray Proxy ........................................................................................................................... 124

Vrmesh Exporter Tag............................................................................................................. 127

VRAYforC4D Professional Render system for Maxon Cinema4D and Bodypait 3d Products. On OSX Intel 10.4.10 or WinXP SP2. For Cinema versions 9.6 & 10.1+.
Vray system based on the 1.5.0 SDK provided by Chaosgroup. V 1.0 Released on 17.09.2007. Cinema 4D is a registered trademarks of Maxon Computer
(www.maxon.net), VRAYforC4D software, VRAYforC4D logo and VRAYforC4D documentation belong to LAUBlab_Vienna (in Cooperation with Renato Tarabella and
Daniele Ficini). V-Ray belongs to Chaosgroup (www.chaosgroup.com) All other brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders.

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TERMS OF CONDITION
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VRAYFORC4D Software License Agreement: m
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IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY: By accepting this software, you agree to be bound by the
terms and conditions of this License Agreement. These are the only terms upon which
VRAYFORC4D is licensed.

Grant of License
VRAYFORC4D /LAUBlab (The Company) is empowered, and has agreed in consideration of the payment
by you of the license fee hereunder to grant you a personal non-exclusive, non-transferable limited
license to use the enclosed program (the software or V-RAY or VRAYFORC4D) in accordance with the
terms and conditions of this Agreement. This License agreement permits a single user to use the
Software’s user interface on only one computer at one location at any one time; use up to 10 running
copies of the Software for distributed rendering at any one time; use unlimited number of running
copies for network (frame-by-frame) rendering.

Interpretation & Definitions


In this Agreement unless the context otherwise requires:

Documentation means the technical manuals, user manual and other information which is being made
available by the Company to you in either printed or machine readable form;

Intellectual Property Rights means any and all patents, registered trademarks, registered designs,
application for any of the foregoing, trade and business names, unregistered trademarks, logos, know-
how, trade secrets, copyrights, rights in designs, inventions, rights under licenses and consents in
relation to any such rights and rights of the same on similar effect or nature in relation to software,
source code, object code and associated documentation, together with all goodwill whether or not
attaching or relating thereto, in any part of the world.

VRAYFORC4D means the “VRAYforC4D” rendering plugin connection to the V-RAY Render engine 1.6
(SDK) from Chaos group ltd. for MAXON Cinema 4D v9.6 and v10.+

Use shall mean the right of you to design, create and test your own works (User Works) using
VRAYforC4D; distribute your User Works to End users; make back up copies of VRAYforC4D. You may
modify and make unlimited copies of any resulting animations, still images or scene files contained in
the Software PROVIDED THAT you shall indemnify, hold harmless and defend the Company against any
and all costs, claims, demands, expenses, losses and liabilities of whatsoever nature which may arise
in conjunction with the distribution or use of your User Works and copies of files contained in the
Software.

Property and confidentiality in VRAYforC4D


VRAYforC4D and the Documentation shall remain the sole and exclusive property of the Company.
Nothing in this Agreement shall confer any rights in any trade name, business name or trademark of
the Company on you.

In order to properly authorize the VRAYforC4D software, the Company may obtain certain information
about the user’s computer system through the VRAYforC4D license request code. The Company
understands that this information may be sensible and shall consider it as confidential. The Company
guarantees that this information will be used only internally and in order to prevent illegal use of the
Software. The Company also guarantees that it will use its best commercially reasonable efforts to
protect this information except in cases where this information might be required by applicable law.

Restrictions
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Save as otherwise expressly set out herein or as otherwise expressly permitted by law, you shall not:

(a) Make any translation, adaptation, arrangement and any other alteration of the VRAYforC4D
software or make any reproduction, distribution, communication, display or performance to the public
of the results of such acts;

(b) Adapt or reverse compile or engineer the whole or any part of VRAYforC4D.

(c) Assign, transfer, sell, lease, rent, charge or otherwise deal in or encumber VRAYforC4D or use
VRAYforC4D on behalf of any third party, or make available the same to any third party without the
prior written consent of the Company;

(d) Remove or alter any copyright or other proprietary notice from VRAYforC4D;

(e) Not by itself or with others participate in any illegal, deceptive, misleading or unethical practices
including, but not limited to, disparagement of VRAYforC4D or the Company or other practices which
may be detrimental to VRAYforC4D or the Company;

(f) Notify the Company immediately if you becomes aware of any unauthorized use of the whole or any
part of VRAYforC4D by any third party;

Warranty
THE COMPANY DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE USE OF VRAYforC4D WILL MEET YOUR
REQUIREMENTS, OR THAT THE OPERATION OF VRAYforC4D WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR
FREE. THE COMPANY DOES NOT WARRANT THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE DATA
CONTAINED IN VRAYforC4D. THE COMPANY DOES NOT WARRANT THE ACCURACY OF THE
COMPUTATIONS CARRIED OUT BY VRAYforC4D DURING ITS OPERATION AND SPECIFICALLY DOES
NOT WARRANT ITS USE IN SAFETY CRITICAL APPLICATIONS. SUBJECT TO THE FOREGOING ALL
CONDITIONS, WARRANTIES, TERMS AND UNDERTAKINGS EXPRESS OR IMPLIED STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE IN RESPECT OF VRAYforC4D AND THE DOCUMENTATION ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED TO THE
GREATEST EXTENT PERMISSIBLE BY APPLICABLE LAW.

Limitation of liability & Remedies


Subject to the limits set out below, the Company shall accept liability to you in respect of direct dam-
age to tangible property resulting from the negligence of the Company or its employee’s agents or sub-
contractors. The Company’s entire liability in respect of any Event of Default shall be limited to
damages of an amount equal to the amount of the initial purchase price originally paid by you for the
Software. The Company shall not be liable to you in respect of any Event of Default for loss of data,
information, profits or goodwill (whether such loss is direct or indirect) or any type of special indirect or
consequential loss (including loss or damage suffered by you as a result of an action brought by a third
party) even if such loss was reasonably foreseeable or the Company had been advised of the possibility
of you incurring the same. If a number of Events of Default give rise substantially to the same loss
then they shall be regarded as giving rise to only one claim under this Agreement. The En- tire Liability
of the Company and your exclusive remedy under the warranty provided herein will be to attempt to
correct or work around errors, to replace the Software or to refund the purchase price and terminate
this Agreement. This remedy is subject to return of the Software to the Company.

Indemnities
You shall indemnify the Company, and keep the Company fully and effectively indemnified on demand
from and against any and all losses, claims, damages, costs, charges, expenses, liabilities, demands,
proceedings and actions which the Company may sustain or incur, or which may be brought or
established against the Company by any person, which in any case arise out of or in relation to, or by
reason of:- any breach by you of your obligations under this Agreement; any alteration, modification,
adjustment or enhancement made by you to VRAYforC4D; or any combination, connection, operation
or use of VRAYforC4D with any other equipment, software or documentation not supplied by the
Company.

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Termination
This License is effective until terminated. You may terminate this License at any time by destroying the
Software, related documentation and all copies thereof. This license will terminate immediately without
notice from the authorized publisher if you fail to comply with any provision of this License. Upon
termination you must destroy the Software and related documentation and all copies thereof.

Entire Agreement
The Company shall not be liable to you for loss arising from or in connection with any representations,
agreements, statements or undertakings made prior to the date of execution of this Agreement other
than those representations, agreements, statements or undertakings confirmed by a duly authorized
representative of the Company in writing or expressly incorporated or referred to in this Agreement.

Law
Any controversy, claim or dispute that cannot be so resolved shall be settled by final binding
arbitration in accordance with the rules of the World Arbitration Association, and judgment upon the
award rendered by the arbitrator or arbitrators may be entered in any court having jurisdiction thereof.
Any such arbitration shall be conducted in the city where the Company’s headquarters are located (A-
1040 Vienna, Austria).

Cinema 4s is a registered trademarks of Maxon Computer (www.maxon.net), VRAYforC4D software, VRAYforC4D logo and VRAYforC4D
documentation belong to LAUBlab_Vienna (in Cooperation with Renato Tarabella). V-Ray belongs to Chaos group (www.chaosgroup.com) All other
brand names, product names, or trademarks belong to their respective holders.

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Change Log
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Change Log m
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VRAYforC4D Version 1.1


Bugs Fixes

· Fixed Global Option to disable lights doesn't work


· Fixed Global Option to disable shadows (didn't work for the Physical Sun)
· Fixed Global Option to disable displacement doesn't work
· Fixed Light Dome HDRI texture mapping crash
· Fixed Incorrect sampling for the irradiance map when the "Adaptation only" option for the color
mapping is on
· Fixed Incorrect render progress report with light cache
· Fixed Incorrect behaviour of Region render option in the VrayBridge panel
· Fixed UV offsets ghosted in every Environment setting if Frontal mapping used in Background
· Fixed Vray tags problems with some modelling tools like "Stich and Sew" and "Bridge"
· Fixed Light Cache calculation when used in flythrough mode
· Fixed Textures multipliers and mix mode not working properly
· Fixed Displacement not working properly with UVW projection
· Fixed Black background rotating the material preview scene
· Fixed Decals not working with stacked materials (just use in the material weight a plain 24 bit,
without alpha, black and white texture as alpha)
· Fixed SSS when used with the Diffuse2 layer

Changes
· Bucket method set to triangulation as default
· Affect shadow in Refraction Layer set to on by default
· All new way to save GI and Caustics calculation files. Now just choose the filename, no need for the
extension (it will be automatically added as irMap or lcMap or phMap or caMap). Just remember to do
a save project before to save these files.
· Vignetting parameter in VrayPhysicalCamera is now adjustable from 0 to 1.

Enhancement
· Improved sampling in the DMC sampler
· Improved handling of smoothed normals at grazing camera angles;
· Enabled values above 1 for the Volume Amount under the Refraction layer of the Vraymaterial
· The ISO setting in the VrayPhysicalCamera tag can now be set higher than 1600
· The handles for Area lights and Spot Lights can now be manipulated from the viewport
· Impressive speed-up in exporting scenes with a lot of objects. Now you can export 20.000 objects in
few seconds.

New Features

· Added VrayBridge 64bit


· Added Native Cinema4D Materials support (reflection and refraction channels don't work)
· Added Vray2SidedMaterial
· Added VrayBlendMaterial (you can now stack materials on polygon selections)
· Added MaterialMatte option in VrayMaterial
· Added "Soft Edges" option in VrayMaterial under Specular Layers
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· Added New Antialiasing FIlter (Area, Catmull, Gaussian) and enhanced some of the old ones
· Added Default surface color Option when object has no material
· Added Full "Material Override"
· Added "Min paths per samples" for the light cache computation
· Added "Override LC subdivision" option for the light cache computation (with, relative to image size,
7 step sample/ratio)
· Added All new OpenGL materials preview
· Added "Object Visibility" option (animatable) to VrayCompositing tag
· Added "Vertical Split" (act as default option) for Split/Region under the Vray System tab of the
VrayBridge panel
· Added Options in the VrayLight tag under the SunLight tab so Physical Sky doesn't override
Environment options
· Added Option to in the VrayBridge panel under the Environment tab to enable/disable the way BG
Env affect GI Env.
· Added White Balance presets to the VrayPhysicalCamera tag
· Added Fixed exposure increments for F-stop, Shutter speed and ISO
· Added Store current exposure to compensate for motionblur or dof effects (and mantain correct
exposure)
· Added Object ID parameter in the VrayCompositing tag for Multipass
· Added Generate/Recieve GI and Caustics in the VrayCompositing tag
· Added VrayDisplaceMaterial to replace the now old VrayDisplacement tag
· Added VrayCamera and VrayPhysicalCamera MotionBlur
· Added Object MotionBlur, also full Rotational MB (for non-deformed objects only at the moment)
· Added RGB displacement
· Added Scene units now selectable from the VrayBridge Panel
· Added Photometric light scale parameter to compensate exposure for non physical camera renders
· Added On rendering Subdivision surfaces render (using the VrayDisplaceMaterial)
· Added VrayProxy support, also with auto generating proxy objects.
· Added Normal map support to the Bump layer in the VrayMaterial
· Added Roughness parameter to the Diffuse Layer of the VrayMaterial
· Added Sky Intensity Multiplier parameter to the Physical Sky
· Added Affect Diffuse/Specular/Reflections for lights (Affect Reflections only with the VrayLight tag)

VRAYforC4D Version 1.0876


Bugs Fixes

· Fixed Infinity light smooth shadows bug.


· Fixed the problem that save uncompleted frames.

Enhancement

· Parallel/perspective rendering Viewport correct.


· Much faster buckets redraw.
· New installer for Windows and Osx.

New Features

· Added Physical Camera support in perspective Viewport not associated with a camera.
· Added Sun intensity parameters for both the Physical and Standard Camera (the renderer choose it
automatically).
· Added Options to override Cinema Field of View to support FOV from 0 to 360 degree.
· Added Frontal projection map for the Environment maps.

VRAYforC4D Version 1.0821


· Some little entrenchments inside and the compatibility with Xp64.

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VRAYforC4D Version 1.082
Bugs Fixes

· Fixed Distance threshold bug in Irradiance Map


· Fixed Filter on/off bug
· Fixed Light Dome Photon emit radius
· Fixed Cinema 4D R10.5 VrayBridge panels scaling bug

Changes

· Changed Color Mapping nomenclature


· Changed some default values
· Number of passes in LC now defaults to CPU number

New Features

· Added native Vray Multipass render


· Added VrayCameraDome tag
· Added Override Material in global option
· Added Camera Clipping Planes
· Added Camera Geometry Clipper
· Added Clamp level parameter in Color Mapping
· Added Light Dome rotations
· Added Environment U and V offsets
· Added Specular Anisotropy textures
· Added some options in the stamp rendering informations

VRAYforC4D Version 1.05


· Fixed Infinite light behavior, now can effectively use the intensity parameter both from Cinema's light
panel and the VrayLight tag.

VRAYforC4D Version 1.04


Bugs Fixes
· Fixed Photometric lights (now there's perfect values conversion from the various photometric units)
for even more realistic light diffusion.
· Fixed Spot light cone angle and penumbra angle to conform to Cinema spot light render
· Fixed multiple render settings bug

New Features
· Added Shadow color parameter in the VrayLight tag

VRAYforC4D Version 1.03


· Fixed the bug on the DMC AA that always set to 0.0 the threshold.

VRAYforC4D Version 1.02


Bugs Fixes

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· Fixed Alpha support for textures.

Enhancement

· New Fine tuned GI Presets.


· Changed the Illumination Panel in the VrayMaterial in "OGL Textures" (the unuseful Cinema GI
settings are gone).

New Features
· Added Hair polygon shader support (from Hair module)
· Added Adaptive DMC Threshold parameter in the VrayBridge Antialiasing panel.
· Added Adaptation Only option in the VrayBridge Color Mapping panel.
· Added Color coded icon to better visualize the VrayBridge tags

VRAYforC4D Version 1.01


· Net render now is working good
· Corrected the behavior of the light when using the photometric units

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VRAYforC4D Features
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VRAYforC4D Features m
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The VRAYforC4D rendering system has many advanced features; here only some of them are listed.
For a full list of all VRAYforC4D modules and options, please see the help index. Note that all features
are subject to change without special notice. All VRAYforC4D changes for that moment you can see
here.

· Full Vray 1.6 core standalone integration in to Cinema4D


· Windows and OSX versions
· 32bit and 64bit versions
· Unlimited Cinema4D NET Render support per one license.
· Efficient shading system specifically optimized for ray-tracing
· Fully multithreaded, even in material preview.
· Supports unlimited cpu`s and cores per workstation, scales extreme on multi core machines
· Efficient geometry handling
· True instance rendering
· On-demand dynamic geometry creation
· On-demand geometry loading from disk files
· Displacement mapping
· Three different image sampling methods
· Full-scene antialiasing
· Progressive path tracing
· Support for additional render elements (diffuse, reflection, GI etc)
· Advanced color (tone) mapping controls
· Physically accurate full global illumination solutions
· Different GI algorithms: path tracing, irradiance cache, photon maps, light cache
· Reusable GI solutions for accelerated rendering of walk-through animations and animations with
dynamic objects
· Physically accurate area lights
· Compatible with IES lights
· Efficient illumination from HDR environments
· Physical sun & sky
· Complete support of Cinema4D shaders
· Physically plausible materials
· Blurry reflections/refractions
· Accurate highlights
· Sub-surface scattering
· Support for efficient material layering
· Real Microdisplacement
· Depth-of-field with bokeh effects
· Accurate motion blur
· Physical camera
· Multipass render
· Compositing tag support
· Camera Clipper
· Vray Proxy support
· Volume Lights support
· HAIR module of Cinema4D supported
· Xref support in 10.5

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About Info
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About Info m
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About Vray
Vray is one of the very high end available render systems out there. Almost the whole architectural
Visualization business changed to Vray over the last years and the trend is ongoing, but not only
architects, also product designer and other areas jumped on the train. After its enormous success on
the market V-Ray has become also the renderer of choice in big production studios across the world.
Feature film productions, multi-million dollar game productions have trusted their visuals to V-Ray.
The huge success of Vray might be a combination of wonderful GI light-distribution at unbeaten speed
(also for GI animation), solid, high quality shaders, very nice antialiasing and a very intelligent but yet
easy workflow. its is also a very, very stable application.

For those who don`t want long explanations, here also a short description;-) :

It’s good

it’s fast

it’s stable.

About Manual
This Manual is the first incarnation. We will improve and expand it regularly.

If there is any information you can’t find please use the official vrayforc4d forum or unofficial vrayc4d
site ;-). We try to answer it there. But please read the manual before thoroughly;-) As a second
training and learning option we also offer some on-line videos to show you how to start in VRAYforC4D.

As for the language please consider we are no native English speakers, there might be errors in it, but
we hope you understand all parts. For the first version the Manual is in English only, if the demand is
high we might let localize it for certain languages. If you found any errors in manual, please send email
to gantonr@gmail.com, thank you.

The manual will not cover the c4d specific workflow, please use the Cinema4d documentation from
Maxon for c4d related aspects. We assume that you have basic knowledge of cinema 4d already.

About Us
We are a very small but efficient development team of people, - C4d Users and Programmers. We are
responsible for the planning, conception, programming and marketing of VRAYforC4D.

The Project is lead by C4d User and Architect Stefan Laub, the programming itself is lead by Renato
Tarabella with Daniele Ficini as our render and shader developer specialist, without his great help the
project would not have developed in such a great way. Also we have very good group of beta testers,
who also helps us very much to make vrayc4d best render engine for Cinema4D ever.

The VRAYforC4D team are responsible for all parts of the VRAYforC4d plugin.

For the rendercore of Vray (Vray SDK 1.6) Chaosgroup is held responsible, for all parts regarding
Cinema4d or Bodypaint3D Maxon Computer is held responsible.

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A big Thank goes to Vlado from Chaosgroup, without him this project would not exist, and also to
Maxon Computer for providing us with internal information and help to make to most deep integration
into Cinema 4d!

The project is initiated & owned by LAUBlab_KG (www.laublab.com ) placed in Vienna, Austria. It is
produced in partnership with Renato Tarabella (www.tarabella.it) and Daniele Ficini
(www.danieleficini.com)

We hope the Users will have as much fun as we have with vrayforc4d:-)

With Best Greetings from Stefan, Renato, Daniele and all members of VRAYforC4D team.

About the project VRAYforC4D


As a C4D users ourselves we were wishing for the great Vray Render engine to be available for our
preferred platform Maxon Cinema 4D & Bodypaint 3D.

We hoped that some “higher authority” will start to do “THE” thing. Nothing happened. So after one
and a half year of waiting Stefan decided something had to be done...after several calls to Maxon, to
Chaosgroup and some emails to Vlado the agreements where fixed, VRAYforC4D as born.

We teamed up with the well-known cinema4d plugin programmer Renato Tarabella, to be sure quality
is on our side...

Both Maxon and Vlado promised us help as much as possible with the sdk, shaders etc...

Vlado nicely provided us with the up to date sdk of Vray, so we use the same render core as Vray for
3d Max.

We initially planned to make a raw exporter plugin bridge to the Vray standalone, also we decided to
make an open development, so we made our development plan public very early the worldwide
reaction was overwhelming and many users supported us with they preorder emails from around the
world.

Due to this heavy demand we decided to expand the project to become a fully integrated render
solution for Cinema4d, also we decided to make not a clone of 3DMax Vray, but to make a very “C4D-
native” Vray version, to combine the best from both worlds.

To have a render system that uses the ultimate render quality and speed of Vray along with Cinema4D
great Interface, easy of use, and last not least the well known and mighty c4d procedural, layered
shader system, we support almost all native c4d shaders and even most 3rd party shader plugins
already in first release!

So after 14th month of development we are very proud to present a very high grade professional
render system, that supports already in version 1.0 most aspects of vray for 3dmax that needed years
to develop (see also vrayforc4d feature list for all details). The already planned updates will adds in
addition to the NETRender support the Vray “DR” - distributed rendering, Vray Proxies, and the vray
shaders in addition to the c4d shading system, among other new not yet announced vray features.

The VRAYforC4D engine will get regular updates and will expand even further. Our goal is to deliver
one of the best Vray platforms available.

About software development


Our goal was to make a really stable software that meets the well known stability of Maxon Cinema4d.
Already version 1.0 proved to be extreme stable in testing thanks to the well programming of Renato
Tarabella, Daniele Ficini and of course Vlado from Chaosgroup. The Combination of Vray + Cinema4D
might be already the most stable vray render environment available today.

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Many professional beta testers worldwide tested all stages of the development, also a big “Thank You”
to all our great beta testers we have!

So will the software have bugs? - Yes of course, if someone is honest we have to realize that there is
no software without bugs out there.

But we are confident that we have rather few for a version 1.0, we tried to minimize them as much as
possible, and even more important we are committed to react fast on any possibly found bugs and fix
them as fast as we can, there is the official vrayforc4d forum (www.vrayforc4d.com/forum, where you
can post any bugs, irregularities, feature wishes or suggestion to us:-)

LAUBlab and the developers will be there regularly and check and answer your posts.

How about updates? We will already plan the next version of Vray and we will also incorporate all
future Vray core updates made by Chaosgroup and/or Maxon to keep VRAYforC4D on most recent
standards and compatible with the newest Cinema versions.

Furthermore we will expand the VrayforC4d to become even more advanced and versatile, we want to
have and keep it one the best renderengine available for Cinema4d. We see the Vray future very bright
:-)

Notes
· We can only give an estimation on future updates, as some parts depend on Maxon & Chaosgroup
sdk, so features of version 1.1.x & 1.2 are subject to change, check the www.vrayforc4d.com
webpage for recent news.

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Activating VrayforC4D
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Activating VrayforC4D m
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Very important User information


After payment You have to send Your first 11 digits of Cinema4D Serial Number to
register@vrayforc4d.com along with your full name, address, phone number and a valid email address
to get the license key file, to receive the installation files, and to registered as valid user in our
database, if any part of this is missing we cannot process your license!

Important: in any case you have to register with this data at register@vrayforc4d.com
otherwise your license will not be valid and you are not legible for future updates. Even if
you get some or all parts of the software and/or a license key file already, but forget to
register at register@vrayforc4d.com, your license will not be legal!

Once you are registered you get a registration email from register@vrayforc4d.com with a personal
code. Print and keep this email at a save place. without this confirmation of registration you will not be
able to get future updates and your license will expire.

Due to the massive spam mails these times in email we have to introduce some rules with email
communication: it is quite easy if you follow these guide lines the emais will be read by us: you must
use the word "vray" in the title of the email. all emails that have no "vray" in title will be filtered, we
hope you understand this, it is to make a better communication with our users possible, if for any case
the mail contact doesn't work, feel free to call us by phone, the number you find also in our website,
we are normally reachable from monday to friday from 9h to 18h european time.

Installation Instructions
For installation please read the “read me.txt” file provided in the installation folder. Follow the
instructions carefully, otherwise the product will not run correct or will be unstable.
If you need help for installation please visit the official VRAYForC4D Web Forum under
www.vrayforc4d.com/forum

Activation within Cinema 4d 10


After installation you can activate VRAYforC4D as renderengine under:
Render settings tab - Effects tab : Add effect “Vraybridge”.

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When you have activated Vray all renderings done in c4d will be made by the Vray rendercore. This
works in the perspective Camera Viewport and in the picture viewer, and in the interactive region
render.

Activation within Cinema 4d 11


After installation you can activate VRAYforC4D as renderengine under:
Render settings tab - Effects tab : Add effect “Vraybridge”.

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When you have activated Vray all renderings done in c4d will be made by the Vray rendercore. This
works in the perspective Camera Viewport and in the picture viewer, and in the interactive region
render. In Cinema4D 11 you now can choose Vray from General Tab of Render Settings like any other
build-in render engine.

Notes
· You can make Vray the default engine when you start C4d by saving a file (that file must has Vray
already activated in render settings) called “new.c4d” in the main Cinema4d installation folder.

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Overview
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Interface
Here You can see 2 VRAYforC4D scenes in Cinema4d as an screenshot:

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As you can see VRAYforC4D looks very much as the usual Advanced Render Workflow. The Material
and Render Settings are a bit different of course due to the other features and the more option.

You can render in the perspective Viewport and in the picture viewer juts as in normal c4d. All light,
camera, material and tag settings can be adjusted in the C4D Attribute manager. The material can be
also adjusted in the C4D Material manager, as the Vray material has is very mighty i suggest using the
advanced Cinema Material editor to have best view of all Material adjustments.

All render settings are concentrated in the Vraybridge render setting tabs. You find them under
Render Setting - Effects - VrayBridge.

Render Settings
All main VRAYforC4D specific adjustments are concentrated here in the VRAYforC4D Render settings.
You can adjust the Antialiasing, turn on Global Illumination (GI), choose and combine several GI
Methods, adjust color mapping etc.

We tried the best to make the default settings already good for you. Basically it can be enough to just
turn on “GI” on GI Tab, add light & materials and render your scene.

In reality you will want to make all fine tuning and adjustments. Also all professionals find here very
details settings to adjust all to their needs. Users that have some knowledge of other VRAYforC4D
version like the 3d max version will find the settings very familiar;-)

VRAYforC4D Material
The VRAYforC4D Material behaves just like a normal C4d Material. It shows in the normal C4d material
manager.
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We recommend using the C4d material manager over the Attribute Manager as the VRAYforC4D
material is very powerful and therefore has many many settings.

However the attribute manager of course is also possible to use, it just has a more dense appearance
and you might need to scroll more to see all setting options.

The VRAYforC4D BRDF material in the Cinema4d material editor:

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For rendering with the VRAYforC4D render engine You can use the VRAYforC4D BRDF Materials or use
native Cinema4D materials, also you can convert c4d materials to vray with one click converter, see
page about it)

Within the VRAYforC4D Material you can use almost all (98%) c4d shaders and even most “normal” 3rd
party shaders, like the great EnhanceC4D Shaders p.e., it also supports the powerfully c4d layer
shader, and the projector shader to apply different projections per shader.

The VRAYforC4D BRDF is a layered material system. Each layer has its own transparency mask.

For high glossy and laquere materials like car shaders, coatings etc. we have implemented 5 specular-
glossy layers. They can blended and mixed together, each with different reflections, anisotropy and
specular.

For a detailed explanation of the materials setting go to Vray Material section.

Assigning Materials
To apply a VRAYforC4D material to Your objects and Scene just use the normal C4d workflow you are
used to.

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You can drag and drop it p.e. to the object manager or directly to the objects in the Viewport, or use
the apply command....

A VRAYforC4D material can be applied to objects or to object groups. it uses the visibility buttons of
the object manger.

Multiple VRAYforC4D Materials, each with different UVWs can be stacked like c4d Materials, and they
can also be applied to saved polygon selections on an object, just like the normal c4d materials. Also
all tools for tags and material tags work as normal in c4d.

The UVW projection for each material tag is adjusted in the Attribute manager of Cinema4d in an
identical way as the c4d materials. in fact all UVW projections are handled natively by Cinema4d or
Bodypaint.

Please consult the Cinema4d documentation about the UVW Projections if you are new to Cinema4d.

VRAYforC4D Tags
VRAYforC4D uses the native Cinema 4d Lights and Cameras.

To have access to advanced VRAYforC4D features there are VRAYforC4D tags available for your choice:

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Tags VRAYforC4D Tag Name Description
VrayCompositing Similar to C4d Compositing.

VrayDisplacement For Micropolydisplacement, uses the UVW of the first


Material Tag.
VrayPhysicalCamera To use the wide settings of the VRAYforC4D physical
camera.
VrayLight Transformed the normal c4d light into the powerful
physical VRAYforC4D lights, to use the physical Sun and
Sky system, IES lights, photometric lights...
VrayMotionBlur To use VRAYforC4D Motion Blur

VrayCameraDome To use the Dome Light ability with VRAYforC4D.

VrmeshExporter Quick vray proxy mesh creating from c4d mesh.

Stack and Mix VRAYforC4D Materials


VRAYforC4D Materials can be stacked similar to C4d Materials. For now no selection tags supported on
stacking, so if one want to stack same material more than once on same obects you must use
instances (copies) of this material to see all stacked materials. You can also use Vray Blend Material to
achieve the similar effect.

Apply Materials, Check Mix Textures.

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Result.

The stacking order goes from left to right, so the most right material is the most on top. In the
materials you want to blend with the one below.

This is a blend of a glossy gray solid material in frontal mapping projection with a layered material
weight. it uses a B/W gradient mixed with a ornamental shader from Enhanced c4d shader set (Chris
from 3d attack.com). This material is blended to a Glass with transparency, sharp reflection, refraction
and volume-transparency with spherical UVW mapping.

How it works? - you simple have to activate “mix” materials that use material weight, thats it!

This is also good for making “decals” (sticker on bottle, text on glass, et.). unlimited materials can be
stacked or blended for almost unlimited possibilities.....

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Options
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Search Keywords: global options

General
The Options allow you to control various aspects of the renderer globally.

Parameters
Geometry

Displacement - enables (default) or disables VRAYforC4D's own displacement mapping.

Scene units - here you can setup scene units, it madded for quick setup, and to save parameters with
file.

Lighting

Lights - enables or disables lights globally.

Hidden lights - enables or disables the usage of hidden lights. When this is checked, lights are
rendered regardless of whether they are hidden or not. When this option is off, any lights that are
hidden for any reason (either explicitly or by type) will not be included in the rendering.

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Shadows - enables or disables shadows globally.

Show GI only - when this option is on, direct lighting will not be included in the final rendering. Note
that lights will still be considered for GI calculations, however in the end only the indirect lighting will
be shown.

Photometric scale - this parameter allow to compensate exposure for non physical camera renders.

Indirect illumination

Don't render final image - when this option is on, VRAYforC4D will only calculate the relevant global
illumination maps (photon maps, light maps, irradiance maps). This is a useful option if you are
calculating maps for a fly-through animation.

Materials

Reflection/Refraction - enables or disables the calculation of reflections and refractions in


VRAYforC4D maps and materials.

Max depth - enables the user to limit globally the reflection/refraction depth. When this is unchecked,
the depth is controlled locally by the materials/maps. When this option is checked, all materials and
maps use the depth specified here.

Maps - enables or disables texture maps.

Filter maps - enables or disables texture map filtering. When enabled, the depth is controlled locally
by the settings of the texture maps. When disabled, no filtering is performed.

Max transparency levels - this controls to what depth transparent objects will be traced.

Transparency cutoff - this controls when tracing of transparent objects will be stopped. If the
accumulated transparency of a ray is below this threshold, no further tracing will be performed.

Glossy effects - this option allows the user to replace all glossy reflections in the scene with non-
glossy ones; useful for test renderings.

Override material - this option allows the user to override the scene materials when rendering. All
objects will be rendered with the chosen material, if one is selected, or with Default surface color
materials if no material is specified.

Overriding material- this option allows to choose material that will be use for overriding scene
materials. Just drag and drop here vray material from Materials Manager.

Default surface color - color that replace all the scene materials when rendering.

Raytracing

Secondary rays bias - a small positive offset that will be applied to all secondary rays; this can be
used if you have overlapping faces in the scene to avoid the black splotches that may appear.

Geometry back face cull - enables or disables (default) back face culling for camera and shadow
rays. When this option is on, the surfaces of objects which are turned away from the camera (or the
light source, when tracing shadows) will appear fully transparent. This allows to look inside closed
objects when the camera is outside.

Cinema4D Volumetrics Effects

Volumetric Effects (experimental) - turning this option on will allow you to use Volumetric Effect
on Lights in VRAYforC4D. For use it you must also enable it in Cinema4D Light Common Options.

Miscellaneous options
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Optimized atmospheric evaluation - turning this option on will cause VRAYforC4D to first evaluate
the atmospheric effects, and shade the surface behind them only if the atmospherics are sufficiently
transparent.

Low thread priority - turning this on will cause VRAYforC4D to use threads of lower priority when
rendering.

Stamp Vray informations - the frame stamp is a convenient way to put some short text over the
rendered images. It can be useful in many ways - for example, in network rendering, to quickly
determine which frames were rendered by which machine. The frame stamp is one line of text, which
appears at the bottom of the image.

Total Triangles - the number of unique intersectable primitives, such as a triangle, generated for the
current scene.

Label - here you enter the text you wish to appear in the images.

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Image Sampler (Antia-aliasing)
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General
Antialiasing is one of the most important things for good digital produced images or animations.Vray
has one of the best and most robust AA solutions available. In VRAY the antialiasing again is not just a
thing that gets applied after shading but the whole engine is connected to the image and DMC
Samplers.

The same power that gives the GI engine its quality is also used for Images sampling. Therefore
sometimes image sampling (Antialiasing) is used in vray also to support GI and glossy reflections. so
all setup is party connected, specially the adaptive DMC method.
Why do we need AA in renderings? - in real word cameras or in the human eye the light goes through
more or less perfect lenses. those lenses and also the air filter the light and compensate extreme
contrast between near points. also analog methods are not bound to pixels and therefore do not have
to problem of pixel stepping when images do not have enough resolution or of very tiny and fine
structures have to be rendered.

Vray can render ultra fine lines, by oversampling an image in an intelligent and still fast way. for areas
that don`t need much antialiasing vray can use under sampling - negative values - at the same time,
depending on the method, this highly adaptive AA can give ultra crisp and still still soft results at
reasonable render times. i believe one aspect of the high image quality in vray is not only the great GI
engine but also the wonderful AA quality.

In vray you can use values like 100x AA with Adaptive DMC Sampling (with universal setting p.e.) and
still get ok render times. such extreme values wont be used all time, but they show the power behind.
still high settings like 4x16x can be used at ultra high speeds for superb image quality. also i noted
that images with good AA can be scaled up much better than “normal” 3d images, so it might pay to
invest in learning the AA engine and use good quality settings.

In VRAYforC4D, an image sampler refers to an algorithm for sampling and filtering the image function,
and producing the final array of pixels that constitute the rendered image.

VRAYforC4D implements several algorithms for sampling an image. You can choose between Fixed
rate sampler, Adaptive DMC sampler and Adaptive subdivision sampler. Which is the fastest
depends very much on the scene and on the settings of GI, Materials etc.

Parameters

Image sampler

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Type - specifies the image sampler type:

Fixed - this sampler always takes the same number of samples per pixel;

Adaptive DMC - this sampler takes a variable number of samples per pixel depending on the
difference in the intensity of the pixels;

Adaptive subdivision - this sampler divides the image into an adaptive grid-like structure and refines
depending on the difference in pixel intensity.

Antialiasing filter

Various filter can be applied, there are sharpening methods and blurring filters, depending on what you
need. for still images you might want to use sharpen filters,for animation make sure to use soften
filters!

Fixed rate sampler

This is the simplest image sampler,


and it takes a fixed number of samples for each pixel.

Subdivision - determines number of samples per pixel. When this is set to 1, one sample at the
center of each pixel is taken. If this is greater than 1, the samples are distributed within the pixel. The
actual number of pixels is the square of this parameter (e.g. 4 subdivisions produce 16 samples per
pixel).

Note: that due to clamping of samples to the [black, white] range for the RGB color channel, sometimes this sampler can produce darker results
when used with blurry effects. The solution in this case is to increase the subdivisions for the blurry effect, or to use the Real RGB color channel.
.

Adaptive DMC sampler

This sampler makes a variable number of samples per pixel based on the difference in intensity
between the pixel and its neighbors.

This is the preferred sampler for images with lots of small details and/or blurry effects (DOF, motion
blur, glossy reflections etc). It also takes up less RAM than the Adaptive subdivision sampler.
Note: that due to clamping of samples to the [black, white] range for the RGB color channel, sometimes this sampler can produce darker results
when used with blurry effects. The solution in this case is to increase the subdivisions for the blurry effect, or to use the Real RGB color channel.
.

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Min subdivision - determines the initial (minimum) number of samples taken for each pixel. You will
rarely need to set this to more than 1, except if you have very thin lines that are not captured
correctly, or fast moving objects if you use motion blur. The actual number of pixels is the square of
this number (e.g. 4 subdivisions produce 16 samples per pixel).

Max subdivision - determines the maximum number of samples for a pixel. The actual maximum
number of sampler is the square of this number (e.g. 4 subdivisions produces a maximum of 16
samples). Note that VRAYforC4D may take less than the maximum number of samples, if the
difference in intensity of the neighboring pixels is small enough.

Threshold - the threshold that will be used to determine if a pixel needs more samples.

Adaptive subdivision sampler

This is an advanced image sampler


capable of under sampling (taking less than one sample per pixel). In the absence of blurry effects
(direct GI, DOF, glossy reflection/refraction etc) this is the best preferred image sampler in
VRAYforC4D. On average it takes fewer samples (and thus less time) to achieve the same image
quality as the other image samplers. However, with detailed textures and/or blurry effects, it can be
slower and produce worse results than the other two methods.

Also note that this sampler takes up more RAM than the other two samplers - see the Notes below.

Min. rate - controls minimum number of samples per pixel. A value of zero means one sample per
pixel; -1 means one sample every two pixels; -2 means one sample every 4 pixels etc.

Max. rate - controls maximum number of samples per pixel; zero means one sample per pixel, 1
means four samples, 2 means eight samples etc.

Jitter - displaces the samples slightly to produce better antialiasing of nearly horizontal or vertical.

Threshold - determines the sensitivity of the sampler to changes in pixel intensity. Lower values will
produce better results, while higher values will be faster, but may leave some areas of similar intensity
under sampled.

Object outline - this will cause the image sampler to always super sample object edges (regardless of
whether they actually need to be super sampled). This option has no effect if DOF or motion blur is
enabled.

Material ID - uses the material id pass (change of material) to antialiasing the transition from one to
the next material on surface.

Normals - this will super sample areas with sharply varying normals. This option has no effect if DOF
or motion blur is enabled.

Normals threshold - this will super sample areas with sharply varying normals. This option has no
effect if DOF or motion blur is enabled.

Z-Value - uses the z-depth pass (change of depth) to super sample the areas where a sudden depth
change occurs.

Z-Value threshold - adjusts the threshold of the above depth sampler.

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Notes
· Which sampler to use for a given scene? The answer is best found with experiments, but here are
some tips:

o For smooth scenes with only a few blurry effects and smooth textures, the Adaptive subdivision
sampler with its ability to under sample the image is unbeatable.

o For images with detailed textures or lots of geometry detail and only a few blurry effects, the
Adaptive DMC sampler performs best. Also in the case of animations involving detailed textures,
the Adaptive subdivision sampler might produce jittering which the Adaptive DMC sampler
avoids.

o For complex scenes with lots of blurry effects and/or detailed textures, the Fixed rate sampler
performs best and is very predictable with regards to the quality and render time.

· A note on RAM usage: image samplers require substantial amount of RAM to store information about
each bucket. Using large bucket sizes may take a lot of RAM. This is especially true for the Adaptive
subdivision sampler, which stores all individual sub-samples taken within a bucket. The Adaptive
DMC sampler and the Fixed rate sampler on the other hand only store the summed result of all
sub-samples for a pixel and so usually require less RAM.

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DMC sampler
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General
Monte Carlo (MC) sampling is a method for evaluating "blurry" values (anitaliasing, depth of field,
indirect illumination, area lights, glossy reflections/refractions, translucency, motion blur etc).
VRAYforC4D uses a variant of Monte Carlo sampling called deterministic Monte Carlo (DMC). The
difference between pure Monte Carlo sampling and deterministic Monte Carlo is that the first uses
pseudo-random numbers which are different for each and every evaluation (and so re-rendering a
single image will always produce slightly different results in the noise), while deterministic Monte Carlo
uses a pre-defined set of samples (possibly optimized to reduce the noise), which allows re-rendering
an image to always produce the exact same result. By default, the deterministic Monte Carlo method
used by VRAYforC4D is a modficiation of Schlick sampling, introduced by Christophe Schlick in 1991
(see the References section below).

Note that there exists a sub-set of DMC sampling called quasi Monte Carlo (DMC) sampling, in which the
samples are obtained from sequences of numbers, called low-discrepancy sequences, which have special
numeric properties. VRAYforC4D, however, does not use this technique.

Instead of having separate sampling methods for each of the blurry values, VRAYforC4D has a single
unified framework that determines how many and what exactly samples to be taken for a particular
value, depending on the context in which that value is required. This framework is called the "DMC
sampler".

The actual number of samples for any blurry value is determined based on three factors:

· The subdivs value supplied by the user for a particular blurry effect. This is multiplied by the Global
subdivs multiplier (see below).

· The importance of the value (for example, dark glossy reflections can do with fewer samples than
bright ones, since the effect of the reflection on the final result is smaller; distant area lights require
fewer samples than closer ones etc). Basing the number of samples allocated for a value on
importance is called importance sampling.

· The variance (think "noise") of the samples taken for a particular value - if the samples are not very
different from each other, then the value can do with fewer samples; if the samples are very
different, then a larger number of them will be necessary to get a good result. This basically works
by looking at the samples as they are computed one by one and deciding, after each new sample, if
more samples are required. This technique is called early termination or adaptive sampling.

For more information on the relationship and effects of these parameters, please refer to the tutorials
section.

Parameters

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Adaptive amount - controls the extent to which the number of samples depends on the importance of
a blurry value. It also controls the minimum number of samples that will be taken. A value of 1.0
means full adaptation; a value of 0.0 means no adaptation.

Noise threshold - controls VRAYforC4D's judgement of when a blurry value is "good enough" to be
used. This directly translates to noise in the result. Smaller values mean less noise, more samples and
higher quality. A value of 0.0 means that no adaptation will be performed.

Global subdivs multiplier - this will multiply all subdivs values everywhere during rendering; you can
use this to quickly increase/decrease sampling quality everywhere. This affects everything, except for
the lightmap, photon map, caustics and aa subdivs. Everything else (dof, moblur, irradiance map,
brute-force GI, area lights, area shadows, glossy reflections/refractions) is affected by this parameter.

Minimum samples - determines the minimum number of samples that must be made before the early
termination algorithm is used. Higher values will slow things down but will make the early termination
algorithm more reliable.

Time independent - when this option is On, the sampling pattern will be the same from frame to
frame in an animation. Since this may be undesirable in some cases, you can turn this option Off to
make the samping pattern change with time. Note that re-rendering the same frame will produce the
same result in both cases.

References
More information on deterministic Monte Carlo sampling for computer graphics can be found from the
sources listed below.

· Schlick, C., 1991, An Adaptive Sampling Technique for Multidimensional Integraton by Ray
Tracing, in Second Eurographics Workshop on Rendering (Spain), pp. 48-56
Describes deterministic MC sampling for antialiasing, motion blur, depth of field, area light sampling
and glossy reflections.

· Masaki Aono and Ryutarou Ohbuchi, November 25, 1996, Quasi-Monte Carlo Rendering with
Adaptive Sampling, IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory Technical Report RT0167, pp.1-5;
online version can be found here
Describes an application of low discrepancy sequences to area light sampling and the global
illumination problem.

· Fajardo, M., August 13, 2001, Monte Carlo Raytracing in Action, in State of the Art in Monte
Carlo Ray Tracing for Realistic Image Synthesis, SIGGRAPH 2001 Course 21, pp. 151-162;
online version can be found here
Describes the ARNOLD renderer employing randomized quasi-Monte Carlo sampling using low
discrepancy sequences for pixel sampling, global illumination, area light sampling, motion blur, depth
of field, etc.

· Veach, E., December, 1997, Robust Monte Carlo Methods for Light Transport Simulation, Ph.
D. dissertation for Stanford University, pp. 58-65
online version can be found here
Includes a description of low discrepancy sequences, quasi-Monte Carlo sampling and its application
to solving the global illumination problem.

· Szirmay-Kalos, L., 1998, Importance Driven Quasi-Monte Carlo Walk Solution of the
Rendering Equation, Winter School of Computer Graphics Conf., 1998
online version can be found here
Describes a two-pass method for solving the global illumination problem employing quasi-Monte
Carlo sampling, as well as importance sampling using low discrepancy sequences.

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Indirect Illumination (GI)
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General
Global Illumination is getting more and more standard today, VRAYforC4D is built from ground up to
not only support it, but to be built directly for using the best GI algorithms around.

But what is GI, and what is it for?

In real world all what we see is possible due to light that travels from the light source to objects and
being reflected by these objects traveling to the next objects etc.

So the light is almost endless reflected from surface to surface. each object has a certain amount of
reflection (only absolute black bodies do not reflect, like a black whole in space). Through reflection we
see colors and light intensity, so basically what we see is all about light.

Classic render engines without GI do not consider the reflection of light, they only calculate the light
between the source and the first surface the light hits - this obviously very unrealistic and can only be
partly compensated by good and skilled artists.

Also the render engines today do not replace the need for an artist of course, but they give a much
more powerful tool to play with light and surface properties, light in CG now behaves very close to how
we see it in nature, and it became much more predictable.

It is reflected between the objects in many bounces, so a room p.e. that has only one window is
automaticly filled with light, also in the parts where the sun beams do not directly hit a surface. Also
luminance in objects or HDRI images add real light to the scene, the VRAYforC4D lights also have a
physical size in space and a physical correct intensity (in real world units) and falloff.

The VRAYforC4D material again is the counterpart to a good GI engine, VRAYforC4D has a highly
advanced BRDF material model that has physical properties for all kind of reflections (mirror and
glossy) and refraction (when light travels through a volume body), both: reflections and refractions can
use an IOR (index of refraction) like most real world materials, and anisotropy like materials with
directional microstructure. The refraction takes volume, depth and surface structure into account and
therefore also can scatter light for things like sandblasted glass, wax, translucent leaves, skin, plastics
etc.

The combination of VRAYforC4D lights, VRAYforC4D brdf materials, and different high end GI
algorithms all together gives the unsurfaced image - and light quality famous in VRAYforC4D.

The human eye is capable of seeing the most fine nuances of color and light, and therefore it is just
good to use the best tools available, VRAYforC4D is one of them, delivering ultra highend quality,
combined with great speed, and still being highly adaptive and versatile, to give the artist the choice to
break the laws of physics where he wants to.

Examples for an image calculation with GI or without GI to see the main difference:

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No Global IIllumination (left image), the light (c4d sun) comes from the light source and hits the
surfaces., no further light transportation is calculated, good for certain cinematographic effects but far
from reality.

With GI Button (right image) simply turned on you see, much more is happening, this is still just one
light source, but also the scattering of the light is calculated within the image, also the areas where the
light does not come to directly gets lit, the shadows are softer (area shadows), also the colors are
different as the blue sky reflects diffuse in to the shadow parts, where the sun is more dominant the
slight yellow sunlight is visible, specially for architects, designers and others that want to have close to
really world light behavior GI can be a big advantage and help.

Approaches to indirect illumination

VRAYforC4D implements several approaches for computing indirect illumination with different trade-
offs between quality and speed:

· Brute force - this is the simplest approach; indirect illumination is computed independently for each
shaded surface point by tracing a number of rays in different directions on the hemisphere above
that point.

Advantages:
o this approach preserves all the detail (e.g. small and sharp shadows) in the indirect lighting;
o it is free from defects like flickering in animations;
o no additional memory is required;
o indirect illumination in the case of motion-blurred moving objects is computed correctly.

Disadvantages:
o the approach is very slow for complex images (e.g. interior lighting);
o it tends to produce noise in the images, which can be avoided only by shooting a larger number of
rays, thus slowing it even more.

· Irradiance map - this approach is based on irradiance caching; the basic idea is to compute the
indirect illumination only at some points in the scene, and interpolate for the rest of the points.

Advantages:
o the irradiance map is very fast compared to direct computation, especially for scenes with large flat
areas;
o the noise inherent to direct computation is greatly reduced;
o the irradiance map can be saved an re-used to speed up calculations of different views for the
same scene and of fly-through animations;
o the irradiance map can also be used to accelerate direct diffuse lighting from area light sources.

Disadvantages:

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o some details in indirect lighting can be lost or blurred due to the interpolation;
o if low settings are used, flickering may occur when rendering animations;
o the irradiance map requires additional memory;
o indirect illumination with motion-blurred moving objects is not entirely correct and may lead to
noise (although in most cases this is not noticeable).

· Photon map - this approach is based on tracing particles starting from the light sources and
bouncing around the scene. This is useful for interior or semi-interior scenes with lots of lights or
small windows. The photon map usually does not produce good enough results to be used directly;
however it can be used as a rough approximation to the lighting in the scene to speed the calculation
of GI through direct computation or irradiance map.

Advantages:
o the photon map can produce a rough approximation of the lighting in the scene very quickly;
o the photon map can be saved an re-used to speed up calculation of different views for the same
scene and of fly-through animations;
o the photon map is view-independent.

Disadvantages:
o the photon map usually is not suitable for direct visualization;
o requires additional memory;
o in VRAYforC4D's implementation, illumination involving motion-blurred moving objects is not
entirely correct (although this is not a problem in most cases).
o the photon map needs actual lights in order to work; it cannot be used to produce indirect
illumination caused by environment lights (skylight).

· Light cache - light caching is a technique for approximating the global illumination in a scene. It is
very similar to photon mapping, but without many of its limitations. The light map is built by tracing
many many eye paths from the camera. Each of the bounces in the path stores the illumination from
the rest of the path into a 3d structure, very similar to the photon map. The light map is a universal
GI solution that can be used for both interior or exterior scenes, either directly or as a secondary
bounce approximation when used with the irradiance map or the brute force GI method.

Advantages:
o the light cache is easy to set up. We only have the camera to trace rays from, as opposed to the
photon map, which must process each light in the scene and usually requires separate setup for
each light.
o the light-caching approach works efficiently with any lights - including skylight, self-illuminated
objects, non-physical lights, photometric lights etc. In contrast, the photon map is limited in the
lighting effects it can reproduce - for example, the photon map cannot reproduce the illumination
from skylight or from standard omni lights without inverse-square falloff.
o the light cache produces correct results in corners and around small objects. The photon map, on
the other hand, relies on tricky density estimation schemes, which often produce wrong results in
these cases, either darkening or brightening those areas.
o in many cases the light cache can be visualized directly for very fast and smooth previews of the
lighting in the scene.

Disadvantages:
o like the irradiance map, the light cache is view-dependent and is generated for a particular position
of the camera. However, it generates an approximation for indirectly visible parts of the scene as
well - for example, one light cache can approximate completely the GI in a closed room;
o currently the light cache works only with VRAYforC4D materials;
o like the photon map, the light cache is not adaptive. The irradiance is computed at a fixed
resolution, which is determined by the user;
o the light cache does not work very well with bump maps; use the irradiance map or brute force GI
if you want to achieve better results with bump maps.
o lighting involving motion-blurred moving objects is not entirely correct, but is very smooth since
the light cache blurs GI in time as well (as opposed to the irradiance map, where each sample is
computed at a particular instant of time).

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Which method to use? That depends on the task at hand.

Primary and secondary bounces

The indirect illumination controls in VRAYforC4D are divided into two large sections: controls
concerning primary diffuse bounces and controls concerning secondary diffuse bounces. A primary bounce
occurs when a shaded point is directly visible by the camera, or through specular reflective or
refractive surfaces. A secondary bounce occurs when a shaded point is used in GI calculations.

It often is very efficient to mix to different engines: one for the primary and one for the secondary
bounces, to have the advantages from both. One engine can be faster for one thing and the other for
another aspect. If you select one or two GI methods you will see that the corresponding GI setting tabs
will be visible, the non chosen GI methods will be hidden for more visible clearness.

VRAYforC4D can combine them in an intelligent way to give you high speed with very high quality at
the same time, also for certain animation types it makes sense to mix fast smooth solutions with
physical accurate ones p.e. Combining 2 engines for primary and secondary GI is actually the standard
way to work in VRAYforC4D.

Parameters

GI on - turn indirect illumination


on and off.

Save Gi Settings - you can save yours GI settings.

Load Gi Settings - you can load previously saved yours GI settings.

Presets - this dropdown list allows you to choose from several presets for some of the irradiance map
parameters. You can use these to quickly set the color, normal and distance thresholds, as well as the
min/max rates. The following presets are available:
· Custom - defines by you.
· Very low Quality - this preset is only useful for preview purposes to show the general lighting in the
scene.
· Low Quality - a low-quality preset for preview purposes.
· Medium Quality - a medium quality preset; works fine in many situations in scenes which have
don't small details.
· Medium animation Quality - a medium quality preset targeted at reducing flickering in animations
- the Distance threshold of Irradiance map is higher.
· High Quality - a high-quality preset that works in most situations, even for scenes with small details
as well as for most animations.
· High animation Quality - a high-quality preset that can be used if the High preset produces
flickering in animations - the Distance threshold of Irradiance map is higher.

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· Very high Quality - a very high quality preset; can be used for scenes with extremely small and
intricate details.
· Unbiased - outstanding quality and outstanding time.

Note that the presets are targeted for a typical 640x480 image. Larger images usually can do with
lower Min/Max rates than those specified in the presets.

GI Caustics

GI caustics represent light that has gone through one diffuse, and one or several specular reflections
(or refractions). GI caustics can can be generated by skylight, or self-illuminated objects, for example.
However, caustics caused by direct lights cannot be simulated in this way. You must use the separate
Caustics section to control direct light caustics. Note that GI caustics are usually hard to sample and
may introduce noise in the GI solution.

Reflective - this allows indirect light to be reflected from specular objects (mirrors etc). Note that this
is not the same as Caustics, which represent direct light going through specular surfaces. This is off by
default, because reflective GI caustics usually contribute little to the final illumination, while often they
produce undesired subtle noise.

Refractive - this allows indirect lighting to pass through transparent objects (glass etc). Note that this
is not the same as Caustics, which represent direct light going through transparent objects. You need
refractive GI caustics to get skylight through windows, for example.

Post-Processing

These controls allow additional modification of the indirect illumination, before it is added to the final
rendering. The default values ensure a physically accurate result; however the user may want to
modify the way GI looks for artistic purposes.

Saturation - controls the saturation of the GI; a value of 0.0 means that all color will be removed
from the GI solution and will be in shades of gray only. The default value of 1.0 means the GI solution
remains unmodified. Values above 1.0 boost the colors in the GI solution.

Contrast - this parameter works together with Contrast base to boost the contrast of the GI solution.
When Contrast is 0.0, the GI solution becomes completely uniform with the value defined by Contrast
base. A value of 1.0 means the solution remains unmodified. Values higher that 1.0 boost the
contrast.

Contrast base - this parameter determines the base for the contrast boost. It defines the GI values
that remain unchanged during the contrast calculations.

Save Maps per Frame - when this option is on, VRAYforC4D will save all GI maps (irradiance map,
photon map, caustic, light maps) if in options they set to Auto-Save.

Primary bounces

Multiplier - this value determines how much primary diffuse bounces contribute to the final image
illumination. Note that the default value of 1.0 produces a physically accurate image. Other values are
possible, but not physically plausible.

GI engine - the list box specifies the method to be used for primary diffuse bounces.

Irradiance map - selecting this will cause VRAYforC4D to use an irradiance map for primary diffuse
bounces. See the Irradiance map section for more information.

Photon map - selecting this option will cause VRAYforC4D to use a photon map for primary diffuse
bounces. This mode is useful when setting up the parameters of the global photon map. Usually it does

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not produce good enough results for final renderings when used as a primary GI engine. See the
Photon map section for more information.

Brute force - selecting this method will cause VRAYforC4D to use direct computation for primary
diffuse bounces. See the brute force section for more information.

Light cache - this chooses the light cache as the primary GI engine. See the Light cache section for
more information.

Secondary bounces

Multiplier - this determines the effect of secondary diffuse bounces on the scene illumination. Values
close to 1.0 may tend to wash out the scene, while values around 0.0 may produce a dark image. Note
that the default value of 1.0 produces physically accurate results. While other values are possible, they
are not physically plausible.

GI engine - this parameter determines how VRAYforC4D will calculate secondary diffuse bounces.

None - no secondary bounces will be computed. Use this option to produce skylight iimages without
indirect color bleeding.

Photon map - selecting this option will cause VRAYforC4D to use a photon map for primary diffuse
bounces. This mode is useful when setting up the parameters of the global photon map. Usually it does
not produce good enough results for final renderings when used as a primary GI engine. See the
Photon map section for more information.

Brute force - selecting this method will cause VRAYforC4D to use direct computation for primary
diffuse bounces. See the Brute force section for more information.

Light cache - this chooses the light cache as the primary GI engine. See the Light cache section for
more information.

Notes
· You will get physically accurate lighting if you set both the primary and secondary GI multipliers to
their default value of 1.0. While other values are possible, they will not produce a physically accurate
result.

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Brute force GI
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General
This section is available only if you have chosen Brute force GI as either the primary or the secondary
GI engine.

The brute force method for computing global illumination recomputes the GI values for every single
shaded point separately and independently from other points. While very slow, this method is very
accurate, especially if you have many small details in the scene.

To speed up brute force GI, you can use a faster method (the photon map or the light map) for
approximating secondary GI bounces, while using the brute force method for the primary bounces or
you can use the OMC engine as the secondary bounce engine to combine and refine a Irradiance Map
GI solution.

Parameters

Subdivision - this determines the


number of samples used to approximate GI. Note that this is not the exact number of rays that
VRAYforC4D will trace. The number of rays is proportional to the square of this number, but also
depends on the settings in the DMC sampler rollout.

Ray depth - this parameter is available only if Brute Force GI is selected as a secondary GI engine. It
controls the number of light bounces that will be computed.

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Irradiance map
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General
This section allows the user to control and fine-tune various aspects of the irradiance map. This section
is enabled only when the irradiance map is chosen as the GI method for primary diffuse bounces.

Some background for understanding how the irradiance map works is necessary in order to grasp the
meaning of these parameters.

Irradiance is a function defined for any point in the 3D space and represents the light arriving at this
point from all possible directions. In general, irradiance is different in every point and in every
direction. However, there are two useful restrictions that can be made. The first is the surface irradiance
- which is the irradiance arriving at points which lie on the surface of objects in the scene. This is a
natural restriction since we are usually interested in the illumination of objects in the scene, and
objects are usually defined through their surface. The second restriction is that of diffuse surface
irradiance - which is the total amount of light arriving at a given surface point, disregarding the
direction from which it comes.

In more simple terms, one can think of the diffuse surface irradiance as being the visible color of a
surface, if we assume that its material is purely white and diffuse.

In VRAYforC4D, the term irradiance map refers to a method of efficiently computing the diffuse surface
irradiance for objects in the scene. Since not all parts of the scene have the same detail in indirect
illumination, it makes sense to compute GI more accurately in the important parts (e.g. where objects
are close to each other, or in places with sharp GI shadows), and less accurately in uninteresting parts
(e.g. large uniformly lit areas). The irradiance map is therefore built adaptively. This is done by
rendering the image several times (each rendering is called a pass) with the rendering resolution being
doubled with each pass. The idea is to start with a low resolution (say a quarter of the resolution of the
final image) and work up to the final image resolution.

The irradiance map is in fact a collection of points in 3d space (a point cloud) along with the computed
indirect illumination at those points. When an object is hit during a GI pass, VRAYforC4D looks into the
irradiance map to see if there are any points similar in position and orientation to the current one.
From those already computed points, VRAYforC4D can extract various information (i.e. if there are any
objects close by, how fast the indirect illumination is varying etc). Based on that information,
VRAYforC4D decides if the indirect illumination for the current point can be adequately interpolated
from the points already in the irradiance map, or not. If not, the indirect illumination for the current
point is computed, and that point is stored in the irradiance map. During the actual rendering,
VRAYforC4D uses a sophisticated interpolation method to derive an approximation of the irradiance for
all surfaces in the scene

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Parameters

Basic parameters

Min rate - this value determines the resolution for the first GI pass. A value of 0 means the resolution
will be the same as the resolution of the final rendered image, which will make the irradiance map
similar to the direct computation method. A value of -1 means the resolution will be half that of the
final image and so on. You would usually want to keep this negative, so that GI is quickly computed for
large and flat regions in the image. This parameter is similar to (although not the same as) the Min
rate parameter of the Adaptive subdivision image sampler.

Max rate - this value determines the resolution of the last GI pass. This is similar to (although not the
same as) the Max rate parameter of the Adaptive subdivision image sampler.

Hemispheric Subdivision - this controls the quality of individual GI samples. Smaller values make
things faster, but may produce blotchy result. Higher values produce smoother images. This is similar
to the Subdivision parameter for direct computation. Note that this is not the actual number of rays
that will be traced. The actual number of rays is proportional to the square of this value and also
depends on the settings in the DMC sampler.

Interpolation samples - this is the number of GI samples that will be used to interpolate the indirect
illumination at a given point. Larger values tend to blur the detail in GI although the result will be

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smoother. Smaller values produce results with more detail, but may produce blotchiness if low
Hemispheric Subdivision are used.

Interpolation frames - this determines the number of frames that will be used to interpolate GI
when the Mode is set to Animation (rendering). In this mode, VRAYforC4D interpolates the
irradiance from the maps of several adjacent frames to help smooth out any flickering. Note that the
actual number of frames used is 2*(interp. frames)+1 - e.g. the default value of 2 means that in
total 5 irradiance maps will be interpolated. Higher values slow down the rendering and may produce
"lagging" effect. Lower values render faster but may increase flickering.

Intensity threshold - this parameter controls how sensitive the irradiance map algorithm is to
changes in indirect lighting. Larger values mean less sensitivity; smaller values make the irradiance
map more sensitive to light changes (thus producing higher quality images).

Normal threshold - this parameter controls how sensitive the irradiance map is to changes in surface
normals and small surface details. Larger values mean less sensitivity; smaller values make the
irradiance map more sensitive to surface curvature and small details.

Distance threshold - this parameter controls how sensitive the irradiance map is to distance between
surfaces. A value of 0.0 means the irradiance map will not depend on object proximity at all; higher
values place more samples in places where objects are close to each other.

Options

Show calc phase - when this option is on, VRAYforC4D will show the irradiance map passes as the
irradiance map is calculated. This will give you a rough idea of the indirect illumination even before the
final rendering is complete. Note that turning this on slows the calculations a little bit, especially for
large images. This option is ignored when rendering to fields - in that case, the calculation phase is
never displayed.

Show direct light - this option is only available when Show calc phase is on. It will cause
VRAYforC4D to show direct lighting for primary diffuse bounces in addition to indirect lighting while the
irradiance map is being calculated. Note that VRAYforC4D does not really need to compute this. The
option is only for convenience. This does not mean that direct lighting is not calculated at all - it is, but
only for secondary diffuse bounces (only for GI purposes).

Show samples - when this option is on, VRAYforC4D will show visually the samples in the irradiance
map as small dots in the scene.

Previsualization mode - 2 modes for choice how the prepass will be shown on screen during
rendering. Normal mode is the preferred one.

Detail enhancement

Detail enhancement is a method for bringing additional detail to the irradiance map in the case where
there are small details in the image. Due to its limited resolution, the irradiance map typically blurs the
GI in these areas or produces splotchy and flickering results. The detail enhancement option is a way
to calculate those smaller details with a high-precision brute-force sampling method. This is similar to
how an ambient occlusion pass works, but is more precise as it takes into account bounced light.

On - turns on detail enhancement for the irradiance map. Note that an irradiance map calculated in
this mode should not be used without the detail option. When detail enhancement is On, you can use
lower irradiance map settings and higher Interpolation samples. This is because the irradiance map
is only used to capture the general far-off lighting, while direct sampling is used for the closer detail
areas.

Subdivs mult. - this determines the number of samples taken for the high-precision sampling as a
percentage of the irradiance map Hemispheric subdivs. A value of 1.0 means that the same number of

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subdivs will be used as for the regular irradiance map samples. Lower values will make the detail-
enhanced areas more noisy, but faster to render.

Scale - this determines the units for the Radius parameter:


Screen - the radius is in image pixels.
World - the radius is in world units.

Screen Radius - this determines the radius for the detail enhancement effect. Smaller radius means
that smaller parts around the details in the image are sampled with higher precision - this would be
faster but may be less precise. Larger radius means that more of the scene will use the higher
precision sampling and may be slower, but more precise. This is similar to a radius parameter for an
ambient occlusion pass.

World Radius - this determines the radius for the detail enhancement effect. Smaller radius means
that smaller parts around the details in the image are sampled with higher precision - this would be
faster but may be less precise. Larger radius means that more of the scene will use the higher
precision sampling and may be slower, but more precise. This is similar to a radius parameter for an
ambient occlusion pass.

Advanced options

Interpolation type - this option is used during rendering. It selects the method for interpolating the
GI value from the samples in the irradiance map.

Weighted average - this method will do a simple blend between the GI samples in the irradiance map
based on the distance to the point of interpolation and the difference in the normals. While simple and
fast, this method tends to produce a blotchiness in the result.

Least squares fit - the default method; it will try to compute a GI value that best fits in among the
samples from the irradiance map. Produces smoother results than the weighted average method, but is
slower. Also, ringing artifacts may appear in places where both the contrast and density of the
irradiance map samples change over a small area.

Delone triangulation - all other methods of interpolation are blurry methods - that is, they will tend
to blur the details in indirect illumination. Also, the blurry methods are prone to density bias (see below
for a description). In difference, the Delone triangulation method is a non-blurry method and will
preserve the detail while avoiding density bias. Since it is non-blurry, the result might look more noisy
(blurring tends to hide noise). More samples will be needed to get a sufficiently smooth result. This can
be done either by increasing the hemispheric subdivs of the irradiance map samples, or by decreasing
the Noise threshold value in the brute force sampler rollout.

Least squares with Voronoi weights - this is a modification of the least squares fit method aimed at
avoiding the ringing at sharp boundaries by taking in consideration the density of the samples in the
irradiance map. The method is quite slow and its effectiveness is currently somewhat questionable.

Although all interpolation types have their uses, it probably makes most sense to use either Least
squares fit or Delone triangulation. Being a blurry method, Least squares fit will hide noise and
will produce a smooth result. It is perfect for scenes with large smooth surfaces. Delone
triangulation is a more exact method, which usually requires more hemispheric subdivs and high Max
irradiance map rate (and therefore more rendering time), but produces accurate results without
blurring. This is especially obvious in scenes where there are a lot of small details.

Sample lookup - this option is used during rendering. It selects the method of choosing suitable
points from the irradiance map to be used as basis for the interpolation.

Nearest - this method will simply choose those samples from the irradiance map which are closest to
the point of interpolation. (How many points will be chosen is determined by the value of the
Interpolation samples parameter.) This is the fastest lookup method and was the only one available
in early versions of VRAYforC4D. A drawback of this method is that in places where the density of the
samples in the irradiance map changes, it will pick more samples from the area with higher density.
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When a blurry interpolation method is used, this leads to the so-called density bias which may lead to
incorrect interpolation and artifacts in such places (mostly GI shadow boundaries).

Nearest quad-balanced - this is an extension of the nearest lookup method aimed at avoiding
density bias. It divides the space about the interpolated point in four areas and tries to find an equal
number of samples in all of them (hence the name quad-balanced). The method is a little slower than
the simple Nearest lookup, but in general performs very well. A drawback is that sometimes, in its
attempt to find samples, it may pick samples that are far away and not relevant to the interpolated
point.

Precalculated overlapping - this method was introduced in an attempt to avoid the drawbacks of the
two previous ones. It requires a preprocessing step of the samples in the irradiance map during which
a radius of influence is computed for each sample. This radius is larger for samples in places of low
density, and smaller for places of higher density. When interpolating the irradiance at a point, the
method will choose every sample that contains that point within its radius of influence. An advantage
of this method is that when used with a blurry interpolation method it produces a continuous (smooth)
function. Even though the method requires a preprocessing step, it is often faster than the other two.
These two properties make it ideal for high-quality results. A drawback of this method is that
sometimes lonely samples that are far-away can influence the wrong part of the scene. Also, it tends
to blur the GI solution more than the other methods.

Density-based - the default method; it combines the Nearest and the Precalculated overlapping
methods and is very effective in reducing ringing artifacts and artifacts due to low sampling rates. This
method also requires a preprocessing step in order to compute sample density, but it performs a
nearest neighbor look-up to choose the most suitable samples while taking sample density in account.

Being the fastest of the three methods, Nearest lookup may be used for preview purposes. Nearest
quad-balanced performs fairly well in the majority of cases. Precalculated overlapping is fast and
in many cases performs very well, but may tend to blur the GI solution. The Density-based method
produces very good results in the majority of cases and is the default method.

Note that the lookup method is mostly important when using a blurry interpolation method. When
using Delone triangulation, the sample lookup method does not influence the result very much.

Calc. pass interpolation samples - this is used during irradiance map calculation. It represents the
number of already computed samples that will be used to guide the sampling algorithm. Good values
are between 10 and 25. Low values may speed the calculation pass, but may not provide sufficient
information. Higher values will be slower and will cause additional sampling. In general, this parameter
should be left to the default value of 15.

Mixed resolution - this is used during irradiance map calculation. When checked, this will cause
VRAYforC4D to use all irradiance map samples computed so far. Unchecking it will allow VRAYforC4D to
use only samples collected during previous passes, but not those computing earlier during the current
pass. Keeping this checked will usually cause VRAYforC4D to take less samples (and therefore compute
the irradiance map faster). That means that on multiprocessor machines, several threads will be
modifying the irradiance map at the same time. Because of the asynchronous nature of this process,
there is no guarantee that the rendering the same image twice will produce the same irradiance map.
Normally this is not a problem at all and it is recommended to keep this option checked.

Randomize samples - this is used during irradiance map calculation. When it is checked, the image
samples will be randomly jittered. Unchecking it will produce samples that are aligned in a grid on the
screen. In general, this option should be kept checked in order to avoid artifacts caused by regular
sampling.

Check sample visibility - this is used during rendering. It will cause VRAYforC4D to use only those
samples from the irradiance map, which are directly visible from the interpolated point. This may be
useful for preventing "light leaks" through thin walls with very different illumination on both sides.
However it will also slow the rendering, since VRAYforC4D will trace additional rays to determine
sample visibility.

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Mode

Mode - this groups of controls allow the user to select the way the irradiance map is (re)used.
Bucket mode - in this mode, a separate irradiance map is used for each rendered region ("bucket").
This is especially useful since it allows the irradiance map computations to be effectively distributed
among several computers when using distributed rendering. Bucket mode can be slower that the
Single frame mode, since an additional border must be computed around each region in order to
reduce edge artifacts between neighboring regions. Even so, there may be such artifacts. They can be
further reduced by using higher settings for the irradiance map (the High preset, more hemispheric
subdivs and/or smaller Noise threshold for the DMC sampler).

Single frame - the default mode; a single irradiance map is computed for the whole image, and a new
irradiance map is computed for each frame. During distributed rendering, each render server will
compute its own full-image irradiance map. This is the mode to use when rendering animations of
moving objects. In doing so one must make sure that the irradiance map is of sufficiently high quality
to avoid flickering.

Multiframe incremental - this mode is useful when rendering a sequence of frames (not necessarily
consecutive) where only the camera moves around (so-called fly-through animations). VRAYforC4D will
compute a new full-image irradiance map for the first rendered frame; for all other frames VRAYforC4D
will try to reuse and refine the irradiance map that has been computed so far. If the irradiance map is
of sufficiently high quality as to avoid flickering, this mode can also be used in network rendering -
each rendering server will compute and refine its own local irradiance map. Note that this mode is not
supported for distributed rendering.

From file - in this mode VRAYforC4D will simply load the irradiance map from the supplied file at the
start of the rendering sequence and will use this map for all the frames in the animation. No new
irradiance map will be computed. This mode can be used for fly-through animations and will work well
in network rendering mode.

Add to current map - in this mode VRAYforC4D will compute a completely new irradiance map and
will add it to the map that is already in memory. This mode is useful when compiling an irradiance map
to render multiple views of a static scene. Note that this mode is not supported for distributed
rendering.

Incremental add to current map - in this mode VRAYforC4D will use the irradiance map that is
already in memory and will only refine it in places that don't have enough detail. This mode is useful
when compiling an irradiance map to render multiple views of a static scene or a fly-through
animation. Note that this mode is not supported for distributed rendering.

Animation (prepass) - in this mode VRAYforC4D calculates irradiance maps to be used later on for
final rendering with the Animation (rendering) mode. One irradiance map is created for each frame
and written into a separate file. Note that in this mode you have to render one map for each frame
(i.e. you cannot render every Nth frame). VRAYforC4D automatically disables rendering of the final
image in this mode - only irradiance map prepasses are calculated.

Animation (rendering) - in this mode VRAYforC4D renders a final animation using irradiance maps
created with the Animation (prepass) mode. Irradiance maps from several adjacent frames are
loaded together and blended so as to reduce flickering. The number of irradiance maps that are
interpolated is determined by the Interp. frames parameter.

The irradiance map mode that should be used depends on the particular rendering task - a static
scene, a static scene rendered from multiple views, a fly-through animation or an animation with
moving objects. Refer to the tutorials section for more information.

Irradiance map control buttons

There are some more buttons in this group that allow one to perform certain operations on the
irradiance map:

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Load file - this button allows the user to select the irradiance map file which will be loaded if the From
file mode is selected. Alternatively, the user can enter the path and name of the file directly in the edit
box.

Save to file - this will save to file the irradiance map which is currently in memory. Note that the
Don't delete option in the On render end group must be turned on. Otherwise VRAYforC4D will
automatically delete the irradiance map at the end of the rendering process.

Save Multiframe File - when using a IRMap method that saves multiple GI solutions in one file such
as “Multiframe incremental” mode here there save path can be set. This is used for animation mostly.

On render end

This group of controls instructs VRAYforC4D what to do with the irradiance map at the end of the
rendering process.

Don't delete - the default for this option is on, which means that VRAYforC4D will keep the irradiance
map in memory until the next rendering. If this option is cleared, VRAYforC4D will delete the irradiance
map when rendering is complete. This means that you will not be able to save the map manually
afterwards.

Auto save - if this option is set, VRAYforC4D will automatically save the irradiance map to the
specified file at the end of the rendering. This mode is particularly useful if you want to send the
irradiance map for rendering on a different machine through network rendering.

Auto save file - this option is only available if the Auto save option is turned on. If Auto save file is
on, then VRAYforC4D will also automatically set the irradiance map mode to From file and will set the
file name to be that of the map that was just saved.

Notes

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Photon mapping
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General
The global photon map is somewhat similar to the irradiance map. It is also used to represent the
lighting in the scene, and it is a collection of points in 3D space (a point cloud). However, the photon
map is built in a different way. It is built by tracing particles (photons) emitted by the scene lights.
Those photons bounce around the scene and hit various surfaces. The hit points are stored in the
photon map.

Reconstructing the illumination from the photon map is also different from the irradiance map. With
the irradiance map, a simple interpolation is used to blend the nearby GI samples. With the photon
map, we need to estimate the photon density at a given point. The idea of density estimation is central
to the photon map. VRAYforC4D can use several methods for density estimation, each with its own
advantages and disadvantages. Usually these methods are based on looking for the photons that are
nearest to the shaded point.

Note that in general, the photon map provides a less accurate approximation of the scene illumination
than the irradiance map, especially when it comes to small details. The irradiance map is built
adaptively, whereas the photon map is not. Also a major disadvantage of the photon map is the
boundary bias. This unwanted effect is mostly visible around corners and object edges, which appear
darker than they should be. The irradiance map can also exhibit boundary bias, however its adaptive
nature allows one to decrease the effect greatly. Another disadvantage of the photon map is that it
cannot simulate illumination from skylight. This is because the photons need an actual surface to be
emitted from. The skylight, at least in VRAYforC4D, is not a surface actually present in the scene.

On the other hand, the photon map is view-independent and can be computed relatively quickly. This
makes it ideal for approximating the scene illumination when used together with more accurate
methods like direct computation or the irradiance map.

Parameters

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Note that the building of the photon map is also controlled by the photon settings of individual lights in
the scene. See the Light settings dialog for more information.

Photon Map

Bounces - this parameter controls the number of light bounces approximated by the photon map.
More bounces produce a more realistic result, but take more time and memory.

Prefilter- his will cause VRAYforC4D to precomputed the irradiance at the photon hit points stored in
the photon map. This allows fewer photons to be used when interpolated the irradiance during
rendering, while keeping the result relatively smooth. It is important to note that the resulting map
stores irradiance, but is not the same as the irradiance cache used by VRAYforC4D for primary diffuse
bounces..

Inter. samples - this controls how many irradiance samples will be taken from the photon map once
it is converted to an irradiance map. Larger values produce smoother results, but may be slower;
smaller values produces more noisy results but rendering is faster.

Auto search distance - when this is on, VRAYforC4D will try to compute a suitable distance within
which to search for photons. Sometimes the computed distance is ok, in other cases it might be too big
(which will slow down the rendering) or too small (which will produce a more noisy result).

Search distance - this option is only available when Auto search dist is off. It allows you to specify
the photon search distance manually. Keep in mind that this value depends on the size of your scene.
Lower values will speed up the rendering but may produce more noisy results. Larger values will slow
down the rendering but may produce smoother results.

Max photons - this option specifies how many photons will be taken into consideration when
approximating the irradiance at the shaded point. More photons mean a smoother (and more blurry)
result and may also slow down the rendering. Smaller values mean a more noisy result but will render
faster. When this value is 0, VRAYforC4D will use all the photons in the given search range.

Max density - this parameter allows you to limit the resolution (and thus the memory) of the photon
map. Whenever VRAYforC4D needs to store a new photon in the photon map, it will first look if there
are any other photons within a distance specified by Max density. If there is already a suitable photon
in the map, VRAYforC4D will just add the energy of the new photon to the one in the map. Otherwise,
VRAYforC4D will store the new photon in the photon map. Using this options allows you to shoot many
photons (and thus get smoother results) while keeping the size of the photon map manageable.

Multiplier - this allows you to control the brightness of the photon map.

Convex hull area estimate - when this is off, VRAYforC4D will use a simplified algorithm for
computing the area, covered by a number of photons (by only taking the distance to the farthest
photon). This algorithm may cause corners to be darker. Using the convex hull area estimate avoids
the dark corners problem, but is slower and not as robust.

Store direct light - when this is on, VRAYforC4D will store direct illumination in the photon map as
well. This may speed up the irradiance map or brute force GI, when used as a primary engine, and
there are lots of lights in the scene. When this is off, direct lighting will be computed always by tracing
the necessary rays. This may slow things down if there are lots of lights in the scene.

Show calc. phase - when this is on, VRAYforC4D will visualize the calculation phase of the photons
during rendering.

Retrace threshold - when this is greater than 0.0, VRAYforC4D will use brute force GI near corners,
instead of the photon map, in order to obtain a more accurate result and to avoid splotches in these
areas. This may slow down the rendering. When this is 0.0, the photon map will be used always, which
will be faster, but may produce artifacts near corners or in places where objects are close to each
other.

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Retrace bounces - controls how many bounces will be made when retracing corners. If Retrace
threshold is 0.0, then this parameter is ignored. Typically this should be equal to the Bounces
parameter.

Photon map mode

Mode - determines the rendering mode of the light cache:


Progressive path tracing - in this mode, the light cache algorithm is used to sample the final image
progressively. For a discussion of this mode see the tutorial.

Single frame - this will compute a new light cache for each frame of an animation.

Fly-through - this will compute a light cache for an entire fly-through animation, assuming that the
camera position/orientation is the only thing that changes. The movement of the camera in the active
time segment only is taken in consideration. Note that it may be better to use World Scale for fly-
through animations. The light cache is computed only at the first rendered frame and is reused without
changes for subsequent frames.

From file - in this mode the light cache is loaded from a file. The light cache file does not include the
prefiltering of the light cache; prefiltering is performed after the light cache is loaded, so that you can
adjust it without the need to recompute the light cache.

Load file - specifies the file name to load the photon map from, when the Mode is set to From file.

On render end
This group of controls determine what happens with the photon map after rendering is complete.

Don't delete - when on (the default), the photon map remains in memory after the rendering. Turn
this option off to automatically delete the photon map (and thus save memory).

Auto save - when on, the photon map will be automatically written to the specified file. Note that the
photon map will be written as soon as it is calculated, rather than at the actual end of the rendering.

Auto save file - when on, after the rendering is complete, the photon map Mode will be automatically
set to From file and the name of the auto-saved photon map file will be copied to the File parameter.

Notes
· The photon map is mostly useful for interior scenes with artificial lighting or relatively small windows.

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Light cache
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General
Light caching (sometimes also called light mapping) is a technique for approximating the global
illumination in a scene. This method was developed originally by Chaos Group specifically for the
VRAYforC4D renderer. It is very similar to photon mapping, but without many of its limitations.

The light cache is built by tracing many many eye paths from the camera. Each of the bounces in the
path stores the illumination from the rest of the path into a 3d structure, very similar to the photon
map. On the other hand, in a sense, it is the exact opposite of the photon map, which traces paths
from the lights, and stores the accumulated energy from the beginning of the path into the photon
map.

Although very simple, the light-caching approach has many advantages over the photon map:
· It is easier to set up. We only have the camera to trace rays from, as opposed to the photon map,
which must process each light in the scene and usually requires separate setup for each light.

· The light-caching approach works efficiently with any lights - including skylight, self-illuminated
objects, non-physical lights, photometric lights etc. In contrast, the photon map is limited in the
lighting effects it can reproduce - for example, the photon map cannot reproduce the illumination
from skylight or from standard omni lights without inverse-square falloff.

· The light cache produces correct results in corners and around small objects. The photon map, on the
other hand, relies on tricky density estimation schemes, which often produce wrong results in these
cases, either darkening or brightening those areas.

· In many cases the light cache can be visualized directly for very fast and smooth previews of the
lighting in the scene.

Even with these advantages, light caching is similar in speed to the photon map and can produce
approximations to the global lighting in a scene very quickly. In addition, the light cache can be used
successfully for adding GI effects to animations.

Of course, the light cache has some limitations:


· Like the irradiance map, it is view-dependent and is generated for a particular position of the
camera.

· Like the photon map, the light cache is not adaptive. The illumination is computed at a fixed
resolution, which is determined by the user.

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Parameters

Calculation parameters

These parameters affect the calculation phase of the light cache; they do not affect the final rendering.

Override LC Subdivision - this option, allow override Subdivision passes number with auto passes
number depended from Sample ratio and image resolution.

Sample ratio - this setting defines number of subdivs depends to the final image size resolution.
Lowering the ratio reduces time but also lowers light cache quality.

Subdivision - this determines how many paths are traced from the camera. The actual number of
paths is the square of the subdivs (the default 1000 subdivs mean that 1 000 000 paths will be traced
from the camera).

Passes - the light cache is computed in several passes, which are then combined into the final light
cache. Each pass is rendered in a separate thread independently of the other passes. This ensures that
the light cache is consistent across computers with different number of CPUs. In general, a light cache
computed with smaller number of passes may be less noisy than a light cache computed with more
passes, for the same number of samples; however small number of passes cannot be distributed
effectively across several threads. For single-processor non-hyperthreading machines, the number of
passes can be set to 1 for best results. Now VRAYforC4D by default place value of threads of computer.

Scale - this determines the spacing of the samples in the light cache. Smaller numbers mean that the
samples will be closer to each other, the light cache will preserve sharp details in lighting, but it will be
more noisy and will take more memory. Larger numbers will smooth out the light cache but will loose
detail. This value can be either in world units or relative to the image size, depending on light cache
Scale mode.

Scale - this parameter determines the units of the Sample size and the Filter size:
Screen sample size - the units are fractions of the final image (a value of 1.0 means the samples will
be as large as the whole image). Samples that are closer to the camera will be smaller, and samples
that are far away will be larger. Note that the units do not depend on the image resolution. This value
is best suited for stills or animations where the light cache needs to be computed at each frame.
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World sample size - the sizes are fixed in world units everywhere. This can affect the quality of the
samples - samples that are close to the camera will be sampled more often and will apear smoother,
while samples that are far away will be noisier. This value might work better for fly-through
animations, since it will force constant sample density everywhere.

Min paths per sample - XX.

Store direct light - with this option, the light cache will also store and interpolate direct light. This
can be useful for scenes with many lights and irradiance map or direct GI method for the primary
diffuse bounces, since direct lighting will be computed from the light cache, instead of sampling each
and every light. Note that only the diffuse illumination produced by the scene lights will be stored. If
you want to use the light cache directly for approximating the GI while keeping the direct lighting
sharp, uncheck this option.

Show calc. phase - turning this option on will show the paths that are traced. This does not affect the
calculation of the light cache and is provided only as a feedback to the user. This option is ignored
when rendering to fields - in that case, the calculation phase is never displayed.

Adaptive tracing - when this option is on, VRAYforC4D will store additional information about the
incoming light for each light cache sample, and try to put more samples into the directions from which
more light coming. This may help tp reduce the noise in the light cache, particularly in the case of
caustics.

Use directions only - this option is only available when the Adaptive tracing option is on. It causes
VRAYforC4D to only use the optimized directions, generated from the light cache samples, rather than
the accumulated irradiance from the samples themselves. This produces more accurate results, but
also a noisier light cache.

Reconstruction parameters
These parameters control how the light cache is used in the final rendering, after is has been
calculated.

Pre-filter - when this is turned on, the samples in the light cache are filtered before rendering. Note
that this is different from the normal light cache filtering (see below) which happens during rendering.
Prefiltering is performed by examining each sample in turn, and modifying it so that it represents the
average of the given number of nearby samples.

Prefilter samples - More prefilter samples mean a more blurry and less noisy light cache. Prefiltering
is computed once after a new light cache is computed or loaded from disk.

Use light cache for glossy rays - if this option is on, the light cache will be used to compute lighting
for glossy rays as well, in addition to normal GI rays. This can speed up rendering of scenes with
glossy reflections quite a lot.

Filter - this determines the type of render-time filter for the light cache. The filter determines how
irradiance is interpolated from the samples in the light cache.
None - no filtering is performed. The nearest sample to the shaded point is taken as the irradiance
value. This is the fastest option, but it may produce artifacts near corners, if the light cache is noisy.
You can use pre-filtering (see above) to decrease that noise. This option works best if the light cache is
used for secondary bounces only or for testing purposes.

Nearest - this filter looks up the nearest samples to the shading point and averages their value. This
filter is not suitable for direct visualization of the light cache, but is useful if you use the light cache for
secondary bounces. A property of this filter is that is adapts to the sample density of the light cache
and is computed for a nearly constant time.

Interpolation samples - determines how many of the nearest samples to look up from the light
cache.
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Fixed - this filter looks up and averages all samples from the light cache that fall within a certain
distance from the shaded point. This filter produces smooth results and is suitable for direct
visualization of the light cache (when it is used as the primary GI engine).

Filter size - determines the size of the filter. Larger values blur the light cache and smooth out noise.
Typical values for the Filter size are 2-6 times larger than the Sample size. Note that Filter size
uses the same scale as the Sample size and its meaning depends on the Scale parameter.

Use light cache for glossy rays - if this option is on, the light cache will be used to compute lighting
for glossy rays as well, in addition to normal GI rays. This can speed up rendering of scenes with
glossy reflections quite a lot.

Mode

Mode - determines the rendering mode of the light cache:


Progressive path tracing - in this mode, the light cache algorithm is used to sample the final image
progressively. For a discussion of this mode see the tutorial.

Single frame - this will compute a new light cache for each frame of an animation.

Fly-through - this will compute a light cache for an entire fly-through animation, assuming that the
camera position/orientation is the only thing that changes. The movement of the camera in the active
time segment only is taken in consideration. Note that it may be better to use World Scale for fly-
through animations. The light cache is computed only at the first rendered frame and is reused without
changes for subsequent frames.

From file - in this mode the light cache is loaded from a file. The light cache file does not include the
prefiltering of the light cache; prefiltering is performed after the light cache is loaded, so that you can
adjust it without the need to recompute the light cache.

Load file - specifies the file name to load the light cache from, when the Mode is set to From file.

On render end

This group of controls determine what happens with the light cache after rendering is complete.

Don't delete map - when on (the default), the light cache remains in memory after the rendering.
Turn this option off to automatically delete the light cache (and thus save memory).

Auto save - when on, the light cache will be automatically written to the specified file. Note that the
light cache will be written as soon as it is calculated, rather than at the actual end of the rendering.

Auto save file - when on, after the rendeing is complete, the light cache Mode will be automatically
set to From file and the name of the auto-saved light cache file will be copied to the File parameter.

Notes
· Do not set the Adaptive amount in the DMC sampler rollup to 0.0 when using the light cache, as
this will cause excessive render times.

· Do not apply perfectly white or very close to white materials to a majority of the objects in the
scene, as this will cause excessive render times. This is because the amount of reflected light in the
scene will decrease very gradually and the light cache will have to trace longer paths. Also avoid
materials that have one of their RGB components set to maximum (255) or above.

· If you want to use the light cache for animation, you should choose a large enough value for the
Filter size in order to remove the flickering in the GI.

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· There is no difference between light caches computed for primary bounces (direct visualization) and
for secondary bounces. You can safely use light caches computed in one of these modes for the
other.

· Similar to the photon map, you can get "light leaks" with the light cache around very thin surfaces
with substantially different illumination on both sides. Sometimes it may be possible to reduce this
effect by decreasing the Sample size and/or the filtering.

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Combining GI Methods
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General
It often is very efficient to mix to different engines: one for the primary and one for the secondary
bounces, to have the advantages from both. One engine can be faster for one thing and the other for
another aspect. If you select one or two GI methods you will see that the corresponding GI setting tabs
will be visible, the non chosen GI methods will be hidden for more visible clearness.

VRAY can combine them in an intelligent way to give you high speed with very high quality at the same
time, also for certain animation types it makes sense to mix fast smooth solutions with physical
accurate ones p.e. Combining 2 engines for primary and secondary GI is actually the standard way to
work in VRAYforC4D.

Possible combination of GI methods


Irradiance Map & DMC

This is actually the default setting. The Irradiance cache is used for the primary GI, and DMC for the
secondary bounces, the combination of the fast and smooth IR Maps and the very accurate and
detailed DMC fits many scenes and can be used for stills and animation.
Depending on the settings you use this method can be extremely fast, also for previews, or can be a
very detailed GI solution for ultra high quality, and of course all in between:-)

Also You can save the IR Map and reuse the saved GI file, also if you raise the final image resolution,
you can still use a saved IR Map that was calculated at smaller resolution. A BIG advantage! In some
cases it is better to save a detailed GI solution at small size (800x400 p.e.) and render the final image
with the saved solution at full print size ( works with final outputs like 5000x2500pixel). this method
brings higher(!) Quality than rendering the final 5000x2500 pixel with full site GI at lower GI setting.
With this method you can also change the camera angle a bit, or adjust and change a materials and
most of the time the IRMap will still get you good results.
A very flexible method.

Irradiance Map & Light Cache

This is a cool method to combine the great light cache with its “instant preview” capabilities with the
smooth irradiance map.

The light cache resembles a bit the unbiased engines that are out there like maxwell render. there is
also an option in it to render fully unbiased (PPT). however most of the time you want to combine high
quality with good speed to get your projects out.
In light cache you see a rough pixeled/noise image of the whole scene within seconds, basically thats
already a good approximation how the scene will look like.
The longer you wait the more light is traced and the image will get more noise free, however in most
light cache methods you will want to set the light cache to be rendering to a specific amount of light
traces and then use another method to cleanup the image and make it smooth and noise free. the
combination with irradiance map again is a very common one and combines very fast preview in the gi
pass with high image quality.

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The light cache is also very detailed in it settings. so you can also combine a very rough light cache
with IRMap to get good and fast image results.

Always take care to set the number of passes to the amount of cpu`s you are using to get most speed
out of light cache, if the result is too noise simple increase the sample size a bit. this makes the
rendering also faster (you loose some image detail though)

DMC & Light Cache

Also interesting can be the combination with DMC, in this method you often use a very high DMC - AA
setting to smooth out a very noise and fat light cache solution, the image quality can be very high
through the combination with DMC.

Also Vlado famous universal setting is based on this combination.

Often you want to change the adaption of the DMC sampler settings in render settings tab / DMC
sampler to 1.0 for this method. the internal DMC engine is therefore used not only for GI but also for
AA and overall image sampling.

Possible is both having DMC for primary engine and light cache for secondary or also the other was
around.

Light Cache & Light Cache


You can also combine 2 time light cache, this is also used to make vray rendering like an fully unbiased
engine, using the PPT algorithms. Usually this method can take some time to cleanup noise,. good AA
settings can help here.

Combinations with Photon Map


All methods can be combines with photon mapping,. for indoor solutions that do not use a sky photon
mapping can have advantages, also some professionals long term vray users seem to like photon
mapping in certain circumstances.

Not combining GI

Of course you can also decide to just use a primary GI engine. Just put the secondary to “none”.

This will result in poorer results of course but brings speed advantages. Specially for previews you can
turn of the secondary engine, or if you have scenes that not at all use any glossy effects.

Notes

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Caustics
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General
VrayforC4D supports the rendering of the caustics effects. In order to produce this effect you must
have proper caustics generators and caustics receivers in the scene.

In order to calculate the caustics effects, VrayforC4D uses a technique known as photon mapping. It is a
two-pass technique. The first pass consists of shooting particles (photons) from the light sources in the
scene, tracing them as they bounce around the scene, and recording the places where the photons hit
the object surfaces. The second pass is the final rendering, when the caustics are calculated by using
density estimation techniques on the photon hits stored during the first pass.

Parameters

On - turns rendering of caustics on and off.

Search distance - when VrayforC4D needs to render the caustics effect at a given surface point, it
searches for a number photons on that surface in the area surrounding the shaded point (search
area). The search area in fact is a circle with center the original photon and its radius is equal to the
Search distance value. Smaller values produce sharper, but perhaps more noisy caustics; larger
values produce smooher, but blurrier caustics.

Max photons - this is the maximum number of photons that will be considered when rendering the
caustics effect on a surface. Smaller values cause less photons to be used and the caustucs will be
sharper, but perhaps noisier. Larger values produce smoother, but blurrier caustics. The special value
of 0 means that VrayforC4D will use all the photons that it can find inside the search area.

Max density - this parameter allows you to limit the resolution (and thus the memory) of the caustics
photon map. Whenever VrayforC4D needs to store a new photon in the caustics photon map, it will
first look if there are any other photons within a distance specified by Max density. If there is already
a suitable photon in the map, VrayforC4D will just add the energy of the new photon to the one in the
map. Otherwise, VrayforC4D will store the new photon in the photon map. Using this options allows
you to shoot many photons (and thus get smoother results) while keeping the size of the caustics
photon map manageable.
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Multiplier - this multiplier controls the strength of the caustics. It is global and applies to all light
sources that generate caustics. If you want different multipliers for the different light sources then you
should use the local light settings. Note: this multiplier is cumulative with the multipliers in the local
light settings.

Caustics mode

Caustics mode - controls the mode of the irradiance map:


New map - when this option is selected a new photon map will be generated. It will overwrite any
previous photon map left over from previous rendering.

Save to file - hit this button if you want to save an already generated photon map in a file.

From file - when you enable this option VrayforC4D will not compute the photon map but will load it
from a file. Hit the Browse button on the right to specify the file name.

Load file - the file name with the caustics photon map to be loaded when the Mode is set to From
file.

On render end

Don't delete map - when checked, VrayforC4D will keep the photon map in memory after the scene
rendering has finished. Otherwise the map will be deleted and the memory it takes will be freed. This
option can be especially useful if you want to compute the photon map for a particular scene only once
and then reuse it for further rendering.

Auto save - when this is turned on, VrayforC4D will automatically save the caustics photon map to the
provided file when rendering is complete.

Auto save file - this option is only available if Auto save is on. It will cause VrayforC4D to
automatically set the Mode to From file with the file name of the newly saved map.

Notes
· Caustics also depend on the individual light settings.

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Displacement
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General
This section allows you to control displacement of objects with displacement tag or with Vray Displace
Material on it.

Parameters

Amount - this is a scaling parameter for the default displacement. Values larger than 1.0 increase the
displacement amount, while values lower than 1.0 reduce it.

Edge length - this determines the quality of the displacement. Each triangle of the original mesh is
subdivided into a number of subtriangles. More subtriangles mean more detail in the displacement,
slower rendering times and more RAM usage. Less subtriangles mean less detail, faster rendering and
less RAM. The meaning of Edge length depends on the View-dependent parameter below.

Max. subdivs - this controls the maximum subtriangles generated from any triangle of the original
mesh. The value is in fact the square root of the maximum number of subtriangles. For example, a
value of 256 means that at most 256 x 256 = 65536 subtriangles will be generated for any given
original triangle. It is not a good idea to keep this value very high. If you need to use higher values, it
will be better to tesselate the original mesh itself into smaller triangles instead.

View-dependent - when this is on, Edge length determines the maximum length of a subtriangle
edge, in pixels. A value of 1.0 means that the longest edge of each subtriangle will be about one pixel
long when projected on the screen. When View-dependent is off, Edge length is the maximum
subtriangle edge length in world units.

Relative - if this parameter is on, the actual displacement amount is based on the bounding box of
the objects. If this option is off, the displacement is expressed in generic world units where white
areas in the displacement map correspond to displacement of 1 generic unit. You can use the Amount
parameter to increase or decrease displacement amount.

Tight bounds - when this is on, VRAYforC4D will try to compute the exact bounding volume of the
displaced triangles from the original mesh. This requires pre-sampling of the displacement texture, but
the rendering will be faster, if the texture has large black or white areas. However, if the displacement
texture is slow to evaluate and varies a lot between full black and white, if may be faster to turn this
option off. When it is off, VRAYforC4D will assume worst-case bounding volumes, and will not
presample the texture.

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Environment
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General
The Environment section in VRAYforC4D render parameters is where you can specify a color and a
texture map to be used during GI and reflection/refraction calculations. This group allows you choose
Environment settings for indirect illumination calculations.

Parameters

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Background

Background color - lets you specify the environment color.

Brightness - a multiplier for the color value. Note that the multiplier does not affect the environment
texture (if present).

Texture - lets you choose a GI environment texture. Note that if present, the texture overrides the
specified Background Color.

Multiplier - a multiplier for the texture value.

Map type - allow you to choose type of apply of texture map.

Offset U - allows you to adjust the environment texture placement in horizontal direction.

Offset V - allows you to adjust the environment texture placement in vertical direction.

Don`t affect GI enc. color - when this option is on Background color has no effect on GI
env.override value.

Global Illumination
This group allows you to override Environment settings for indirect illumination calculations. The effect
of changing the GI environment is similar to sky light.

GI env. override - lets you specify the environment light color. Note that this is ignored if there is an
environment texture specified.

Brightness - a multiplier for the GI env. override value. Note that the multiplier does not affect the
Texture (if present).

Texture - lets you choose a GI environment texture. Note that if present, the texture overrides the
specified GI env. override Color.

Multiplier - a multiplier for the Texture value.

Map type - allow you to choose type of apply of texture map.

Offset U - allows you to adjust the GI override texture placement in horizontal direction.

Offset V - allows you to adjust the GI override texture placement in vertical direction.

Reflection
This group allows you to override environment settings when reflections and refractions are calculated.
Note that you can also override the reflection/refraction environment on a per material basis (see
VRAYforC4D Materials section). If you do not enable the Refraction override, this group of controls
affects both reflections and refractions. If you enable the Refraction override, then this group affects
only reflections.

Reflection env. override - lets you specify the environment color for reflections/refractions. This is
ignored, if there is an texture specified.

Brightness - a multiplier for the Reflection env. override value. Note that the multiplier does not
affect the Texture (if present).

Texture - lets you choose a GI environment texture. Note that if present, the texture overrides the
specified Color.
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Multiplier - a multiplier for the color value. Note that the multiplier does not affect the environment
texture (if present). Use an Output map to control the brightness of the environment map if the map
itself does not have brightness controls.

Map type - allow you to choose type of apply of texture map.

Offset U - allows you to adjust the reflection texture placement in horizontal direction.

Offset V - allows you to adjust the reflection texture placement in vertical direction.

Refraction

This group allows to override the environment for refraction rays only. When this override is disabled,
VRAYforC4D will use the environment specified in the Reflection/refraction group when calculating
refractions.

Refraction env. override - specifies the environment color for refractions. This color is ignored if
there is an texture specified.

Brightness - a multiplier for the Refraction env. override value. Note that the multiplier does not
affect the Texture (if present).

Texture - lets you choose a GI environment texture. Note that if present, the texture overrides the
specified Refraction env. override color.

Multiplier - a multiplier for the Texture value.

Map type - allow you to choose type of apply of texture map.

Offset U - allows you to adjust the refraction texture placement in horizontal direction.

Offset V - allows you to adjust the refraction texture placement in vertical direction.

Notes

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Color Mapping
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Search keywords: color mapping, tone mapping, burn-out, overexpose

General
It seems that real world photography and the human eye sees a bit different than a pure digital
produce image. It can adjust to different light levels and contrasts, so the eye can compensate rather
good dark indoor rooms p.e. after a short while they eyes “color mapping” is adjusted and you see also
the darker parts of the environment. also different film paper types have not a linear behavior to colors
and light, the perception of the eye might also not be linear, and also our screens of today have a non
linear gamma of 1.8 to 2.2. So we have probably many things to consider there are many different
approaches and theories, one of them the “linear workflow” LWF. No all professional believe the LWF is
correct, but it definitely tries to solve some problems seen with digital produced imagery.

Others use their own methods of color mapping and gamma adjustments. However, in most of this
methods some kind of gamma adjustment or gamma recorrection for textures and the screen are
used. camera mapping can help a lot for this or for simulating different film behavior.
For architects specially in indoor scenes can get improved much by the right use of color mapping.

For cinematographic use you may want to compensate the GI light to have a bit more contrast so you
can push the dark tomes etc...

In VRAYforC4D the special thing is that the color mapping is not a simple post process, but really
changes the way the light is computed in the GI solution. make some tests at start of the scenes to
find the correct settings for your need. also note that different color mapping settings might lead to
longer render times. often color mapping is used in combination of adjusting the input of material
colors. p.e. some people like to get rid of the 2.2 gamma many images have already implied due to the
2.2 screen gamma. to compensate this you can use the c4d filter shader and reduce gamma to 0.4545
(1/2.2).
We cannot give any instant solution here fro all kinds of use, but color mapping is definitely an
interesting aspect in trying to achieve most realistic imagery. The color mapping should be used with
care and might so not be an dramatic effect, but often the slight differences make the big difference at
the end.

Parameters

Type - this is the type of transformation used. These are the possible types:
Linear multiply - this mode will simply multiply the final image colors based on their brightness are.
Color components that are too bright (above 1.0 or 255) will be clipped. This can result in burnt out
spots near bright light sources.

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Exponential - this mode will saturate the colors based on their brightness. This can be useful to
prevent burn-outs in very bright areas (for example around light sources etc). This mode will not clip
bright colors, but will instead saturate them.

HSV exponential - this mode is very similar to the Exponential mode, but it will preserve the color
hue and saturation, instead of washing out the color towards white.

Intensity exponential - this mode is similar to the Exponential one, but it will preserve the ratio of
the RGB color components and will only affect the intensity of the colors.

Gamma correction - this mode applies a gamma curve to the colors. In this case, the Dark
multiplier is a general multiplier for the colors before they are gamma-corrected. The Bright
multiplier is the inverse of the gamma value (f.e. for gamma 2.2, the Bright multiplier must be
0.4545).

Intensity gamma - this mode applies a gamma curve to the intensity of the colors, instead of each
channel (r/g/b) independently.

Reinhard - this mode is a blend between exponential-style color mapping and linear mapping. If the
Burn value is 1.0, the result is linear color mapping and if the Burn value is 0.0, the result is
exponential-style mapping.

Dark multiplier - this is the multiplier for dark colors.

Bright multiplier - this is the multiplier for bright colors.

Gamma - this parameter allows the user to control the gamma correction for the output image
regardless of the color mapping mode. Note that the value here is the inverse of the one used for the
Gamma correction color mapping type. For example, to correct the image for a 2.2-gamma display,
you should set the Gamma parameter simply to 2.2.

Sub-pixel mapping - this option controls whether color mapping will be applied to the final image
pixels, or to the individual sub-pixel samples. In older versions of VRAYforC4D, this option was always
assumed to be on, however its default value is now off as this produces more correct renderings,
especially if you use the universal settings approach.

Clamp output - if this is on, colors will be clamped after color mapping. In some situations, this may
be undesirable (for example, if you wish to antialiasing HDR parts of the image, too) - in that case,
turn clamping off.

Clamp level - this option specifies the level at which color components will be clamped if the Clamp
output option is on.

Adaptation only - when this parameter is on, the color mapping will not be applied to the final image,
however VRAYforC4D will proceed with all its calculations as though color mapping is applied (e.g. the
noise levels will be corrected accordingly). This can be useful, for example, if you know that you will
apply some color correction to the image later on, but wish to keep the rendering itself in linear space
for compositing purposes. Note that the Clamp output option will have an effect regardless of the
value of the Don't affect colors option.

Affect background - if this is off, color mapping will not affect colors belonging to the background.

Notes
· For Linear workflow you must set Gamma parameter to 2.2. and filter every material in scene with
C4D Filter applying with gamma 0.454 (for PC).

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Vray Camera
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General
The camera rollout controls the way the scene geometry is projected onto the image. Note that if you
use the VRayPhysicalCamera in your scene, most of the parameters in this section are ignored, with
the exception of some of the motion blur parameters (those on the right-hand side of the dialog).

Parameters

Camera type
The cameras in VRAYforC4D generally define the rays that are cast into the scene, which essentially is
how the scene is projected onto the screen. VRAYforC4D supports several camera types: Standard,
Spherical, Cylindrical (point), Cylindrical (ortho), Box, Fish eye and Warped spherical.

The parameters in this section are ignored, if you are rendering from a VRayPhysicalCamera.

Type - from this list you can select the type of the camera. See the Examples section for a more
detailed discussion on camera types.
Standard - this is a standard pinhole camera.

Spherical - this is a spherical camera which means that the camera lenses has spherical form.

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Cylindrical-Ppoint - with this type of camera all rays have a common origin - they are cast from the
center of the cylinder. In the vertical direction the camera acts as a pinhole camera and in the
horizontal direction it acts as a spherical camera.

Cylindrical-Ortho - in vertical direction the camera acts as an orthographic view and in the horizontal
direction it acts as a spherical camera.

Box - the box camera is simply 6 standard cameras placed on the sides of a box. This type of camera
is excellent for generation of environment maps for cube mapping. It may be very useful for GI too -
you can calculate the irradiance map with a Box camera, save it to file and you can reuse it with a
Standard camera that can be pointed at any direction.

Fish eye - this special type of camera captures the scene as if it is normal pinhole camera pointed at
an absolutely reflective sphere which reflects the scene into the camera's shutter. You can use the
Dist/FOV settings to control what part of the sphere will be captured by the camera. The red arc in the
diagram corresponds to the FOV angle. Note that the sphere has always a radius of 1.0.

Warped spherical - another spherical camera with slightly different mapping formula.

Height - here you can specify the height of the Cylindrical (ortho) camera. This setting is available
only when the Type is set to Cylindrical (ortho).

Auto-fit - this setting controls the auto-fit option of the Fish-eye camera. When Auto-fit is enabled
VRAYforC4D will calculate the Distance value automatically so that the rendered image fits
horizontally with the image's dimensions.

Distance - this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. The Fish-eye camera is simulated as a
Standard camera pointed to an absolutely reflective sphere (with a radius of 1.0) that reflects the
scene into the camera's shutter. The Distance value contorts how far is the camera from the sphere's
center (which is how much of the sphere will be captured by the camera). Note: this setting has no
effect when the Auto-fit option is enabled.

Curve - this setting applies only to the Fish-eye camera. This setting contorts the way the rendered
image is warped. A value of 1.0 corresponds to a real world Fish-eye camera. As the value approaches
0.0 the warping is increased. As the value approaches 2.0 the warping is reduced. Note: in fact this
value controls the angle at which rays are reflected by the virtual sphere of the camera.

Override FOV - with this setting you can override the Cinema4D FOV angle. This is because some
VrayforC4D camera types can take FOV ranges from 0 to 360 degrees, whereas the cameras in
Cinema4D are limited to 180 degrees.

Vray FOV - here you specify the FOV angle (only when Override FOV is turned on and the current
camera type supports FOV angle).

Use Clipping Planes- turns the clipping effect on.

Clip Near - distance from camera to clip in front of it.

Clip Far - distance from camera to clip in back of it.

Depth of field

These parameters control the depth of field effect when rendering with a standard Cinema4D camera
or with a perspective viewport. The parameters are ignored if you render from a VRayPhysicalCamera
view.

DOF on - turns the depth-of-field effect on.

Subdivision - controls the quality of the DOF effect. Lower values are computed faster, but produce
more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render. Note that

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the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC sampler as well as on the chosen
Image sampler.

Aperture - this is the size of the virtual camera aperture, in world units. Small aperture sizes reduce
the DOF effect, larger sizes produce more blur.

Center bias - this determines the uniformity of the DOF effect. A value of 0.0 means that light passes
uniformly through the aperture. Positive values mean that light is concentrated towards the rim of the
aperture, while negative values concentrate light at the center.

Bokeh effect - defines the shape of the camera aperture. When this option is off, perfectly circular
aperture is simulated. When on, a polygonal aperture is simulated.

Sides num - this option allows you to simulate the polygonal shape of the aperture of real-world
cameras. When this option is off, the shape is assumed to be perfectly circular.

Rotation - specifies the orientation of the aperture shape.

Anisotropy - this option allows the stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically. Positive
values stretch the effect in the vertical direction. Negative values stretch it in the horizontal direction.

Motion blur

MBlur on - turns motion blur on.

Duration - specifies the duration, in frames, during which the camera shutter is open.

Interval center - specifies the middle of the motion blur interval with respect to the Cinema4D frame.
A value of 0.5 means that the middle of the motion blur interval is halfway between the frames. A
value of 0.0 means that the middle of the interval is at the exact frame position.

Bias - this controls the bias of the motion blur effect. A value of 0.0 means that the light passes
uniformly during the whole motion blur interval. Positive values mean that light is concentrated
towards the end of the interval, while negative values concentrate light towards the beginning.

Geometry samples - this determines the number of geometry segments used to approximate motion
blur. Objects are assumed to move linearly between geometry samples. For fast rotating objects, you
need to increase this to get correct motion blur. Note that more geometry samples increase the
memory consumption, since more geometry copies are kept in memory.

Prepass samples - this controls how many samples in time will be computed during irradiance map
calculations.

Subdivision - determines the quality of the motion blur. Lower values are computed faster, but
produce more noise in the image. Higher values smooth out the noise, but take more time to render.
Note that the quality of sampling also depends on the settings of the DMC sampler as well as on the
chosen Image sampler.

Notes
· When DOF and motion blur are both enabled, they are sampled together using the higher of the two
Subdivs parameters.

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System
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Search keywords: System, VRay System, Raycaster, frame stamp, geometry

General
In this section you can adjust a variety of VRAYforC4D parameters related to the overall operation of
the renderer.

Parameters

Raycaster

Here you can control various parameters of VRAYforC4D's Binary Space Partitioning (BSP) tree.

One of the basic operations that VRAYforC4D must perform is raycasting - determining if a given ray
intersects any geometry in the scene, and if so - identifying that geometry. The simplest way to
implement this would be to test the ray against every single render primitive (triangle) in the scene.
Obviously, in scenes with thousands or millions of triangles this is going to be very slow. To speed this
process, VRAYforC4D organizes the scene geometry into a special data structure, called a binary space
partitioning (BSP) tree.

The BSP tree is a hierarchical data structure, built by subdividing the scene in two parts, then looking
at each of those two parts and subdividing them in turn, if necessary and so on. Those "parts" are
called nodes of the tree. At the top of the hierarchy is the root node - which represents the bounding box

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of the whole scene; at the bottom of the hierarchy are the leaf nodes - they contain references to actual
triangles from the scene.

Max tree depth - the maximum depth of the tree. Larger values will cause VRAYforC4D to take more
memory, but the rendering will be faster - up to some critical point. Values beyond that critical point
(which is different for every scene) will start to slow things down. Smaller values for this parameter will
cause the BSP tree to take less memory, but rendering will be slower.

Min leaf size - the minimum size of a leaf node. Normally this is set to 0.0, which means that
VRAYforC4D will subdivide the scene geometry regardless of the scene size. By setting this to a
different value, you can make VRAYforC4D to quit subdividing, if the size of a node is below a given
value.

Face level coefficient - controls the maximum amount of triangles in a leaf node. If this value is
lower, rendering will be faster, but the BSP tree will take more memory - up to some critical point
(which is different for every scene). Values below that critical point will make the rendering slower.

Dynamic memory limit (in MB) - the total RAM limit for the dynamic raycasters. Note that the
memory pool is shared between the different rendering threads. Therefore, if geometry needs to be
unloaded and loaded too often, the threads must wait for each other and the rendering performance
will suffer.

Region sequence
Here you can control various parameters of VRAYforC4D's rendering regions (buckets). The bucket is
an essential part of the distributed rendering system of VRAYforC4D. A bucket is a rectangular part of
the currently rendered frame that is rendered independently from other buckets. Buckets can be sent
to idle LAN machines for processing and/or can be distributed between several CPUs. Because a bucket
can be processed only by a single processor the division of the frame in too small a number of buckets
can prevent the optimal utilization of computational resources (some CPUs stay idle all the time).
However the division of the frame in too many buckets can slow down the rendering because there is a
some time overhead related with each bucket (bucket setup, LAN transfer, etc).

Bucket X size - determines the maximum region width in pixels (Region W/H is selected) or the
number of regions in the horizontal direction (when Region Count is selected)

Bucket Y size - determines the maximum region height in pixels (Region W/H is selected) or the
number of regions in the vertical direction (when Region Count is selected)

Bucket type - 2 methods of bucket distribution during rendering, preferred is W/H.

Region sequence type - determines the order in which the regions are rendered. Note that the
default Triangulation sequence is best if you use a lot of dynamic geometry, since it walks through
the image in a very consistent manner so that geometry that was generated for previous buckets can
be used for the next buckets. The other sequences tend to jump from one end of the image to another
which is not good with dynamic geometry.

Reverse sequence - reverses the region sequence order, performance will suffer.

Split / Region

Allows to automaticly render a still image across a cinema4d NET renderfarm. Set the number of splits
to the number of machines in the network. Set the same number of frames in the cinema4d animation
(output c4d preferences) starting with frame1. so when you have 4 machines to render, set the
splitting to 4 and the animation to frame 1-4.

Render the file on NET and you get 4 images that you can merge easily in Adobe Photoshop or similar
applications.

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Pixeloverlapp: this lets you set an overlap of the splitting, always use an overlap greater than 0 as the
AA will otherwise have a visible border when merging the final image. You can manually adjust this.
We recommend 4-20pixels depending on image size and AA settings.
The image splitting is a very fast and efficient method to render high resolution images across a c4d
NET Render network. It is the preferred method for many professionals as it is very stable and more
efficient as DR.

Rendering Split On/Off - lets you turn on or off the render splitting( good for workflow when you
have setup a splitting, but want to prerender locally only).

Splits number - determinates the number of splits. Set this to the same number of machines on the
net (7 PCS = 7 Splits)

Horizontal Split - split image horizontaly.

Pixel Overlap - lets you manually adjust the pixeloverlaping.

Region ON/OFF - lets you activate full size region render.

Left - pixels from left start.

Top - pixels from top start.

Right - pixels from right start.

Bottom - pixels from bottom start.

Get Last Region Render - this is a method if you don’t want to set the render region by exact pixels
but directly in camera editor view. Activate render region tool in c4d, set a region, start to render the
region ( you don’t have to wait to finish it) and go to vray system options and press the “get last
region render”, vray will then set the pixels in relation to the final output size automaticly for you.

When you render in picture viewer the exact region you have chosen gets rendered only.

This is a great time saver and usable for high resolution detail previews or for rerendering only parts of
the image ( if there was a mistake p.e.)

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MultiPass
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General
This Section allow Multipass rendering with VRAYforC4D.

Activate Post effects in Cinema4D Multipass Render Settings and select the passes you want to
render in that section, not in Cinema4D post effects.

Vray Multipass can make .psd blended file directly from the render. In VRAYforC4D there are 3 types of
passes: Standard Vray buffer - the pass you need to build the same result of rgba advanced, extra
feature pass like raw ext. and Depth Vray buffer: where you find zdepth normal and velocity pass.

Limitations:no color mapping on Multipass image, suggestion is render rgba with tone mapping and
reproduce it on Multipass version via curve control in post. No support of physical camera, sky and sun
shadow are not traced on shadow layer.

Parameters

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Camera Clipper
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General
With these settings you can clip all objects that lies in front or back of camera. This is useful for
rendering objects in cross-section.

Parameters

Apply Camera Clipper - Apply camera clipper values.

Store Visibility - save visibility of objects.

Restore Visibility - restore visibility of objects.

Front Clip Distance - distance from camera to clip in front of it.

Back Clip Distance - distance from camera to clip in back of it.

Confirm this Clip for this scene - click this button to confirm clipping.

Notes
· Camera Clipper for now works only with Cinema4D native camera and not support
VRayPhysicalCamera Tag.

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Material Layered Channels
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The VRAYforC4D Materials is a very powerful combination of parts of the Cinema4d shader system and
of the high level VRAY BRDF shading System. It is specially tailored to use all aspects of the VRAY
engine, without hiding any functionality. Also the Material is already designed to be compatible with
future Cinema4d and VRAY developments.

It is important to understand the concept of the VRAYforC4D material to understand its power and
possibilities.

A few important points:


· The VRAY material consists of 12 material layers, Layers are stacked one above the others. Maybe
the easiest thing is to imagine them as a photoshop file with 12 layers.
· Most of this layers can have its own mask or transparency.
· If parts of one layer are transparent the layer below shows through.
· The whole material can be masked, blended or stacked with other vray materials through the
“material weight” parameter (similar to c4d alpha).
The Material Layers:

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The Layers (Channels)
The VRAY material can be edited through the Attribute Manager (AM) or through the Cinema Material
Editor. I personally recommend using the Material editor or an extra AM as it has normally more space
to see all settings in the Vray Material.

Here is a screenshot of the Material Editor:

One the left there are the material “layers” or channels, within the channels You can load textures or
Cinema 4d shaders just as You probably are already used to it from Cinema 4D. one the right side you
have the vray specific settings. almost all aspects can be controlled via shaders and textures.

The Material preview is done in real time, you can use all preview types like in normal cinema 4d
(sphere, cube, rounded cube, cylinder, double knot etc...)

The double knot p.e. is very good for previewing reflective materials like metals.

Right click on the preview to choose the size of it (here i used “huge”), there is also a drop down menu
to select the preview quality to adjust it to your needs. the preview is done by the native vray engine
and uses all cpu in your system it is fully multithreaded.

VRAYforC4D Material Layers:


Material Matte
Material Weight
Bump
Luminosity Layer
Reflection Layer
5 Specular Layers
2 Diffuse Layers
Refraction Layer

Notes
· To render in Vray one must use the VRAY Material, there is a one button translator in the plugins
menu to convert c4d materials to vray materials to start rendering in vray, know you can render with
native c4d material, but VRAY Materials have more options.
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Matte Layer
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General
Material Matte Layer is a tool to make much more easy compositing session, think about it like a object
matte in c4d compositing tag, but at material level, for example if you have a scene with some back
object an one character,with black hole mode you can render a static backgrounds character with in
black Hole mode and then you can make another render with character and back in black hole, with
this situation if you need to change some thing in character, you can rerender only it and not the back,
you can use it to isolate object and fake inclusive or exclusive lighting in various part of the sceneand it
can be used to make object and material ID with AA and Physical Camera.

Parameters

Matte Mode - This option allow choose matte mode:

Matte Opacity - XXXXXXXXXXXXX.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Matte Opacity.

Alpha Transparency - XXXXXXXXXX.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Alpha Transparency, so transparent and solid areas are
reversed. This works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the filesize of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.
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Material Weight
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General
Here you can put in any texture or shader black white, gray shaded and even colored to mask the
whole material. you can use a black and white texture to cutout parts of the material (= Alpha).

You can use gradients or color filter to blend the materials with other vray materials or fade it into
transparency. The material weight is good for many things. therefore we did not call it just Alpha.

But if you search an Alpha channel here it is:-)

Parameters

Color Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the current material and other object materials.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Color Map, so transparent and solid areas are reversed. This
works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Notes
· Do not use Invert button, with decal mapping or stacking, it could make unpredicted results on
yours model texture look, so don`t use it with it.

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Bump
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General
This layer allows you to control bump of objects. Bump is a technique for adding detail to your scene
geometry without having to model it first. The concept is very similar to material displacement.
However, bump is a shading effect that only changes the appearance of a surface, while displacement
actually modifies the surface.

The bump layer also accepts all kind of shaders, also layered combination, at image below we
use the 3rd party plugin EnhanceC4D Shaders.

Parameters

Bump
Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Bump amount - the amount of bump. A value of 0.0 means the object will appear unchanged. Higher
values produce a greater bump effect. Intensity of the bump is sets in really world units, thous units
are taken from the c4d units of the file, if you change the units there also the bump size changes
accordingly. Bump amount value can`t be negative.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map, so bump is reversed.

Map Type - here you can define type of texture map file, simple image texture or normal map in
different space.

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Bump Shadows - Activate it for best reality shadows of object.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the filesize of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

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Luminosity Layers
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General
A luminescent object can be seen even when there are no lights in the scene. It is self-illuminated. So
the luminance layer channel in VRAYforC4D gives real light to the scene when using GI. You can put in
it any HDRI texture, any image or shader.

It also has a transparency or mask, when the transparency is set to 100% the parts that are not
luminance are transparent and the layers below the luminance channel get visible, when the
transparency is set to 0% the dark parts of the channel are just shown dark.

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The luminance channel can be used to lighten a material, to make an object emit light, to make parts
of an object emit light (like luminescent letters on a digital sign p.e.), and it can also be used to insert
images (in the background p.e.) that should have a certain lightness, in the texture multiplier you can
set values far over 1 to simulate real light or to give more power to textures. the result is a HDRI like
effect. You can also use the filter shader p.e. to set the gamma of an image or to set the exposure of
an HDRI image.

Parameters
Luminosity Color

Color

- this is the luminosity color of the material.

Amount - use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel color. The Brightness setting functions
somewhat like a multiplier and can be set to greater than 100%.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined, also in luminosity layer you can put
as texture map HDRI on a sphere or skydome to lighten your scene with HDRI or shaders.

Amount - this is the multiplier for the texture. Note that this does not affect the Color.

Luminosity Layer Transparency

Transparency Color - this is the transparency color of the material.

Amount - use this setting to adjust the transparency of a channel. use this setting to adjust the
transparency of a channel.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.


Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map, so transparent and solid areas are reversed.
This works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Luminosity Layer Parameters


Double Sided- checking this option makes the object emit light from its back side as well. If this is
off, the material is rendered as black on the back sides.

Notes
· You can use the Luminosity Layer as a light source assigned to an object. Increasing the multiplier
will affect the GI solution and will produce more light. Note that overbright colors may look the same
as pure white but the GI results will be different. For more information see the Examples section.

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Reflection Layer
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General
The reflection layer is for sharp reflections like you have it in mirrors, glass or water. Again the
reflection layer can have its own mask, here a simple gradient makes the right side of the sphere
transparent, the layers below, if activated would get visible.

Of course the transparency can be set to something in between to make the material less reflective. if
a material is 100& reflective only the reflection channel is visible, like a mirror or perfect chrome, if it is
50% reflective it mixes with 50% of the layers below ( like diffuse color p.e.)

Parameters

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Reflection Color

Color - this is the reflection color of the material.

Brightness- use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel color.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode- use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Reflection Layer Transparency

Transparency Color - this is the transparency color of the material.

Amount - use this setting to adjust the transparency of a channel.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode - use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.
Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map, so transparent and solid areas are reversed.
This works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Reflection Layer Parameters


Cutoff- this is a threshold below which reflections will not be traced. VRAYforC4D tries to estimate the
contribution of reflections to the image, and if it is below this threshold, these effects are not
computed. Do not set this to 0.0 as it may cause excessively long render times in some cases.

Back side - if this is true, reflections will be computed for back-facing surfaces too. Note that this
affects total internal reflections too (when refractions are computed).

Reflection Layer Fresnel

Use Fresnel- checking this option makes the reflection strength dependent on the viewing angle of
the surface. Some materials in nature (glass etc) reflect light in this manner. Note that the Fresnel
effect depends on the index of refraction as well.

Fresnel IOR - the IOR to use when calculating Fresnel reflections. Normally this is locked to the
Refraction IOR parameter, but you can unlock it for finer control.

Refl. Color - reflection color.

Refr. Color - refraction color. Note that the actual refraction color depends on the reflection color as
well.

Notes

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Specular Layers
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General
For first lets answer the question: What has the specular to do with glossy reflection?
All is the answer specularity is physically seen an unsharp or glossy reflection of an light source or any
other light part in the environment of an object, therefore also in vray the specularity is bound to the
glossy reflection, VRAY however gives you the possibility to use both: traditional "cheated" specular
effects and real physical correct glossy reflections.

The specular color gives the main color of the reflection. a car paint p.e. might be “Ferrari red”, maybe
uses also a Fresnel falloff with slight color variation depending on viewangle.
The Specular Layer parameters let you set the glossiness of the specularity (classic fake specular) and
the glassy reflection, this can be set via texture, you can set a multiplier for the texture, shader or
slider, a value of white or 1 will give a sharp non glossy reflection. a value of 0.8 will give a 80%
glossiness (equals 20% roughness), you can adjust both values independently. and also you can
deactivate either or with the check boxes “trace reflections” or “trace specularity”.

The glossiness subdivision controls the exactness of the calculation, higher values produce a more
exact solution but render longer. most time when using proper AA settings 8 might be enough. for high
level surfaces you might want to set a higher value like 16 or 32 etc. last not least there are also
Fresnel settings below:

You can turn Fresnel behavior on or off, when on the layer transparency get disabled, because this is
now controlled by the Fresnel, the IOR gives again real world behavior. in reality almost all materials
have a certain amount of glossy reflectivity and also a Fresnel behavior with a certain IOR. Glass has a
IOR of 1.5- 1,75, ceramics, plastics, polished wood, etc. have an IOR of 3-6, metals have IOR starting
with 10 going up to 200. You can also adjust the color of the Fresnel. it does not have to be black and
white. often gray shades or even slight colors give good results, as glossy reflections are very
important for all kind of high level materials we have implemented 5 specular layers to mix!

You can each setup individually and blend them together via the specular layer transparency or Fresnel
behavior. each layer can have its on glossiness, own anisotropy, colors, filters...this is excellent for car
paints, silk, plastics, multilayer materials like coated woods, brushed metal etc.

You can also use one layer for only specular effects and one only for glossy reflection to have different
controls and colors for both. the variation is only limited by your imagination:-)

The specular layer in the Vray material gives a totally new way to build materials, as all real world
materials have a specular/glossy reflection, so it is good that they render fast in vray, also in
combination with GI and refraction....

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Parameters

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Specular Type

Type - this determines the type of specular (the shape of the highlight): Phong, Blinn and Ward.
They all look a bit different. Blinn and Ward (good for metals) also offer true anisotropy for specular
and glossy reflections.

Specular Color

Color - this is the specular color of the material.

Brightness- use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel`s color. The Brightness setting
functions somewhat like a multiplier and can be set to greater than 100%.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode- use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Specular Layer Transparency


Transparency Color - this is the transparency color of the material.

Amount - use this setting to adjust the transparency of a channel.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode - use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map.

Specular Layer Parameters

Soften edges - use this setting to make "rough" edges more soften.

Highlight glossiness - this determines the shape of the highlight on the material.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map.

Reflection Glossiness- controls the sharpness of reflections. A value of 1.0 means perfect mirror-like
reflection; lower values produce blurry or glossy reflections.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

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Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map.

Anisotropy - determines the shape of the highlight. A value of 0.0 means isotropic highlights.
Negative and positive values simulate "brushed" surfaces.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map.

Anisotropy Rotation - determines the orientation of the anisotropic effect in degrees (rotation in
degrees). Different brushed surfaces can be simulated by using a texture map for the anisotropy
rotation parameter.

Anisotropy axis - controls how the direction for the anisotropic effect is chosen:

Local axis X - the direction is based on the selected local object axis.

Map channel - the direction is based on the selected mapping channel.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map.

Cutoff- this is a threshold below which specular will not be traced. VRAYforC4D tries to estimate the
contribution of specular to the image, and if it is below this threshold, these effects are not computed.
Do not set this to 0.0 as it may cause excessively long render times in some cases.

Back side - if this is true, specular will be computed for back-facing surfaces too. Note that this affects
total internal specular too (when specular are computed).

Trace Reflections- if this is off, reflections will not traced.

Trace Specular- if this is off, specular will not traced.

Glossiness Subdivs - controls the quality of glossy reflections. Lower values will render faster, but
the result will be more noisy. Higher values take longer, but produce smoother results.

Specular Layer Fresnel

Use Fresnel- checking this option makes the specular strength dependent on the viewing angle of the
surface. Note that the Fresnel effect depends on the index of refraction as well.

Fresnel IOR - the IOR to use when calculating Fresnel specular.

Refl. Color - reflection color.

Refr. Color - refraction color. Note that the actual refraction color depends on the reflection color as
well.

Notes
· In ward note it is not possible to have no specularity, the result will be black, this lies in the nature of
ward, when using ward don not deactivate trace specular or do not set the specular glossiness to 1
use 0.99 instead p.e.

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Diffuse Layers
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General
The diffuse layer is basically the color of an object, although it final color is a composite of many
material aspects of course.

Again the diffuse layer can have a transparency mask, we have 2 diffuse layers. You can use the
transparency to make mixes of both diffuse layers (handy for fast mixing textures) or you can make
the diffuse both just a slight effect, like a dirty glass p.e. in the screenshot below you see the white
dots in transparency that lets looks through the yellow diffuse below, also in combination with
translucency, it often makes sense to keep a certain amount of diffuse to achieve a semi opak body.

Parameters

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Diffuse Color

Color - this is the diffuse color of the material. Note the actual diffuse color of the surface also
depends on the reflection and refraction colors.

Brightness- use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel’s color.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode- use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Roughness - this parameter controls the surface roughness for the material. A value of 0.0 produces
a diffuse material, while higher values give the surface a translucent quality.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Diffuse Layer

Transparency
Transparency Color - this is the transparency color of the material.

Amount - use this setting to adjust the transparency of a channel. use this setting to adjust the
transparency of a channel. use this setting to adjust the transparency of a channel.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode - use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.
Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map, so transparent and solid areas are reversed.
This works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the filesize of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

Notes
· The diffuse layers are below the reflection and luminance layers, as they get covered by this effects
full or partly, so when you have a 100% reflection you will never see the diffuse layer of course, this
is physical correct and makes sense, you never see that color of a mirror, the mirror will only show
the reflecting environment (At most the reflection can be tinted). In real world there are very few
materials that have 100% reflectivity of course. Most materials have a Fresnel effect and show also
the diffuse color.
· If you have a very bright luminance (100+%) you will also not see the diffuse color.

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Refraction Layer
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General
The refraction layer/channel combines all kind of transparency and translucency effects.

You can make: Glass, Sandblasted Glass, Crystals, Fluids, SSS (Subsurface Scattering), Translucency
and other materials. There is also a volume effect in it to make physical correct Glass and Fluids, the
thicker/deeper a transparent object or fluid is, the less transparent it gets, the volume can get tinted
in a color. Best is to use a very slight and light color of the one the object shall have, so for a dark red
wine it might be enough to use a slight rose tined in the volume effect, the volume also uses an IOR
for refraction.

Parameters

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Refraction Color

Color - refraction color. Note that the actual refraction color depends on the reflection color as well.

Brightness- use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel color.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode- use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Refraction Layer Parameters

IOR - index of refraction for the material, which describes the way light bends when crossing the
material surface. A value of 1.0 means the light will not change direction. Examples

Cutoff - this is a threshold below which refractions will not be traced. VRAYforC4D tries to estimate the
contribution of refractions to the image, and if it is below this threshold, these effects are not
computed. Do not set this to 0.0 as it may cause excessively long render times in some cases.

Affect shadows - this will cause the material to cast transparent shadows, depending on the
refraction color and the fog color. If it off shadows will be opak.

Affect alpha - this will cause the material to transmit the alpha of the refracted objects, instead of
displaying an opaque alpha. Note that currently this works only with clear (non-glossy) refractions.

Trace Refractions - if this is off, refractions will not traced, even if the refraction color is greater than
black.

Glossiness- controls the sharpness of refractions. A value of 1.0 means perfect glass-like refraction;
lower values produce blurry or glossy refractions. Avalue 0 is a 100% rough lamber surface, you can
control this material aspect with a shader or texture too.

Glossiness Subdivs - control the quality of glossy refractions, adjust this to have more precise
unsharp refraction, higher values give better result.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Strength - defines the mixing proportion between the texture and color.

Invert - This option simply inverts the Texture Map, so transparent and solid areas are reversed.
This works for both clipped images and images with built-in alpha channels.

Volume Fog Parameters

Enable Volume - if this is off, volume fog is disable.

Volume Color - the attenuation of light as it passes through the material. This option allows to
simulate the fact that thick objects look less transparent than thin objects. Note that the effect of the
fog color depends on the absolute size of the objects and is therefore scene-dependent. The fog color
also determines the look of the object when using translucency.

Amount - the strength of the fog effect. Smaller values reduce the effect of the fog, making the
material more transparent. Larger values increase the fog effect, making the material more opaque. In

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more precise terms, this is the inverse of the distance at which a ray inside the object is attenuated
with am amount equal to the Volume Color.

Distance Bias - this parameter allows to change the way the fog color is applied; by adjusting this
parameter you can make thin parts of the object to appear more transparent than normal, or less
transparent than normal.

IOR - index of refraction for the material, which describes the way light bends when crossing the
material surface. A value of 1.0 means the light will not change direction. Examples.

SSS Parameters

SSS on - sub-surface scattering. Light is scattered within the volume of the material or beneath the
surface. This is the more physical correct approach, but needs some time to render, for faster SSS you
can use the c4d SSS shader in most cases.

Translucency Color - normally the color of the sub-surface scattering effect depends on the Fog
color; this parameter allows you to additionally tint the SSS effect.

Subdivisions - controls the quality of sub-surface scattering. Lower values will render faster, but the
result will be more noisy. Higher values take longer, but produce smoother results.

Light Multiplier - a multiplier for the translucent effect.

Thickness - this limits the rays that will be traced below the surface. This is useful if you do not want
or don't need to trace the whole sub-surface volume.

Scatter Coefficient - the amount of scattering inside the object. 0.0 means rays will be scattered in
all directions; 1.0 means a ray cannot change its direction inside the sub-surface volume.

Scatter Direction- controls the direction of scattering for a ray. 0.0 means a ray can only go forward
(away from the surface, inside the object); 0.5 means that a ray has an equal chance of going forward
or backward; 1.0 means a ray will be scattered backward (towards the surface, to the outside of the
object).

Scatter Levels - determinate the deepness of scattering light ( how often a ray gets scattered until
termination). the higher the value the more often the light is scattered within the volume. Higher
values need longer render time but give nicer SSS.

Notes
· For real SSS, you should have volume activated, and in most cases also some slight diffuse body and
most of the time some glossy reflection.
· For “architectural glass” you can deactivate volume and just use plain refraction, you can also use
the c4d Fresnel in refraction, also almost all reflective Materials should be combined with reflection
(sharp or glossy).

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Cinema4d Shaders
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VRAYforC4D support Native C4D Materials, only reflections and refractions channels don't work. Also it
supports almost all native Cinema 4d shaders, for most aspects there are texture channels to control
the material slots.

In all texture channel slots of the VRAY material you can use the c4d shaders from cinema4d, only very
few like the proximal shader are not yet supported.

VRAYforC4D support 99% of the c4d shaders like noise, lumas, c4d fresnel, falloff, filter, layer,
projection, distorter, fusion, colorizer,gradients, most effect shaders like spline shader, SSS (partly
supported), Ambient occlusion, all surface shaders like tiles, water, wood, special shaders for mograph,
etc...

Even many 3rd party shaders work in first tests. we tested the great EnhanceC4D Shaders set from
Chris, or the cool Add the Sea Plugin with it’s water shaders and deformers p.e. special shader that
“hacks” into the Advanced render wont work, all shaders that produce a texture, gradient or pattern
will work.

Here you see a screenshot showing that you can use all kind of complex c4d shaders, also mixed and
stacked together, with all kind of texture filters and transformations.

The c4d shaders are use nativly and not wrapped, so they are really handled by c4d main app.

Notes
· VRAYforC4D supports some shaders from 3-party developers, like EnhanceC4D Shaders.

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Assigment
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General
In this box, you’ll find a list of all objects in the scene that use the selected material. Using the context
menu, you can carry out commands on these objects that relate to the selected material. To open the
context menu, right-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) on an object’s name in the list.

Parameters

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the filesize of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

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Vray2SideMaterial
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General
VRay2SidedMtl material is a material that allows seeing the light on the backside of the objects. Use
this material to simulate thin translucent surfaces like paper, cloth curtains, tree leaves etc.

Parameters

Basic Properties

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Preview Quality - quality of material preview in preview window.

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Parameters

Front Side Material- this is the material which is going to be used for front-side faces as defined by
the object normals.

Back Side Material- this is the material VRAYforC4D will use for back side faces as defined by their
normals.

Translucency Color - this determines which side (front or back) relative to the camera is more
visible in the rendering process. For example value 50%, means that both the side facing the camera,
and the one facing away from it, will be visible to the same degree. When this parameter is closer to 0
the more of the material facing the camera is going be seen. When it is closer to 100%, the more of
the back material is seen.
Brightness- use this setting to adjust the brightness of a channel’s color.

Translucency Texture - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Texture Map - here an image texture or shader can be defined.

Mix Mode- use these parameters to mix the color and texture panes using one of four modes. The
default mode for all channels is Normal. If you load a texture or shader, it is placed on a layer above
the color (i.e. the texture is placed on top of the color). Please consult the Cinema4d documentation
about the different mix modes.

Texture Multiplier - a multiplier for the texture value.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the Viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the file size of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

Assignment
In this box, you’ll find a list of all objects in the scene that use the selected material. Using the context
menu, you can carry out commands on these objects that relate to the selected material. To open the
context menu, right-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) on an object’s name in the list.

Notes
· This material will give best results when assigned to single side objects (non-shelled) objects like
planes, extruded splines etc. Otherwise it can lead to extremely longer render times.
· Special credits to Francesco Guazzi for providing the image at the bottom of the page.

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VrayBlendMaterial
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General
VRayBlendMaterial can be used to layer several Vray materials in an efficient manner. It can be used to
create complex materials like car paints, human skin (when used with SSS as a base material) etc.

VRayBlendMtl takes a base material and applies other materials (coatings) on top of it. This works like
a stack, where each coat material blends between its own shading and that of the materials below it in
the stack.

Parameters

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Basic Properties

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Preview Quality - quality of material preview in preview window.

Parameters

Use Material - enables or disables use of Coat Material.

Coat Material - these specify materials to use as coatings.

Base Material - the base material over which other materials are layered. If this is not specified, the
base material will be assumed to be a perfectly transparent material.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the Viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the file size of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

Assignment
In this box, you’ll find a list of all objects in the scene that use the selected material. Using the context
menu, you can carry out commands on these objects that relate to the selected material. To open the
context menu, right-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) on an object’s name in the list.

Notes
· Special credits to Sebastien Florand for providing the image at the bottom of the page.

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VrayDisplaceMaterial
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General
This material allows you to control displacement of objects. Displacement is a technique for adding
detail to your scene geometry without having to model it first. The concept is very similar to material
bump. However, bump is a shading effect that only changes the appearance of a surface, while
displacement actually modifies the surface.

VrayDisplaceMaterial used in the same way like usual vray material.


.

Parameters

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Basic Properties

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Preview Quality - quality of material preview in preview window.

Use Displacement - when this option is checked Vray Displace Material will affect object.

Use as Subdivision Surface - when this option is checked Vray Displace Material will apply a
subdivision scheme to the object. For triangular portions of a mesh, the Loop subdivision scheme is
used. For quadrangular portions, the Catmull-Clark scheme is used. Other polygons are first converted
to triangles.

Parameters

Texture - the displacement map. This can be any texture map - a bitmap, procedural map etc.

Texture Type - for displacement texture you can use a classic luminace grayscale based map
(Luminance texture) or Normal Map (RGB).

Amount - the amount of displacement. A value of 0.0 means the object will appear unchanged. Higher
values produce a greater displacement effect. This can also be negative, in which case the
displacement will push geometry inside the object. Intensity of the displacement is sets in really world
units, thous units are taken from the c4d units of the file, if you change the units there also the
displacement size changes accordingly.

Shift - this specifies a constant, which will be added to the displacement map values, effectively
shifting the displaced surface up and down along the normals. This can be either positive or negative.

Keep continuity - using this will try to produce a connected surface, without splits.

Use Global parameters - when this option is off VRAYforC4D's displacement tag will use own
displacement parameters, not Displacement Render Settings values.

View dependent - when this is on, Edge length determines the maximum length of a subtriangle
edge, in pixels. A value of 1.0 means that the longest edge of each sub triangle will be about one pixel
long when projected on the screen. When View-dependent is off, Edge length is the maximum sub
triangle edge length in world units.

Edge length - this determines the quality of the displacement. Each triangle of the original mesh is
subdivided into a number of subtriangles. More subtriangles mean more detail in the displacement,
slower rendering times and more RAM usage. Less subtriangles mean less detail, faster rendering and
less RAM. The meaning of Edge length depends on the View-dependent parameter below.

Max subdivs - this controls the maximum subtriangles generated from any triangle of the original
mesh. The value is in fact the square root of the maximum number of subtriangles. For example, a
value of 256 means that at most 256 x 256 = 65536 subtriangles will be generated for any given
original triangle. It is not a good idea to keep this value very high. If you need to use higher values, it
will be better to tessellate the original mesh itself into smaller triangles instead.

Notes
· You can use with VrayDisplaceMaterial normal maps in Texture slot in RGB mode of Texture Type.

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Displacement Tag
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General
This section allows you to control displacement of objects with displacement tag on it. It`s old way in
VRAYforC4D now, but still can be usefull, you can use new one VrayDisplaceMaterial. Displacement
is a technique for adding detail to your scene geometry without having to model it first. The concept is
very similar to material bump. However, bump is a shading effect that only changes the appearance of
a surface, while displacement actually modifies the surface.

Displacement Tag is a simple object tag, just select the object and right click on it to add the
VrayDisplacement Tag in the tag you can output in any texture or shader or combination. The tag
needs also a vray material applied. It uses the UVW method of the first left material.

Parameters

Basic Properties

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

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Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Geometry Parameters

On - when this option is on VRAYforC4D's displacement tag will affect to object.

Use Global parameters - when this option is off VRAYforC4D's displacement tag will use own
displacement parameters, not Displacement Render Settings values.

View dependent - when this is on, Edge length determines the maximum length of a subtriangle
edge, in pixels. A value of 1.0 means that the longest edge of each sub triangle will be about one pixel
long when projected on the screen. When View-dependent is off, Edge length is the maximum sub
triangle edge length in world units.

Edge length - this determines the quality of the displacement. Each triangle of the original mesh is
subdivided into a number of subtriangles. More subtriangles mean more detail in the displacement,
slower rendering times and more RAM usage. Less subtriangles mean less detail, faster rendering and
less RAM. The meaning of Edge length depends on the View-dependent parameter below.

Max subdivs - this controls the maximum subtriangles generated from any triangle of the original
mesh. The value is in fact the square root of the maximum number of subtriangles. For example, a
value of 256 means that at most 256 x 256 = 65536 subtriangles will be generated for any given
original triangle. It is not a good idea to keep this value very high. If you need to use higher values, it
will be better to tessellate the original mesh itself into smaller triangles instead.

Mapping Parameters

Texture - the displacement map. This can be any texture map - a bitmap, procedural map etc.

Amount - the amount of displacement. A value of 0.0 means the object will appear unchanged. Higher
values produce a greater displacement effect. This can also be negative, in which case the
displacement will push geometry inside the object. Intensity of the displacement is sets in really world
units, thous units are taken from the c4d units of the file, if you change the units there also the
displacement size changes accordingly.

Shift - this specifies a constant, which will be added to the displacement map values, effectively
shifting the displaced surface up and down along the normals. This can be either positive or negative.

Keep continuity - using this will try to produce a connected surface, without splits.

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Vray OverrideMaterial
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General
This material allows a surface to look in a different way depending on whether it is seen through
reflections, refractions or GI. With this material you can get a fine control over the color bleeding,
reflections, refractions and shadows of the objects.

Parameters

Basic Properties

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Preview Quality - quality of material preview in preview window.

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Parameters

Base Material - this is the material VRAYforC4D will use while rendering the object.

GI Material - this is the material VRAYforC4D will use while calculating the GI solution.

Reflection Material - this is the material material VRAYforC4D will use to render the object with,
when the object is seen in reflections.

Refraction Material - this is the material VRAYforC4D will use to render the object with, when the
object is seen through refractions.

Shadow Material - this is the material that will be used to render shadows cast from the object.

Map Preview Size- Here you’ll find entries from 64x64 (16 KB) to 4096x4096 (64 MB). The value
controls the internal resolution of the map — the higher you set this value, the more detailed the map
will be in the Viewport. The value has no effect on the rendered result.Proceed with caution when
increasing the Map Preview Size. Higher settings require more RAM and increase the file size of the
CINEMA 4D scene. OpenGL is also affected because the map previews must be loaded into the graphics
card’s memory.

Assignment
In this box, you’ll find a list of all objects in the scene that use the selected material. Using the context
menu, you can carry out commands on these objects that relate to the selected material. To open the
context menu, right-click (Windows) or Command-click (Mac OS) on an object’s name in the list.

Notes

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Vray Compositing Tag
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General
This section allows you to control visibility of objects at render.

Vray Compositing Tag is a simple object tag that control of object different ways of visibility, just select
the object and right click on it to add the VrayCompositing Tag.

Parameters

Basic Properties
Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Comp Properties

Visible to camera - if this is on, object will be visible for camera and object will be rendered.

Cast Shadows- if this is on, object will have shadows.

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Generate GIs - if this is off, object will not be used in GI calculation.

Show in reflections - if this is on, object will take part in reflection on other objects.

Show in refractions - if this is on, object will take part in refraction on other objects.

Object visibility - , with this option you can change visibility of the object, it also can be animated.

Surface Properties

Generate GI - controls the GI generated by the material.

Recieve GI - controls the GI received by the material.

Generate Caustics - controls the Caustics generated by the material.

Receive Caustics - controls the Caustics received by the material.

Matte Properties

Matte surface - makes the material appear as a matte material, which shows the background, instead
of the base material, when viewed directly. Note that the base material is still used for things like GI,
caustics, reflections etc.

Alpha contribution - determines the appearance of the object in the alpha channel of the rendered
image. A value of 1.0 means the alpha channel will be derived from the transparency of the base
material. A value of 0.0 means the object will not appear in the alpha channel at all and will show the
alpha of the objects behind it. A value of -1.0 means that the transparency of the base material will cut
out from the alpha of the objects behind. Matte objects are typically given an alpha contribution of -
1.0. Note that this option is independent of the Matte surface option (i.e. a surface can have an alpha
contribution of -1.0 without being a matte surface).

Shadows - turn this on to make shadow visible on the matte surface.

Affect alpha - turn this on to make shadows affect the alpha contribution of the matte surface. Areas
in perfect shadow will produce white alpha, while completely unoccluded areas will produce black
alpha. Note that GI shadows are also computed, however GI shadows on matte objects are not
supported by the photon map and the light map GI engines, when used as primary engines. You can
safely use those with matte surfaces as secondary engines.

Color - an optional tint for the shadows on the matte surface.

Brightness - an optional brightness parameter for the shadows on the matte surface. A value of 0.0
will make the shadows completely invisible, while a value of 1.0 will show the full shadows.

Reflection amount - shows the reflections from the material.

Refraction amount - shows the refractions from the material.

GI amount - determines the amount of GI shadows.

No GI on other mattes - this will cause the object to appear as a matte object in reflections,
refractions, GI etc for other matte objects. Note that if this is on, refractions for the matte object
might not be calculated (the object will appear a matte object to itself and will not be able to "see" the
refractions on the other side).

Misc Properties

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GI surface ID - this number can be used to prevent the blending of light cache samples across
different surfaces. If two objects have different GI surface IDs, the light cache samples of the two
objects will not be blended. This can be useful to prevent light leaks between objects of vastly different
illumination.

Add to Object Buffer

Add to Object Buffer

- Use this options to specify up to 10 object buffer IDs for the object. These object channels
correspond to the object channels defined in the Multi-Pass setting’s Channel menu. If you
subsequently define an object channel in the Multi-Pass settings with an ID of 1, an alpha channel will
be created that matches the object. This method can be used to create any number of alpha channels.
An ID of 1 can also be assigned to other objects, letting you combine a wide variety of objects that can
be output as alpha channels. Refer to the Multi-Pass description for more details.

Notes

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VRay Motion Blur Tag
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General
In VRAYforC4d you can add a Vray Motion Blur tag to have extra control of motion blur of objects.

Parameters

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Motion Blur Samples - this value determines number of samples VRAYforC4D takes into account
when blurring the current frame. Increasing this value produces smoother results at the cost of
increased rendering times.

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Vray Material Converter
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General
This plugin allow you to convert Cinema4D materials to VRAYforC4D materials with one click only.

Channels converting guide

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VRayLight parameters
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General
Basically VRAYforC4d uses native c4d lights and cameras. To expand their functionality to all VRAY
features you should actually add a Vray light tag or a vray camera tag, this tags give You extra control
about vray specific features, one you applied the light tag, all light settings are made in the Tag only,
we decided to do so to make the huge amount of settings better to overview.

Parameters
VRAYforC4D Light Tag Tabs:

Common Tab

Spot light

Area light

Sun light

IES Light

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Vray Light - Common Tab
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General
Here you can adjust color intensity, turn shadow on or off. You can also define if you want to use real
world light decay or not.

Parameters

Light type - specifies the light type:

Omni light- An Omni light source acts like a real life light bulb — casting rays in all directions.

Spot light - Spotlights cast their rays in just one direction, which is along the Z-axis by default.

Infinite light - light type is so called because it mimics light that is cast from an infinite distance.
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Area light - The light rays from an Area light expand from all points on its surface outwards in all
directions. A rectangular computer screen is a good example of such a light.

Parallel light - Parallel lights resemble a very distant light source. The Parallel light has an origin and
simulates a large, single axis wall of light. These lights take the appearance of an infinitely large
surface, radiating parallel light in a single direction.

Intensity Units - allows choosing the light units. Only in Area light type mode. Using correct units
is essential when you work with the VRayPhysicalCamera. The light will automatically take the scene
units scale into consideration to produce the correct result for the scale you are working with. The
possible values are:

Default (image) - the color and multiplier directly determine the visible color of the light without any
conversion. The light surface will appear with the given color in the final image when seen directly by
the camera (assuming there is no color mapping involved).

Luminous power (lm) - total emitted visible light power measured in lumen. When this setting is
used, the intensity of the light will not depend on its size. A typical 100W electric bulb emits about
1500 lumen of light.

Luminance (lm/m^2/sr) - visible light surface power measured in lumen per square meter per
steradian. When this setting is used, the intensity of the light depends on its size.

Radiant power (W) - total emitted visible light power measured in watts. When using this setting,
the intensity of the light does not depend on its size. Keep in mind that this is not the same as the
electric power consumed by a light bulb for example. A typical 100W light bulb only emits between 2
and 3 watts as visible light.

Radiance (W/mІ/sr) - visible light surface power measured in watts per square meter per steradian.
When this setting is used, the intensity of the light depends on its size.

Intensity - the light intensity in the units chosen by the Intensity Units parameter.

Cut-off threshold - this parameter specifies a threshold for the light intensity, below which the light
will not be computed. This can be useful in scenes with many lights, where you want to limit the effect
of the lights to some distance around them. Larger values cut away more from the light; lower values
make the light range larger. If you specify 0.0, the light will be calculated for all surfaces.

Light color presets - some common Kelvin Light Source temperatures coupled with their RGB
Equivalents. Note that this temperature has nothing to do with how "hot" a light source is - just with
the color of its light. A light source with a low Kelvin temperature is very red. One with a high Kelvin
temperature is very blue. More accurately, when we see two light sources side by side in a scene, the
higher Kelvin light appears more blue, and the lower Kelvin light appears more red. Its all relative.

Light color - the color of the light. When using photometric units, this color is mixed with Filter
color from IES Light tab.

Affect diffuse - this determines whether the light is affecting the diffuse properties of the materials.

Affect specular - this determines whether the light is affecting the specular of the materials.

Enable shadows - when on (the default), the light casts shadows. Turn this option off to disable
shadow casting for the light.

Shadows color - the color of the shadow.

Shadow bias - bias moves the shadow toward or away from the shadow-casting object (or objects). If
the Bias value is too low, shadows can "leak" through places they shouldn't, produce moire patterns or
making out-of-place dark areas on meshes. If Bias is too high, shadows can "detach" from an object. If
the Bias value is too extreme in either direction, shadows might not be rendered at all.
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Shadow radius - adjusts the softness of non area shadows.

Shadow subdivisions - this value controls the number of samples VRAYforC4D takes to compute
shadow. Lower values mean more noisy results, but will render faster. Higher values produce smoother
results but take more time. Note that the actual number of samples also depends on the DMC settings.

Photon subdivisions - this settings define the quality of light sampling for caustic calculation.

Caustic subdivisions - this option controls the amount of photons that VRAYforC4D will trace to
estimate caustics. Large numbers slow down the calculation of the caustics photon map and may take
more memory.
Beam radius - adjusts the wideness (radius) of parallel light.

Decay - allows choosing the behave of light intensity with distance. normally the light intensity is
inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light (surfaces that are farther from the
light are darker than surfaces which are closer to the light). The possible values are:

None - when this option is on the intensity will not decay with distance.

Inverse - light intensity inversely proportional to the distance from the light.

Inverse square - light intensity inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light.
It`s normal behavior of light.

Notes
· VRAYforC4D uses real to physical light calculation, therefore there is no parameter to set the light
falloff distance, as in real nature the light fall of is always inverse square and only influenced by the
intensity of the light. In vray it is just the same, the stronger a light is the wider the falloff is. We
strongly recommend using decay for all kind of lights, it will give you better results. In Vray there is
no need for cheating with lights.

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Vray Light - Spot light
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General
Here you can determine Spot light parameters.

Parameters

Cone angle - angle of light funnel.

Penumbra angle - gradient of shadow boundary, can be equal or more than cone angle.

Barn-Door effect - four side shutter for light. The values are:

Left Door angle - left shutter value.

Right Door angle - right shutter value.

Top Door angle - top shutter value.

Bottom Door angle - bottom shutter value.

Notes

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Vray Light - Area light
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General
Here you can determine Area light parameters.

Parameters

Area type - specifies the area light type:

Rectangle- light has the shape of a planar rectangle.

Sphere - light has the shape of a sphere.

Dome - light acts like the Sky. The light is coming from a hemispherical dome above the y-axis of the
light.

Size X - the X length (width) of the light source, measured in scene units. This parameter is ignored
for Sphere or Dome lights.

Size Y - the Y length (height) of the light source, measured in scene units. This parameter is ignored
for Sphere or Dome lights.

Radius - If Sphere or Dome light source is selected this value corresponds to the sphere's radius,
measured in scene units.
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Affect reflections - this determines whether the light will appear in reflections of materials.

Invisible - this setting controls whether the shape of the VRayLight source is visible in the render
result. When this option is turned off the source is rendered in the current Light color. Otherwise it is
not visible in the scene. Note that this option only affects the visibility of the light when seen directly
by the camera or through refractions.

Subdivisions - this value controls the number of samples VRAYforC4D takes to compute lighting.
Lower values mean more noisy results, but will render faster. Higher values produce smoother results
but take more time. Note that the actual number of samples also depends on the DMC Sampler
settings.

No decay - normally the light intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the
light (surfaces that are farther from the light are darker than surfaces which are closer to the light).
When this option is on the intensity will not decay with distance.

Store with irradiance map - when this option is on and GI calculation is set to Irradiance map
VRAYforC4D will calculate the effects of the VRay Light and store them in the irradiance map. The
result is that the irradiance map is computed more slowly but the rendering takes less time. You can
also save the irradiance map and reuse it later.

Double-sided - when the light is a rectangle light source this option controls whether light is beamed
from both sides of the rectangle. This field has no effect for Sphere or Dome light sources.

Light portal - when this option is on, the Color parameter are ignored; instead the light will take its
intensity from the environment behind it.

Ignore light normals - normally, the surface of the source emits light equally in all directions. When
this option is off, more light is emitted in the direction of the source surface normal.

Light Dome

Spherical Dome - when on, this option causes


the dome light to cover the entire sphere around the scene. When off (the default), the light covers a
hemisphere only.

Texture - specifies an environment texture for the Dome light.

Mapping type - determinates how the HDRI image will be mapped on the light dome.

Texture resolution- specifies the resolution at which the texture is resampled for importance
sampling.

Photon target radius - for the Dome light, defines a sphere around the light icon where photons are
being shot when photon-mapped caustics or the global photon map are used.

Photon emit radius - for the Dome light, defines a sphere around the light icon from which photons
are being shot towards the target radius area.

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Vray Light - Sun light
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General
The Physical Sun and Physical Sky are developed to work together, they reproduce the real-life Sun
and Sky environment of the Earth. Both are coded so that they change their appearance depending on
the direction of the Physical Sun The VRAYforC4D Sun and Sky are based largely on the SIGGRAPH'99
paper "A Practical Analytic Model for Daylight" by A. J. Preetham, Peter Shirley, Brian Smits.

Parameters

Physical Sun - turns on and off the sun light.

Sun invisible - when on, this option makes the sun invisible, both to the camera and to reflections.
This is useful to prevent bright speckles on glossy surfaces where a ray with low probability hits the
extremely bright sun disk.

Physical Sky - turns on and off the sky light and environment.

Sky intensity multiplier - this is an intensity multiplier for the Physical Sky. The multiplier can be
set to greater than 100%. Note that Physical Sky intensity increasing does not affect Physical Sun
brightness intensity.

Override Background Env - when this option is unchecked Physical Sky has no effect to
Background and Background from Enviroment tab will be visible on render.

Override GI Env - when this option is unchecked Physical Sky has no effect to GI Enviroment and GI
Enviroment from Enviroment tab will be visible on render.

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Override Reflection Env - when this option is unchecked Physical Sky has no effect to Reflection
and Reflection from Enviroment tab will be visible on render.

Override Refraction Env - when this option is unchecked Physical Sky has no effect to Refraction
and Refraction from Enviroment tab will be visible on render.

Turbidity - this parameter determines the amount of dust in the air and affects the color of the sun
and sky. Smaller values produce a clear and blue sky and sun as you get in the country, while larger
values make them yellow and orange as, for example, in a big city. For further info, please see the
Examples section.

Ozone - this parameter affects the color of the sun light. Available in the range between 0.0 and 1.0.
Smaller values make the sunlight more yellow, larger values make it blue. For further info, please see
the Examples section.

Water vapour - aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. Water vapor is one state of the water cycle
within the hydrosphere. Not used in current version.

Intensity multiplier for Phys Cam - this is an intensity multiplier for the Physical Sun. Since the
sun is very bright by default, you can use this parameter to reduce its effect. See the Notes and
Examples sections for more information.

Intensity multiplier for Std Cam - this is an intensity multiplier for the Physical Sun. Since the sun
is very bright by default, you can use this parameter to reduce its effect. This multiplier affects only on
Cinema4D Camera render, even if it have VRay Physical Camera Tag on it.

Size Multiplier - this parameter controls the visible size of the sun. This affects the appearance of the
sun disc as seen by the camera and reflections, as well as the blurriness of the sun shadows. For
further information, please see the Examples section.

Photon emit radius - determines the radius of the area, in where photons would be shot.

Photon emit distance - determines the distance of the area, in where photons would be shot. This
area is represented by the green cyllinder around the Sun's ray vector. This parameter has effect when
photons are used in the GI solutions or caustics.

Notes
· By default, the VRaySun and VRaySky are very bright. In the real world, the average solar
irradiance is about 1000 W/m^2. Since the image output in VRAYforC4D is in W/m^2/sr, you will
typically find that the average RGB values produces by the sun and the sky are about 200.0-300.0
units. This is quite correct from a physical point of view, but is not enough for a nice image. You can
either use Color mapping to bring these values to a smaller range (which is the preferred way) or
you can use the Sun intensity multiplier to make the sun less bright. Using the
VRayPhysicalCamera with suitable values also produces a correct result without changing the sun
and sky parameters.

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Vray Light - IES Light
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General
Here you can use IES lights. IES standard file format was created for the electronic transfer of
photometric data over the web. It has been widely used by many lighting manufacturers and is one of
the industry standards in photometric data distribution. An IES file is basically the measurement of
distribution of light (intensity) stored in ASCII format.

Parameters

On - turns on and off the IES lights use.

IES File - Path to IES file.

Filter color - the color of the IES light. This color is mixed with Light color from Common Light tab.

Filter multiplier - IES light intensity multiplier.

Soft shadows - turns on and off the soft shadows for IES lights.

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Ies Preview
Camera distance from the floor - with this options you can adjust how far camera in preview will be
from IES light.

Light distance from the floor - with this options you can adjust how far IES light will be from the
floor.

Camera distance from the wall - with this options you can adjust how far camera in preview will be
from IES light.

Light distance from the wall - with this options you can adjust how far IES light will be from the
wall.

Ies Preview - show the IES preview.

Front Preview - this option change IES preview from floor to wall preview.

Notes
· IES Preview madded only for preview IES files, and changes in it does not affect on IES Light
behavior in scene.

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VRay Physical Camera
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General
The VRayPhysicalCamera allows you to use real-world parameters to set up the virtual CG camera (e.g.
f-stop, lens focal length etc). It also makes it easier to use light sources with real-world illumination.

Parameters

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Basic

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Lens parameters

Use Physical Camera - when this option is checked VRAYforC4D's Physical camera tag will affect to
c4d camera.

Camera type - specifies the type of the camera:


Still camera - simulates a still photo camera with a regular shutter.

Movie camera - simulates a motion-picture camera with a circular shutter.

Video camera - simulates a shutter-less video camera with a CCD matrix.

Zoom factor - specifies a zoom factor. Values greater than 1.0 zoom into the image; values smaller
than 1.0 zoom out. This is similar to a blow-up rendering of the image.

Lens Distortion - specifies the distortion coefficient for the camera lens. A value of 0.0 means no
distortion; positive values produce "barell" distortion, while negative values produce "pillow" distortion.

Lens shift - allows the simulation of shift lenses for 2-point perspective. Changing this parameter is
similar to applying a Camera correction modifier.

Vignetting effects - when this option is on, the optical vignetting effect of real-world cameras is
simulated. You can also specify the amount of the vignetting effect, where 0.0 is no vignetting and 1.0
is normal vignetting.

White balance presets - presets for different day time conditions.

White balance - allows additional modification of the image output. Objects in the scene that have
the specified color will appear white in the image. Note that only the color hue is taken into
consideration; the brightness of the color is ignored.

Exposure - when this option is on, the F-Stop, Shutter speed and Film ISO will affect the image
brightness.

Fixed exposure increments - when this option is on, you can use physical camera as a real camera;
all real camera works with not user defined value for f stop, iso and timing, but you can increase or
decrease values with stop fraction. One stop define for the camera, half or double of light quantity for
final shot,for example if you set f stop from 5.6 to 8 you will use half light for your shot.

Store exposure - this option can be used to optimize DOF and Motion Blur use, to use this you must
use On first Fixed exposure increments. First you must find correct exposure with fixed increments,
then turn on store exposure, then turn On DOF or Motion Blur and now you can modify fstop or timing
for sampling feature without exposure modification.

1 stop increment - 50% plus or minus.

Film ISO - determines the film power (i.e. sensitivity). Smaller values make the image darker, while
larger values make it brighter.

1/3 stop increment - 33% plus or minus.

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F-Stop - determines the width of the camera aperture and, indirectly, exposure. If the Exposure
option is checked, changing the f-stop will affect the image brightness.

1/3 stop increment - 33% plus or minus.

Shutter speed - the shutter speed, in inverse seconds, for the still photographic camera. For example,
shutter speed of 1/30 s corresponds to a value of 30 for this parameter.

Shutter angle - shutter angle (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.

Shutter offset - shutter offset (in degrees) for the cinematic camera.

Latency - CCD matrix latency, in seconds, for the video camera.

Sampling

MBlur

on - turns on motion blur.

DOF on - turns on depth of field sampling.

DOF display threshold- determinates the detail quality of the dof calculation, lower values means
more quality but longer rendertime. Higher values speed up rendering.

Subdivision - determines the number of samples (rays) for calculating depth of field.

Bokeh effects - defines the shape of the camera aperture. When this option is off, perfectly circular
aperture is simulated. When on, a polygonal aperture is simulated.

Blades number - Number of blades.

Blades rotation - defines the rotation of the blades.

Center bias - defines a bias shape for the bokeh effects. Positive values make the outer edge of the
bokeh effects brighter; negative values make the center of the effect brighter.

Bokeh anisotropy - allows stretching of the bokeh effect horizontally or vertically to simulate
anamorphic lenses.

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VRay Camera Dome
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General
This Tag allow your to make spherical type of image.

Parameters

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Field of View - determinates the angle of view, this can be set to 360 degree ( it over rides the
180degree limit of the c4d cam.

Flip X - mirrors the image in X.

Flip Y - mirrors the image in Y.

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Vray Proxy
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General

VrayProxy allows you to use geometry from an external mesh at render time only. The object
geometry is not present in the memory or scene and does not take many resources. This allows the
rendering of scenes with many trillions of triangles - more than Cinema4D itself can handle.

Materials are not saved in the .Vrmesh file, so use Cinema4D materials with proxy objects, like with
any other Cinema4D object.

You can convert .obj files to .Vrmesh files with the help of the ply2Vrmesh converter tool, it`s MS-DOS
command line utility or use Vrmesh Exporter Tag.

· Export c4d object to .obj (File - Export - Wavefront).


· Download ply2Vrmesh tool.
· Use it in any free commander, like simple ms-dos utility.

ply2vrmesh <inputFile>.obj <outputFile>.vrmesh

This converts the given .ply or .obj file and writes it to the given .vrmesh file. Note that you must
specify the file extension, it will not be added automatically.

For example: ply2vrmesh.exe grass.obj grass.vrmesh -smoothNormals

There are also additional options that you can specify:


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-smoothNormals - generates smooth vertex normals. Only valid for .obj files.

-flipNormals - reverses the face normals. Only valid for .obj files.

-mapChannel <chanIndex> - stores the UVW coordinates to the specified mapping channel (default
is 1). Only valid for .obj files.

Parameters

Basic Properties
Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Visible in Editor - Controls whether the selected objects are visible or invisible in the Viewport.

Visible in Renderer - Controls whether the selected objects are visible or invisible in the renderer..

Use Color - Determines whether the selected objects use their display color. Off switches off the
display color so that material colors are used instead. Automatic means the display color is only used if
the object has no materials. Always means the display color is always used, even if the object has
materials. If a primitive is assigned to a layer, selecting Layer will color the primitive using the color of
that layer.

Display Color - Defines the display color. Click the color box to access the system color chooser or
click the small triangle to access CINEMA 4D’s color chooser. Choose the desired color.
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Shaded Wire Mode - controls when the Shaded Wire Color will be used: never Off, only if the object
has no materials Automatic or always Always.

Shaded Wire Color - You can define a custom wireframe color for the object that will be used when
the object is inactive. Wireframe colors are visible in the following Viewport display modes (set the
desired mode from the view’s Display menu).

Enabled - Switches generators, deformers and primitives on or off. Disabled objects are not visible in
the Viewport.

X-Ray - If this option is enabled, the selected objects will be semi-transparent. All points and edges
can then still be seen when using a shaded display mode, such as Gouraud shading.

Coordinates

P [XYZ m] - Displays the position of objects lying within a hierarchy, based on the world coordinate
system the prevailing coordinate system.

S [XYZ ] - Displays the scale of objects lying within a hierarchy, based on the world coordinate system
or the prevailing coordinate system.

R [HPB °] - Displays the rotation of objects lying within a hierarchy, based on the world coordinate
system or the prevailing coordinate system.

Object Properties

Linked Object - you can link Vrmesh Exporter Tag from object with proxy, so object will be used like
proxy without making proxy instance manualy. It`s good for making proxy instance from object in
scene.

Use Filename - when this option is on VRAYforC4D will use Vrmesh file for proxy.

Vrmesh file - this is the source .vrmesh file. Choose it on your computer.

Notes
· The geometry generated by the proxy object is not modifiable, but you can replace proxy object on
hard drive with new version of object.
· If you need to create several VrayProxies in Cinema4D linked to the same .Vrmesh file, it's better to
make them instances - this will save memory since the .Vrmesh file will be loaded only once,
especialy it good with Mogrpah.
· For now in Cinema4D VrayProxy object can`t be used with material Selection, so you need make
separate proxy object for different parts of one c4d mesh, for example, if you want make Proxy Tree,
you need to make Proxy bark object and Proxy leaves object, and apply different materials to it.
· You can use .Vrmesh files generated in other applications, like 3ds Max - for example.
· The ply2Vrmesh tool understands most of the popular .ply formats, both ASCII and binary, big-
endian or little-endian.

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Vrmesh Exporter Tag
E
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Vrmesh Exporter Tag m
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s

General
This Tag allow your to make quick vray proxy mesh in scene, so no need to make it manualy. Vray
proxy mesh will be generated automaticly when you hit render.

Parameters

Name - here you can enter a name for the object.

Layer - If an element was assigned to a layer its layer color will be displayed here. This field reflects
the layer color in the Layer Palette. You can drag & drop layers from the Layer Browser or similar layer
fields onto this field. You can also assign layers or remove elements from current layers using the
menus located behind the small triangle.

Enable Smoothing - generates smooth vertex normals.

THE END
& have fun with VrayC4D
cheers from VRAYforC4D Team
PS: If you have any suggestion to improve this manual, please feel free to write it to
gantonr@gmail.com
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