Real Time Assessment Management
Human Factor Engineering
his paper discusses an applied approach for HFE integration and implementation into the design, whether it is a new vessel, a facility construction project, or the expansion, modernization, or upgrading of an existing vessel or facility. This successful strategy has evolved over many years in the marine industry. This strategy integrates HFE throughout the various life cycle phases of a project with the objective of efficiently executing relevant HFE activities throughout conceptual, preliminary, and detail design as well as during construction and operation.
he proactive approach attempts to analyze the lagging patterns & predicts possible future failures, thus avoiding the system breakdown. Measures can then be put in place to prevent the failure or failures that have been anticipated. Proactive approaches include well developed qualitative methods such as HazOp (Hazard Operability), FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analyses), and quantitative methods such as PRA (Probabilistic Risk Analyses) and QRA (Quantified Risk Analyses). The reactive approach is based on analysis of the failure or near failures (incidents, near-misses) of a structure system. An attempt is
made to understand the reasons for the failure or near failures, and then to put measures in place to prevent future failures of the structure system. The interactive approach is based on RAM (Real-time Assessment and Management) this is where Human Factor Engineering comes to play a vital role to influencing the friendly design of machine to suit human interface that assures the safety and increased productivity. Presently, quality and reliability of offshore structures is carried out by structural reliability analysis (SRA) and probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) that did not take into considerations Human Factor Engineering (HFE).
Effective integration of HFE principles into the design stage greatly reduces the potential of human error. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the systems encompass human capability and limitations.
Purpose of HFE
The purpose of this paper is to suggest how various hazards can be reduced with implementation of HFE (Human Factor Engineering) by rationalisation of ALARP system. This has to start right from conceptualisation stage of a project thus ensuring that the safety gets precedence over trifle monetary consideration. The world over management has realised that
Offshore World | 13 | FEBRUARY - MARCH 2011
Being so dramatic. generators. from drill floors. Major accidents represent the most disastrous way in which an offshore engineering project can go wrong.oswindia. chemical.
Psychological hazards are different from other occupational hazards and are product of stressors arising out of psychosomatic conditions. suffering. etc.Features
the money spent on safety compared to other project components is insignificant and yields phenomenal result. the incompatibility can lead to long term and permanent effect. Currently HSE in offshore is not given its due importance in project management and is generally relegated to compliance with regulatory requirements.
There is a serious concern on health of offshore workers resulting from musculoskeletal disorders and stress.
Personal safety Environmental safety
This paper aims at Human Factor Engineering consideration. work overload. which do not take into consideration man machine interface and other ergonomic functions. and. welding/cutting fumes. ice cream machines. they attract attention from the news media and linger in the public memory. such as mineral oil mist and vapour.g. etc.
These hazards are usually well controlled through sealed systems. helicopters) can also increase perceived levels of stress and are risk as transportation to far off locations are taken up frequently.
health function within the industry needs to respond to these challenges. This creates the possibility for hand–arm vibration syndrome in workers who use these tools routinely. ill maintained cold storage and improper handling of food can lead to outbreak of biological hazard in the form of food-poisoning and other diseases.
Noise and vibration can both independently pose significant health risks (e. shakers. poor leisure activities. biological.Airborne
Offshore World | 14 | FEBRUARY . ergonomic and psychological hazards. next is adoption of hazard mitigation methodology.
These are the result of improper human body and machine coordination. The health function influences the operational consideration during conceptualisation to remove or control health issues at source.com
Types of Health Hazards
Physical Hazards Chemical Hazards Biological Hazards Ergonomic Hazards Psychological Hazards Transportation Hazards
diseases can erupt from ventilation system due to contamination and uncontrolled medical management of cases. These are each briefly reviewed below. etc. Also relevant are prolonged periods of limited interaction with people (phone. area and personal monitoring. permit to work systems. Other potential toxic and suspected carcinogenic agents or mixtures exist. The process of health risk assessment (HRA) as it is usually applied in the industry covers five groups of potential health hazards: physical. formaldehyde. compressors and mixers). neck and lower back. causing concern about safety at offshore. Ergonomic health issues are usually associated with the musculoskeletal disorder and principally the most affected parts are upper limbs. tetrachloroethylene. Internet.Subsequently it outlines the techno-commercial and social challenges that could influence the future context of health management in this industry. training. emergency plans. limited sleep quality and quantity (as a result of shift patterns and noise).). sack rooms. Offshore is inherently a risky business that involves most ambitious projects of the modern world. Accidents cause death. risk and safety activities in relation to offshore projects have two main areas of concern. The objective of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is to minimize the potential for human error and accidents and encouraging the performance of assigned activities as efficiently and effectively as possible. These arise as a result of improper design of machines. lack of job clarity and frequent change. coatings. the final goal is to enunciate how the
www. asbestos fibres. acids. pollution of the environment and disruption of business.g.MARCH 2011
The increased use of higher risk methods of transport (e. it starts with briefly outlining the nature of health risks in the offshore oil and gas industry as prevalent today. Consequently.
. ice makers. gas purging.
. HFE..... The exploration has moved from shallow water to deep water and so are the challenges for managing safety..activity such that it FEMA project life cycle will set the ground for process the HFE HAZOP/HAZID.......... this may further marginalise safety consideration..
Evaluating the skill gap
The Techno commercial issue is best exercised by ‘Prized Catch’ and Non-acceptance of risk in both the developed and the developing worlds........... Operations and of control as AFP/ PFP)............ Very obviously the society.................... The techno-commercial and social issues
becomes more difficult the socio-political demand on upstream companies increases for greater health & environmental compliances. It is therefore necessary to ensure that the systems encompass human capability and limitations......... The HSE practitioners It illustrates how HFE consideration more need to leverage their skills in anticipating... promotes interaction between HFE......Features
The future of Offshore
This is going to be tougher every passing day......... procedures and personal protective equipment as controls.. Project management should physically and organizationally locate the HFE activity such that it promotes interaction between HFE. Safety... Engineering..... Operations and Health...
constitute two important characteristics of the expected macroeconomic context of future petroleum operations as they affect the management of health hazards offshore...............e...............com
.. The example below illustrates how HFE consideration in organisational location has proven to be very effective in design of capital projects. and Environmental (HSE). a combined methodology to simultaneously ensure total safety Human worker deserves to go home every single day to his family in the same condition he arrived in!!!!! factors engineering (HFE) traditional measures and transactional Every single concentrates on supporting capital projects support for greater hazard evaluation & ..
proactive integration of industrial hygiene and HFE principles could add significant health value to the design phase of capital projects by ensuring that health risks are reduced to ALARP through improved engineering measures. training............... the infrastructures.MARCH 2011
Evaluating the skill gap
Since health Factor engineering (HFE) is not a known face in offshore engineering
www. and Environmental (HSE).... is less willing to accept health hazard and risks associated with offshore commercial activities...... The awareness and professional excellence required probing further into future offshore exploration and extraction is going to decide the cost incurred and probably futuristic approach to safety implementation and compliances. Safety..
pollution have a deleterious effect on the health of offshore worker.... is clear from experience to date that in organisational location has proven to be very
effective in design of capital projects....
It is understood that the days of easy oil is gone...
Non-acceptance of Risk by Society
As the exploration and extraction of oil
Offshore World | 15 | FEBRUARY . SIL. The technological challenges arising out of these would pose greater financial implication on project cost....... This means that the example below and other methods Health...... with less reliance on management.. from the early stages of the development mitigation during design phase of major locate (i......... FEED.... Engineering......... Paradoxically the very chemical and other gases that are introduced in platform effluence to reduce
>> Effective integration of HFE principles into the design stage greatly reduces the potential of human error...... culturally.
Since health Factor engineering (HFE) is not a known face in offshore engineering Health paradigm: Introducing engineering component for and associated facilities..oswindia... resources and cost required for managing more remote and deepwater exploration all these leads to greater demand for HSE considerations..
Has been instrumental in devising and implementing Behaviour Based Safety to minimise health hazards and formalise various reward schemes to promote QHSE at grass root level......... Engineering companies should develop capabilities to take care of HFE during design stage.... IPIECA/OGP..... Whitely S. Van der Veer J. Health and Safety Executive. Worked as Elect Engineer. QA...
Offshore World | 16 | FEBRUARY ....Features
predicting and modelling exposure to health hazards rather than relying on measuring them and developing procedural and other operational controls.. The gap between process engineering and value
engineering would need to be filled up to maintain semblance of ethical balance...... A Guide to Offshore Safety. 5...com
BTech (Elec) with Masters in Management Studies and advanced diploma in OHS & E.. Overview and characteristics of some occupational exposures and health risks on offshore oil and gas installations.. MCLEOD: OFFSHORE INDUSTRY: MANAGEMENT OF HEALTH HAZARDS 15. A Guide for the Oil and Gas Industry.... Noise Exposure and Control in the Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. In June 2010 India granted autonomy to oil firms -.... Oil prices uncertainty is there but the Indian market need not be worried over it....... 3.. Update of a study of crude oil productionworkers1946–94.
Every single worker deserves to go home every single day to his family in the same condition he arrived in!!!!! .. 86F
Disclaimer: The views presented herein is of the author and has no relation to any person or company
to fill any shortfall [O/R]. Sathiakumar N.. The global nature of the industry has already brought problems of managing health in ever more isolated areas and under the threat of quite exotic diseases..... An Tool for HSE/ OSD Inspectors......” Pranab Mukherjee said in a statement... Schnatter AR..... 2... K.. QA Inspector.. Cole P... Health and Safety Executive..HartmanC.. Health Watch 12th Report......OccupEnvironMed2000.com
1. FQMM 1993. Gardner R.37:1269–1277.. because we are watching the situation and market should not be unnecessarily agitated over it.... cooking gas and kerosene to rein in inflation and protect the poor.. 9.. 10. Plant N. ALARP ‘‘at a Glance’’...
compliances.. 2011 so that taxes may be eased and subsidies may be rationalized to cushion the impact of surging global oil prices. 6.. Increased risk of hematopoietic malignancies in a historical cohort of upstream petroleum workers... 8. Divine BJ.Indian Oil Corp. In future more projects will become commercially or economically unviable due to the cost and effort needed to control risk than is currently the case. IPIECA/OGP....... Barge Master and QHSE Consultant with world renowned EPC & Drilling engineering contractors. Manual Handling Incidents Database: Research Report 500:2006. The Australian Institute of Petroleum Health Surveillance Program... Delzell E.. The need of the hour is to use these statistical data not go hand in hand and are in fact contrary to each other...... ‘‘We Need More Grey Cells Per Barrel’’ 12. Oil rallied more than $1 a barrel to top $112 on Friday as a revolt in Libya sparked fears of supply shortages...
should institutionalise the HFE considerations in standards to be promulgated in future thus ensuring the practical application are universally accepted as guideline...........
Author Details Sudhir Mishra BE (Elec). Report No. Health and Safety Executive... Sudhir Mishra.... 4... OGP Report Number 393:2007........ the health inputs are frequently seen as a stumbling block and necessary evil which doesn’t has much value in itself..
to evaluate engineering practices followed across the projects and institute corrective measures to achieve Zero Accident Rate (ZAR)
Developing technologies in offshore doesn’t guarantee personnel or engineering safety. Bratveit M.oswindia.... Mortality andcancer morbidity in a cohort of Canadian petroleum workers..
India Need Not Worry of High Global Oil Prices: FM
New Delhi: Finance Minister Pranab Mukerjee said that the Indian markets need not worry over global oil price uncertainty... giving a signal on the budget declared on February 28.. J Occup Environ Med 1995... A case control study of leukemia among petroleum workers..........Xylene and Ethylbenzene during Routine Offshore Oil and Gas Production Operations. Occupational Exposure to Benzene. Riise T.. Regulatory authorities and prevailing codes should institutionalise the HFE considerations in standards to be promulgated in future thus ensuring the practical application are universally accepted as guideline. Global oil companies should realise the importance of HFE during the conceptualisation of new capital projects. 11.. Health Watch. Kirkeleit J.. 13... Hindustan Petroleum and Bharat Petroleum to fix prices of petrol but decided to keep controls on diesel......... Drummond I et al... HSE Offshore Technology Report OTO 1999 088:2000. Credited with pioneering structured safety system to further improve QHSE performances to align with corporate objective and profitability.... MBA Senior Consultant Marine Engg. BS (Aeronautics).57:411–417.. “No.. a certification in Nuclear & Radiological safety from BARC in consultation with IARP (USA)..... despite assurances by top oil exporter Saudi Arabia that it would step in
www. 2006... 14.... Lewis RJ... a combined methodology to simultaneously ensure traditional measures and transactional support for greater hazard evaluation & mitigation during design phase of major project life cycle will set the ground for HFE. Controlling Health Risks at Work: A Roadmap to Health Risk Assessment in the Oil and Gas Industry..The principle of ‘As Low as Reasonably practicable’ (ALARP) and prized catch do
The present mindset rests on maintaining HSE (Key Performance Indicators) KPIs as a way to meet legal
>> Since health Factor engineering (HFE) is not a known face in offshore engineering and associated facilities.. Moen BE..... NIVEN AND R. 7...MARCH 2011
. HSE & ISPS Member IEEE and ATE (UK) References E-mail: Sudhir_Mishra@Intenc... Toluene. KPIs are usually subjective and could only be realised over a long run.....