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Mark Troscinski Multiphysics Product Manager

Presented By: David Ellis Idac Ltd FE-Net Industry Co-ordinator for Consumer Goods

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Agenda/Objectives

• Answer some questions:

–What is Multiphysics? –What is FSI?

• Describe benefits of new ANSYS FSI capability • Illustrate some interesting FSI applications

**What is Multiphysics? Multiphysics - The ability to
**

combine the effects of two or more different, yet interrelated physical phenomena, within one, unified simulation environment.

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Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Transfer Electricity

Solid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

Magnetism

Multiphysics Coupling

Heat Transfer Solid Mechanics

**• Thermal-Structural Coupling
**

– Engines, Gas Turbines, Heat Exchangers – Electronic Components, Solder Joints – Cryogenic components and systems

• Needed for any product subjected to extreme changes in temperature.

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patch antennas. transformers – Electronic components and systems • Needed for electric power handling components and systems. microwave systems 4 . radar systems. Multiphysics Coupling Electricity Magnetism • Low-Frequency Electromagnetics – Motors. generators. bus bars – Electric motors. generators.Multiphysics Coupling Heat Transfer Electricity • Thermal-Electric Coupling – Current-carrying conductors. induction coils • High-Frequency Electromagnetics – Waveguides.

Multiphysics Coupling Heat Transfer Electromagnetics • Thermal-Electromagnetic Coupling – Induction heating systems – Microwave heating systems • Used in many manufacturing processes: – Heat treating – Pre-heating for metal forming operations Multiphysics Coupling Fluid Mechanics Electromagnetics • Fluid-Electromagnetic Coupling – Induction furnaces for stirring molten metals • Used by induction furnace manufacturers – Environment too harsh to easily observe stirring patterns 5 .

torsional resonators – Other MEMS devices • Piezoelectrics – Transducers.Multiphysics Coupling Electricity Solid Mechanics • Electrostatic-Structural Coupling – Comb drives. micropumps – Inkjet printer actuation systems Multiphysics Coupling Electromagnetics Solid Mechanics • Magneto-Structural Coupling – Solenoid devices. microphones. stepper motors – Alternators. generators • Used by engineers to determine: – Magnetic force (linear systems) – Magnetic torque (rotary systems) – Efficiency 6 .

fans. more. and related phenomena • Within each finite element. • Equations are assembled in matrices and solved to yield complete picture of flow down to resolution of mesh 7 . heat transfer. and still more! What is CFD? • Numerical analysis of fluid flow. undersea noise detection • Viscous Fluid-Structural Coupling – CFD-based applications – Fuel injectors. control valves. the Navier-Stokes equations are rewritten as algebraic equations that relate nodal: – – – – Velocity Pressure Temperature Species concentrations … to the values in the neighboring elements.Multiphysics Coupling Fluid Mechanics Solid Mechanics • Inviscid Fluid-Structural Coupling – Acoustics-based applications – Transportation NVH. and pumps – More.

CFD Equations • Conservation of Mass – Continuity • Conservation of Momentum – Newton’s 2nd Law • Conservation of Energy – 1st Law of Thermodynamics • Conservation of Species Concentration CFD Elements • 2D: Fluid141 – Quadrilaterals – Triangles • 3D: Fluid142 – Hexahedrals or bricks – Tetrahedrals or tets – Pyramids – Prisms 8 .

where fluid enters and leaves • Lagrangian – Focus on particular fluid region which moves relative to a fixed point of reference • Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) – Boundary of fluid region moves at arbitrary velocity (something other than fluid velocity) – FSI’s dynamic mesh motion scheme What is FSI? In reality.CFD Flow Descriptions • Eulerian – Focus on fixed volume of space. it’s Fluid-Solid Interaction! Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Solid Mechanics CoupledField 9 .

How is FSI done? Numerical coupling is established between the different “physics” modules Multiphysics Math The finite element formulation which treats a single phenomenon uses matrix algebra represented by: [K]{X} = {F} where [ K ] is the coefficient matrix { X } is the vector of nodal unknowns { F } is the known load vector 10 .

Matrix Coupling [ [K11] [K12] [K21] [K22] ]{ } { } [X1] [X2] = [F1] [F2] • Subscript 1 represents fluid. Matrix-Coupled FSI • Positives: – Solution of a coupled equation system achieved in a single step • Negatives: – Requires complete re-writing of the fluid and solid solvers (must develop new FSI elements) – Matrix system tends to be very ill-conditioned due to difference in “stiffness” of fluid and the solid regions – Large problems become computationally expensive 11 . Subscript 2 is solid • Coupled effects are accounted for by offdiagonal coefficient terms K12 and K21 • Provides for coupled response in solution after one iteration.

Subscript 2 is solid • Coupled effects are accounted for by load terms F1 and F2 • At least two iterations. in sequence. one for each physics. Load Vector-Coupled FSI • Fluid and solid variables are updated sequentially with independent fluid and solid solver algorithms • At each “FSI” time step.Load Vector Coupling [ [K11] [ 0 ] [ 0 ] [K22] ]{ } { } [X1] [X2] = [F1] [F2] • Subscript 1 represents fluid. appropriate loads are exchanged at the fluid-solid interface • Positives: – Not required to re-write fluid and solid solvers – Able to leverage main features of each solver – More economical for large scale problems 12 . are needed to achieve a coupled response.

time-accurate FSI solution algorithm for: – Fluid-structure interaction – Fluid-thermal interaction – Fluid-thermal-electric interaction – Fluid-piezoelectric interaction • Why? → For simulations closest to reality! 13 .ANSYS FSI Initiative • Tightly integrate FLOTRAN CFD & ANSYS solid solvers into a load vector-coupled FSI algorithm that is: –Fully-automated –Time-accurate –Easy to use • Leverage ANSYS/Mechanical core capabilities FSI Algorithm Benefits • Fully-automated.

and solid elements: – With or without mid-side nodes FSI Algorithm Benefits • Fully-implicit time-stepping scheme: – Automatically checks convergence of all relevant physics at each time step before advancing in time – Allows for independent time step sizes for fluid and solid physics (sub-cycling) – Provides for the most efficient. and contact • Dissimilar mesh interface: – Automatically transfers loads between differently meshed fluid and solid regions • Support for beam. material. timeaccurate solutions 14 . shell.FSI Algorithm Benefits • Full support for all structural nonlinearities: – Geometric.

g. valve closes).FSI Algorithm Benefits • FLOTRAN Element Birth and Death: – Suitable for FSI problems involving contact between immersed.. valve opens) FSI Algorithm Layout Global Time Loop Stagger Loop ALE Mesh Morph Fluid Solution Load Transfer Solid Solution Load Transfer Convergence Check End Stagger Loop Increment Time End Global Time Loop ANSYS FLUID • FLOTRAN 2D/3D Elements • Extensive CFD Capabilities • ALE Formulation • Elasticity-Based Mesh Morphing ANSYS SOLID • Structural/Thermal/Coupled-Field • Geometric Non-Linearity • Material Non-Linearity • Contact Non-Linearity • All Iterative and Direct Solvers • All Transient Solver Options 15 . or reactivated as they separate (e.g. moving structures – Fluid elements may be automatically deactivated as surfaces come into contact (e..

FY”. VZ Interpolation between dissimilar meshes GST for FSI 16 .Load Transfer From FLUID side Conservative Interpolation Nodal forces: FX. FZ” Nodal heat fluxes: Q” From SOLID side Nodal displacements: UX. FY. UZ Nodal temperatures: TEMP Nodal velocities: VX. VY. UY. FZ Nodal heat rates: Q Non-Conservative Interpolation Nodal force fluxes: FX”.

fans & pumps – Aerospace airframe and propulsion system components – Flexible flow control devices. engine dampers. control valves. more.Applications • Truly applicable across all market segments: – Automotive fuel injectors. and still more! Deformable Flow Control Device Under low ∆P Under high ∆P 17 . paper copy machines – More. biomedical vessels and valves for blood flow – Flow-induced vibration of piping systems and heat exchangers – Diaper manufacturing processes.

turbulent water flow – Prescribed inlet-to-outlet ∆P = 45 PSI • Solid: – Hyperelastic.So What? • Vernay Labs currently designs these devices by “seat of pants” method: – Guess at shape to get right flow control characteristics – Build and test. … • They have no automated process in place for designing these FSI-type devices. high strain (>100%) materials – Treated with Mooney-Rivlin model • Simulation objective: – Determine steady-state shape of solid and accompanying steady-state fluid flow rate 18 . • ANSYS/Multiphysics can significantly reduce their overall time to market. build and test. Problem Description • Fluid: – Incompressible.

FLUID141’s Finite Element Mesh 19 .Axisymmetric Model CONTA172’s TARGE169’s Rubber PLANE183’s Water .

FSI BC – on Fluid FSI BC – on Solid 20 .

29 18.15 microns 15.5 mm plunger diameter 9.36 mm Leakage collection groove Drain pressure => 100 kPa Radial clearance = 2.FSI Results Diesel Fuel Injection Problem Statement: Given plunger cavity pressure as f(time).77 mm seal length 41 mm barrel diameter 8.87 mm P(t) input (next page) Plunger Cavity 21 . what is the total mass flow to the leakage collection groove? Actuation force Steels E = 206.8 GPa ν = 0.

82775 (i.5E+08 1.0E+08 5.010 0.008 0.000 0.So What? • Fuel injector leakage: – Unavoidable parasitic loss – Adversely affects system efficiency .002 0. bulk modulus = 1171698 + 10.Must be minimized! – Current predictions grossly underestimate measured leakage volumes • Caterpillar has NO automated method of predicting leakage rates.0E+08 1.0E+07 Fluid Properties: Fuel type: CAT1E262 Temperature: 85C Kinematic Viscosity: 1.0E+00 0.82775*P 0.006 0.5E+08 Relative Static Pressure (Pa) 2.004 0.012 Time (sec) 22 .171074E-06 m^2/sec Density: 809 kg/m^3 @ 101Kpa Bulk Modulus: 1171698 kpa @ 0 kpa Bulk modulus Slope: 10. • Tiny gains in system efficiency would provide tremendous advantage over their competitors Plunger Cavity Pressure 2.e.

Model Geometry Plunger Barrel Cavity Model Geometry 10º Chamfer Leakage Inlet 23 .

Model Geometry Finite Element Mesh 24 .

Boundary Conditions UY=0 P=0 VX=0 VY=0 UX=0 UY=0 FSI(1) FSI(2) P(t) UY=0 FSI Results 500X Displacements 25 .

0E+05 Pa Ø 2.000 0.25 mm Ø 4.00 2.002 0.00 0.4 mm Ø 10.00 0.008 0.0E+05 gm/sec^2 Spring preload: Fpreload = 2.Leakage Flow Rates FSI 6.004 0.012 Time (sec) LEAKAGEFSI / LEAKAGECFD = 12.006 0.5 mm 26 .0! Pressure-Limiting Valve Spring constant: kspring = 8.010 0.00 CFD Mass Flow Rate (gm/sec) 5.0 mm Ø 4.0 mm 55º 0.5E+06 gm*mm/sec^2 Ball density: ρball = 7.5E-04 gm/mm^3 Fluid viscosity: µfluid = 4.00 1.00 4.8E-03 gm/mm^3 Fluid density: ρfluid = 7.0E-04 gm/(mm*sec) Relative inlet pressure: Pinlet = 6.00 3.

tiny geometric design changes cause wide variations in valve response and performance • Currently guessing on new valve designs • Automated FSI tool will significantly reduce overall time to market and improve reliability Axisymmetric Model COMBIN14 SOLID42’s FLUID141’s 27 .So What? • Pressure-limiting valves are used in antilock brake systems – Huge liability ramifications • Per VDO.

Finite Element Mesh Mesh Detail 28 .

Mesh Detail FSI Results 29 .

000294# / in2 500.0 in 0.000 PSI Vacuum hole: Width: 1/8 in 2 in 8 in Plenum Outlet: ∆P: 3.Ball Displacement History f ≈ 875 Hz Office Copier FSI Paper Sheet: Thickness: Length: Width: Curl Radius: Weight: Elastic Modulus: 0.0 in 20.0 in 11.0092 in 8.0 in H 2O 30 .

FSI Results Ink Jet Printer 31 .

Piezoelectric Micropump ± 500 V PZT Layer Silicon Membrane Air ~ 3 mm FSI Results 32 .

Pulsing Blood Flow Fluid element: 142’s Solid element: 45’s Dissimilar mesh interface Material Properties Solid density: 1150 kg/m^3 Young’s modulus: 3.3 Fluid density: 1050 kg/m^3 Fluid viscosity: 4.0*10^-3 Inlet pressure pulse FSI Results 33 .0*10^5 Pa Poisson ratio: 0.

Vortex Shedding – Re = 100 Vortex Shedding – With Tail 34 .

VY = ± 5 mph Summary • ANSYS FSI solution capability: – Easy to use. shell and solid elements. time-accurate – Full support for all structural nonlinearities – Dissimilar mesh interface for beam. with or without mid-side nodes • Future developments: – Add automatic re-meshing capability – Add nth physics to stagger loop – Enhance FSI post-processing – Add AMG parallel solver 35 .VX = 20 mph. fully automated.

Thank You! Any Questions? 36 .

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