Emotional Intelligence, or EI, describes an ability or capacity to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, and of others. Our EQ, or Emotional Quotient, is how one measures Emotional Intelligence. Emotions have the potential to get in the way of our most important business and personal relationships. According to John Kotter of Harvard Business School: “Because of the furious pace of change in business today, difficult to manage relationships sabotage more business than anything else - it is not a question of strategy that gets us into trouble; it is a question of emotions.” Emotional Intelligence is also defined as a set of competencies demonstrating the ability one has to recognize his or her behaviors, moods, and impulses, and to manage them best according to the situation. Typically, "emotional intelligence" is considered to involve emotional empathy; attention to, and discrimination of one's emotions; accurate recognition of one's own and others' moods; mood management or control over emotions; response with appropriate (adaptive) emotions and behaviors in various life situations (especially to stress and difficult situations); and balancing of honest expression of emotions against courtesy, consideration, and respect (i.e., possession of good social skills and communication skills). Additional, though less often mentioned qualities include selection of work that is emotionally rewarding to avoid procrastination, self-doubt, and low achievement (i.e., good self-motivation and goal management) and a balance between work, home, and recreational life. In essence, EQ is the pattern of how people's biases in their thinking leads them to think one thing or choice is better than another, as well as their clarity in differentiating within those biases to exercise clear and sound judgment.



Is emotional intelligence as important as claimed? Can the concept be successfully applied to human resource management issues? "...success at work is 80% dependent on emotional intelligence and only 20% dependent on IQ," HR magazine, November 1997. This claim, which is not unique in the popular press on EI, is somewhat of an overstatement of the potential power of emotional intelligence. This reflects, perhaps, a desire on the part of HR practitioners to find a construct other than intelligence that can be used to further understand and predict performance at work. "At best IQ contributes about 20% to the factors that determine life success, which leaves 80% to other forces...No one can yet say exactly how much of the variability from person to person in life's course it accounts for. But what data exist suggest it can be as powerful, and at times more powerful, than IQ." "In some ways, interest in Emotional Intelligence has been due in part to a backlash against claims that general intelligence - IQ - is the key to success. We know that IQ does predict academic achievement and occupational status, but it still only predicts about 20% of personal variation in these areas. Psychologists have yet to understand what predicts the other 80% of success in these areas of life. We believe that Emotional Intelligence is one of the abilities which are related to life success, but we are as yet unable to determine just how important Emotional Intelligence is. So, where does Emotional Intelligence fit in? Despite popular reports to the contrary, there are few relevant studies on the matter to date. Our best guess is that Emotional Intelligence will make a unique contribution in the 5% to 10% range. It makes sense that Emotional Intelligence plays a role in our friendships, parenting, and intimate relationships. My research, to date, is just beginning to examine these issues in depth & also its importance in each part of HR." At a minimum, the emotional intelligence concept is useful for individuals interested in learning about the role of emotions in work and everyday life and how interpersonal relationships affect work and organizational performance, and should prove useful for personal development and insight.


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DATA COLLECTION: Quantitative data collection methods: These rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments. They produce results that are easy to summarize, compare, and generalize. If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population, it will employ probability sampling to select participants.

Interviews Questionnaires


To date, many companies have focused their selection criteria and training programs on hard skills (e.g., technical expertise, industry knowledge, education) and the assessment of personality traits. Topics including competencies like stress management, assertiveness skills, empathy, and political/social acumen were never measured in the selection process or focused on in training and development programs. In reality, these are critical success factors that should not be dismissed, and have a direct impact on the bottom line. For example, the Hay Group states one study of 44 Fortune 500 companies found that salespeople with high EQ produced twice the revenue of those with average or below average scores. In another study, technical programmers demonstrating the top 10 percent of emotional intelligence competency were developing software three times faster than those with lower competency.
This would help us to understand till what level does emotional intelligence contribute in HR , does it have any major impact on the entire HR Management and its importance for HR in the future for the IT industry.



Emotional Intelligence, or EI, describes an ability or capacity to perceive, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, and of others. Our EQ, or Emotional Quotient, is how one measures Emotional Intelligence. Emotions have the potential to get in the way of our most important business and personal relationships. According to John Kotter of Harvard Business School: “Because of the furious pace of change in business today, difficult to manage relationships sabotage more business than anything else - it is not a question of strategy that gets us into trouble; it is a question of emotions.” Emotional Intelligence is also defined as a set of competencies demonstrating the ability one has to recognize his or her behaviors, moods, and impulses, and to manage them best according to the situation. Typically, "emotional intelligence" is considered to involve emotional empathy; attention to, and discrimination of one's emotions; accurate recognition of one's own and others' moods; mood management or control over emotions; response with appropriate (adaptive) emotions and behaviors in various life situations (especially to stress and difficult situations); and balancing of honest expression of emotions against courtesy, consideration, and respect (i.e., possession of good social skills and communication skills). Additional, though less often mentioned qualities include selection of work that is emotionally rewarding to avoid procrastination, self-doubt, and low achievement (i.e., good self-motivation and goal management) and a balance between work, home, and recreational life. In essence, EQ is the pattern of how people's biases in their thinking leads them to think one thing or choice is better than another, as well as their clarity in differentiating within those biases to exercise clear and sound judgment.



Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recent behavioral model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goldman’s 1995 Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John 'Jack' Mayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people's behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more.

Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality bringing compassion and humanity to work, and also to 'Multiple Intelligence' theory which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact that everybody has a value.

The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioral and character elements. We've all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow.

Different approaches and theoretical models have been developed for Emotional Intelligence. This summary article focuses chiefly on the Goldman interpretation. The work of Mayer, Salovey and David Caruso (Yale) is also very significant in the field of Emotional Intelligence, and will in due course be summarized here too.


emotional and communications theories.the five domains Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as: 1. your goals. and empathy.e. Understanding others. 2. Managing your own emotions. and increasing stability. control and management of one's own emotions. and help others to be more productive and successful too. intentions. managing the emotions of others. i. behavior and all.EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE . by decreasing conflict. Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of behavioral. Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions. The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organizations. 2. and those of other people. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful at what we do. EQ embraces two aspects of intelligence: 1. such as NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming). 3. Managing relationships.TWO ASPECTS This is the essential premise of EQ: to be successful requires the effective awareness. Transactional Analysis. 4. continuity and harmony. Knowing your emotions. improving relationships and understanding.. 5. Understanding yourself. responses. Emotional intelligence . 6 . and their feelings. Motivating yourself.

However. a selfperceived ability to identify. as early as 1920.IIPM • LITERATURE Emotional intelligence (EI) is ability.Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model. fail to fully explain cognitive ability. and controls the emotions of oneself. skill or. The distinction between trait emotional intelligence and ability emotional intelligence was introduced in 2000. The first use of the term "emotional intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis. In the 1900s. prior to this. followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990). and Daniel Goleman (1995). E. to appreciate one's feelings. Similarly. Various models and definitions have been proposed of which the ability and trait EI models are the most widely accepted in the scientific literature.L. In Gardner's view. even though the names given to the concept varied. in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior. such as IQ. Thus. in the case of the trait EI model. traditional types of intelligence. and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors. In 1983. motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself. assesses. Criticisms have centered on whether the construct is a real intelligence and whether it has incremental validity over IQ and the Big Five personality dimensions. • • HISTORY The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Darwin's work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes. several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. of others. and of groups. fears and motivations). Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligence introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions. even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problem-solving. A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence from 1985. For instance. 7 . the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966).

most researchers agree that they tap different constructs. voices. Following their continuing research. that researchers are constantly re-evaluating even their own definitions of the construct. 8 . There has been much confusion about the exact meaning of this construct. and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities: 1. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.IIPM DEFINITIONS Substantial disagreement exists regarding the definition of EI. integrate emotion to facilitate thought. and cultural artifacts—including the ability to identify one's own emotions. 2. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. Ability EI model Mixed models of EI (usually subsumed under trait EI Trait EI model Different models of EI have led to the development of various instruments for the assessment of the construct. The definitions are so varied. their initial definition of EI was revised to "The ability to perceive emotion. understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth. For example. While some of these measures may overlap. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviors. 3. Understanding emotions – the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. ABILITY MODEL Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. 2. 3. pictures. there are three main models of EI: 1. Perceiving emotions – the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces. Using emotions – the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities. understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions. as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. with respect to both terminology and operationalizations." The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. and the field is growing so rapidly. such as thinking and problem solving. Currently.

the MSCEIT test results of 111 business leaders were compared with how their employees described their leader. the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions. but without stating this officially. because. This and other similar problems have led cognitive ability experts to question the definition of EI as a genuine intelligence. ability to motivate. so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual's answers and those provided by a group of 21 emotion researchers. and manage them to achieve intended goals. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored. Therefore. Therefore. the MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion. even negative ones. It was found that there were no correlations between a leader's test results and how he or she was rated by the employees. by definition. Although promoted as an ability test. the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to create items (questions) that only a minority of respondents can solve. 9 . which administers the MSCEIT test. This has led Multi-Health Systems to remove answers to these 19 questions before scoring. the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is based on a series of emotion-based problem-solving items]Consistent with the model's claim of EI as a type of intelligence. Føllesdal also criticized the Canadian company Multi-Health Systems. with higher scores indicating higher overlap between an individual's answers and those provided by a worldwide sample of respondents. Among other problems. Managing emotions – the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. The test contains 141 questions but it was found after publishing the test that 19 of these did not give the expected answers. the MSCEIT is most unlike standard IQ tests in that its items do not have objectively correct responses. with regard to empathy. and leader effectiveness. By testing a person's abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intelligence. Central to the four-branch model is the idea that EI requires attunement to social norms. responses are deemed emotionally "intelligent" only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. the test is modeled on ability-based IQ tests. In a study by Føllesdal. it generates scores for each of the branches as well as a total score.IIPM 4. MEASUREMENT OF THE ABILITY MODEL The current measure of Mayer and Salovey's model of EI. The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in the workplace.

influences. and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI). Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment. Social awareness – the ability to sense. & Barsade. Self-awareness – the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. 3. 2008). and develops others while managing conflict Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. understand.IIPM MIXED MODELS The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance. 2. Emotional competencies are not innate talents. Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: 1. Relationship management – the ability to inspire. and react to others' emotions while comprehending social network 4. 10 . but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI). MEASUREMENT OF THE EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES (GOLEMAN) MODEL Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model: 1. Roberts. 2. Self-management – involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. Goleman’s model of EI has been criticized in the research literature as mere "pop psychology" (Mayer. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal. which was created in 2007. which was created in 1999.

He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of emotional problems. and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands. MEASUREMENT OF THE ESI MODEL The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). 2001). 2007). by Bar-On. Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence. 2008. corresponding to the five main components of the Bar-On model. & Roberts. programming. Zeidner. The EQ-I is not meant to measure personality traits or cognitive capacity. problem solving. and therapy. Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved through training. stress tolerance. relating well to people. One hundred and thirty three items (questions or factors) are used to obtain a Total EQ (Total Emotional Quotient) and to produce five composite scale scores. The EQ-I has been found to be highly susceptible to faking (Day & Carroll. 11 .IIPM BAR-ON MODEL OF EMOTIONAL-SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE (ESI) Bar-On defines emotional intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others. Grubb & McDaniel. to be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing. but rather the mental ability to be successful in dealing with environmental demands and pressures. which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life. see Matthews. is a self-report measure of EI developed as a measure of emotionally and socially competent behavior that provides an estimate of one's emotional and social intelligence. Problems in coping with one's environment are thought. A limitation of this model is that it claims to measure some kind of ability through self-report items (for a discussion. In general. Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures. doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings it is being replaced by the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) model discussed below. and impulse control. However.

TEIQue scores were positively related to some of the Big Five personality traits (extraversion. As expected. and the Schutte EI model. Emotionality. but rather. None of these assess intelligence. as opposed to the ability based model which refers to actual abilities. 2009) proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based model and a trait based model of EI. Two recent studies (one a meta-analysis) involving direct comparisons of multiple EI tests yielded very favorable results for the TEIQue 12 . A number of quantitative genetic studies have been carried out within the trait EI model. which have revealed significant genetic effects and heritability’s for all trait EI scores. trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. The TEIQue provides an operationalization for the model of Petrides and colleagues that conceptualizes EI in terms of personality. including the EQ-I. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched measures of this construct is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). conscientiousness) as well as inversely related to others (alexithymia. which they interpreted as support for the personality trait view of EI (as opposed to a form of intelligence). The test encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: Well-Being. which have proven highly resistant to scientific measurement. and Sociability. they are limited measures of trait emotional intelligence. neuroticism). This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it. The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. or skills (as their authors often claim). openness. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. abilities. An alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy.IIPM TRAIT EI MODEL Petrides and colleagues (see also Petrides. MEASUREMENT OF THE TRAIT EI MODEL There are many self-report measures of EI. the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT). The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in a study on a Frenchspeaking population. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured by self report. where it was reported that TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed and reliable The researchers also found TEIQue scores were unrelated to nonverbal reasoning (Raven's matrices). agreeableness. In lay terms.Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality". which was specifically designed to measure the construct comprehensively and is available in many languages. Self-Control.

skills and habits. processing. the alexithymia construct is strongly inversely related to EI. or describing their emotions. Eysenck (2000) writes that Goleman's description of EI contains unsubstantiated assumptions about intelligence in general. representing its lower range." Similarly. but intelligence—the ability to grasp abstractions— applied to a particular life domain: emotions.. and personality traits and emotional states. attitudes and values. and that before the introduction of the term EI. 13 . Criticisms of the theoretical foundation of EI EI cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence Goleman's early work has been criticized for assuming from the beginning that EI is a type of intelligence.. Viewed as a spectrum between high and low EI. and that it even runs contrary to what researchers have come to expect when studying types of intelligence: "[Goleman] exemplifies more clearly than most the fundamental absurdity of the tendency to class almost any type of behavior as’ intelligence’. psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements. Locke (2005) claims that the concept of EI is in it a misinterpretation of the intelligence constructs. He suggests the concept should be relabeled and referred to as a skill. and he offers an alternative interpretation: it is not another form or type of intelligence. If these five 'abilities' define 'emotional intelligence'. and in any case if we cannot measure them.IIPM ALEXITHYMIA AND EI Alexithymia from the Greek words "λέξις" (lexis) and "θυμός" (thumos) (literally "lack of words for emotions") is a term coined by Peter Sifneos in 1973 to describe people who appeared to have deficiencies in understanding. how do we know they are related? So the whole theory is built on quicksand: there is no sound scientific basis. The individual's level of alexithymia can be measured with self-scored questionnaires such as the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) or the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) or by observer rated measures such as the Observer Alexithymia Scale (OAS). The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization. we would expect some evidence that they are highly correlated. some scholars believe that the term EI merges and conflates such accepted concepts and definitions. Thus. Goleman admits that they might be quite uncorrelated.

self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits. The prominent view in the scientific literature is the Trait EI view. other researchers have raised concerns about the extent to which self-report EI measures correlate with established personality dimensions. or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence. In particular. which re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits." Landy (2005) Similarly.IIPM EI HAS LITTLE PREDICTIVE VALUE Landy (2005) claimed that the few incremental validity studies conducted on EI have shown that it adds little or nothing to the explanation or prediction of some common outcomes (most notably academic and work success). NOT ABILITY 14 . individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. Intuitively. namely. that alternative explanations have not been completely considered: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure. Specifically. Landy suggested that the reason why some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is a methodological fallacy. there appear to be two dimensions of the Big Five that stand out as most related to self-report EI – neuroticism and extroversion. IIPM CRITICISMS OF MEASUREMENT ISSUES ABILITY EI MEASURES MEASURE CONFORMITY. Generally. neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied.

with significant predictors being intelligence. faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an 15 .who show how including or excluding important controls variables can fundamentally change results—thus. agreeableness (measured by the NEOPI).69). significant covariates were intelligence (standardized beta = . agreeableness (standardized beta = . the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed". For example. The main argument is that even though someone knows how he should behave in an emotionally laden situation. Ree.26 (using the Questionnaire Measure of Empathic Tendency)--see also Antonakis and Dietz (2011b). as well as gender had a multiple R of . These studies examined the multivariate effects of personality and intelligence on EI and also corrected estimates for measurement error (which is often not done in some validation studies). and in the fact that scores on the MSCEIT are negatively distributed (meaning that its scores differentiate between people with low EI better than people with high EI).39). who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability. IIPM SELF-REPORT MEASURES ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO FAKING More formally termed socially desirable responding (SDR). 69 (using the Swaps Test and a Wechsler scales subtest. showed that general intelligence (measured with the Wonderlic Personnel Test). (2001). they found a multiple R of . This result has been replicated by Fiori and Antonakis (2011).76 using Cattell’s “Culture Fair” intelligence test and the Big Five Inventory (BFI). it doesn't necessarily follow that he could actually carry out the reported behavior. which suggests that the EI.54). Antonakis and Dietz (2011a).46). the 40-item General Knowledge Task) and empathy. Carretta (2004). a study by Schulte. it is important to always include important controls like personality and intelligence when examining the predictive validity of ability and trait EI models. standardized beta = . may only be measuring conformity.One criticism of the works of Mayer and Salovey comes from a study by Roberts et al. standardized beta = . ABILITY EI MEASURES MEASURE PERSONALITY AND GENERAL INTELLIGENCE New research is surfacing that suggests that ability EI measures might be measuring personality in addition to general intelligence.81 with the MSCEIT. as measured by the MSCEIT. This argument is rooted in the MSCEIT's use of consensusbased assessment. ABILITY EI MEASURES MEASURE KNOWLEDGE (NOT ACTUAL ABILITY) Further criticism has been offered by Brody (2004). who investigated the Ability Emotional Intelligence Measure found similar results (Multiple R = . and openness (standardized beta = .

replication. EI measures correlated only r = . Claims for the predictive power of EI are too extreme Landydistinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement. which is a situational and temporary response pattern." Landy further reinforces this argument by noting that the data upon which these claims are based are held in "proprietary databases". unless those datasets are made public and available for independent analysis. while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims.. 16 . Harms and Credé found that overall (and using data free from problems of common source and common methods).. This bias has long been known to contaminate responses on personality inventories acting as a mediator of the relationships between self-report measures. Antonakis and Ashkanasy/Dasborough mostly agreed that researchers testing whether EI matters for leadership have not done so using robust research designs. because leaders who are too sensitive to their and others' emotional states might have difficult to take decisions that would result in emotional labor for the leader or followers). Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items.excessive positive bias. the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI. which means they are unavailable to independent researchers for reanalysis.emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership". which is a more long-term trait-like quality. currently there is no strong evidence showing that EI predicts leadership outcomes when accounting for personality and IQ.. or verification.Antonakis argued that EI might not be needed for leadership effectiveness (he referred to this as the "curse of emotion" phenomenon. Considering the contexts some self-report EI inventories are used in (e. Goleman asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. . Thus. therefore.g. It has been suggested that responding in a desirable way is a response set. In an academic exchange. the problems of response sets in high-stakes scenarios become clear. In contrast. As an example. This is contrasted with a response style. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test. A recently-published meta-analysis seems to support the Antonakis position: In fact. Mayer autions "the popular literature's implication—that highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in life—appears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards. the credibility of the findings cannot be substantiated in a scientific way.11 with measures of transformational leadership. There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. According to Landy. basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. employment settings).

and the Bar-On measure better still (r = . 8.. 5.18).08).e. IIPM DOING THE WORK OF CHANGE foster relationships between EQ trainers and learners self-directed change and learning setting goals breaking goals down into achievable steps 17 2. 2. the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality. 3. . PAVING THE WAY assess the organization's needs assessing the individual delivering assessments with care maximizing learning choice encouraging participation linking goals and personal values adjusting individual expectations assessing readiness and motivation for EQ development  1. 6. 4. However.a paper chiefly constructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which represent the best current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in the workplace. 4. Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace. which correlate both with EI measures and leadership.IIPM Interestingly. Harms and Credé found that the meta-analytic validity estimates for EI dropped to zero when Big Five traits and IQ were controlled for. r = . summarized as:  1. the WLEIS (WongLaw measure) did a bit better (r = . ability-measures of EI fared worst (i. 3. 7.04). In a subsequent paper analyzing the impact of EI on both job performance and leadership.

DID IT WORK? evaluate individual and organizational effect IIPM HOW IS EQ DIFFERENT FROM PERSONALITY? 18 .  1. 10. providing opportunities for practice give feedback using experiential methods build in support use models and examples encourage insight and self-awareness  ENCOURAGE TRANSFER AND MAINTENANCE OF CHANGE (SUSTAINABLE CHANGE) encourage application of new learning in jobs develop organizational culture that supports learning 1. 9. 2. 6. 7.5. 8. EVALUATING THE CHANGE .

remain optimistic even in the face of adversity. and are gifted at educating and persuading in a sales situation and resolving customer complaints in a customer service role. such as a preference for introversion or extroversion. An employee with a "good" personality may be fun. This is why people with varying personality styles can successfully perform the same job. However. Less effective. communicate with others effectively. however are insistent salespeople who 1) turn off prospective buyers because they are too pushy. social. but they cannot tell from a temperament test which ones will be persistent from those who will be insistent. and thick skin to develop and close new business.In psychology. and use humor to build rapport in tense situations. personality cannot be used to predict EQ. manage change well. A "good" personality tells you nothing about the fact that the employee can also make errors in judgment due to lack of "clarity" when making decisions within their own biases. Like Intelligence Quotient (IQ). However. Personality tests typically only distinguish four categories of temperament but do not distinguish which melancholy person is actually high in ambition. personality only refers to the biases in the behaviors themselves. energetic. and judger (ESTJ) from the MyersBriggs Type Indicator for the vacant leadership role. It boils down to their ability to exercise clear and sound judgment in those situations their job/role presents on a regular basis. These employees also have empathy. 19 . personality refers to the emotion. and 2) cannot give up on a prospect who is not going to buy when they could be focusing their efforts on more promising opportunities. and behavior patterns unique to an individual. IIPM This "clarity" in thinking and "composure" in stressful and chaotic situations is what separates top performers from weak performers in the workplace. solve problems. and outgoing. business people know that they want an extrovert to fill the sales position. drive. We know we want an extrovert. having a "good" personality doesn't necessarily equate to success in the workplace.> For example. thought. thinker. but we cannot tell which ESTJ will make sound judgments under stress and which ones will maim everyone in his/her path when under stress. It is desirable for salespeople to have persistence. as EQ can identify both the biases and clarity in one's thinking patterns that allow them to make good sound decisions. Personality influences one's tendencies. sensor. which allows them to have the energy. An employee with high emotional intelligence can manage his or her own impulses.

As managers and business executives we have often asked ourselves the following questions: Why do certain employees get into accidents more often than others? Why do they violate company ethics and policies? Why do they ignore the rules of the organization? Why do they use illegal drugs while on the job? Why do some people cause conflict while others are so gifted at resolving it? Why do they put self-interest ahead of the organizational values? Why do some salespeople build large books of new business with ease while others struggle to do so even though they seem to be putting forth the required effort? In many cases the answer to the above questions lies in "emotional intelligence" rather than the individual's "personality type. and concerns. INTUITION & EMPATHY."—EQI." "Unmet emotional needs cause the majority of problems at work. recognize. needs. SOCIAL COMPETENCIES—COMPETENCIES THAT DETERMINE HOW WE HANDLE RELATIONSHIPS 1. and master their strengths Leveraging diversity: cultivating opportunities through diverse people IIPM 20 . Our awareness of others' feelings. o o o o Understanding others: an intuitive sense of others' feelings and perspectives. and showing an active interest in their concerns and interests Customer service orientation: the ability to anticipate. cognitive EQ Competencies that Correlate to Workplace Success The following outlines a set of five emotional intelligence competencies that have proven to contribute more to workplace achievement than technical skills. This competency is important in the workplace for the following reasons. develop. and standard personality traits combined. and meet customers' needs People development: ability to sense what others need in order to grow.

approaches. and new information 3. This competency is important in the workplace for the following reasons. This competency is important in the workplace for the following reasons.2. This competency is important in the workplace for the following reasons. o o o o IIPM Self-control: managing disruptive emotions and impulses Trustworthiness: maintaining standards of honesty and integrity Conscientiousness: taking responsibility and being accountable for personal performance Adaptability: flexibility in handling change * Innovation: being comfortable with an openness to novel ideas. impulses. This competency is important in the workplace for the following reasons. Our adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others. SELF AWARENESS. preferences. resources. Managing one's internal states. and intuitions. POLITICAL ACUMEN AND SOCIAL SKILLS. SELF REGULATION. o o o o o o o o Influencing: using effective tactics and techniques for persuasion and desired results Communication: sending clear and convincing messages that are understood by others Leadership: inspiring and guiding groups of people Change catalyst: initiating and/or managing change in the workplace Conflict resolution: negotiating and resolving disagreements with people Building bonds: nurturing instrumental relationships for business success Collaboration and cooperation: working with coworkers and business partners toward shared goals Team capabilities: creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals Personal Competencies—Competencies that Determine How We Manage Ourselves 1. and resources. SELF EXPECTATIONS AND MOTIVATION Emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals. Knowing one's internal states. o o o Emotional awareness: recognizing one's emotions and their effects and impact on those around us Accurate self-assessment: knowing one's strengths and limits Self-confidence: sureness about one's self-worth and capabilities 2. 21 .

o o o o Achievement drive: striving to improve or meet a standard of excellence we impose on ourselves Commitment: aligning with the goals of the group or organization Initiative: readiness to act on opportunities without having to be told Optimism: persistence in pursuing goals despite obstacles and setbacks IIPM • THE AFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON A MODERN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADER’S ABILITY TO MAKE EFFECTIVE 22 .

superiors and clients (Goleman. 367). 1998). This is followed by a discussion of how the aspects of emotional intelligence affect a leader’s ability to make good decisions and how emotional intelligence is integral to Stephen Covey’s seven habits of highly successful people and Warren Bennis’ beliefs on what leadership is. initiate change and accept change (Goleman. subordinates. The last section of the paper concludes with the leadership responsibilities that are implemented through the use of emotional intelligence. three concepts need to be defined: emotional intelligence. Three of the most important aspects of emotional intelligence for a leader’s ability to make effective decisions are self-awareness. 1999. Megerian.Emotional intelligence is defined as a person’s self-awareness. self-confidence. IIPM • EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies. Studies have shown that emotional intelligence impacts a leader’s ability to be effective (Goleman. p. selfcontrol. leadership and effective decision-making.  DEFINITION AND MOTIVE "When it comes to improving organizational effectiveness. 1998). What influence does emotional intelligence have on the effectiveness of decisions made by a modern organizational leader? To answer this question. The first part of the essay defines the parameters of emotional intelligence. qualities of a leader. and effective decision-making. and a person’s ability to communicate. Managers who do not develop their emotional intelligence have difficulty in building good relationships with peers. to correctly gauge 23 . communication and influence. The following paper is an examination of how emotional intelligence affects a leader’s ability to make effective decisions. management scholars and practitioners are beginning to emphasize the importance of a manager’s emotional intelligence" (Sosik. influence. 1998). commitment and integrity. These skills contribute to a person’s ability to manage and monitor his or her own emotions. and commitment and integrity.

while observing others. 2. and (2) getting the job done 24 . commitment (alignment of goals with the group or organization). These five characteristics will be shown to apply to a leader’s ability to make effective decisions. and maturity. perspectives. Motivation is the emotional tendency guiding or facilitating the attainment of goals. is integrity. It consists of achievement drive (meeting a standard of excellence). work with others toward a shared goal (collaboration. and be comfortable with novel ideas and approaches (innovation). initiative (acting on opportunities). 1995). The second characteristic is passion or enthusiasm and the ability to communicate that passion to others. learning to be dedicated. It is being truthful and never servile. Empathy is the understanding of others by being aware of their needs. Each area has its own set of behavioral attributes as follows. inspire and guide groups and individuals (leadership). candor.the emotional state of others and to influence opinions (Caudron. A leader has a clear idea of what she or he wants to do professionally and personally. and create group synergy in pursuing collective goals. Next. 5. 4. Candor is being honest with yourself and is the key to knowing yourself. Maturity is the result of the lessons learned through following. Self-management or self-regulation is the ability to keep disruptive emotions and impulses in check (self-control). 3. handle change (adaptability). The last two traits go hand in hand: curiosity and daring. and working with others. the qualities of a leader are defined. to accurately perform self-assessments and have self-confidence. consisting of three ingredients: self-knowledge. 1999. The first is a guiding vision or purpose. feelings. maintain standards of honesty and integrity (trustworthiness). 1998). Self-awareness is the ability to recognize a feeling as it happens. listen openly and send convincing messages (communicate). IIPM • EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP The term effective in this essay can be defined as (1) "getting the job done through high quantity and quality standards of performance. A leader wants to learn as much as possible and is willing to take risks. and will pursue the goal regardless of the setbacks. Third. Goleman. • LEADERSHIP What makes a person a leader is still debated. Goleman describes a model of five dimensions. It is the keystone of emotional intelligence (Goleman. They include the ability to induce desirable responses in others by using effective diplomacy to persuade (influence). cooperation). take responsibility for one’s performance (conscientiousness). 1. but according to Warren Bennis (1994) all leaders seem to share some common traits. sensing the developmental needs of others. Selfknowledge is knowing one’s strengths and weaknesses. Social skills are fundamental to emotional intelligence. and optimism (persistence reaching goals despite setbacks). nurture instrumental relationships (building bonds). concerns.

For example. duplicitous and uncaring by their subordinates". 192 subordinates. before a manager uses a 360-degree feedback assessment. Sosik and Lara E. 1998. IIPM • A LEADER WITH EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 25 . In short. The second question asked "how do non-military leaders who are in agreement with others regarding their transformational leadership qualities differ in terms of performance from those who are not in agreement".). the subordinates reported their view of their manager’s transformational leadership behavior and performance outcomes. The results also suggested "self-awareness may provide individuals with greater perceived control over interpersonal events and consequences in their life… transformational leaders who are self-aware possess high levels of self-confidence and self-efficacy and provide orientation for followers". Bennis is describing transformational leadership qualities (Luthans. those interviews also revealed that ‘fast-track’ candidates and the ‘darlings’ of senior management are often seen as self-serving. Megerian (1999) looked at the self-awareness component of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. However. The data for the study were collected from 63 managers. Managers reported their assessment of their emotional intelligence and leadership behavior. but "this does not guarantee high ratings of transformational leadership and effectiveness by one’s subordinates".through people. The high public self-consciousness aspect of emotional intelligence may be useful for managers who are interested in success (to maximize performance appraisal ratings). The authors suggest that selfawareness may enable leaders to understand the emotional implications of their own feelings and thoughts. requiring their satisfaction and commitment" (Luthans. they must "understand what depositional attributes and leadership behaviors are associated with managerial effectiveness". Interviews of three senior executives revealed that "managers ‘who played the game’ according to established norms were looked upon favorably by superiors in performance evaluations and promotion considerations. 1998). • MAJOR FINDINGS What then is the link between emotional intelligence and effective leaders? A Pennsylvania State University study done by John J. and 63 management superiors. and each manager’s superior rated managerial performance. The study tried to answer two questions. The first question tried to find "what aspects of [emotional intelligence] differentiate those leaders who are in agreement with others concerning their transformational leadership qualities from those who are not in agreement". The results of the study provided empirical support for emotional intelligence being the foundation of other aspects of leadership. Leaders who underestimated their leadership were positively linked to social selfconfidence while leaders who overestimated their abilities were negatively related to sensitivity. Managers who maintain accurate self-awareness have more attributes of emotional intelligence and appear to be more effective to their superiors and subordinates.

These findings are consistent with Patricia Pitcher’s (1999) description of a company led by one CEO with high emotional intelligence who was succeeded by a CEO without emotional intelligence. but no one else did”. cerebral and analytical. Asia and North America. His open-mindedness helped the company and himself to develop and retain different kinds of people. but did not interfere with his staff. markets and situations. a technocrat. people-oriented attributes helped him attract and keep great colleagues and investors. IIPM • A LEADER WITHOUT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE In 1980 the company leadership was given to the second-in-command. The craftsmen were described as being well-balanced. imaginative. Those who made errors would be fired. The article goes on to describe what happened when the CEO felt it was time for him to leave and let ‘fresh air’ into the company. She began with a description of the high emotional intelligence CEO (the artist) who took over a medium-sized company. uncompromising and brilliant. These craftsmen knew what worked and what did not. sensible and realistic. reasonable. the company was worth $20 billion dollars and was an integrated service company in Europe. and if you drove out error. stiff and distant. avoid short-term gratifications and achieve his goal. His emotional and inspiring traits allowed his enthusiasm to spread. determined. She described the technocrats as people who thought they were "realistic and sensible. The CEO surrounded himself with the best talent he could find. These people were described as being "intense. There were six other people in the company whom Pitcher calls the technocrats. These people dealt with the day-to-day operations. trustworthy. people-oriented. The other executives included artists and six craftsmen. They did not learn from the mistakes because they thought others were at fault. He had a vision to build the company into a global corporation "operating in general and life insurance. even imaginative. but they learned from them. He sat on the independent boards and asked questions. They were complementary to the artists. daring and funny person. Technocrats erred in their judgments of others. trust and investments services" spanning the world. generous. The CEO’s colleagues described him as a warm. Patricia Pitcher explains the generous. They understood that people made mistakes. daring. and they misread the people around them. intuitive and unpredictable qualities helped him to keep focused on the goal. This dream of his was during the time when most people believed banking and insurance would never meet. uncompromising. you drove out innovation. hardheaded. banking.” Their interpersonal relationships lacked depth. This ensured new ideas and fresh approaches to problem solving. This leader was analytical. Patricia Pitcher believes 26 . He decentralized the power structure allowing his talented staff to express themselves in their own way. After 15 years." They were often called "brilliant. The visionary.

Innovation stops. you drive out the Craftsman. So. Within three years the "organization was dead. 1998). their concerns and needs. Creativity will vanish if the sense of trust in an organization is lost and if people are preoccupied with protecting their backs. nobody’s going to go out on a limb to make any. and dreams can go downhill very fast". even for simple transactions. IIPM Because the new CEO was not aware of how his actions and emotions were affecting others. What does this perspective reveal about the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness? To answer the question. In order for the technocratic leader to be able to see the situation 27 . dedication. but the Technocrat cannot". Trustworthiness is an important element in a leader’s makeup as shown in the previously described study. It can be broken down into seeking understanding. The first chief executive officer demonstrated most of the attributes associated with emotional intelligence. skill. other artists and technocrats. you drive out the peculiar vision of an Artist. aspects of emotional intelligence (Goleman. much time and effort is spent on nonproductive activities because leaders feel compelled to draw up procedures in great detail. was demonstrated by cultivating relationships with investors. an examination of the influence of emotional intelligence on the two leaders is required.g. development of others’ abilities. She points out that running a modern company requires "all kinds of perspectives – even the cerebral. An organization without loyalty. decentralization of power and his constant learning (shown by asking questions at board meetings and listening to the responses). He surrounded himself with people who had abilities he did not. another aspect of emotional intelligence. Pitcher said that he blamed others for problems and did not look at the situational forces people were reacting to. Without trust. Empathy is being aware of the feelings of others. The Artists and Craftsmen can live with those different perspectives.such a person would find decentralization a sloppy way of doing business. If you equate experienced with outmoded or old-fashioned. If you fire people for making one mistake. The second CEO probably lost the trust of his employees as a result of his lack of emotional intelligence. what caused the company to fail? Pitcher suggests that the company failed because "If you [do not have] respect for the emotional qualities that come in the imaginative package. 1998). and who knows what making widgets is all about. Innovation will stop when subordinates do not trust the leaders." If the ‘professionals’ where so brilliant. All of the craftsmen and artists running the subsidiaries were gradually fired and replaced by ‘competent professionals’ or technocrats by 1992. colleagues. analytical and uncompromising. Accurate self-assessment (selfawareness) was demonstrated by his ability to know his limits and his strengths. and his employees. The CEO’s social skill. Daring to follow his dream demonstrated self-confidence (self-awareness) and innovation (self-regulation). leveraging diversity to allow new ideas and opportunities to be heard. He created a new head office that replaced the subsidiaries’ authority. His openness to new ideas. who inspires the loyalty and the dedication. the craftsmen. e. demonstrated empathy. the new CEO started to centralize the decision-making processes. These aspects lead to trust which is the second most important characteristic of emotional intelligence. and being politically aware of a team’s needs and power structure (Goleman. he could be considered to be lacking in emotional intelligence.

realistically he must be aware of his own influence on the situation and the motives of others involved. Being able to influence people is an important part of being an effective leader. IIPM 28 . pursue goals. the knowledge and skill to handle those feelings. They cling to autocratic. As a consequence they are unable to adapt to changes in the business environment. Mike Miller’s opinion is that many managers fail because they are too rigid and have poor relationships. control and inner-directedness will increase. deepest set of values and unique contribution capacity becomes clearer. Understanding of one’s nature. cognitive. There will be an increase in caring about what others think of themselves and their relationship to you. integrity. saying that as the first three habits continue to be developed. becoming more solid. manipulative. He uses the words integrity. While IQ serves as the entry-level requirement for executive positions. and technology. You will come to know yourself in a deeper. They help a person to heal and rebuild important relationships. Managers unable to receive or respond to feedback are unable to determine how they need to change their approach to leading others. These are the same words used to describe various facets of emotional intelligence. and an appreciation of emotions in other people (empathy)" . This is the development of the self-regulation and empathy aspects of emotional intelligence. more creative and more adventuresome. the technocrat CEO was limited in his ability to influence people in a positive way. Good relationships will improve. It is also the building of motivational ability. Clearly the major difference between the first and second CEOs was the level of emotional intelligence shown by each. The next three habits describe the social skills of emotional intelligence. According to Covey the effect of developing the first three habits significantly increases self-confidence. and untrustworthy. work processes. This will alienate the people they work with by "being overly harsh in their criticisms. self-knowledge. insensitive. "emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leadership" An example of how emotional intelligence is used to express leadership is in the book "Seven Habits of Highly Effective People". outdated methods of direction and control. culture. enthusiasm.g. Take into account the words used by Warren Bennis to describe a leader. purpose. The seventh habit is developing one’s self through the use of the first six habits. e. Covey continues. and honesty. This is the foundation of emotional intelligence as defined by Daniel Goleman – self-awareness. According to Manfred F R Kets de Vries "to be able to decipher these deeper motives-to tease out the emotional. unethical. It is taking the time to reflect or further develop self-awareness. Bennis in his book "On Becoming a Leader" has a list of interesting differences between a manager and a leader and they are given in the table below. It is another matter to persuade a colleague or superior to change his or her mind about a policy decision. more meaningful way. vision. organization. and experiential components…requires the capacity to "listen with the third ear… an awareness about our own feelings. These managers demonstrate clearly that being technically talented is not enough to drive success" It is apparent the second CEO was ignoring how his emotions influenced his actions in favor of an analytical or autocratic approach to management. he did not help people to develop their potential. Without emotional intelligence. one’s sense of identity. It is easy to assign a project.

as described by Bennis. is the same as described by Patricia Pitcher’s differences between the technocrat (manager) and the artist (leader).• A manager Administers Is a copy Maintains MANAGER VS. LEADER A leader Innovates Is an original Develops Focuses on people Inspires trust Has a long-range perspective Asks what and why Has his eye on the horizon Originates Challenges it Is his own person Does the right thing Focuses on systems and structure Relies on control Has a short-range view Asks how and when Has his eye on the bottom line Imitates Accepts the status quo Is the classic good soldier Does things right The difference between the manager and leader. IIPM • TALENT MANAGEMENT  MEANING OF TALENT 29 . The description of the leader or artist uses characteristics of emotional intelligence.

attract the talents to work for their organizations. 2.  • • WHY TALENT/HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT? Organizations all over the world have realized that the success of their businesses largely depend upon the talents of people. aptitude. . 7. They must devise effective plans and processes to identify their talent needs. These are those talents or talented people who possesses the talents as required by a particular organization or those people who have shown promise to acquire the talents needed by an organization and sharpen them further. Therefore.  TALENT OR HUMAN CAPITAL OF AN ORGANIZATION The pool of people with talent as described under the title "meaning of talent" is the talent or human capital of any organization. forte. 5. locate the talents. 8. IIPM Talent need analysis Locating the talent resources/sources Attracting talents towards the organization Recruiting/appointing the talents (in house or outsourced) Managing competitive salaries/professional fees Training and development of talent pool Performance evaluation of talent Career and growth planning Retention management COMPETENCY MATRIX AND TALENT MANAGEMENT The talent identification for an organization can best be done by way of defining competency matrix for the organization. Person or people with an exceptional ability. Identification of 30  1. endowment. knack. 9. gift. Unusual natural ability to do something well that can be developed by training. various functions that an organization should institute (through HRM and other departments) are given below: 1. 6. genius. 4. help the selected people to enhance/upgrade their talents and to obtain their association to work for the organizations for longer terms. 3. • •  FUNCTIONS OF TALENT MANAGEMENT In order to achieve the above mentioned objectives. flair. capacity. faculty. the organizations should manage these talents well.• • • Ability. bent.

 1. TALENT MOTIVATION AND RETENTION IIPM  31 . 2. Acting as talent management process owner. Helps in achieving the business goals with superior performance. People turnover goes down. career growth. 3. Retention of talent improves. 5. 2. 3.  1. The same matrix will be later used by the organization for performance management/evaluation. 2. 6. training and development. retention etc.competencies/skills and their proficiency levels required by the organization in various processes. Giving creative suggestions to the organization for continual improvement of talent management functioning as business manager/line manager for talent management programs. development. People are more satisfied. retention and growth of talent in order to achieve business goals with optimized overall performance.  DEFINITION OF TALENT MANAGEMENT Talent management or human capital management is a set of business practices that manage the planning. 4. Better overall growth of people associated with the organization.  CLASSIFICATION OF PEOPLE ON THE BASIS OF PROFICIENCY AND USE/APPROPRIATENESS OF TALENTS Fast trackers Averages Misfits 1. Improves organization's overall culture and work climate. Organization's effectiveness and efficiency can improve continuously. acquisition. 3. ADVANTAGES OF EFFECTIVE TALENT MANAGEMENT Competency gap between required competencies by the organization and available competencies reduces significantly. HRM'S ROLE IN TALENT MANAGEMENT Execution of strategy for talent management. functions and hierarchical positions should be identified by developing an appropriate competency matrix for the organization. 7. 2.

Effective motivational packages.1. 2. IIPM EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE'S IMPACT ON THE BOTTOM LINE 32 . Create a professional merit based environment. 6. 3. Environment of excellence. 8. Open communication and transparency. 4. Provide challenging projects. Optimize use of talent. 7. Learning and growth opportunities. Freedom to work. 9. 5. Dignity and respect in relationships.

these are critical success factors that should not be dismissed. One recent study conducted by a Dallas corporation measured that the productivity difference between their low scoring emotional intelligence employees and their high scoring emotional intelligence employees was 20 times. A large metropolitan hospital reduced their critical care nursing turnover from 65 percent to 15 percent within 18 months of implementing an emotional intelligence screening assessment. Lastly.. the Hay Group states one study of 44 Fortune 500 companies found that salespeople with high EQ produced twice the revenue of those with average or below average scores. education) and the assessment of personality traits. a correlation was found between low emotional intelligence and theft and shrinkage. empathy. technical expertise. A Texas-based Fortune 500 Company had utilized personality assessments for candidate selection for years with little results in reducing turnover in their high turnover sales force.. For example. through a series of recent studies conducted by ZERORISK HR. A Fortune 500 company in financial services proved that their high EQ salespeople produced 18 percent more than the lower EQ salespeople. assertiveness skills. Additional research unearthed the following success stories.g. Inc. industry knowledge.To date. they increased retention by 67 percent in the first year. A community bank that reduced staff by 30 percent due to the sluggish economy assessed the remaining workforce for their emotional intelligence competencies. One other study in the construction industry yielded results showing workers with low emotional intelligence had a higher likelihood of getting injured while on the job. After turning to an emotional intelligence-based selection assessment and EQ training and development program. In reality. and have a direct impact on the bottom line. and political/social acumen were never measured in the selection process or focused on in training and development programs. many companies have focused their selection criteria and training programs on hard skills (e. technical programmers demonstrating the top 10 percent of emotional intelligence competency were developing software three times faster than those with lower competency. IIPM All of these cases are starting to prove the value of having highly emotionally intelligent employees make up your workforce if you want a competitive advantage in this highly competitive business world. Topics including competencies like stress management. placed them in the right role for those competencies. which they calculated added $32 million to their bottom line in reduced turnover costs and increased sales revenues. and the bank is now producing more with less people. In another study. 33 .

IIPM RESEARCH OBJECTIVE To find out the importance of emotional intelligence for HR in IT industry • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34 .

or outcome. face-to face and telephone interviews. People are more truthful while responding to the questionnaires regarding controversial issues in particular due to the fact that their responses are anonymous. (http://www. Depending on the research question. Web based questionnaires: A new and inevitably growing methodology is the use of Internet based research. Majority of the people who receive questionnaires don't return them and those who do might not be representative of the originally selected sample.g. But they also have drawbacks. They produce results that are easy to summarize. the researcher will employ probability sampling to select participants. participants may be randomly assigned to different treatments.Quantitative Data collection methods The Quantitative data collection methods rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed.htm) Questionnaires Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large number of people and saves the researcher time and money. Administering surveys with closed-ended questions (e. This would mean receiving an e-mail on which you would click on an address that would take you to a secure web-site to fill in a questionnaire. compare. If this is not feasible. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include: • • • • Experiments/clinical Obtaining relevant data from management information systems. and generalize.. counting the number of patients waiting in emergency at specified times of the day). the researcher may collect data on participant and situational characteristics in order to statistically control for their influence on the dependent.achrn. Observing and recording well-defined events (e. questionnaires etc).g. IIPM    TARGET AUDIENCE: HR DEPARTMENT METHOD USED: QUESTIONNAIRE SAMPLE SIZE: 50-60 company 35 . If the intent is to generalize from the research participants to a larger population.. Quantitative research is concerned with testing hypotheses derived from theory and/or being able to estimate the size of a phenomenon of interest. variable.

INTRA PERSONAL: For each statement listed below answer on a scale 1.? 36 . Do I run into obstacles that keep me from reaching my goals.? 4. interpersonal. Am I able to stop thinking about my problems.. Am bored most of the time.? 10. I say self-depreciating things such as "I am such a loser. no matter what I do. do I feel guilty about the things that were not done perfectly. stress management.. Do I feel like I worry about things that other people don't even think about.. stupid.. adaptability. Do some people make me feel bad about myself.? 2. 1." or "I can't do anything right.• QUESTIONNAIRE EI can be divided under 5 groups: intra personal. general mood. When I mess up.? 9.." "Stupid. stupid... Everything I try to do ultimately end in failure..? 3. I feel sad too..".? 8.? 6.? 7. Am I not satisfied with my work unless someone else praises it.. When someone I care about is sad.? 5. Even when I do my best.

15. I don't bite my fingernails. I usually become angry and lose my temper when things don't go the way I want them to. If something bad happens to someone I don't like. I always say please and thank you when I ask someone for something. 4. 6. I always cover my mouth. I keep my fingernails clean and nicely trimmed. I tell my friends and laugh about it when that person is not around. 11. I send them a thank you note. 3. 14. I feel optimistic about my future. I feel hurt. 2. If someone gives me a gift or does me a favor. 2. 8. 13. 12. The clothes I wear would never offend another person. When I sneeze or cough. My table manners are very good.IIPM 2. rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10 for each of the items. A rating of 10 would indicate that the statement is always true and a rating of 1 would indicate that it is never true. When other people do something different from the way I would do it. I take the attitude that the right answer will emerge. 5. 4. 3. 3. I never curse or use offensive language in public places. 9. People who know me would describe me as cheerful and friendly. I look them in the eyes. When I talk with someone. My hair is clean and well groomed. 10. When I am first confronted with a problem and have no idea how it can be solved. When someone rejects me. Events in my life happen with their own right timing. 1. ADAPTABILITY: Almost never applies Sometimes applies usually applies Almost always applies 0 points 1 point 2 points 3 points 1. but I accept that the decision was 37 . INTER PERSONAL: For each statement listed below. I avoid being critical of them. 7. I always have good posture.

10. IIPM 7. Given a choice between a high-salaried job that is fairly boring and a job I like doing at half the pay. If someone has a lot emotion at stake in something. 5. Under 20 points: your sense of self needs considerable work. I am not prone to worry. Being right in every situation isn't all that important to me." 17. 19. I will hear them out without expressing my views. with lots of hidden worry. but I also find it easy to acknowledge the rightness in the other side. I don't interrupt others when they talk. You are likely to be obsessively orderly. I feel comfortable playing with young children. My style of managing other people is to allow them to do what they want rather than try to control them. I enter their world easily. Quiet people make me feel comfortable. I donate time to worthwhile causes. you really want to be on the winning side. You are likely to be well organized and decidedly goal oriented. I feel the loss of family and friends. even if they are unpopular. who have died. 16. When I'm arguing with someone." not. 14. 12. I defend my position. "Good game. the ups and downs of difficult situations affect me less than most people. 6. Nervous people don't make me nervous. I feel committed to ideals larger than myself. I don't think about my moods very much. Working on personal growth has not been a high priority in your life so far. I am a good loser-I will say. you fear rejection and become upset or critical when others disagree with you. 18. In a competitive situation. or else very disorganized. I am considered a good listener. I interfere as little as possible. not the party. Dominated by one or both parents as a child. 21. 20. reacting strongly to one external event after another minority on 38 . I find it easy to trust others. You have your way of doing things and do not like surprises. but the grief resolves itself and I move on-I don't try to bring back what cannot be brought back.theirs to make. I vote the man. "I wasn't at my best. 11. 9. 15. 13. I'll take the job I love to do. If you find yourself in a situation of conflict or competition. 8. Total score: Evaluating your score: 50 points or over: You are an exceptionally adaptable person who has spent a long time on priority on defending your point of view. I can easily feel what someone else is feeling.

you really want to be on the winning side. If you find yourself in a situation of conflict or competition. IIPM 4. what do you do? a) b) c) Try to keep busy while I wait Find something else to do Become angry and leave 6. How do you handle an excessive workload? a) I prioritize my work and go ahead to meet my goals b) I slowly begin to tackle my work c) I become frustrated and irritable 2. When you are faced with financial challenges. how do you react? a) I come up with ways to overcome my financial challenges b) I take time to recover from the financial challenges c) I stay home and worry endlessly 3. You are likely to be well organized and decidedly goal oriented. 39 . Working on personal growth has not been a high priority in your life so far. How would you describe your life in general? a) b) c) Interesting Challenging Miserable 4. What is your perception of change? a) I do not like change in my life b) I accommodate change c) I am unwilling to change my life for anything or anyone Please answer yes or no to the following.defending your point of view. When a person makes you wait for too long. STRESS MANAGEMENT: 1. How do you handle problems? a) b) c) I try my best to sort them out I enjoy the challenge that problems present I get angry and find someone to blame 5.

8. I can receive feedback or criticism without becoming defensive. I avoid about 10% of my job because I find it difficult. I communicate my needs and feelings honestly. I calm myself quickly when I get angry or upset. If I didn’t have to do about 10% of my job. While I might not enjoy doing the more difficult parts of my job (approximately 10%). I take regular time out (once a month/quarter) to reflect on my core purpose and vision for how I want to live my life. 3. 9. \ 15. 2. when I finish I feel proud and more confident. 5. 4. 7. I stay focused (not lost in unimportant details or procrastination) in getting a job done. 14. I pay attention & listen without jumping to conclusions. I am aware of how my behavior impacts others. 12. I can pull myself together quickly after a setback. I freely admit to making mistakes. GENERAL MOOD: 1. I find about 10% of my job more difficult than the rest of everything I do. I can identify negative feelings without becoming distressed. 13. I stay relaxed and composed under pressure. 6. 40 . 11. I would really enjoy my job 16. I am sensitive to other people's emotions and moods. 10.A. When I am stressed I feel Pain Anger IIPM Embarrassment Exhausted Headaches Tense 5.

working with people more effectively and taking more responsibility. ii. Generally an increase in intrapersonal skills will increase productivity as you maximize working conditions and environments to work with you not against you. 41 . Increase in self confidence. which leads to forming friendships easier.IIPM • 1. INTRA PERSONAL: ANALYSIS i.

vi. Remember conflict always involves two people. iv.iii. which give you more tools to handle conflict. IIPM As you learn to understand yourself you begin to understand others. Such people are more resilient against negative behavior that is aimed at them. ii. v. Understand and adopt the principles of effective interpersonal communication Network and build rapport and trust Handle difficult situations with professionalism Be a more effective communicator in a wide range of work-related scenarios and contexts Increases confidence when interacting with colleagues and clients 42 . iii. iv. Research shows that Intrapersonal skills are connected to academic achievement 2. People with high Intrapersonal skills initiate in new situations more quickly and with more ease. INTER PERSONAL: i. v.

ADAPTABILITY: 43 .vi. vii. Helps in Building relationships Helps in Delivering difficult messages Effective influencing IIPM 3. viii.

iii. more positive Controlling information overload The tool for staying calm and in focus despite uncertainty 44 . Feeling more relaxed Sleeping better Better digestion Calmer mood More focused. ii. STRESS MANAGEMENT: • Better immune function • · Less illnesses and physical complaints • · More energy • • • · i. v.IIPM 4. vi. iv.

Saving time and reducing stress with improved listening More stability & happiness from areas you can control Reduced negative organizational stress Increased individual productivity and responsibility Better team communications and morale Retention of valued employees Improved customer satisfaction Reduced personal stress Improved decision making Increased productivity Connecting better to family & friends 5. ix. viii. GENERAL MOOD: Profits go up i. ii. x. xvii. xiv. Bridges of trust and respect are built and reinforced Communication enables dreams to take flight Morale takes a boost and teamwork soars Your company winds up leading the pack 45 . xv. xii. iv. xi. iii.IIPM vii. xvi. xiii.

” and “Your game is right on” Relationships deepen All team members focus like a hawk on the target goal Quality is priceless Opportunity seeks you out Others are connected heart-mind to your mission 46 . viii.v. xxi. ix. vi. xviii. IIPM Attitudes create positive action in spite of fear of the unknown Enthusiasm is found in common tasks Professional image is polished with the gold of good deeds done Others’ moods are lifted in optimistic confidence Safety is secured Productivity peaks Customer satisfaction scores rate you as an “A” player Reputation is appreciated Personal values are solid and can’t be bought out for a quick fix Decision-making is seamless You are driving under the influence of a positive attitude You are “On your toes. xv. xiv. xvi. xix. xx. xiii. vii. xi. xii. x. xvii.

Did not have response back from 25-30 people. 3. 4. 47 . Multiple responses for one question. 5. Many companies did not allow to do survey with their employees. Less recourse to Cross verify the data collected. Many people were hesitant to respond. 2.IIPM • LIMITATIONS 1.



WEBSITES: Importance of Emotional Intelligence Emotional Intelligence Wikipedia Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman’s Concepts Emotional Intelligence Challenge for Leadership Emotional Intelligence is the HR Revolution Importance of Emotional Intelligence at Workplace New Trends in HR Emotional Intelligence affects on the ability of a Leader to make decisions in the Modern Organization 9. 5 Steps to develop Emotional Intelligence 10. 4.IIPM • REFERENCES:  1. 5. 6. 50 . Data Collection Methods  BOOKS: 1. 7. 8. Working with Emotional Intelligence. 2. 3.

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