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Design

Settlement of Foundation

Settlement

Settlement

S = Se + Sc + Ss

Settlement Consolidation Consolidation

Se Sc Ss

This is computed using elasticity theory (Important for Granular soil)

Primary Consolidation: Due to gradual dissipation of pore pressure

induced by external loading and consequently expulsion of water from

the soil mass, hence volume change. (Important for Inorganic clays)

Secondary Consolidation: Occurs at constant effective stress with

volume change due to rearrangement of particles. (Important for

Organic soils)

For any of the above mentioned settlement calculations, we first need vertical

stress increase in soil mass due to net load applied on the foundation 2

Elasticity

1

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Boussinesq Analysis

Boussinesq Analysis

Where,

0.5

0.4

0.3

Influence Factor for

IB General solution of vertical stress

0.2

P

0.1 σz = IB

0.0

z2

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4

r z 6

2

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Uniformly Distributed Circular Load

Rigid Plate on half Space

3

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

10

Pressure Bulb

Square Footing Strip Footing

11

Pressure

Bulb for

Square

Foundation

12

4

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Pressure

Bulb for

Circular

Foundation

13

Newmark’s Chart

Influence Value

overconsolidated clays, and variable deposits 14

Newmark’s Chart

Point of

stress

calculation

Depth = z2

wish to calculate the stress increase

Adopt a scale as shown in the figure

Draw the footing to scale and place Depth = z1

the point of interest over the center

of the chart

Count the number of elements that

fall inside the footing, N

Calculate the stress increase as:

15

5

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Westergaard’s Method

Provided solution for layered soils

Point Loads

Assumption:

Elastic soil mass is laterally reinfrced by numorous,

closely spaced, horizontal sheets of negligible thickness

but infinite rigidity, that allow only vertical movement but

prevent the mass as a whole from undergoing

p g g anyy lateral

strain.

P ⎡ ⎤2 1 − 2ν

σz = ⎢ 2

1

⎥ C=

2π z ⎢ C + ( r z ) ⎥

2 2 2 (1 −ν )

⎣ ⎦

overconsolidated clays 16

17

Fröhlich

concentration factor

m‘ = 4

Δσ z = n ( 0.005 ) .q

Sands

18

6

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

(Poulos and Davis, 1974)

Circular Foundation:

⎡ ⎛ 2 −1.5 ⎤

⎞

⎛ B ⎞

Δσ z = ⎢1 − ⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ (q − σ zD

′ )

⎢ ⎝ ⎝ 2 z ⎠ ⎟⎠ ⎥

⎜

⎣ ⎦

Square Foundation:

⎡ ⎛ 2

⎞

−1.76

⎤

⎛ B ⎞

Δσ z = ⎢1 − ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎥ (q − σ ′ )

⎢ ⎜ ⎜ 2z ⎟ ⎥ zD

⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎠ ⎥⎦

19

(Poulos and Davis, 1974)

Strip Foundation:

⎡ ⎛ 2

⎞

−2.60

⎤

⎛ B ⎞

Δσ z = ⎢1 − ⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎥ (q − σ ′ )

⎢ ⎜ ⎜ 2z ⎟ ⎥ zD

⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎠ ⎥⎦

Rectangular Foundation:

−( 2.60 − 0.84 B / L )

⎡ ⎛ 1.38 + 0.62 B / L

⎞ ⎤

⎛ B ⎞

Δσ z = ⎢⎢1 − ⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎟ ⎥ (q − σ ′ )

⎥

⎜ ⎜⎝ 2 z f ⎟

zD

⎠

⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦⎥

20

Approximate

Methods

B.L

Rectangular Foundation: Δσ z = q

( B + z ).( L + z )

B2

Square/Circular Foundation: Δσ z = q

(B + z)

2

B

Strip Foundation: Δσ z = q

(B + z) 21

7

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

22

H H

∫ ( Δσ − μ s Δσ x − μ s Δσ y ) dz

1

Elastic settlement:

Se = ∫ ε z dz = z

0

Es 0

Es = Modulus of elasticity

H= Thickness of soil layer

μs = Poisson’s ratio of soil

Se =

qB

Es

(

1 − μ s2 I f )

If = influence factor: depends on the rigidity and shape of the foundation

Es = Avg elasticity modulus of the soil for (4B) depth below foundn level

23

24

8

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

E in kPa

25

26

Soil Strata with

Semi-infinite depth

27

9

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

loaded Area LxB on Compressible Stratus of μ = 0.5,

0.5, and Thickness Ht

28

and Hartman (1978)

z2 C1 = Correction factor for foundation depth

(

Se = C1C2 q − γ D f

Iz

E

Δz )∑ ⎡1 − 0.5 γ D f ( q − γ D f ) ⎤

⎣ ⎦ { }

0 s

C2 = Correction factor for creep effects

⎡⎣1 + 0.2 log ( time in years 0.1) ⎤⎦

Example

z2

Se = C1C2 ( q − γ D f ) ∑

Iz

γ D f = 31.39 kN m2 Δz

0 Es

circular foundations

Es ≈ 2.5qc

For rectangular

foundations

Es ≈ 3.5qc

Correlation with SPT data:

Es ≈ 800 N′′ in kPa

30

10

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Depth of Stress Influence (z'):

If N60'‘ is constant or increasing with depth, then z ′ = 1.04 ( B )

0.75

,where B is in meters

If N60'‘ is decreasing with depth, use smaller of

z′ = 2 B and z′ = z ′′ = Thickness of soft layer below foundation

1 25 ( L B ) ⎤

2

⎡ 1.25 where B is in meters

Se = α1α 2α 3 Bq′ ⎢ ⎥

⎣⎢ 0.25 + ( L B ) ⎦⎥

and q′ is in kPa

1.4

for NC sand

0.0016 for OC sand with qna ≤ po‘

= 0.57 ( N ′′ ) for OC sand

1.4

0.0047 for OC sand with qna ≤ po‘

α3 = ⎜2− ′ ⎟ ≤1

z′ ⎝ z ⎠ q′ = qna − 0.67 po′ for OC sand with qna ≤ po‘

31

⎛ σ ′ + Δσ av′ ⎞

For NC clay (σ c′ < σ o′ < σ o′ + Δσ av′ ) Sc =

Cc H c

log ⎜ o ⎟

1 + eo ⎝ σ o′ ⎠

For OC clay (σ o′ + Δσ av′ < σ c′ ) Cs H c ⎛ σ o′ + Δσ av′ ⎞

Sc = log ⎜ ⎟

1 + eo ⎝ σ o′ ⎠

⎛ σ c′ ⎞ Cc H c ⎛ σ ′ + Δσ av

′ ⎞

For OC clay (σ o′ < σ c′ < σ o′ + Δσ av′ ) Sc =

Cs H c

log ⎜ ⎟ + log ⎜ o ⎟

1 + eo ⎝ σ o′ ⎠ 1 + eo ⎝ σ c′ ⎠

σ o′ = Average effective vertical stress before construction

′ =

Δσ av Average increase in effective vertical stress

σ c′ = Effective pre-consolidation pressure

eo = Initial void ratio of the clay layer Δσ t′

Cc = Compression Index

Δσ m′

Cs = Swelling Index

Hc = Thickness of the clay layer

1

Δσ av

′ = ( Δσ t′ + 4Δσ m′ + Δσ b′ ) Δσ b′

6 32

3-D Consolidation

( Sc )3 D = λ ( Sc )1D

33

11

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Factor for Rectangular

Footings of (L)x(B) at

Depth (D)

( Sc )Embedded

= Depth factor

( Sc )Surface

IS:8009--1976

IS:8009

Total settlement of

rigid foundation

Total settlement at the center

of flexible foundation

34

cv t Assumption of pore pressure

St = Si + USc T= distribution under the given

Ht 2 stress conditions

For open

clay layer

with two

way

drainage

use curve

for V=1

35

Cα H c ⎛t ⎞

Ss = log ⎜ 2 ⎟

1 + ep

Void Ratio, e

⎝ t1 ⎠

Δe

Cα = Secondary Compression Index =

log ( t2 t1 ) ep

t1 t2

H c = Thickness of Clay Layer Time, t (Log scale)

case of organic and highly-compressible inorganic clays

36

12

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Total Settlement

from SPT Data

for Cohesionless

soil

by factor W'

37

H t ⎡ σ o + Δσ ⎤

St = ln ⎢ ⎥

C ⎣ σo ⎦

3⎛ q ⎞

C= ⎜ c ⎟

2 ⎝ σo ⎠

can be divided in several

segments of average cone

resistance

be used to calculate constant of

compressibility.

calculated separately due to

foundation loading and then

added together

38

IS:1888--1982

39

13

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

IS:1888--1982

Bearing Plate:

Rough mild steel bearing plate in circular or square shape

Dimension: 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm, or 75 cm.

Thickness > 25 mm

Smaller size for stiff or dense soil. Larger size for soft or loose soil

Bottom of the plate is grooved for increased roughness.

Concrete blocks may be used to replace bearing plates.

40

IS:1888--1982

Test Pit:

Width equal to five times the test plate

Carefully leveled and cleaned bottom.

Protected against

g disturbance or change

g in natural formation

Plan

Section

41

IS:1888--1982

Procedure:

Selection of Location

Based on the exploratory boring.

Test is carried out at the level of proposed foundation. If water table is

below the foundation level but the depth is less than width of plate

then the test is carried out at the level of water table. If the water table

is above the foundation level then the water level is reduced to

proposed foundation level by pumping out the water during the test;

however, in case off high permeability material perform

f the test at the

level of water table.

In case the soil is expected to have significant capillary action and the

water table is within 1 m below the foundation, it becomes necessary

to perform the test at the level of water table in order to avoid the

effect of higher effective stresses due to capillary action resulting in

lower values of interpreted settlements.

Reaction supports should be at least (3.5 x width of plate) away from the

test plate location, and loading arrangement should provide sufficient

working space.

Test plate should be placed over a 5 mm thick sand layer and it should be

centered with the loading arrangement.

42

14

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

IS:1888--1982

Procedure: (Contd.)

A seating pressure of 7 kPa is applied and then released after some time

before the test.

Loads are applied in the increments of approximately 1/5th of the

estimated ultimate safe load. (Or, one may choose to increase the load at

an increment of 0.5 kN.)

At each load settlement is recorded at time intervals of 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 16, 25

min

i and

d th

thereafter

ft att intervals

i t l off one hour.

h

For clayey soil, the load is increased when time settlement curve shows

that the settlement has exceeded 70-80% of the probable ultimate

settlement or a duration of 24 Hrs.

For the other soils, the load is increased when the settlement rate drops

below 0.02 mm/min.

The minimum duration for any load should, however, be at least 60 min.

Dial gauges used for testing should have at least 25 mm travel and 0.01

mm accuracy.

The load settlement curve can then be platted from settlement data.

43

Load--Settlement Curve

Zero Correction:

The intersection of the early straight line or nearly straight line with zero load

line shall be determined and subtracted from the settlement readings to allow

for the perfect seating of the bearing plate. 44

Load--Settlement Curve

Sf = Settlement of a foundation of

⎡ B f ( B p + 30 ) ⎤

2

Sf width Bf (cm)

=⎢ ⎥

S p ⎢ B p ( B f + 30 ) ⎥ Sp = Settlement of the test plate of

⎣ ⎦ width Bp (cm) at the same load

intensity as on the foundation

Bond (1961):

Soil Index - n

Sf ⎡ Bf ⎤ Sandy clay 1.08 to 1.10

=⎢ ⎥ Loose sand 1.20 to 1.25

S p ⎣⎢ B p ⎦⎥

Medium sand 1.25 to 1.35

Dense sand 1.40 to 1.50

45

15

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

The width of test plate should not be less

than 30 cm. It is experimentally shown that

the load settlement behavior of soil is

qualitatively different for smaller widths.

The settlement influence zone is much

larger for the real foundation sizes than Soft soil

that for test plate, which may lead to gross layer

misinterpretation

i i t t ti off expected

t d settlement

ttl t

for proposed foundation.

The foundation settlements in loose sands are usually much larger than what

is predicted by plate load test.

Plate load test is relatively short duration test and gives mostly the immediate

settlements. In case of granular soils the immediate settlement is close to

total settlements. However, due to considerable consolidation settlement in

case of cohesive soils, the plate load test becomes irrelevant in such case.

Although the following relationship is suggested

for interpreting the settlements in cohesive soils, S f Bf

it can not be used seriously for design. =

S

p B

p

46

In case of dense cohesionless soil and highly cohesive soils ultimate bearing

capacity may be estimated from the peak load in load-settlement curve.

In case of partially cohesive soils and loose to medium dense soils the ultimate

bearing capacity load may be estimated by assuming the load settlement curve

so as to be a bilinear relationship.

47

A more precise determination of

bearing capacity load is possible

if the load-settlement curve is

plotted in log-log scale and the

relationship is assume to be

bilinear. The intersection point is

taken as the yield point or the

bearing capacity load.

quf Bf

For cohesioless soil Æ =

qup Bp

48

16

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Modulus of

Sub--grade

Sub

Reaction

49

Differential Settlement

Terzaghi’s recommendation:

Differential settlement should not exceed 50% of the total settlement calculated for the foundation.

Considering the sizes of different footing, the following criteria is suggested for buildings:

Differential settlement of footing > 75% of max calculated settlement of footing

For raft foundation the requirements shall be more stringent and they may designed for the

g criteria

following

Differential settlement of raft footing > 37% of max calculated settlement of raft footing

L

δ

Δ Δ

Δ= maximum settlement

δ= differential settlement

δ/Δ = angular distortion

IS:1904-1986 are given on the next slide 50

51

17

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Footings subjected to moment will have the tendency to rotate and

the amount of rotation can be estimated by assuming that the

footing is supported on a bed of springs and using the modulus of

sub-grade reaction theory.

Q

Es

M k=

(

B 1 −ν 2 )

Moment about the base due to

L soil reaction:

LB 3 kθ

L ( k .θ ).dx =

B2

M = 2∫

0 12

52

Influence factor

to compute

rotation of

θ=

12 M 12 M 1 −ν

=

2

=

(

1 −ν 2 M

Iθ

) ( ) footing

3 2

LB k LB Es Es LB 2

Iθ values

53

soil satisfying two fundamental requirements

– net safe bearing capacity

– net safe bearing pressure

54

18

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Allowable Bearing

Pressure

Terzaghi and Peck (1967):

⎛ B + 0.3 ⎞

2

2 ⎝ 2B ⎠

kN m

Sa in mm and all other

dimensions in meter.

(25 mm)

⎛ Dw − D f ⎞

Rw′ = 0.5 ⎜ 1 +

⎜ ⎟⎟ [ Rw′ ≤ 1

⎝ Df ⎠

Df

= 1 + 0.2 ≤ 1.2

B

55

Peck, Hanson, and Thornburn (1974):

Initial straight line Æ safe bearing capacity with FOS =2

Later horizontal portion Æ permissible settlement of 25 mm.

qa − net = 0.44Cw N ′′Sa S a = Permissible settlement in mm. (25 mm)

⎛ Dw ⎞

kN m 2 Cw = water table correction = 0.5 + 0.5 ⎜

⎜ D f + B ⎟⎟

⎝ ⎠ 56

Teng’s (1962) Correlation:

Net safe bearing pressure

⎛ B + 0.3 ⎞ ′

2

Sa in mm and all other

2 ⎝ 2B ⎠ dimensions in meter.

kN m

Df

CD = depth correction factor = 1 + ≤2

B

N cor = C N .N

⎛ 1.75 ⎞

CN = ⎜ ⎟ for 0 < (σ o′ Pa ) ≤ 1.05

⎝ σ o′ Pa + 0.7 ⎠

⎛ 3.5 ⎞

CN = ⎜ ⎟ for 1.05 < (σ o′ Pa ) ≤ 2.8

⎝ σ o′ Pa + 0.7 ⎠

σ o′ = Effective Overburden stress

57

19

Foundation Analysis and Design: Dr. Amit Prashant

Meyerhof’s (1974) Correlation:

Net safe bearing pressure

qnρ = 0.49 N ′′RD1S a kN m 2 for B ≤ 1.2 m

⎛ B + 0.3 ⎞

2

⎝ B ⎠

RD1 = depth correction factor RD 2 = depth correction factor

Df Df

= 1 + 0.2 ≤ 1.2 = 1 + 0.33 ≤ 1.33

B B

qnρ = 0.73 N ′′RD1S a kN m2 for B ≤ 1.2 m

⎛ B + 0.3 ⎞

2

⎝ B ⎠

N-value corrected for overburden using bazaraa’s equation, but

the N-value must not exceed field value 58

IS Code recommendation: Use total settlement correlations with SPT

data to determine safe bearing pressure.

Rafts are mostly safe in bearing capacity and they do not show much

differential settlements as compared to isolated foundations.

Teng’s Correlation: qnρ = 0.7 ( N ′′ − 3) Rw′ CD Sa kN m 2

Meyerhof’s correlations may be used by substituting qc/2 for N,

where qc is in kg/cm2.

59

Soil Soil

Df t

Dc

Gross load

Qg = Qc + B 2 Dcγ c + B 2 ( D f − Dc ) γ

Qc

qg = + Dcγ c + tγ c

B2

Qg Q

qg = =

Qc

+ γ D f + Dc ( γ c − γ ) qn = qg − γ D f = c2 + γ c ( Dc + t ) − γ D f

B2 B2 B

Q Usually Dc+t is much smaller than Df

qn = qg − γ D f = c2 + Dc (γ c − γ ) Qc

B qn = − γ Df

(γ c − γ ) is small, so it may be neglected B2

Qc

Q

qn = c2 ≤ qa − net + γ D f

B B2

Qc

Qc ≤ qa − gross

2

≤ qa − net B2

B 60

20

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